MRS. CLARA I. THOMAS, Secretary, Florida Rose Society
P. 0. Box 3204, St. Petersburg, Florida
The Rose is believed to be the oldest flower of which there is any
record. If legend and mythology can be relied on, it dates from the
genesis of the human race. Nature, in supreme achievement, has fash-
ioned it in many matchless forms and colors and has endowed each
dainty petal with a fragrant attar fit for the gods.
The cultivation of the Rose mixes happily with any profession or
business, furnishes relaxation and inspiration from the daily humdrum
of life and gives pleasure and rest from the mental problems of these
conflicting times. Like the people with whom we associate, roses pro-
vide as varied a range of individualities, and to discover and study these
lend a thrill which would be lacking in growing a flower less exacting
in its requirements.
We invite you and your friends to join the Florida Rose Society
and to become one of the great brotherhood of the Rose. Membership
. dues are $i.oo per year and will bring to you the ever new experience
of rose growing in Florida, where experimentation into our rose-growing
possibilities provides the zest of adventure. We hope this little book-
let, our second publication, which we take pleasure in handing our mem-
bers, will help you in many ways.
Dues of $4.oo a year, if paid when remitting to the Florida Rose
Society, entitles one to membership in the American Rose Society and
brings to your home its fine yearly publication, "The Rose Annual."
You are also entitled to use the library of the Rose Society, one of the
finest collections of rose literature in the country, you are permitted
entrance into the beautiful rose gardens of any community, and you
may make with the Society, its annual rose pilgrimage, the outstanding
event each year.
Membership dues are payable to Mr. Norman A. Reasoner, Treasurer,
Oneco, Florida, on January 1st, each year.
Table of Contents
Foreword ........................................----........................................ .: 1
Report of Annual Meeting of the Florida Rose Society .... 3
Old Fashioned Florida Roses ................................................. 4
Preparation of a Rose Bed ......... .................. 5
Feeding Roses .................................. ................................... 6
Rootstocks for Roses ........................ ........................ 8
Insects Troubling Roses ............................................................. 10
The Preparation of Roses for Exhibition ............................. 12
The Experiences and Observations of a Rose Novice ........ 13
Diseases of Roses ......................................................................... 14
Rose Varieties for Florida ......................................................... 16
The Home Production of Greenhouse Rose Plants ............ 19
The Value of Rose Shows in Stimulating Rose Interest .... 21
Designing the Rose Garden ..................................................... 22
Treatment of Year or More Old Bushes ............................. 23
Effects of Steam Sterilization ................................................. 24
To Readers of This Publication ............................................. 27
Report of President ......................... ..................................... 28
Report of Secretary ............................... .............................. 30
Report of Treasurer ................................................................. 30
Constitution of Florida Rose Society ..................................... 31
By-Law s ................................................ .... ............................ 32
REPORT OF ANNUAL MEETING OF THE
FLORIDA ROSE SOCIETY
April 20, 1932, Gainesville, Florida
The Florida Rose Society held its annual meeting on April 20, 1932,
in Gainesville. Meeting was called to order at 2:15 P. M., Mrs. F. S.
Poole, President, in the chair.
A Constitution and By-Laws for the Society was presented for con-
sideration by Mrs. Poole, read by the Secretary. Motion for its adoption
was made by Major Floyd, seconded by Mrs. Lord. Motion -carried.
'After a third reading, and there being no discussion, the Constitution
and By-Laws was voted uipon by the members and was adopted as read.
Reports of the officers were read as follows.
Report of Secretary-Mrs. Clara I. Thomas.
Report of Nominating Committee-Major Floyd, chairman.
The following names were proposed for nomination for
Mrs. S. F. Poole, President. Mrs. Clara I. Thomas, Secretary.
Mr. James Donn, Vice-President. Mr. Norman Reasoner, Treasurer.
Motion made by Mrs. Curlett, that Secretary cast ballot;
seconded by Miss Compton. Motion carried. Ballot cast
Report of President-Mrs. F. S. Poole.
Report of Treasurer-Norman A. Reasoner.
Motion for a vote of thanks to Mr. Reasoner for publishing booklet,
"Growing Roses in Florida," for the Society, made by Mrs. Lord; sec-
onded by Major Floyd. Carried.
The following interesting papers were read by the members of the
Old Fashioned Roses, by Major W. L. Floyd, Professor of Horti-
culture, University of Florida, Gainesville.
Feeding Roses, by A. P. Bosanquet, Florist, Fruitland, Fla.
Rootstocks for Roses, by Professor John V. Watkins, University of
Insects Troubling Roses, by Professor H. E. Bratley, University of
Diseases of Roses, by Dr. Tisdale, University of Florida.
Rose Varieties, by Norman A. Reasoner, Royal Palm Nurseries,
Each paper was followed by a discussion, showing keen interest and
observation on the part of the membership.
Suggestion was made by a representative of the Jacksonville Garden
Club that our publication, "Growing Roses in Florida," be made available
to the Garden Clubs of the State.
Invitation to the members of the Society to attend a tea at the home
of Mrs. M. M. Parrish, in Highlands, Gainesville, was graciously ex-
tended by the Gainesville Garden Club.
Motion made to adjourn, being duly seconded and carried, the meet-
ing of the Florida Rose Society adjourned at 5 P. M.
CLARA I. THOMAS, Secretary.
GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA
OLD FASHIONED FLORIDA ROSES
W. L. FLOYD, Professor of Horticulture, University of Florida, Gainesville
As we grow older we naturally turn our thoughts more to the objects
and associations of our earlier years. So while others are discussing
present day roses, including the many new ones clamoring for recogni-
tion, I propose to enter a plea for consideration of the old fashioned ones.
By-old fashioned I mean those of the garden type which live long, with
comparatively little cultivation and fertilization, grow and bloom satis-
factorily and contribute beauty and fragrance' to the home.
One finds such roses among the Azaleas, Camellias and Wistaria of
Magnolia Gardens (South Carolina) and wonders if they too, as do many
of the other flowering shrubs, date back to Colonial times.
'About the homes in Tallahassee, Marianna, Monticello, Quincy and
other old towns of West Florida, are to be seen many old fashioned rose
bushes, often quite large, rather scraggy and unsymmetrical, but giving
forth beauty and fragrance. Not many are found in Central and South
Florida, but occasionally one is observed, it may be standing alone near
a humble home where loving hands placed it years ago and about which
tender memories cluster.
These old fashioned roses grow best on hammock or clay-loam soil;
many of them were propagated from cuttings taken from some parent
plant growing in the yard of a relative or friend. Own rooted roses do
much better on such soils than on the lighter sandy ones so prevalent
in the state.
Most of the old fashioned Florida roses are varieties belonging to
the tea and noisette groups.
The teas are quite easily injured by cold and therefore thrive best
in the warmer latitudes; they are well adapted to the Gulf Coast region
Some of our most robust growers are of this group, though they are
considered weaker than the hybrid teas in regions just to the north.
Desirable ones, long grown and well adapted to Florida are, Duchesse
de Brabant, Marie van Houtte, Madam Lombard, Minnie Francis and the
climber, Marie Henriette.
Of the Noisettes, the climbers, Chromatella, Lamarque, Marechal
Niel and Reve d'Or seem much at home and are most frequently seen
among the older, more vigorous specimens.
It may be of interest to remind you that the Noisette group originated
at Charleston, S. C., about 1816, when some of the best seedlings of a
new rose hybrid were sent by Philippe Noisette to his brother Louis, in
Paris, who propagated and introduced one of the best as Blush Noi-
sette, from which others of the group have descended. These are there-
fore truly of the South, and deserve a place here.
Representatives of other groups worthy of consideration are Louis
Philippe, of the Bengal or China group, so much at home and grown
so abundantly as to be often called the Florida rose; the Cherokees, white,
GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA
pink and red, the white being the really old fashioned one, which is so
vigorous and well adapted that it sometimes escapes from cultivation,
its abundant single flowers amid shining. evergreen foliage making it a
thing of beauty in spring.
Mrs. Francis King, a winter resident of St. Augustine, in urging the
seeking and restoring to popular favor old roses, before the American
Rose Society two years ago, told of an old Lamarque growing against
her home whose stem was over three inches in diameter near the ground,
the branches reaching to the third-story window. She also mentioned
Louis Philippe, a climber known locally as Pink Daily, and an old
favorite called Pink Sylphide, as being common about St. Augustine.
In addition to their use in the yard and garden, these vigorous old
fashioned plants are promising parents for the breeder. He may by
crossing blend the sturdy qualities of one of these with the high quality
on long stems of some weak growing commercial variety and by selec-
tion separate out those that fall short of his ideal. The Horticultural
Department of the College of Agriculture is working along this line.
It requires time and patient effort.
PREPARATION OF A ROSE BED
MRS. TOM B. SWANN, Winter Haven
First remove the soil to a depth of 24 inches. Fill the hole thus
made with a mixture of one-third dairy manure, one-third red clay, one-
sixth muck and one-sixth peat moss. If peat moss is not available well-
decayed leaf mold will serve. The manure, clay, muck and peat moss
should be well mixed as they are being shoveled into the bed. This
mixture makes a good, loamy, friable soil, the clay giving it sufficient
stiffness to securely anchor the plants.
Beds should be prepared from three to four weeks before the roses
are to be planted. At the time of planting about two handfuls of bone
meal should be placed at the bottom of each hole and mixed lightly
with the soil. After the bushes have been set mulch the entire bed to
a depth of two inches with peat moss, leaf mold or well rotted grass
Beds should be sufficiently narrow to permit cultivation, pruning,
fertilization and gathering of the roses from the sides.
I have used the above described method with the last three beds that
I have made and the results have been quite satisfactory. I do not be-
lieve that you can be too careful in the making of your rose bed. It
can not conveniently be changed once the bushes have been planted.
GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA
A. P. BOSANQUET, Fruitland Park
Madam President, Members of the Rose Society, Ladies and Gentlemen:
I have been asked to make a short talk this afternoon on feeding
roses. This is a rather large subject and one in which there is a great
difference of opinion. In one respect I think all rosarians agree that
you must lay a good foundation for your roses before you can feed
them properly. First, if your ground has a tendency to be too wet you
should have good drainage. Second, in all types of soil well rotted
cow manure is very desirable. In fact, one writer recommends cow
manure that has rotted two years in an old fashioned, unsanitary
cow yard. Buy it, beg it or get it any way you can even if you have
to keep cows to get it. Any good manure or humus has its value, but
cow manure comes first. Roses like a clay soil in which there is a large
amount of humus. So by mixing clay and manure in light sandy soil you
can get a foundation for proper feeding of your roses. We have light
soil in a part of the state so be liberal with clay in the sandy parts
and manure in all parts.
After we have our roses planted in our prepared soil, comes the
question of feeding them, and here is the debated question. In the 1931
American Rose Annual is an article by Dr. T. J. Raleigh in which he
questions the necessity of heavy feeding after planting and suggests that
it is more a question of proper feeding. He compares the feeding of
roses to human nutrition from the scientific point of view. We need
fats, proteins, mineral elements and others for proper nutrition. In the
same way plants need certain elements for their proper development.
The rose needs some fourteen elements for proper growth. They are
used in different amounts but all are necessary. Of these, carbon hy-
drogen and oxygen are supplied from the air and water leaving the
others to be supplied to the soil. The ones most used after the three
mentioned above are first, nitrogen; second, phosphorus; third, potassium
and calcium; then comes magnesium, manganese, sulphur and iron. Dr.
Raleigh suggests that it is impractical to make a chemical analysis of the
soil for each planting and as such an analysis would not show the amount
available to the plant, it is better to use fertilizer containing all the ele-
ments (Vigero). I think probably we could gain very beneficial results
by an occasional application of a complete fertilizer, as he suggests, if
used in connection with other fertilizers and on our carefully prepared
beds. Most of our soils in Florida lack humus and while we may have
added sufficient before we planted our roses, it is necessary to replace
it from time to time. To do this use the same well rotted cow manure
that was used in making the bed or if you cannot secure more, other forms
may be available, such as horse manure which is best when old and rotten
or used in connection with straw, leaves, or even muck, or by com-
posting it with straw, leaves or muck and allowing it to stand for some
time before use. I have had good results by using a mixture of one
part horse manure, two parts cow manure, one part clay and two parts
GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA
muck, mixing well and letting it stand in a pile for several days, then
using it as a top dressing. Chicken manure, hog manure, or sheep ma-
nure may be also used. but watch carefully as most of them are rather
strong when fresh. Manure water made from fresh cow manure usually
gives good results. Bone meal is good as it furnishes food over a long
period of time, in fact. there is hardly any manure if given a chance
to become old and rotten that roses will not use. If you have used one
fertilizer or manure alone over a period of time, try a slight change and
often a good effect will be obtained. This will give you a chance to ob-
tain some element of plant food that was lacking before. Wood ashes
are valuable for they contain potash, phosphate, lime and other minerals
that are apt to be lacking in the usual manure. It seems that ashes help
to keep down mildew.
If you have a well established rose garden that is getting low in humus
fertilize with organic matter and build up your soil. If your soil is
light and sandy add a small amount of clay to the manures. By mixing
well and keeping the surface of the soil stirred and well watered you can
avoid caking and hardening of the surface. Commercial fertilizers are
used with good results in the feeding program, but roses do not seem to
respond as they should when the soil lacks a good supply of humus.
Add plenty of humus from time to time as in this climate the soil is
easily depleted. Remember that the roses you grow as bushes require
slightly less notrogen than the ones grown only for long stemmed roses.
For garden roses you want a large bush, so naturally the plant will
require a good supply of potash, phosphate and some lime in connection
with the supply of nitrogen. Good solid wood that is not stunted is
what you want, remembering that nitrogen goes to growth of wood and
leaf surfaces. Fertilizing with nitrogen, unbalanced nitrogen, will cause
rank, soft growth that needs the potash, phosphate, etc., to harden the
wood and to help resist rust, mildew and other similar diseases.
If you wish to try your hand at forcing some bushes and see what
long stems and large blooms you can get, it is not hard to do. Take
a new bed where you can prepare the soil as you wish, dig a trench,
filling in with plenty of well rotted cow manure and all the bone meal
you can afford, mix with the sand, then plant the roses in this mix-
ture. It is better not to have the roots of the plants come in contact with
manure, so put another layer of good soil. Give them a plentiful supply
of water and additional bone meal from time to time. You can get
very good roses by this method. I saw some roses grown this way at
Mrs. Dwight's in Fruitland Park. They were planted last fall and only
bone meal and cow manure were used. Some of the stems were three
feet long and had a good bloom. Just how long the plants will live it
is hard to tell. They are in partial shade so the hot summer may not
be hard" on them, but the chances are that due to only nitrogen feeding,
mildew and leaf spot will be harder on them than roses that have a more
balanced diet. Give your roses a good feeding in the late summer or
early fall so as to get a good fall and early winter bloom. I refer to
the southern half of the state. Give them nitrogen that is quickly avail-
able together with potash and phosphate to harden the wood to avoid
having the tender wood or growth hurt by the frost. Try to get a
growth that will mature and ripen before the first frost then keep them
GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA
in good condition but not soft until early spring. Fertilize them again
so as to get a spring bloom. Allow the roses to rest some during the
summer so as to be in good shape for fall blooming. Do not neglect
them even while they are resting but remember that roses that are not
taken care of suffer badly during the hot summer months. The summer
flowers are never as good as those during the cooler months so it is
inadvisable to feed heavily at this time.
One last word regarding feeding roses. If your roses are infested
with Nematode you will not get the effect from the fertilizer that might
be expected. Examine the roots and see if the Nematode is present.
If infested extra water will help, but try to select soil for your next
planting that is not infested.
ROOTSTOCKS FOR ROSES
PROF. JOHN V. WATKINS, University of Florida, Gainesville
In the propagation of roses, graftage is an important practice, an
almost essential practice, because they do not come true, nor easily from
seed, and because, in most cases they do not succeed over a period of
years, on their own roots. Own rooted plants are those produced either
from seed, or cuttings so that they have roots of the same wood as their
Grafted or budded plants are those whose stems and roots are of
different wood. This class may become own rooted when they have
developed roots from the cion, or stem portions, above the union and the
stock ceases to function. The practice of planting rose bushes deeper
than they grew in the nursery is to be avoided for this reason. There
. is no advantage in deep planting, while the practice has many disad-
vantages. Plant so that the root system of the understock functions and
not so deep that the top develops its own root system.
There are some varieties such as Banksians, McCartney, Louis
Philippe, Cherokee and possibly the Radiance group, which are successful
on their own roots, but generally speaking, the majority of garden roses
of today should be budded or grafted upon a vigorous, hardy rootstock
which is resistant (if possible) to injury from rootknot. The stock, it
must be remembered, has an effect upon the vigor, hardiness, produc-
tivity and general thriftiness of the cion worked upon it. As Mr. Hume
has pointed out, the root system is at least half the plant. Half our
roses are underground, yet almost all of our attention is centered upon
the part of the rose plants that we see. The question of understocks
is a tremendously important one that warrants a careful survey.
Lacking vigor a stock is worthless. A stock must be easy to work,
not particular as to its soil requirements, compatible with many, many
kinds of cions. The plant to be used as an understock must be disease-
resistant, and in the South, it must be able to withstand the attacks of
nematodes which produce rootknot.
Mr. Hume's selection for a southern stock for Teas and Noisettes
is the double Cherokee, Rosa fortuniana, which is a hybrid. Although
GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA
it does not root well, and is thorny, he found that it grafts readily and
is much superior to Manetti and Mine. Plantier.
The late Mr. Bosanqulet, an ardent rosarian of many years' stand-
ing. carefully watched rootstocks in his rose garden of one hundred va-
rieties. He has said that few roses are successful on their own roots.
He tried Manetti, Baltimore Belle, Canina, Crimson Rambler, Cherokee,
Wichuriana, Multiflora, Texas Wax and Rosa Odorata 22449 as under-
stocks. Of these he preferred the last two, and Dr. McFarland shares
his belief that the two are synonomous.
In tests at Breeze Hill, the well known garden of Dr. McFarland, it
was found that the performance of own rooted plants of Radiance, was
inferior to budded plants of the same variety. The own rooted plants
were weaker, the flowers were of poorer quality.
After experiments with understocks at Arlington Farm of the U. S.
D. A., the investigator could recommend adorate 22449, as a stock that
was easy to strike, and easy to work.
He identified southern canina as a cross between R. multiflora and
R. chinensis, and reports that although easy to work, its cions were not
so vigorous as they might have been.
Ragged Robin was good for some varieties, but was hard to work.
Mme. Plantier was free from nematodes.
At the University of Tennessee, in experiments by the horticulturist,
Manetti was found to be a weak grower and not as desirable as some
of the other stocks.
Multiflora, though thorny, was one of the best tested.
Ragged Robin was fairly vigorous.
Rosa odorata 22449 was vigorous, relatively thornless, and a free
From a standpoint of vigor, multiflora was outstanding. The ex-
periment at Tennessee was originally planned to find a rootstock that
was resistant to nematodes, but it was found that all of the stocks tried
were more or less susceptible to rootknot.
The Department of Horticulture of the College of Agriculture is
initiating an experiment, under the direction of M/ajor Floyd, in which
all of the stocks recommended for the South will be grown in compari-
son tests. At this time the following kinds of stocks are being rooted
in the cutting bench; Mmine. Plantier, Multiflora, Canina, Odorata, from
three or four sources, Semjervirens, double evergreen Cherokee, Spine-
less Multiflora, Japanese Multiflora. These cuttings were secured through
the co-operation of various southern nurserymen and Dr. McFarland.
It is planned to bloom these kinds so that definite identification can
be assured as their true botanical status must be known. When these cut-
tings are well rooted they are to be planted in equal numbers in a test
block, so that data relative to their behavior may be secured. Some of
the best vareities of garden roses will be worked on these plants in the
test block, and data will be kept on the behavior of the budded plants,
so that we may determine which give the best results.
For more than five years we have grown Odorata as the stock for
student work in budding and grafting, and have found it to be a thrifty,
hardy, disease resistant species. Inspection has shown that rootknot is
GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA
quite prevalent on Odorata, but it does not seem to be sufficiently serious
to be a limiting factor, as the plants grow and thrive in nursery blocks
that are known to be infested with nematodes. It is possible that this
Odorata is the best all around rose stock for the South, but this fact
has not been conclusively proven and the search for a better understock
should, by all means, be continued.
INSECTS TROUBLING ROSES
PROF. H. E. BRATLEY, University of Florida, Gainesville
Madam Chairman, Members of the Florida Rose Society, Ladies and
We of the State of Florida are situated on the globe in the south-
ern edge of the North Temperate belt and the extreme northern edge of
the tropical. Our winters are short and never so extremely cold as the
states to the north. Therefore, the insect enemies of our crops have
a decided advantage for they do not have to hibernate so long nor so
securely as their more northern relatives. Thus having a longer time
to feed, grow and multiply, they are able to cause us much trouble and
loss. Other insects are peculiar to our state as they are by nature trop-
ical loving and even a slight cold spell is sufficient to put them out of
The root-knot nematode, while not an insect, belongs to the tribe
of round worms of which the hookworm is a member. The nematode
is a pest of numerous plants as well as roses. A plant attacked by this
parasite shows leaf yellowing, wilt, and a general run down condition
and the roots will be found deformed. The irregular swellings in the
roots of a plant are sure indications of the presence of the nematode.
The swelling is caused by poison given off by the worm. The females
live in these swellings, with an opening to the outside for air. After
reaching maturity the female fills her body with eggs. Thus the body,
instead of being cylindrical assumes the shape of a pear, with the neck
forming the connection to the outside and loses its ability of motion.
The eggs are liberated from her body by death and if moisture, air
and temperature conditions are favorable, hatch. If any one of these
conditions is lacking a thickened hard coating forms around the egg called
a cyst, which protects it over unfavorbale periods. These newly hatched
worms, resembling fish worms but so small they are hardly seen without
the aid of magnification, proceed to find roots upon which to live. They
can be carried in soil adhering to tools, plant roots, or in the roots
themselves. The soil washings from heavy rains or excessive irrigation
will spread them. Therefore it is a good rule to thoroughly clean tools
and even the shoes and hands of operators when going from one bed
or field to another. This will tend to prevent the infesting of areas
free of nematodes. Our Florida climate and soil conditions are admir-
ably suited to the needs of the nematode. In the most southern part of
the state they are active practically the entire year. In this section we
GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA
usually have it cold enough to retard their activities from November into
February and March, but this year our conditions have, with the exception
of moisture, been favorable most of the winter.
There are about two means of producing roses at our disposal. One
is by the use of chemicals and the other is to use stock to bud or graft
into that is either resistant to, immune from or tolerant to attacks
of the nematodes, or grow varieties of roses that are resistant. The
stock which has given best results is the Cherokee, an escape from
cultivation in the United States. The chemicals used are sodium cyanide
and ammonium sulphate, and will cost about $125.oo per acre for the
chemicals alone. These substances are so strong that they will kill all
plant and animal life with which they come in contact.
The cheapest control in actual cost and labor is the use of the Cher-
okee stock. In case some of you are working the breeding end for new
varieties I believe that your returns will be more satisfactory to use the
chemical control mentioned. We will be glad to furnish detailed instruc-
tions to anyone wishing them.
An insect of no little importance as a pest of the rose is the thrips.
They are about one-twenty-fifth of an inch in length and brownish yel-
low in color. The thrips lives a retiring life in the bases of petals and
other floral parts or in most any other place on a plant that will offer
protection and a meal ticket. The damage they produce is noticeable.
They are able to pass through a complete life cycle in a week or ten days
and delight in dry weather. In rainy weather they are drowned in large
numbers. If the thrips are numerous their attacks will cause the roses
to blight, the petals have a wilted dried appearance and fall quickly.
One thing in their' favor is the fact that they do not bother the bushes
so severely so we may expect another yield of bloom soon after killing
Both chemical and cultural means of control are available. It is
a good practice to combine them. A good principle to follow is to allow
no weeds to grow or reach their blooming period in the vicinity of the
rose bed. Or have plants growing near the roses that are favorites of
the thrips, as the Wistaria. Another is to keep a constant watch for
the culprits and as soon as even a few are noted remove all opening
blooms and spray. Where there are heavy infestations, provide a con-
tainer partially filled with water and a little kerosene. Now thoroughly
remove as gently as possible so as not to disturb the thrips, all flowers,
even buds, that are showing any portion of the petals and submerge in
the container. Then follow with a thorough nicotine sulphate spraying.
The nicotine sulphate solution is made by adding to three gallons of
water a tablespoonful of nicotine sulphate and two or three tablespoonsful
of soap. By adding a couple of tablespoonsful of "Penetrol" the amount
of nicotine can be cut to half the amount and the soap need not be added.
The Penetrol is an activator and also serves the purpose of the soap
which is to act as a spreader and sticker. Use a sprayer that can deliver a
fine forceful mist so the solution can be forced into the close fitting
places that are inhabited by the thrips.
Aphids, like the thrips, are very troublesome at times. Other names
for them are green lice or plant lice. Similar to the thrips they grow
GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA
and multiply rapidly. They attack the young shoots and buds before
opening and cause a malformed flower. If the aphids are numerous
they cause these shoots and buds to wilt and finally wither. They are
considerably larger, feed in the open and are more easily reached with
insecticides than the thrips. The same nicotine sulphate solution rec-
ommended for thrips is a good controlling spray for the aphids. A three
per cent nicotine sulphate lime-dust is more speedily applied, but to ob-
tain satisfactory results, that is to kill the aphids, the air must be quiet.
There should not be enough breeze to stir the Spanish moss on the trees.
Chewing-Insects-The flower beetles, several species of large hairy
beetles, are sometimes very ruinous to flowers. As a rule they are not
numerous enough to do a great amount of damage. This damage though
is ruinous to the bloom, as they eat down into the flower and hollow it.
There is no spray that can economically be used against them. Col-
lecting them by hand and destroying is the best means of control. Do
not allow thistles in the vicinity of the rose bed to show signs of bloom-
ing, for it is in their flowers, especially in the early spring, that these
beetles live. The thistles are generally past their prime when the roses
commence blooming so naturally the beetles come to the roses if near.
Chewing insects attacking the foliage are: Grasshoppers, katydids,
leaf-cutting bees, flea beetles, the rose leaf chafer, which we are thank-
ful to announce does not bother us in Florida, and some worms, the
larvae or young of moths and butterflies. One of these, the saddle-
back, which with its peculiar coloration and form, gives the impres-
sion which its name implies, is ruinous to foliage. Another, the puss
moth, a very fuzzy appearing worm resembling the Persian cat. Both
of these worms are armed with short stout spines which are capable of
causing very irritating wounds. The control is to spray with one pound
of lead arsenate powder to 50 gallons of water. The lead arsenate may
be added direct to 50 gallons of Bordeaux. A dust composed of one
pound of lead arsenate and nine of hydrated lime can be used to poison
them. Time will not permit of a more detailed discussion. Any prob-
lems you may have and desire some help with, we are glad to do the
best we can. When inquiring please send specimens as we are better
enabled to give a more accurate solution to the problem.
THE PREPARATION OF ROSES FOR
MRS. JOHN REINTS, Winter Haven
Roses for exhibition should be cut early in the morning or in the
evening; then put in a container of deep cool water for several hours.
Take out the roses and arrange in vases or bowls, etc. Roses will last
longer if they are put in a cool place at night, but care should be taken
that they are not placed in a draft.
GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA
In preparing roses for packing they should be placed in water for
several hours before packed so the stems will be full of water. Then
placed in a box lined with waxed paper or newspapers to keep the air
out. The flowers should be placed in the box with the heads one way
and wrapped in waxed paper, so the flowers will not get wet. They
should be tied very securely in the box so they cannot move around. In
tieing them in the box put holes in the bottom and bring string over
stems of the roses and tie. Wet moss or wet newspapers should be
placed over the stems to keep them damp.
THE EXPERIENCES AND OBSERVATIONS OF A
CHAS. M. SHINN, Lake Alfred
Five years ago, four Radiance bushes were given to me. Not expecting
the gift, no place was prepared for them. A location was selected in a
sunny spot between two houses, the ground prepared by throwing out
the sand to a depth of eighteen inches, refilling the first five inches with
comparatively fresh cow manure and leveling the hole with the original
sand. The bushes were planted in the sand over the manure. After the
bushes were set, a fair quantity of lawn fertilizer was spread around the
bushes. The first year these bushes struggled along, grew but little, and
bloomed only occasionally. Through haste and lack of materials the ground
had not been prepared properly.
It was a great surprise, however, the response these bushes made to
fertilizer and a little attention the second year. Vigorous growth, long
stems, and a great profusion of blooms was the rule the entire winter.
It could only be accounted for by the fact the manure had had time to
decay and the roots time to get into it.
From time to time extensions were added with more care to the original
planting, using about one fourth well rotted manure and the sand to make
up the soil. The list of roses known to be vigorous growers in Florida
was adhered to closely. It was found the Red and Pink Radiance, Mrs.
Chas. Bell, J. J. L. Moch, Columbia and the K. A. Victoria were an
asset to any beginner's garden. The nursery stock was of Texas origin
rooted on Texas Wax stock.
The general results were much better than the ordinary. The vigorous
growth produced a great profusion of large blooms on stems that would
average twenty inches. In fact, the excellent results caused me, this year,
to systematically prepare a planting to accommodate 230 bushes. A compost
of two parts muck and one part cow manure was laid up to age. Months
later this was used in alternate layers with the sandy soil to fill the
sixteen-inch-deep excavation, five feet wide, at the location of the new
planting. When the hole was about half, and again when it was completely
filled, a liberal quantity of raw bone meal was spread and the whole
stirred together. The bushes, after being pruned to about eight inches,
were planted in double rows, 15 inches by 26 inches apart, to about the
same depth as they were set in the nursery. Each row was fitted with
a lineal pipe sprinkling system for irrigation,
GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA
It has been my observation my first planting was ideally located, not
alone because of the sunny spot and the soil drainage, but because it was
located in a natural current of air between the two houses. This location
and such vigorous growth has made it possible to raise roses without any
trouble from black-spot fungus. It has been my policy to water the roses
only at noon in the sun with overhead sprinklers.
Although roses do not readily 'show drought by wilt, if plenty of fer-
tilizer is present, they are quick to respond to water with vigorous growth
and bloom. If bushes planted in soil known to be rich in fertilizer and
humus do not respond, it is quite often caused by the acid condition of
the soil. The heavy use of organic fertilizers makes the soil unfit for
roses in a comparatively short time unless some corrective measure for
acid is used. An application of wood ashes once a year is excellent for
roses. The use of very large quantities of ashes does not seem to have
an ill effect.
My fertilizer practice has been to bluestone the old planting about the
15th of September, apply a complete mix of 4-8-5 commercial fertilizer
two weeks later and prune the canes of the bushes to the lower buds pushed
out by this fertilizer as fast as leaves form. About the early part of
November a heavy application of wood ashes, bone meal, a light application
of nitrate of soda and a top dressing of rotted manure is added all at one
time. The first of January, bone meal and a little nitrate of soda is again
applied. In March a heavy application of the 4-8-5, and in June a heavy
application of bone meal. This holds the bushes over the summer, leaving
them in fine shape for the fall pruning.
DISEASES OF ROSES
DR. W. B. TISDALE, Plant Pathologist, State Experiment Station
DR. WM. B. SHIPPEY, Asst. Plant Pathologist, Leesburg
Dr. W. B. Tisdale, the Plant pathologist of the State Experiment
Station at Gainesville, was good enough to attend the meeting of the Rose
Society at Gainesville, and kindly brought diseased specimens of rose
plants to illustrate the most common rose diseases. These were examined
by the members and visitors present, who were much interested in having
this opportunity to learn of these troubles and ,their control by first-hand
observation. In discussing the matter, Dr. Tisdale referred to Dr. W. B.
Shippey's Bulletin on this subject (No. 426), and a number of copies were
made available to those who wished them.
According to Dr. Tisdale, the commonest diseases of roses are "Black
Spot," "Powdery Mildew" and "Brown Canker." Dr. Shippey suggests
the following treatments for these diseases:
Black spot is recognized by the color of the diseased areas on the
upper surface of -the leaves. Small, dark-colored, more or less circular
spots first appear. These spots become black early in their development,
GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA
enlarge to one-half inch or more in diameter, and have very irregular
margins. The leaf tissue surrounding the spots usually yellows, and often
the entire leaf turns yellow and falls. With a period of heavy rains fol-
lowing severe infection, the leaves of entire plants may drop before yel-
lowing occurs. Nearly all cultivated varieties of roses are affected.
For home gardens and greenhouses, fallen leaves should be systemati-
cally collected and destroyed. Commercial growers of field roses may
not find this practicable. The plants should be protected throughout the
growing season by several thorough applications of a suitable fungicide.
Particularly during the early part of the season when young canes and
foliage are vigorously produced, applications from seven to ten days apart
are often necessary. Though no fungicide has given complete protection
under all conditions, any one of the following treatments has proved ef-
fective: sulfur-lead dust, consisting of nine parts dusting sulfur and one
part powdered arsenate of lead; lime-sulfur solution, or bordeaux mix-
ture. The addition of casein or calcium caseinate to the bordeaux aids
its adhesion and distribution.
Powdery mildew is readily identified by the whitish, powdery appear-
ance of the fungus on infected plants. The leaves and twigs, particularly
young leaves and shoots, as well as the blossoms, are affected. The fun-
gus appears on either the upper or lower side of the leaf or on both. Ir-
regular blotches are produced which cause the leaves to curl and to be-
come dry. When severely attacked, leaves at the ends of shoots often fall
prematurely. On the shoots the whitish blotches are much the same,
causing the bark to shrivel and the tips of the shoots to curl. When ob-
served from a distance, infected portions of the plants appear white. The
rambler varieties of roses are particularly susceptible to this disease.
Ordinarily, the application of sulfur dust will control the disease.
More effective protection is had with a lime-sulfur solution having a
strength of one part of concentrated lime-sulfur to fifty parts of water.
The addition of iron sulfate at the rate of three pounds to fifty gallons of
spray improves the distribution and adhesion of the mixture. Treatment
should 'be made when the disease first appears, and the number of appli-
cations will vary, as usual, with its persistence, which is largely influenced
by the weather.
Although brown canker appears on one-year-old growth of most
rose varieties, it is more commonly associated with older growth where
advanced stages of the disease are found. First evidence of the disease
consists of small spots on the canes which are usually slightly raised.
circular, purple in color, and quite superficial. During the first season
these spots often turn gray and have purple borders; a number of spots
close together may unite to form a gray patch a half-inch or more in
diameter which is still superficial and of little apparent injury. The fol-
lowing season real damage is done. The purple margin advances, leaving
a tan or brown-colored area behind, which becomes a deep canker and
girdles the cane. Cankers may extend along the cane for several inches,
GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA
and if near the crown of the plant, often girdle other canes as well.
Symptoms of the disease on the foliage vary with the type of rose, re-
sembling in some varieties -those described for the canes; in other varieties
reddish as well as white spots are produced on the upper surface of the
leaves, and in still others, dark-gray, circular specks are formed. Usually
the outer petals only of blossoms are affected. The petals become tan-
colored or brown and usually fail to open. Although roses vary in sus-
ceptibility, the disease has been observed on practically all species.
In combatting brown canker, a careful inspection of young 'plants for
disease spots should be made before setting them out, and those having
lesions should be discarded. All cankered canes, diseased wood, and old
blossoms of mature plants should be removed and destroyed. Lime-sulfur
or bordeaux mixture have proven effective if applied when the plants are
prune4 in the spring and frequently thereafter.
ROSE VARIETIES FOR FLORIDA
N. A. REASONER, Royal Palm Nurseries, Oneco
I am very happy to be able to report to this meeting some very
interesting new varieties which from our tests of the last season or two
seem destined to become very popular in this State.
First of all let me review some of the novelties of the last few
seasons and report on their progress. Etoile de' Hollande has gone steadily
forward and is now unquestionably our finest and freest blooming dark
red rose. Talisman also is giving good results and has established a firm
position as a worth-while and entirely practical variety for our conditions.
Betty Uprichard has proven as vigorous as even the Radiances and gives
a reddish flame color so much desired by rose growers and exemplified
in the North by the old favorite Mme. Edouard Herriot which, however,
unfortunately does not do well in our climate. Angelus, a rather old
variety now but for some reason apparently little tried in Florida, is
proving quite good and offers a welcome relief from the short lived
K. A. Victoria, hitherto about our only good white rose for cutting. .It
also has the advantage of coming with one good sized flower to each
stem, instead of several smaller buds on one stem as does the latter
variety. Both Mrs. Henry Bowles and Mrs. Henry Morse have given
good accounts of themselves as new and worth-while Pink roses. There
have been some complaints on the poor growth of Rev. F. Page Roberts,
but it must be remembered that even under the best of conditions this is
a dwarf-growing variety, and should not be expected to make bushes of
the size and vigor of the Radiance varieties for example. The plants have
carried over into the second season quite well, however, and their beau-
tiful pinkish-flame flowers are hard to surpass in either bud or open
flower. The rather old Mme. Jenny Guillemot which we catalogued a
number of years ago has had a revival of interest lately, particularly on
the East Coast and has given a good account of itself. Unfortunately, how-
ever, in our climate it does not develop the good yellow color that it attains
GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA
further North, and it could hardly be called more than a cream color with
us and if allowed to open in the garden in full sun will be almost white.
It is superb in bud, however, and about t. e only other objection that
could be found to it is its exceeding thorniness.
In the yellow varieties, we have been disappointed with the results
thus far from the well advertised California creation Mrs. E. P. Thorn.
Recommended as being as vigorous as the Radiance varieties, it has not
proven nearly so strong a grower with us and has given us but few
really worth-while flowers this last season. Lady Margaret Stewart has
done better and in our judgment is still worth while until better varieties
are introduced. Souvenir de Claudius Pernet has, of course, been dis-
carded except for one season's forcing, but it gives a beautiful crop of
flowers in the Spring before the hot and wet weather of our Rainy Season
sets in. Thus far we see little more to recommend in its two seedlings,
Julien Potin and Ville de Paris, but they may prove better on long ac-
quaintance. The former has been recommended from the Palm Beach
section as having a better color and less liable to fade and never forming
"bull-heads" as does the parent sort. Chas. P. Kilham should have been
mentioned in the flame-colored varieties as having done very well. More
on the pink side than Betty Uprichard, it also has many more petals and
lasts very well when cut. Abol has ,proven too shy a bloomer except for
exhibition purposes, but it is certainly a wonderful subject for that pur-
pose, having flowers about as near perfect as possible and deliciously fra-
grant. Dame Edith Helen we have had to discard except for forcing pur-
poses, as it seems to be very difficult to keep growing vigorously after
the first few months.
In this season's novelties, I would call your attention to President
Hoover as decidedly worth while and apparently as vigorous as Talisman,
which it somewhat resembles. The former, however, has a long pointed
bud, while the latter is shorter and more urn-shaped. The Hoover va-
riety, while decidedly variable, will be found, however, generally showing
more pink, while the Talisman shades more toward the yellow. Caledonia
is a new white variety that we believe we are going to prefer to Abol.
It is equally fine in form and while not as fragrant as the latter, seems
to be a freer bloomer. Edith Nellie Perkins has proven a splendid new
acquisition in the pink roses, having perfectly formed salmon pink flowers
adding yellowish orange on the back of the petals and is growing very
vigorously. Editor McFarland is also going to be very worth while and
apparently vigorous. It has long pointed pink buds and shades out to
a light amber toward the edges of the petals. E. G. Hill seems the most
promising new dark red introduction since Etoile de Hollande. Intro-
duced as a greenhouse variety, it is proving well adapted to outdoor cul-
ture as well. It has also the advantage of more petals and therefore a
heavier, longer lasting flower than the Hollande variety.
Having mentioned greenhouse roses, let me pause at this point to
mention another rose, which by no means a novelty, certainly deserves
more attention than it has received in Florida. This is the Common-
wealth variety. We have grown it for a number of years in our green-
houses and found it one of the best dark pink varieties we have, with
beautifully formed buds and lasting flowers. We have grown it also
GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA
out of doors and while of course not as free there as under glass we
believe it is as good or better than the Columbia or Mme. Butterfly va-
rieties, which means it is well worth your trial.
Joanna Hill is another greenhouse variety that seems to be offering
promise out of doors. Of Mme. Butterfly and Ophelia parentage, it might
naturally be expected to be a good grower. It is a light yellow color
almost creamy white in full sun. Golden Dawn, an Australian creation,
has come highly recommended and seems to be starting off well. Dr.
:McFarland thinks it may well be the "Yellow Radiance" so long looked
for, as far as growth and blooming qualities are concerned. It has, how-
ever, a much better form. Souvenir is the first of the new "patented"
roses we have tried. It is a yellow "sport" from Talisman and should
therefore be highly desirable. We are trying also two more new red
roses, the crimson-scarlet Syracuse and the dark red Vaterland and will
be able to give a further report on them next season. Thus far they seem
In closing I want to take just a moment to bring to your attention
again a whole class of roses which it seems to me are being very much
overlooked in Florida at present. These are the Polyantha roses or
"baby roses" as they are sometimes called from their dwarf growth. I
think perhaps these have become confused in the mind of the public with
the Hardy climbing roses of the Rambler type so common in the North,
but which have only the one season of bloom in the Spring. This is not
true, however, of the dwarf Polyanthas, which are just as free blooming
as our ordinary Garden varieties. Having in the main large flower heads
with many flowers open at one time and other buds opening for several
days in succession, these plants make a splendid show in the garden and,
while not so useful for cutting, are preeminently suited for garden deco-
ration and deserve more earnest consideration in our Landscape Plans.
The old "sweetheart" rose, Cecille Brunner, is an example of one of the
types, and for other varieties we have George Elger in yellow, Ellen Poul-
sen in bright rose pink, Golden Salmon in orange, Katherine Zeimet in
white, and Miss Edith Cavell and Ideal in scarlet and dark red, respec-
tively. Tip Top and Gruss an Aachen, while usually classed with this
type, are really almost as large as our regular hybrid-tea roses and are
equally as deserving of space in your rose garden whether you grow a
border or hedge of Polyanthas or not. The former shades from deep
pink on the outside through white to a deep yellow center and is unexcelled
as a boutonniere or corsage flower. The latter has large light-pink to
salmon yellow flowers excellent for cutting and is very free blooming. I
earnestly suggest that you investigate the possibilities of this whole class
GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA
THE HOME PRODUCTION OF GREENHOUSE
MRS. TUSHA DILLMAN, Florida Rose Gardens, Oneco
With our natural climatic advantages in Florida the greenhouse cul-
ture of roses is naturally extremely limited, and there are only a few
firms that I know of, and these mainly those firms supplying cut flowers
to the florist trade, who are attempting it. Here at Oneco we have one
such establishment, the Royal Palm Nurseries, who grow cut roses for
the Blossom Shops, Inc., of Bradenton and Sarasota.
In other years Mr. Reasoner has depended on northern grown pot
plants such as those produced by the Hill Floral Products Company at
Richmond, Indiana, and F. R. Pearson, Inc., at Tarrytown, N. Y., to
make the plantings in the greenhouse beds. This last season, however,
with the present financial depression and with the idea that we ought to
keep local money at home as much as possible, Mr. Reasoner approached
us with the idea of growing this stock for him; and as we were entirely
successful in producing satisfactory stock at a price of less than half
that paid for the northern stock, to say nothing of the saving io trans-
portation charges, he has suggested that this record of achievement would
be worth recording in this Rose Bulletin.
In producing, these plants we started placing buds about 6 to 8 inches
apart, directly in the strong pencil size and larger canes of our Odorata
stock plants, as soon as they would bud freely in the Spring. This was
about the 15th of February as I remember it, and we budded continuously
through March and April, leaving the buds right on the plant until they
were well united. This usually required about two weeks time. As soon
as the eyes began to swell we cut up the cane into cuttings,. 6 to 8 inches
long, leaving the bud at the top of each cutting with about an inch of
wood remaining above it. We cut out the bud eyes on the old cane itself
at this time, with the exception of one eye at the bottom of the cutting,
which we left there with the idea that this would aid the cutting in taking
root more quickly. This was a mistake, however, and we have had con-
siderable trouble with these plants suckering from below the bud. An-
other year we expect to dis-bud the cuttings entirely and believe this will
largely prevent this suckering which has bothered us this season.
After dis-budding the cuttings as above these were placed about an
inch or two apart in rows about three inches apart, in a specially pre-
pared propagating bed of good rose soil which had had a plank about
six inches wide placed around the edge of the bed, and the whole bed
covered with a tight fitting canvas or burlap frame both to keep the cut-
tings shaded and also to maintain a very warm and moist condition inside
the frame. In a short time these cuttings had rooted almost 100% and
the buds of the fancy varieties had started growing at the top. When
this bud growth was two or three inches long and had hardened their
first leaves somewhat we lifted the cuttings as carefully as possible and
potted the plants off in three inch pots in the same type of good rose soil.
The plants were shaded for a few days until they became accustomed to
their new conditions, at which time the covers were removed and the
GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA
plants grown in full sun thereafter. From that time on it was a com-
paratively simple matter to grow the plants on in the nice strong plants
in 4-inch pots. Mr. Reasoner took these and planted in his greenhouse
in early September and many thousands of first class cut flowers have
been produced from these plants this season, even though most of them are
still less than a year old as this is written.
I feel that we made several mistakes in caring for the plants last
Summer in that we shifted them on from three to four inch pots too
quickly, also they were not fertilized sufficiently to keep them in full
vigorous growth. It is a mistake to ever let these young plants "harden
off," for if they ever go partially dormant like this it is difficult to get
them into growth again, and some of the weaker plants always die off.
Even with our inexperience, however, I believe we produced at least 75%
of our buds into salable plants, and with better care another year believe
it will be easy to produce 90% to 95% salable plants by this method.
Another point we would observe more carefully another season would
be to shade the plants from the direct sun under lath or burlap covers,
placed some distance above the plants, during the hottest months of July
The following varieties were produced for Mr. Reasoner and from
our observation of his success with them we believe are well suited to
greenhouse culture under glass in Florida: Angelus, Briarcliff, Columbia,
Commonwealth, Claudius Pernet, E. G. Hill, Talisman and Rapture.
Mr. Reasoner secured quite a number of new varieties for trial last
season and through his courtesy we were able to secure budwood of all
these sorts from which we produced plants by the above method for trial
in our own grounds. The following varieties have done well with us
and we believe are going to prove well adapted to Florida rose culture.
There are many others still under trial which we may wish to add to this
list later: Bloomfield Flame, Caledonia, Edith Nellie Perkins, Editor
McFarland, Golden Dawn, Olympiad, and Syracuse. Vaterland has been
rather disappointing thus far but may prove better later. Sunny South
has grown well but we are not particularly impressed with it because it
opens too quickly and will not hold color or shape. After experimenting
with many of the true yellow Pernetiana roses of the type of Souvenir de
Claudius Pernet, we have about concluded that Ville de Paris is the best
one of these sorts for outdoor culture in Florida and it seems as vigorous
as any, and more so than most, and maintains a good yellow color for
several days without fading, as do most of the other varieties.
GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA
THE VALUE OF ROSE SHOWS I-N STIMULATING
MISS ALBINA SMITH, Kissimmee
Osceola County has become rose conscious. This does not mean that
we merely view the world through rose colored glasses. Far from it!
But it does mean that in the past three years over four thousand two-
year-old rose bushes have been planted in the county, this planting being
sponsored by the Home Demonstration Counsel, working with their Home
Our first systematic planting of roses was undertaken in the fall of
1929 when over a thousand rose bushes were ordered for distribution
among club members in the county. The favorite varieties at that time
were red and pink Radiance, Mrs. Charles Bell, Luxembourg, Kaiserin
Auguste Victoria and Columbia and were planted during the month of
December. The season was favorable and in eight weeks we had our
The following April our First Annual Home Demonstration Rose
Show was held at which time only the choicest and most perfect speci-
mens were displayed. It was with fear and trembling that we opened the
building the morning of the first day to arrange our display for it was
quite cool and rainy. However, they began coming in from all parts of
the county with their roses. Flower lovers other than club members
were invited to exhibit and their displays added much to our show.
This exhibit was distinctly in the nature of an eye opener to those
who attended our two-days show. So keen was the interest and en-
thusiasm shown, not only among our club women but many throughout
the county that we soon realized it would be necessary to include orders
from others than club members. Among'those outsiders were four busi-
uess firms who were anxious to beautify their places of business. The
slogan, "Beautify with roses" was being put into effect whole heartedly.
The city officials generously donated the use of a small triangular va-
cant lot in Kissimmee for a Home Demonstration rose garden and this
plot was soon converted into a real show place and was responsible for
several other enthused rose growers.
April 30, 1931, we held our Second Annual Rose Show. By this time
we had had some experience in growing these beautiful flowers and had
learned to appreciate the pleasure to be derived from growing and dis-
playing good quality roses. At this show our judge, who had judged at
several flower shows over the state that season, commented most favor-
ably on our display asserting that our blossoms were far above the av-
erage. He also claimed the Frau Karl Druschki to be the finest he had
ever seen at any show at any time. We had by this time added to our
main varieties Paul's Scarlet Climber and Francis Scott Key.
The interest and love of rose culture has been the means of bringing
about a closer co-operation between the rural and town women for
after all there is much in common to be found in producing and display-
ing a beautiful rosebud.
GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA
DESIGNING THE ROSE GARDEN
CLARA I. THOMAS, Landscape Architect
The rose garden, unlike the general flower garden, is not intended
to give a landscape effect of picturesque beauty, but is designed for the
purpose of close range inspection and enjoyment of the individual spec-
imens of exquisite blooms. For this reason, a well planned rose garden
is usually made up of small or narrow beds with paths between, allowing
intimate contact with the plants, for the beauty of the -flowers is only
fully appreciated when one can peer into the heart of the opening blossom,
catching the delicate shades of uncurling petals or the warm glow and
fragrance that emanate from the depths of this incomparable flower.
Perhaps this accounts for most rose gardens being of formal arrange-
ment, the square, oblong, and circular beds forming geometrical designs.
Here in Florida, where our topography is mostly flat, the formal geomet-
rical design is especially appropriate.
However, a formal arrangement of rose beds need not be at all
monotonous. There can be a pleasing combination of rectangular beds
arranged around a central square or circular one, with paths between
to afford lovely vistas through rose arches to various sections of the
garden. A central feature of a sun dial or pool with jet of running
water gives interest to such a plan. Main paths through the garden may
be emphasized by arches of climbers at their entrances or by standard
roses planted at regular intervals on each side. Pillar roses also make
a fine accent for the main axes of a rose garden.
When a rose garden is planned on either side of a central axis, a
terminal feature at the end of the axis, in the form of a rustic rose-
covered pavilion or pergola, is particularly delightful. A stone terrace
of irregular slabs, with tables and chairs under the shelter of a spreading
tree, affords another pleasing terminal feature, where one can sit in the
full enjoyment of close contact with one's favorites or can have a con-
venient place for arranging baskets and vases of the cut flowers.
Wherever your rose garden may be and whether it be small or
large, it should have a setting of surrounding greenery. Festoons of
roses grown on posts with intervening chains, afford an excellent way
of displaying climbers and at the same time giving enclosure to the
garden. A rose trellis, surrounding the garden, especially if it be of
rustic design with soft tones of bark or weathered wood, is another
beautiful way of enclosing the garden. Where space allows and when
the rose garden is of considerable extent, a naturalistic setting of trees
and shrubbbery gives protection from cold winds and neutral background
for the colorful area within.
It is preferable to keep the rose garden exclusively for roses because
of their special requirements and because nothing of more garish beauty
should detract, by close proximity, from the exquisite delicacy of color
and form of this queen of flowers. I have seen flowering crabs and
hawthorns, clipped into formal balls, used with excellent effect in a more
pretentions rose garden and in Florida, the Golden Dewdrop or Duranta,
and the Plumbago capensis might be used in a similar way. Both of
GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA
these plants lend themselves well to shaping. But small, formally shaped
Junipers, Eugenias or Ligustrums, to mark corners or paths, and low,
evergreen hedges of dwarf box or other edging plant, along paths or
around the beds, are always in good taste and add much to maintaining
straight borders, so necessary in a formal layout.
The rose garden need not be an isolated plot, with no relation to
the rest of onee's garden. On the contrary, it should link by means of
connecting paths with the house and garden, being but a related part
of a unified whole, for in all garden making, a plan should be made
which allows for a full and varied use and enjoyment of every part
of the ground. A plan is even more necessary for a small house lot
than for a large one, for there every inch of space should be utilized,
and no matter how limited the area, a tiny rose garden for only a few
of one's favorites, is quite possible.
The rose is the flower of all flowers that has moved and thrilled
the human race for centuries.
There seems to be a feeling among the laity in general that the
growing of roses requires skill and a pocket book and that only pro-
fessionals can grow them with any degree of success. This is not
true. There is no location in this broad land of ours where roses
cannot be successfully grown if the proper varieties suitable to the
locality are selected and reasonable care is given to them in the way of
pruning, fertilizing and spraying.
Admiral Aaron Ward says, "You may be rich enough to buy a rose
garden as big as the Garden of Eden; you may be able to employ com-
petent professional aids to develop it; but unless you, yourself, with your
own hands, participate in a greater or less degree in the care of your
flowers, there may be a rose-garden, even a beautiful rose-garden, but it
will never be your garden."
TREATMENT OF YEAR OR MORE OLD BUSHES
R. H. ELLIS, Orlando
I don't quite know what particular phase of rose growing would be of
greatest interest to the most members at this time, but I expect that
a few suggestions regarding handling of plants that have been planted
one year or more may interest some of you.
I have heard some suggest throwing away plants at the end of one
year's blooming and replacing with new plants but this I feel is un-
necessary if the plants have had ordinary care and have done reasonably
well, if your plants look good but just don't seem to respond to good
treatment like you feel they should, try moving them to a newly prepared
bed or if you want them to stay in same bed why_ dig them up, re-
move at least a portion of the old soil and make the bed the same as
new and reset your plants, plants treated in this way very often re-
spond almost like new ones, that is of course if they are in reasonably
'good condition and you choose the proper time to do it, viz.: when plants
are at their nearest point to dormancy they should be well cut back, both
tops and roots, all dead or useless wood removed in a proper manner
GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA
(pruning is too long a subject for me to include in this article). Of
course if money is no object and you are sure you are going to get better
plants than you would be discarding why get the new ones and give the
good old ones to some one who would appreciate them and otherwise
wouldn't have any. I don't mean that it is necessary to treat al loses
this way at the end of one year but just when they fail to respond to
good treatment like you feel they should, it may be one, two, three or
even more years.
In some recent correspondence with Dr. J. Horace McFarland he
told me his experience checked with mine in this matter.
Now just a little about preparing a bed. First remove enough soil
to allow you to add what you want to without raising it above normal
ground level as raised beds are hard to keep watered in dry weather.
Four inches of dairy manure all over the bed surface and a pound or
so of ground bone meal per plant worked thoroughly into the top eight
inches then a pound or more of hardwood ashes per plant raked in top
makes a very good rose bed. In making a bed for new plants or when
changing location it is advisable to make it up at least two weeks before
planting, and if made up 30 days ahead one can use fresh dairy ma-
nure, in either case it should be thoroughly watered when made up and
often enough afterwards to keep moist then well dug over and pulverized
just before planting. I don't mean just dug over, I mean thoroughly
mixed and pulverized. This is something few people do when preparing
a bed for planting of anything but it is very important. A few other
suggestions, keep constantly ahead of leaf-spot and insects, don't wait
until they have control before starting to fight, it is easier to keep
them off than to get them off.
In cutting flowers or pruning always cut close above a strong eye.
When cutting back rose plants whether it be fall, winter or spring,
do so when and where you have mature wood and a strong eye to cut
to, not just any time regardless of the condition of wood or growth.
Don't try to force your plants to take a rest in their natural growing
season by starving them, the effects are not the best, some varieties will
stand it better than others of course.
The only variety that I am trying this year for the first time is
Red Columbia, it looks good so far. I feel that this is a lot of talk
for saying so little but I hope it may help some one a little anyway,
and if I can be of any help to anyone at any time in solving their rose
problems I will be very glad indeed to do so.
EFFECTS OF STEAM STERILIZATION
P. C. O'HAVER, Charlotte Harbor
When I was a very small boy, one of our neighbors plowed his gar-
den, hauled in a lot of brush and logs, piled them all in a corner and
made a big .bonfire. Afterward, he planted his seed bed where he had
made his fire pile. I have never forgotten the incident. The Romans,
according to Pliny, used this very effective method in killing weed seed
GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA
and organisms in the ground. But it destroyed much of the best part of
the soil by burning the humus.
A few months ago while visiting the vicinity of Sanford, I asked
concerning the methods of making celery beds. No, they did not use
any chemicals for disinfection, nor did they use steam. They said they
had about exhausted all of the new ground in changing the location of
seed beds every year. Afraid of chemicals and had not heard of steam
sterilization of soil!
Down at Wauchula last fall when it was so very dry, yet the grass
and weeds were growing in the strawberry fields, many of the farmers
lost many of their berry plants by hoeing too close. What would have
been the result had the beds been steamed before planting. Results: no
weeds-no grass-no hoeing-more plants to live-more berries and more
Would it pay? Ask Mr. Roy Ellis of Orlando. He says, "Lettuce
too, is greatly benefited by soil steaming before planting. Three-quarters
of a pound per square foot was considered a good average crop. I cut
I/2 pounds per square foot on steamed soil, while lettuce on the same
soil not steamed, 24 inches away, was hardly worth cutting."
Take a look at the sweet peas in Lake Eola Park, Orlando, grown
by Mr. Ellis. This last April I saw a man standing on top of a six-
foot ladder picking blossoms off the pea vines as high as he could reach.
The soil had been steamed and the only fertilizer used was cow manure.
Take a look at his roses. Listen to what Mr. Ellis says, "They
started to grow at once * In sixty days the roses were blooming * *
The plants grew io to 12 inches before the first bloom faded * New
canes started up from the base * They bloomed right through the
summer * They grew over six feet high * After being severely
pruned, the second year's bloom was heavier than the first year's * *
The third year has proven that the same rose bushes have done as well
as they did the first and second year."
Take a visit to the gardens of Mr. R. F. Nyberg, 3010 30th Ave.,
Tampa, Fla. His seed beds are out in the open field. His annuals are
truly annuals for they are not seasonal. His roses bloom. They are
not monthly roses-they are annual roses for they bloom every day in
the whole year. His neighbor just across the fence says it is too much
trouble to steam sterilize. Consequently, his neighbor grows peanuts
and vinca. Why does the fence line make such a difference? Root
knot on one side and steam sterilized soil on the other.
The fertility of all soil depends on the aid of micro-organisms. But
just as there are undesirable members of the society of men who are
outlaws and murderers-there are bacteria and molds in the soil that
cause blight, wilt, mosaic, rust and canker on cultivated plants. Preven-
tion instead of a cure is the modern method of controlling disease in
plant life as well as in man.
If soil sterilization was for no other purpose than to destroy the
nematode or eelworm (Heteradera radiciola) the expense, time and labor
for steaming would more than be paid. Press Bulletin 415, Sep., 1929,
Florida Experiment Station, places roses the fourteenth, next to peaches,
GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA
in the list of susceptible plants to root knot. A later edition, Bulletin
232, June, 1931, leaves roses out of the list. But listen, show me a rose
bed anywhere in Florida in the light sandy soil section where the roses
are not donig their best and I will show you symptoms of nematode.
Whether or not the female nematode infests the roots of the rose, the
whole nematode family feasts off the little fine feeder rootlets of the
rose. After such a bush has had its periodic rest, a "depression" is
evident. Blind-wood and die-back is in the course of events and the loss
of the bush is inevitable. There are a few varieties of roses not so sus-
ceptible to root knot. With the steam sterilization of soil, I believe,
it will be found that some of the more delicate roses rarely tried outside
of the greenhouse can be easily grown in Florida if only shaded some
during the hottest part of the summer. Root knot is gaining the upper
hand in all cultivated soil of the south and steam sterilization is the only
Steaming is a benefit to the soil regardless of the infestations. Mr.
Walter B. Balch, Kansas State Agricultural College, says-"A great deal
of the value of soil sterilization comes from the heating of the soil. It
breaks down a large amount of plant food and makes it more available
to the plant. It puts the soil into a condition that produces better crops
even if there is no specific disease. Soil so treated gets better every
year. It makes unnecessary the experimenting to know what the soil
The steam when forced into the ground at high pressure to the
depth of 12 to 18 inches kills not only the disease organisms but many
of the beneficial bacteria (nitrogen fixing and nitrofying). Only the
spores of the nitrofying survive the fiery furnace. However, the
beneficial bacteria will be returned in a short time by watering, culti-
vation, fertilizers and by pure cultures. I find it takes tbout two weeks
for the soil to "ripen" after it has been cooked. During the conditioning
period, seed germination is retarded-afterward it is hastened. Roses
can be planted as soon as the soil is cool enough. The breaking down of
the organic matter causes a temporary overproduction of ammonia. This
surplus ammonia is soon absorbed or changed into available fertilizer
which serves as an immediate food resulting in an increased rate of
growth of the plant-free from disease hindrances.
In addition to the killing of disease organisms and the improvement
of the soil, the destruction of all weed seed and grass is the next in
importance. (Steamed bermuda grass is far superior as a fertilizer
than any muck pile). In seed beds, grass and weeds must be pulled out
by hand. Too close hoeing kills the strawberry plants. Grass and weeds
in the annual bed is the bane of every woman. We dare not wait till
the harvest to separate the tares from the wheat in our flower garden.
The cost of labor for weeding alone often pays for the expense of steam
Steam sterilization will not cure all of the ills of rose growing in
Florida. Regardless of the perfection of the bed where the rose is
planted, the rose must have food-not one thanksgiving feast once a year,
but "daily food." The bulletins and lectures of the authorities calling
GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA
for cow manure "even if you must keep a cow" has given the roses in
Florida more "black eyes" (black spots) than any other cause. Less
than one per cent ammonia, no potash, no phosphates! Even man does
not live by bread alone. Why expect the rose to be perfect with such
an unbalanced diet.
It sounds like some one who has never visited Florida remark, "I
would not live in Florida because of the alligators and mosquitoes," to
hear some one say, "Roses do not live but one or two years in Flor-
ida." Regardless of the shortcomings of rose culture in Florida, it
certainly is not the fault of the rose, nor the climate, nor the soil.
The savage man eats his meat raw, civilization calls for food to be
cooked. Roses respond to steam sterilization as the higher nature of
humanity responds to the ideas of progress.
TO READERS OF THIS PUBLICATION
We present herewith the 1933 Bulletin of the Florida Rose
Society (affiliated with the Americai Rose Society).
Even though this bulletin is modest as to size, its pub-
lication is more or less a financial drain on the members of
the Florida Rose Society, which has a membership much
smaller than it should be. In fact the publication of the
bulletin is made possible through the generosity and business
acumen of those whose advertisements appear in the publi-
We sincerely trust that the readers of "Growing Roses
in Florida" will take this matter into consideration and when
placing their orders, will patronize those whose advertisements
appear in this publication.
GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA
REPORT OF PRESIDENT
MRS. S. F. POOLE, Lake Alfred
My work has been mostly correspondence, having written 232 letters
in the interest of the Society.
Since the Society issued "Growing Roses in Florida," my fan mail
has been quite heavy. At times we needed a secretary.
First, my aim has been to awaken a statewide interest in growing
We have endeavored to get up a list of the prominent rose growers
of the state and then interest them in the Florida Rose Socity. Especially
have we been interested in building up the membership.
We attempted to make a survey of the counties having Home Dem-
onstration Agents through a short questionnaire sent to the agents to
learn the extent of rose culture in the respective counties, as follows:
To what extent are roses being grown in your county?
Please give names and addresses of rose growers and any outstanding
rose gardens in your county.
Is there a Municipal Rose Garden in your county?
What is your county flower?
We cannot report the effort a success, for only about one-third of
the agents answered.
Pinellas County has adopted the rose as its county flower.
In Osceola County, in the vicinity of Kissimmee, many roses are being
Kissimmee holds a Rose Show each year. This is a good way to
arouse and spread rose interest.
We have attended the Rose Show at Kissimmee. They are worth
Held one Executive Committee meeting.
Solicited the material for the booklet, "Growing Roses in Florida,"
under the guiding hand of Mr. H. A. Reasoner.
Mr. Reasoner financed the printing of the publication by soliciting
advertising. So all the credit for the publication is due to Mr. Reasoner.
We trust you will read the ads appearing in the back of "Growing
Roses in Florida." These firms made it possible for us to issue this
publication. They are dependable firms. We trust the readers of this
little booklet when placing their orders will patronize these firms.
We extend thanks and appreciation to everyone who has made the
publication possible. While it is modest as to size, it is our first. It is
a beginning and may lead to something better.
What can we do to keep our members inspired and interested has
been of much concern to me.
GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA
We have thought perhaps a bulletin to be the medium of communica-
tion between the different sections of the state, whereby each section
may be informed of the rose growing activities.
It seems to me the time has come for Florida cities to wake up to
the value of Municipal Rose Gardens. Florida is away behind the other
states in this important work. Municipal or public rose gardens have a
potential value as centers of enjoyment and inspiration for the residents
of a community and for the visitors they attract. The public appre-
ciate a public rose garden.
When landscaping your park, plan for a rose garden.
We learned the value of the rose the past winter.
Annuals were difficult to grow on account of the warm and dry
weather. When they bloomed, many of them were disappointing, as the
flowers were inferior. Roses where they have been properly cared for
were never better. We have had gorgeous roses in our garden since last
The work has had its compensations. We have made the acquaint-
ance of many rose lovers.
In closing we urge you to plant more roses.
Be sure to try out some of the new varieties. In this way many
varieties may be added to our list. For we have been accused of having
the disease called "Radiancitis."
GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY
MRS. CLARA I. THOMAS, St. Petersburg
I have attended to all correspondence, have written thirty letters, and
have performed all the usual duties of secretary.
Illness prevented my attending the meeting on February 25th.
April 1st, 1931-April 1st, 1932
N. A. REASONER
Balance on hand April 1st, 1931 ............... .................... $155.20
M memberships ... ....... ..................... 180.00
Advertisements .............--.... ............... 87.50
Refund Flower Show ........ ............. .25
American Rose Society (Affiliated
M memberships) ................................... $112.50
Mrs. Gaston Drake (Prizes and Ex-
penses, Miami Flower Show) ......... 38.50
E. 0. Painter Printing Co. (For Print-
ing Bulletin for 1932) ..................... 92.12
Reasoner Brothers (Expenses, Treas-
urer's O office) ........................................ 20.00
Balance on hand April 1st, 1933 ............................................................. $129.83
GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA
CONSTITUTION OF FLORIDA ROSE SOCIETY
Section I. This Society shall be known as the FLORIDA ROSE SOCIETY.
Section 2. The objects of this Society are:
To encourage Rose culture;
To hold an annual Rose Show;
To conduct Rose Pilgrimages.
Section i. The members of this Society shall consist of all persons
interested in the objects of the Society.
Section 2. Every member shall be entitled to one vote as provided
in the By-laws.
Section 3. Honorary Members may be admitted when the By-laws
Section I. The officers of this Society shall consist of a President,
Vice-President, Secretary, Treasurer, and Corresponding Secretary, who
shall be elected at the Annual Meeting, and who shall hold office for a
term of twelve months and until their successors are elected and quali-
Section 2. The Executive Board of this Society shall consist of the
above named officers.
Section 3. It shall be the duty of the President to appoint a nom-
inating committee in February.
Section I. The Annual Meetings shall be held in the spring on such
day and at such place as shall be selected by the Executive Board.
Section 2. Special meetings may be called by the President, Vice-
President, or Secretary.
Section I. The Constitution may be amended by a two-thirds vote
of the members of the Society present at any meeting, provided the pro-
posed amendment shall first be approved by the Executive Board in
writing and a copy of such approval shall have been mailed to each mem-
ber at least ten days before the meeting at which the proposed amendment
is to be considered.
Section I. At least two members of the Executive Board shall be
present of the five necessary to constitute a quorum for the transaction
GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA
Section I. The order of business, except when suspended by unanimous
vote, shall be as follows:
i. Reading and disposition of the minutes.
2. Report of committees.
3. Unfinished business.
4. Nomination and election of officers.
5. Reading communications.
6. New business.
7. Remarks in the interest of the Society.
Section I. Voting shall be by voice.
Section 2. All motions and resolutions shall be decided by a major-
ity vote of the members present and voting.
Section i. Each member shall pay into the treasury upon joining
the Society the sum of $i.oo. One dollar dues shall be payable annually
thereafter on January 1st.
Section I. The President shall appoint such committees as may be
necessary for the work of the Society.
Section i. The By-Laws may be amended by two-thirds vote of the
Society members present at any meeting, provided the proposed amend-
ment shall have been approved first by the Executive Board in writing
and mailed to each member at least ten days before the Annual Meeting
.at which the proposed amendment is to be considered.
Section i. The duties of the officers and the Executive Board shall
be those which are usually incumbent upon such in similar organizations.
Section i. Vacancies may be filled by the President with the ap-
proval of the Executive Board.
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