• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Foreword
 Introduction
 Part I: Problems for the seventh...
 Part II: Problems for the eighth...
 Back Cover






Group Title: Its Florida program for improvement of schools Bulletin
Title: Everyday living ...
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00096247/00001
 Material Information
Title: Everyday living ...
Series Title: Its Florida program for improvement of schools Bulletin
Physical Description: xv p., 1 l., 254 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida State Department of Education
University of Florida Curriculum Laboratory
Donor: unknown ( endowment )
Publisher: Florida Grower Press
Place of Publication: Tampa, Fla.
Publication Date: 1942
 Subjects
Subject: Science -- Study and teaching   ( lcsh )
Social sciences -- Study and teaching   ( lcsh )
Education -- Curricula -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Junior high schools   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Prepared at Florida curriculum laboratory, University of Florida. M.L. Stone, director. Mrs. Mario S. Barclay, consultant. Miss Elsie M. Douthett, consultant. Division of instruction, M.W. Carothers, director. State department of education, Tallahassee, Florida. Colin English, superintendent.
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 229-254.
General Note: Florida State Dept. of Education Florida program for improvement of schools Bulletin no. 29. September, 1942
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00096247
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 09484849
lccn - e 43000030

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Foreword
        Page v
        Page vi
    Introduction
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        Page xiv
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    Part I: Problems for the seventh grade
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    Part II: Problems for the eighth grade
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Full Text





EVERYDAY LIVING








FLORIDA PROGRAM
FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCHOOLS




Bulletin No. 29
September, 1942








STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA
COLIN ENGLISH, Superintendent







i









EVERYDAY LIVING





Bulletin No. 29
September, 1942


Prepared at
FLORIDA CURRICULUM LABORATORY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


M. L. STONE, Director
MRS. MARION S. BARCLAY, Consultant
Miss ELSIE M. DOUTHETT, Consultant?


DIVISION OF INSTRUCTION
M. W. CAROTHERS, Director






STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA
COLIN ENGLISH, Superintendent



















































































































































I









CONTENTS


Introduction - - - - -
Summary of Problems - - - -

SECTION ONE
SUGGESTED FOR SEVENTH GRADE


AREA
I.


II.
III.

IV.

V.
VI.
VII.

VIII.
IX.


Getting Acquainted With Problems of
Everyday Living - - -
Living With Others - - -

Finding Food for Fitness -

Building Better Bodies -
Learning First Aid

Exploring the World Around Us

Looking at Life Around Us - -
Putting Power to Use - - -

Going and Growing - - -


SECTION TWO
SUGGESTED FOR EIGHTH GRADE

X. Making the Most of Our Looks - -
XI. Talking About the Weather - -
XII. Seeing the World of Yesterday and Today

XIII. Living at Home in Florida - -

XIV. Using the Highways Safely - -

XV. Growing in Responsibility - -
Bibliography -------


1
- 1

- 11

- 51
- - 73

- - 99
- - 101
- 119

- 131

- 141


- 145

- 159
- 175

- 195

- 223
- 225

- 229


PAGE
- vii

- xiii










FOREWORD


Everyday Living is an integrated course organized around the
problems of seventh and eighth grade pupils to which the three
areas-science, health, and home living-offer assistance in solv-
ing. The primary purpose of this course is to develop under-
standings concerning certain life problems and to increase skill
in solving them.
The materials in this bulletin represent the efforts of many
individuals and organizations. In the fall of 1941 a conference
was held at which many people from the three areas participated.
The conference recommended and the Courses of Study Com-
mittee authorized the appointment of a curriculum committee
to prepare an integrated course composed of the three areas.
Praise and appreciation are here accorded the members of the
committee that produced the bulletin. Only through hard work,
real ability, and a high devotion to the cause of education could
they have produced in so short a period a work of such merit.
The members of the committee were: Mrs. Annie Davis, South
Side Junior High School, St. Petersburg; Miss Mary Catherine
Drennan, Putnam County High School, Palatka; and Mr.
Chester Mann, Winter Haven High School, Winter Haven.
Especial appreciation and recognition are due the consult-
ants, Mrs. Marion S. Barclay and Miss Elsie Douthett, both of
the P. K. Yonge Laboratory School, Gainesville, under whose
able guidance the course was developed and produced.
The State Department of Education joins the committee in
expressing appreciation to the many individuals and organiza-
tions who were helpful in making the production of this bul-
letin possible.




SUPERINTENDENT OF
PUBLIC INSTRUCTION












CONTINUING PRODUCTION OF CURRICULUM BULLETINS
FLORIDA PROGRAM FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCHOOLS

SERIES BEGINNING 1938


No. 9
A Guide to Im-
proved Practice
in Florida Ele-
mentary Schools
(1940)




No. 2 Avenues of Un-
Ways to Better derstanding, A
S Instruction in Bulletin for Par-
Florida Schools ents and Lay
(1930) Groups (1940)




No. 10
A Guide to a
Functional Pro.


S5. No. 4.
SFNo. 21.
< No. 22K.
5 No. 26.
u No. 27.
0
V0


gram in the Sec-
ondary School
(1940)1


No. 1.
No. 4.
No. 5.
No. 11.
No. 12.
No. 22K.
No. 25.
No. 27.
No. 28.

No. 29.
No. 40.
No. 41.
No. 42.


Florida's School Health Program (1942, Revised)
Physical Education (1941)
Teaching Actions and Effects of Alcohol and Other Narcotics (1941)
Arithmetic in the Elementary School (1942)
State Adopted Library Books for Florida Schools (1942)






Guide to Exploratory Work* (1938)
Florida's School Health Program (1942, Revised)
Physical Education (1942, Revised)
Business Education (1940)
Industrial Arts (1940)
Teaching Actions and Effects of Alcohol and Other Narcotics (1941)
Home Economics Books and Other Source Materials (1941)
State Adopted Library Books for Florida Schools (1942)
A Teacher's Guide in the Social Studies for the Secondary Schools of
Florida (1942)
Everyday Living (1942)
Mathematics Essentials for the War Effort (1942)
Professional Background Materials for War Mathematics (1942)
Wartime Course in Physics (1942)


Technology Series:
Book 1. General Mechanics (1940)
Book 2. Engines (1942)
Book 3. Aeronautics 1942


z
rn
<3






INTRODUCTION TO THE PROBLEMS
OF EVERYDAY LIVING

THE NEED FOR THESE MATERIALS
In the junior high school, the learning areas of science, home
living, and health have many major, co-related, and overlapping
contributions to make to the experiences desirable for boys and
girls-experiences which are considered essential because they
meet needs or develop interests common to all individuals and
which should be, therefore, a part of general education. In many
cases, however, for very real administrative reasons, all of these
learning areas have not found their place in the school curricula
at the most essential times. In other cases, one, two, or even three
of these areas have been offered at various times and places. Ad-
ministrative procedures have varied in scheduling the three
courses. Frequently, for many reasons, there has been an omission
of large portions which could have been effective in assisting
with the solution of many problems of boys and girls. In some
schools, certain areas have been offered only to boys, while other
areas have been offered only to girls. Only very rarely has it been
possible for the three areas to be so integrated that the obvious
relationships between them could be clarified and functional ap-
plications made.
For effective development of practices in personal, home,
and community living, integration of these fields is essential. It
is most unwise to assume, even when experiences in all three areas
are provided, that pupils can see the inter-relationships. As boys
and girls learn to do by doing, so they learn to relate by relating.
Only as integrated experiences are provided with significance to
the lives of boys and girls will this relationship be made and an
approach to their problem solving be achieved.
The purpose of these curriculum materials is to help schools
to make these essential experiences functional. It is expected
that these suggestions will facilitate the application of needed
and related concepts which the areas of health, home living, and
science can contribute. Although it is recognized that similar
problems exist at all grade levels, these materials are temporarily
limited to initial use by boys and girls of grades seven and eight.






These materials should not be considered as an altered course
in any one of the three learning areas of science, home living, or
health. The broad base on which these materials rest is that of
life problems-those problems that are related to the felt needs
and interests of the pupils, as well as to the needs of Florida life
as a whole. Neither should these materials be considered merely
as an enrichment of one learning area by the insertion of some
parts from the other two. The related learning of science,
health, and home living which were felt pertinent in helping
to solve problems of living are used as they apply, with no at-
tempt to disguise relationships or to insert relationships where
none seem essential.
In the selection of the areas for consideration and the selec-
tion of problems within the areas, consideration has been given
to the type of adjustment which must be made by pupils of the
seventh and eighth grades. Boys and girls at that age level are
confronted with many changing situations. They must make
adjustment to changes in body functions, to growth and ap-
pearance, to increasing responsibilities, to more varied school
programs, to awakening interest and curiosity concerning the
underlying reasons for many natural phenomena, to awakening
interest in their own personal appearance, and to a keen aware-
ness of themselves as individuals.
Guiding boys and girls to see the problems which they need
to solve successfully for effective and happy living is the job of
the teacher. The areas indicated in this bulletin will, it is be-
lieved, present opportunities for recognition of these problems,
for establishing techniques for solving them, and for relating
the solutions to many phases of daily living. The areas are
justified on the basis of pupil interest, as well as pupil need.
The values of manipulations successfully made, of skills com-
petently used, and of hobbies eagerly engaged in make the in-
clusion of such activities important for daily living.
The teacher should be alert in each area to every oppor-
tunity to emphasize the conservation of human and natural
resources. Emphasis thus secured has broad scope and great
significance. In all areas the importance of safe use of ma-
terials, of safe practices in living, and of wise use of resources
should be stressed through specific applications.






THE USE OF THESE MATERIALS
It is clearly understood that these materials offer teaching
opportunities which could far exceed the time allotted to them
in the program plan. This was done in the effort to point out as
many such opportunities as possible within the realm of the pur-
poses of these materials. The alert teacher will not in any sense
feel bound by specific problems mentioned. His understanding
of their educational purposes should point to many opportunities
here unmentioned that present themselves in the life problems of
the boys and girls he teaches. He is urged and expected to select
from these materials the problems which are most important in
the locality where the course is being taught. The actual needs
and interests of his own pupils must be the criteria on which he
bases his selection of study problems, the relative time allot-
ment, and the emphasis on any particular problem.
It is recognized that a full treatment of all of these problems
is impossible in the time provided. It is felt, however, that every
area should receive some consideration. If any area is omitted
entirely, it is very probable that a group of needed experiences
will be withheld from the pupils.
The activities suggested as contributing to the solution of each
problem have been selected from a wide range. Obviously many
have been included which are not applicable to all situations.
Obviously, also, the activities are not useful to all pupils. The
teacher will need to suggest and direct such activities as are of
local significance. (In some areas, activities of more universal
significance have been marked with ":".") He will need to pro-
vide for much work by pupil committees as a means of adding
interest and variety, of developing leadership, of bringing in
community contacts, and of increasing the scope of the whole
experience.
If the experiences suggested in this bulletin are to become a
functioning part of the school program, it is essential that the
entire school faculty be aware of the purposes and understand
the point of view expressed. Possibly several faculty meetings
concerned with the suggested program will be necessary. The
teacher guiding and directing the course will need the coopera-
tion of the other faculty members if the program is to be a broad






one. A weekly conference period for participating teachers,
preferably scheduled during the school day, is recommended.
Through the work of pupil committees, of other faculty
members, and through the individual efforts of the teacher, com-
munity cooperation should be enlisted. It is urged that contacts
be made with such local workers and agencies as are interested in
community betterment. Among these will be the county agri-
cultural agent, the county home demonstration agent, the coun-
ty health officer, the personnel of the county health unit, the
leaders and sponsors of Boy Scout and Girl Scout troops, the local
chapter of the American Red Cross, and many civic and fra-
ternal organizations. The merit badge program of the Boy
Scouts and the Girl Scouts will provide motivation for these
areas. Similarly, the areas can contribute to merit badge achieve-
ment.
The teacher will need to be aware of all community resources.
In addition to the complete survey customarily conducted by
many teachers at the beginning of the school term, there will
need to be some inventories made of community conditions dur-
ing the year. This could be done in some cases by pupil comn-
mittees; in some cases the teacher himself should secure the in-
formation.
THE USE OF REFERENCE MATERIALS
The placement of these areas within a general framework Ias
been a matter of some deliberation. Along with the considera-
tion of needs and interests, the very practical matter of textbooks
has been of concern.
The textbooks available for use in Florida public schools in the
fields of science, health, and home living at the age levels under
consideration are:
Exploring Our World, Powers and others (Grade 7)
Our World C".'. ... Powers and others (Grade 8)
Helping the Body in Its Work, Andress and others (Grades 7-8)
The Healthy Home and Community, Andress and others (Grades 7-8)
The New First Course in Home Making, Calvert (Grades 7-8)
Be Healthy, Crisp
Health and Human Welfare, Burkard and others
Understanding the Universe, Carroll and others







Problems in Biology, Hunter
American Red Cross First Aid Textbook
Be Safe and Live, Derthick and others
Modern Clothing, Baxter and Latzke
Care and Giidance of Children, Goodspeed and Johnson
The Boy and His Daily Living, Burnham and others
When You Buy, Trilling and others
The Family's Food, Lanman and others
The Girl and Her Home, Trilling and Nicholas
In the reference section at the conclusion of each problem the
foregoing books will be referred to by title only. Complete
descriptions will be found in the bibliography.
Other textbooks of specific value, also available for public
school use, are:
Useful Science, Book 2, Weed and Rexford
New Introduction to Biology, Kinsey
Living at Our Best, Emerson and Betts
Science and the Way to Health, Andress and others
Health Essentials, Andress and others
Many Textbooks in the Field of Agricultural and Industrial Arts
No one available textbook will serve as basic throughout the
course. Reference has been made, in most instances, to textbooks
in the three fields of science, health, and home living. These text-
books will be furnished in varying quantities, and it will be im-
possible, even if desirable, for each pupil to have continuous use
of each book. In the areas considered in the first semester of the
7th grade, the most frequent references are made to The New
Firs' Course in Home Making and to Helping the Body in Its
Work. In the second semester most references are made to sec-
tions from Exploring Our World. In the 8th grade, the text-
books should circulate equally well, and it should be possible to
make continuous and almost maximum use of all books. Usually,
basic textbooks are required with but one group at a time.
Even though one particular textbook is, for the time, basic for
detailed study by the pupils, it is urged that the teacher have
available a few copies of books used as basic in other areas, and
that he direct their use as pupil reference. Room libraries with
well selected books, pamphlets, and magazines will aid in de-
veloping the purposes of this course.







Where the new state adopted science and health textbooks
have not been secured, it will be quite possible to use former state
adopted textbooks. At the conclusion of each problem, many
references have been made to such books. All teachers will, as
well, be able to secure much inexpensive reference material from
the many sources listed in the bibliography. Such materials if
carefully chosen and wisely used do much to enrich the experi-
ences of each area. Early in the school year these materials should
be secured.
There are many excellent audio-visual aids available for en-
riching study in all areas. A list of some aids recommended for
use in this course will be found in the bibliography. There also
are suggestions for the effective use of these aids.
EVALUATION
It is understood that objective measurement of pupil progress
in these areas is difficult. Consequently, the teacher should use
careful judgment in evaluating the contributions that the ex-
periences are making to the everyday living practices of boys ard
girls. Since the teacher is concerned with the continuous growth
of pupils, the program of evaluation will be a continuous one.
This continuous development of the pupil will be the major
criterion in evaluating the worth of past experiences as well as
in selecting future experiences requisite to the development of
right attitudes, appreciations, abilities, understandings, and
skills. Observable changes of a desired type in pupil behaviour
are, in the final analysis, the objectives for which one should
strive and, consequently, should be the basis for evaluation.
For more specific help in evaluating pupil progress in EI ,
day Living, reference is made to Chapter Ten, Bulletin 2, W i
to Better Instruction in Florida Schools.
This bulletin is presented in two parts. Part One is for the
seventh grade and includes Area I through Area IX. Part Two
is for the eighth grade and includes Area X through Area XV.
Both parts include helpful suggestions for both grades and should
not be regarded as mutually exclusive. The bibliography is for
both grades.







A SUMMARY OF PROBLEMS OF EVERYDAY LIVING

SUGGESTED FOR SEVENTH GRADE

GETTING ACQUAINTED WITH PROBLEMS OF EVERYDAY LIVING
(Approximately One Week)
I. What are some everyday problems that concern us now?
II. What are our best ways and means for making progress in adjusting
to our problems?

LIVING WITH OTHERS (Approximately Four Weeks)
I. How can we most enjoy our school life?
II. How can we live most happily with others at home?
III. Why is successful living with others largely dependent upon our
own personality traits and the way we express ourselves?
IV. How can we live most successfully on twenty-four hours a day?

FINDING FOOD FOR FITNESS (Approximately Eight Weeks)
I. Is fitness worthwhile?
II. How does food make a difference in one's fitness?
III. What do we need to know in order to make best use of our protective
foods?
IV. How do our bodies prepare and use the foods we eat?
V. How does income influence food selection and expenditure?
VI. What can we do with surplus foods?
VII. Can we live on foods produced in Florida?
VIII. How does the storage and preparation of food make a difference?

BUILDING BETTER BODIES (Approximately Five Weeks)
I. How do we build our bodies?
II. How do we keep on guard against the opponents of our better bodies?

LEARNING FIRST AID (Three Weeks)

EXPLORING THE WORLD AROUND Us (Approximately Five Weeks)
I. How does air work for us?
II. How does air affect the way we feel?
III. How is water necessary to life?
IV. How does water change form to help us and to work for us?
V. In what other ways does water influence our work and play?
VI. What is good water?
VII. What is the good earth and why is it so important to us?

LOOKING AT LIFE AROUND US (Approximately Five Weeks)
I. What problems do all living things have in common?
II. How do plants meet life problems and adapt to varying conditions?
III. What similarities and differences do plants and animals have?
IV. How do conflict and cooperation bring about a balance of life?







V. What is to be gained by living in groups?
VI. How does conflict help to maintain the balance of life?
VII. How are living things fitted to the environment in which they live?

PUTTING POWER TO USE (Approximately Four Weeks)
I. How do we make use of the force of gravity in our everyday living?
II. In what ways do we attempt to control motion and make the energy
of motion serve us?
III. Why would our present methods of living be impossible without the
energy of heat?
IV. How have we used our knowledge of electricity?
V. How have we improved our method of using energy in our everyday
living?

GOING AND GROWING (Approximately One Week)
I. How can we know our powers?
II. How can we strengthen our powers?
III. How can we use our powers?

SUGGESTED FOR EIGHTH GRADE
MAKING THE MOST OF OUR LOOKS (Approximately Seven Weeks)
I. What is the importance of personal appearance?
II. What is a good complexion and how can we insure ours?
III. How can we keep our hair most attractive?
IV. What can we do to have attractive hands, feet, and nails?
V. How do our living practices influence our personal appearance?
VI. How do we express ourselves through our clothes?

TALKING ABOUT THE WEATHER (Approximately Eight Weeks)
I. What are stars?
II. What is the center of our universe?
III. What causes the moon to shine?
IV. How does the energy of the sun cause weather?
V. How does the weather man study the weather?
VI. What is the difference between weather and climate?

SEEING THE WORLD OF YESTERDAY AND TODAY
(Approximately Seven Weeks)
I. How does weather aid in the formation of soil?
II. What forces change the earth's face?
III. How old is the earth?
IV. What kinds of plants and animals lived in the past?
V. What do the green plants need to produce the foods we eat?
VI. What animals help us or hinder us in our production of food?
VII. What are some of the pests that reduce man's productive ability?
VIII. How do all animals adapt themselves to the regions in which they live?








LIVING AT HOME IN FLORIDA


(Approximately Nine to Twelve Weeks)
Why do we have homes?
How do we choose the location for our houses?
How does house planning affect our daily living?
How do we make our own climate in our houses?
How do we light our houses?
How do we get and use our water supply?
How can we make the most of what we have in our homes?
How can we keep our homes and our community clean?
How can we further keep our homes and community safe?
How is safe food supplied to our homes?
How should food be served in our homes?


USING THE HIGHWAYS SAFELY (Approximat

GROWING IN RESPONSIBILITY (Approxim
I. What are your growing social responsibilities?
II. What are your growing home responsibilities?
III. What are your growing vocational responsibilities?


ely Three Weeks)

ately One Week)


XV


I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.
IX.
X.
XI.

























PART ONE

PROBLEMS FOR THE SEVENTH GRADE













AREA I


GETTING ACQUAINTED WITH PROBLEMS OF
EVERYDAY LIVING


OVERVIEW
In nearly all schools the seventh grade marks the beginning of
a decidedly new and different phase of school living for boys and
girls. In this year, they are faced with the sudden necessity for
making many difficult adjustments which create an overwhelm-
ing number of problems for young adolescents. The additional
stresses and strains of this crucial period are vitally important in
the growth and development of children and are often respon-
sible for serious problems in later life.
Frequently the entrance into seventh grade involves our boys
and girls immediately in problems related to the departmental-
ization of studies, getting acquainted with a new building, addi-
tional home work, new school activities, different rules and
regulations, new daily schedules, different teachers, new friends,
added home responsibilities, and urgent needs to arrange a great
many more activities within the time boundaries of their regular
daily lives. At each and every turn the seventh grade child finds
that more and more is expected of him. He faces the increasing
need to become more self-directing in making his own decisions.
He must answer for himself, to a greater extent than before, his
own questions concerning what to wear, what to eat, what to
buy, and what to do. Even those seventh grade children who
are not for the first time facing departmentalization, who have
not moved into new buildings, and who do not have quite so
many new teachers and new problems are living through an ado-
lescent age which in itself creates difficult problems. And for all
children, returning from summer vacations to a new school year
demands the making of important new adjustments.
As will be explained later, the first area for study, entitled






2 EVERYDAY LIVING

"Living with Others," will provide opportunities for guidance
of the children in the specific problems of their adjustment. The
purpose of this orientation area, which might constitute approx-
imately one week's study, is to provide opportunities for the chil-
dren to recognize and face squarely their own specific problems,
to acquaint them with the ways and means for meeting their
problems, and to develop a readiness for guidance in their actual
adjustments. It is recommended that the teacher read the first
area, "Living with Others," before planning the orientation area,
as many of the problems presented therein may be urgent enough
for immediate study. There really should be no line of demarca-
tion between the two areas. Both deal largely with problems of
orientation.
The children should also be introduced at this time to the gen-
eral purposes of the year's study, which aims to provide for them
the opportunities to answer their many questions concerning the
"whys" and the howss" of the many things they see, hear about,
want to do, and often must do, day by day. In this introductory
phase of the study the children should develop:
1. A keener awareness of their real problems
2. A desire to meet and adjust to these problems successfully
3. An understanding of some good guides which can be followed in meeting
problems of adjustment throughout the year
4. A desire to use these guides in making the important decisions related to
the improvement of their own life practices
Two major phases of this area should be explored, therefore,
during the "Getting Acquainted" period:
1. Through recognition of actual and specific everyday
problems suggested by the children and the teacher, there should
be developed a general conception of the nature of the problems
with which this course deals.
2. Through an exploration of some general ways and means
for meeting problems, there should be developed a desire to meet
these everyday problems with the same thoughtful efficiency and
the same continuous weighing and evaluating which scientists
have employed in the problem-solving which has resulted in so
many valuable advances in modern life.






GETTING ACQUAINTED WITH PROBLEMS OF EVERYDAY LIVING 3

It should be explained to the children that the attempt will be
made to use problem-facing procedures in considering most of
the major problems in the year's study. In planning the year's
work, the teacher should provide for numerous applications of
class approved procedures for solving problems. The children
should, of course, be made aware of applications of problem-
solving methods as they are employed so that they can learn from
thinking through these procedures repeatedly. Through the
orientation period, therefore, the groundwork should be laid for
building understandings related to the scientific method. Pro-
gressive understanding of this method will be achieved gradually
through repeated practice with its application in meaningful
problems.
Since personal problems are to receive major stress throughout
the year, class activities should lead directly to the improvement
of living practices, if the study is to be worthwhile. The teach-
er, consequently, should be alert to the problems that are actu-
ally most important to the children he teaches. A number of the
problems suggested in this study may or may not be pertinent to
the specific needs of a specific group. If they are not, the teacher
might either omit them entirely or give them less emphasis. The
degree to which living practices are changed, however, should
be the primary basis upon which the teacher's evaluation of indi-
vidual and group progress rests.
Suggestions Concerning Method: In approaching problems,
the teacher should stimulate class discussion in such a way that
the pupils themselves suggest as many of their own problems as
possible. When necessary, the teacher may guide the discussion
by suggesting problems which he feels are pertinent. Problems
listed in this area are merely examples which may be of assistance.
The exploration for problems, the first phase of the orientation
period, might be summarized by a discussion of the relationship
of the personal problems named by the students to the basic
problems or needs of all people. This should serve to motivate
interest in the larger problems with which the entire study deals.
Beginning early to point out the relationship of personal problems
to more general problems should assist the teacher in making
clearer to students the way in which their own problems are really






4 EVERYDAY LIVING

parts of larger problems. This process of clarifying relationships,
of course, should continue throughout the entire study, since,
without guidance, seventh and eighth grade children often have
great difficulty in seeing these relationships. The general teach-
ing method, then, becomes one of starting with most vitally-felt,
immediate, and personal problems and leading toward the more
general problems of the study. The reverse of this process is also
highly important. After the more general problems have been:
motivated, studied, and discussed, the learning should be re-
related or re-applied to the original and personal point of de-
parture.
Suggestions Concerning the Use of References: The state
adopted textbooks which are basically recommended for student
study in this area are: Powers, et al, Exploring Our World and
Andress, et al, Helping the Body in Its Work. Insofar as schools
divide the study areas by grades as described in this bulletin, no
difficulty should arise in the use of the seventh grade science text-
book, because the gradation plans for its exclusive use by the
seventh grade. Should the gradation be altered for one reason or
another, the textbook problems which might arise can no doubt
be satisfactorily solved locally.
Schools, however, which are offering this course to both seventh
and eighth grades may be concerned at first with a problem re-
lated to the recommended use of the seventh grade health text-
book, Helping the Body in Its Work, for the first study areas of
both grades. Actually, no serious problem exists. The book is
recommended for use by the eighth grade only for the first study
area, "Making the Most of Our Looks." After this, the eighth
grade should have no further need, as a total class, for using the
seventh grade health book. Since the book is needed at the same
time for use with the seventh grade "Getting Acquainted" area,
however, and for the first seventh grade study area, "Living
With Others," the following suggestions may be helpful. The
textbook might first be used by the seventh grade. It should be
needed at most for no longer than two or three days for study
related to orientation, during which time the eighth grade may
be making an approach and introduction to its first study area,
"Making the Most of Our Looks." The books might then be






GETTING ACQUAINTED WITH PROBLEMS OF EVERYDAY LIVING 5

loaned to the eighth grade classes for approximately one week
for their study related to the skin, nails, and hair as outlined in
their first area. The books should then be returned to the seventh
grade classes for the continuance of their work in the area, "Liv-
ing With Others," and for the rest of the year. It is assumed, of
course, that wherever possible at least several copies of this book
should be available at all times for students in both classes.
The state adopted library books which are listed among the
references for this area certainly do not exhaust the possibilities
for purposeful, interesting, and related reading. This sample
selection has been made merely to indicate the type of reading
which should enrich the area as well as motivate several other
possible areas of the course. The selection includes books which
are related to the two major phases of the area, and which should
be purposeful in the following ways:
1. Readings should provide interesting examples of man's
,struggle to secure his basic needs; i.e. the basic needs for food,
shelter, water, air, social approval, and success, (See p. 7) as
they are discussed in relation to the first major problem in this
area. Stories of pioneers and explorers, for example, should re-
veal some of the difficult problems people have encountered in
securing life's necessities as contrasted with our own problems
of this type today. These stories should stimulate further the
student's recognition of the value and importance of basic
human needs. The similarity of man's needs' as well as the varia-
tions in his struggle to secure necessities at various times and in
different places can be meaningfully related to those problems
which the students have suggested as their "very own."
2. Many books, particularly the stories of great scientists, will
give interesting examples of scientific experimentation and
problem-solving methods. Characteristics of thoroughness, ac-
curacy, close observation, repeated trial, and careful study of
results-all aspects of the scientific method being discussed in
relation to student problems-should be emphasized through
these reading experiences. The teacher should not fail to point
out, during class discussions, the relationships between the meth-
ods discussed in these stories and the methods discussed in the
classroom.







6 EVERYDAY LIVING

Because children can hardly be expected to finish reading
many of the references during the first week's study, the teacher
should not hesitate to urge their continued use. Many of thf
books as well as others of the same type will provide opportuni.
ties for just as meaningful relatedness to other problems through.
out the year as they do to this area. Such readings can well b;
applied to problems of "Living With Others," the next stud)
area on which the children will probably be working.

PROBLEMS
PROBLEM I: What are some everyday problems that conceen
us now?
A. To what extent are the following problems important to us now?
1. Is our school building new to us this year? How can we best gei
acquainted with this building so that we get to the right places ir
plenty of time?
2. How can we make our living in our school building most safe anc
comfortable?
3. Will we have additional studying to do? How can we achieve suc.
cess in our studies most enjoyably and effectively?
4. What are the new school activities? How can we best belong to
these? What part can we have in them?
5. What new friends and teachers are we meeting? What will our ne"i
friends think of us? How can we make the best first and lasting
impressions?
6. Do we have extra time before school, during noon hour, or after
school? In what activities can we engage during these times? What
activities are especially good for after lunch?
7. How are we getting along at home? What new responsibilities ar
we expected to assume? What can we do to help the entire family)
live happily together?
8. What home chores are special problems of ours? How can W
arrange to do our full share at home most enjoyably?
9. What kinds of clothes are most appropriate for home and school
activities? How can we know what to wear?
10. Who can help us best with our problems both at home and at school?
11. How can we include all of our important daily activities in the tiln
available?
B. How are our everyday problems related to the general needs and wants
of all people?
1. What is the difference between a need and a desire?
2. How do our problems relate to our needs and desires?







GETTING ACQUAINTED WITH PROBLEMS OF EVERYDAY LIVING 7


3. What are considered the basic needs of all people?
(In general, the physical and social needs of man might be listed as follows:
needs for air, water, food, shelter, security, activity, sunshine, rest, approval of
others, success, and pleasure. It is advised that in order to establish early the
concept of man as a "whole being" rather than man as composed of "separate
physical and social parts" that these "needs" be introduced in one group and that
what are often separated as "wants" also be included. In the discussion of this list,
each of the children's problems might be related to one or more of these listed needs.)

Suggested Activities:
List the most clearly recognized everyday problems related to school,
home, friends, activities, clubs, community, etc. (As wide a range as pos-
sible is desired, providing student needs and interests are being expressed.)
Discuss the relationship of these problems to any one or all of the basic
needs of all people.
Report briefly, citing examples, on how the basic needs of man are really
necessities. Use examples from fiction, biography, and other reference
reading describing the way these basic needs have influenced and do in-
fluence the activities and motives of different people.
Cite personal or family examples of the way these basic needs have in-
fluenced the activities of class members or their families.

References:
STATE-ADOPTED TEXTBOOKS:
Helping the Body in Its Work; pp. 146-152; pp. 152-167.
OTHER TEXTBOOKS:
Science Problems, Book I, Beauchamp, Mayfield, West; pp. 7-10.
STATE-ADOPTED LIBRARY BOOKS: (recommended for grades 7-9)
Beebe, William. Beneath Tropic Seas
Beebe, William. Exploring with Beebe
Boyle, Mary E. Prehistoric Man (about the way he lived, his tools, habits,
and food, etc.)
Campbell, W. S. Kit Carson
Cooper, J. F. Deerslayer
Davis, Julia. No Other White Man (story of the Lewis and Clarke ex-
pidition)
Defoe, Daniel. Robinson Crusoe
Grenfell, W. T. Adrift On An Ice-Pan (Labrador adventures of Gren-
fell and his dogs.)
Hill, Joe, Jr., and Ola E. In Little America with Byrd
'Sperry, Armstrong. Call It Courage (story of a Polynesian boy who had
to struggle for necessities and to overcome fear.)
OTHER BOOKS:
Byrd. R. E. Alone
Vestal, Stanley. Kit Carson







EVERYDAY LIVING


PROBLEM II: What are our best ways and means for making prog.
ress in adjusting to our problems?
A. What are some general guides for facing problems?
1. Why is it important to think carefully before taking decided action?
2. Why is thinking so much better than worrying?
3. Why is it advisable to have a personal method of tackling problems?
4. Why is it important to persevere on problems until satisfactory
solutions are reached?
5. Why is it weak to allow ourselves to get discouraged?
6. Why is it unwise to "just take anyone's word" for a solution or final
answer rather than to secure information from recognized authorities;
7. Why must we be careful of our sources of information in solving all
types of problems? How can we learn to judge the information we
hear or read?
8. How can we learn from our mistakes?
9. How does "making excuses" indicate that we lack the courage to face
our problems?
B. What is the problem-solving method of the scientists?
1. Why are the scientists good authorities on problem-solving? What
are some of the important problems they have solved for the world?
2. How does the scientific method for problem-solving include the fol-
lowing general procedures?
a. Being curious about a problem
b. Observing carefully all important facts related to the problem
c. Measuring and weighing evidence carefully and accurately
d. Experimenting with the most probable solutions
e. Thinking carefully about the results of these experiments, taking
all factors into account.
f. Eliminating non-essential findings
g. Coming to conclusions which, after testing, measuring, and re-
testing, can be proved correct
3. What are some interesting examples of the successful use of the scien-
tific method of problem-solving?
4. How can problem-solving which demands more of the "thinking
through" and less of the actual experimentation still follow these
same general procedures?
5. What method do scientists use to record their problem-solving
attempts?
(This method generally follows these major steps:
a. The Statement of the Problem
b. The Materials Used (In science experiments, this includes apparatus; in genC
eral problem-recording, it might include all references, field trips, sources ot
information, etc.)
c. Procedure (An outline of the methods or activities used.)
d. Results Observed (Summary of pertinent information round.)
e. Conclusions Based Upon Observations (The solution to the problem.)
f. Practical Application (The use to be made of the findings.))







GETTING ACQUAINTED WITH PROBLEMS OF EVERYDAY LIVING 9


6. Will it be possible for us to use the scientific method and to record
the results of some of our problem-solving in this manner?
(Just as plans should be made by the teacher for the use of the scientific method
of problem-solving throughout the year, so should the teacher select a number of
the problems which best lend themselves to this type of recording to give the
children opportunities to record problem-solving by following these procedures. It
is understood that many of the problems studied may not lend themselves well to
this type of recording. Nor is a great deal of laborious problem-recording essential.
The teacher should plan, however, for the children to receive some experience in
this throughout the year.)

Suggested Activities:
Cite examples of famous persons who have solved problems by use of
any of the "general guides" for problem-solving which are listed and
show how the experiences of these persons are related to our problem-
solving. Report on the use of the scientific method by any of the famous
men of science.
Cite examples or "case studies" showing how general problems not
necessarily of the "science-experiment" type could be solved by the gen-
eral use of the scientific method. (The teacher might introduce this
activity by using a very simple problem example such as a seventh grade boy
trying to decide what clothing to take on a short camping trip.)
Try to do some scientific problem-recording by writing up, briefly and
generally, one of the simpler experiments of any famous scientist. (Galileo's
Experiment, described generally in Exploring Our World on page 36, could
be used, as could many others described in the reference materials.)
Try out at home and demonstrate to the class the use of the scientific
method and scientific problem-recording by performing any simple scien-
tific experiment.
(Darrow, F. L. Boy's Own Book of Great Inventions (See references.)
may suggest some interesting experiments to be performed. Quite a num-
ber can be found in other references.)
Begin a class list of superstitions prevalent locally at the present time.
This can be enlarged as the year progresses.

References:
STATE-ADOPTED TEXTBOOKS:
Exploring Our World; pp. 4-44.
Helping the Body in Its Work; pp. 2-14; 146-167.
OTHER TEXTBOOKS:
Science Problems; Book I, Beauchamp, Mayfield, West; pp. 1-34.
Understanding the Universe; Carroll, Franklin B.; pp. 1-15.
Useful Science; Weed and Rexford (Book Two); pp. 1-6.
STATE-ADOPTED LIBRARY BOOKS:
Charnley, M. V. Boy's Life of the Wright Brothers






10 EVERYDAY LIVING

Darrow, F. L. Boy's Own Book of Great Inventions (revised edition)
Darrow, F. L. Boy's Own Book of Science
Doorly, Eleanor. The Microbe Man (Pasteur)
Meadowcroft, W. H. The Boy's Life of Edison
Nelson, E. W. The Magic Wand of Science
Nicolay, Helen. Wizard of the Wires (Samuel Morse)
Parkman, Mary R. Heroes of Today
Verne, Jules. Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea
Williams, Ellis and Mabel (S.). Men Who Found Out
Williamson, T. R. Opening Davy Jones' Locker
Yates, R. F. Exploring With the Microscope
Yates, R. F. Science Calls to Youth
OTHER BOOKS:
Jones, Vernon A. What Would You Have Done? (problems and prob.
lem-solving)
PAMPHLETS AND MIMEOGRAPHED MATERIALS:
Health Hero Series by Hallock, Grace T., and Turner, C. E. (Free fror
the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company. Set of six booklets,
each telling the story of one of the following: Jenner, Nightingale,
Pasteur, Koch, Trudeau, and Reed. Pamphlet for the teacher.
Biographical and Scientific Material in Health Teaching, also free,
concerning ways of using the Health Heroes Series in classroom
teaching)
The Nature of Bacteria by Turner, C. E., and Lytle, Ellen L. (Free from
the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company. Written for teachers.
Valuable here for a number of "home experiments" which studcnti
could perform.)










AREA II
LIVING WITH OTHERS


OVERVIEW
Either as a part or as a continuation of the orientation pro-
gram begun during the first week of study, the purpose of the
outlined content of this area is to point the way for the teacher's
guidance of the students in their adjustments to:
S1. Specific problems in school orientation
2. Specific problems of home and family living
3. Problems of personality and social living of specific and general im-
portance
4. Specific problems of budgeting time for sufficient sleep, rest, work,
and all daily activities
These problems represent both immediate and general needs.
Emphasis should always be placed upon those of which the chil-
dren are most keenly aware and which represent their most im-
mediate needs. Many problems outlined in the school orientation
phase of this unit will have little point unless they are studied
at the time the needs exist.
It is realized that in a great many schools the essential prob-
lems of school orientation, such as those related to learning one's
way around the building, understanding one's daily schedule,
even understanding certain school rules and regulations, and the
like, are adequately discussed during home room or other periods.
There may be little need for spending much time on these prob-
lems during this course. The problems are serious to many
seventh grade children, however, and it is also true that in many
schools the homeroom period is not sufficiently long to provide
the type of guidance needed. It has too long been generally felt
that entrance into junior high school marks the "beginning of
the end" of many social practices developed during elementary
school, such as the consideration of others, general school cour-






EVERYDAY LIVING


tesies, orderliness, careful handling of school supplies, and the
like. This is not always true, of course, but the problem exist!
to an extent general enough to be serious. The solution to this
problem is not simple, because the responsibility for the situa-
tion, where it exists, does not rest upon any one teacher's should-
ers. It is vital, however, that schools recognize and solve the
problem. Including orientation adjustment problems within
the content of this course may help to alleviate local difficulties
in two ways:
1. By providing sufficient time for a thorough study and discussion of
these problems
2. By giving the teacher of this course the responsibility for conducting
discussions and guidance to the extent that it is needed. If the teacher
believes that this important work is being done by homeroom teacher
or in some other way, he should consider himself responsible for deter.
mining whether or not sufficient time is allowed and should offer as mud
help as possible to the teacher who is responsible.
These two provisions do not solve the problem, of course, be.
cause even the most conscientious teacher of this course may bi
with the children only a small portion of the day. The teacher
who assumes these guidance responsibilities, however, should
have the assistance and support of the administrator to the ex-
tent that he feels responsible for enlisting the active coopera-
tion of other teachers for the maintenance of class standards
which are developed by the group.
In school situations where these problems are solved ade.
quately in some other way, the teacher and the class should con-
sider other problems related to this area. Where a need still
exists, a teaching problem still exists. This maxim should be thi
teacher's guide in selecting problems for study. Since few social
problems are ever completely "solved," continuous guidance
toward better and better adjustments will undoubtedly be thi
function of the teacher here.
The outline of the problems in this area is in greater detail than
is generally true of the materials in this bulletin. This does not
indicate that the area is more important than other areas of
study. The outline has been written in this way because of the
need to place some of these problems within the actual content






LIVING WITH OTHERS 13

of a study course. In any course in "Everyday Living" for
seventh grade boys and girls, it would be difficult to justify the
omission of these problems. The outline is rather detailed, too,
because there is little guidance material readily available. The
detail with which a problem within this area is treated does not
indicate the relative importance of the problem. It merely re-
flects the availability of suitable guides for the teacher.
Local conditions may justify the omission of specific prob-
lems included in the outline. Certainly, however, every seventh
grade class has some problems related to each of the four major
phases of the area; i.e. school problems, family problems, per-
sonality and social problems, and time-budgeting problems. It
is essential, therefore, that the teacher read carefully this sec-
tion in order to understand the purposes of each of the four
phases. With a knowledge of pupils and of school and com-
munity situation, the teacher should plan the problems of study
which meet these purposes for his group. The general presenta-
tion of the third major problem of this area, which is concerned
with personality traits, mental health, and general attitude
toward life, may cause the teacher some concern. The teacher
should exercise consistent effort to adapt problems of this type
to the level of his own students. Everyday, realistic examples
should be utilized to make these concepts clear and meaningful.
Any attempt to consider these problems as textbook problems
is misleading. As thinking is developed during class discussion,
the use of specific life examples and of realistic case study prob-
lems, the stimulation of personal observations, and social experi-
mentation are the teacher-pupil study activities. In fact, this
area could be taught quite successfully without, the use of any
textbooks.
Along with the orientation purposes of this area are the oppor-
tunities it provides for the development of democratic class
standards as they are related to study practices, observance of
school regulations, courtesies, the sharing of classroom responsi-
bilities, and group health and safety practices. The immediate
results of work in this area should indicate merely a good start
-the ground work for the continuous development of higher






14 EVERYDAY LIVING

and higher standards as the year progresses. Evaluation of this
area rests primarily on the degree to which these standards not
only prevail but progress as time goes on. Individual students
should show definite degrees of progress in social adjustment if
this study is to achieve its purposes. Much of this area, then, is an
all year area, and should be considered as such by the teacher.
The physiology of the eyes and ears, included herein, is per-
haps best related to the discussion of school and study practices
which often present the most serious problems of eye and ear
health. In considering these physiological processes, the teacher
should organize her presentation clearly and offer it at what
seems to be the most suitable time regardless of its placement
among the problems of this area. The teacher should make a
definite effort to include the details necessary to satisfy student
curiosity and to make meaningful the importance of eye-health
and ear-health practices. The physiology of eye-health and ear-
health practices should have a recurring emphasis throughout
the year. These practices should be applied to school and home
living, to safety and conservation, and to planning programs of
daily living.
In following through the scientific problem solving method
initiated during the orientation period of study, opportunities
may be found for solving a number of the "scientific-experi-
ment" type of problems. Reading light meters, studying the
heating and ventilating system of the school building, perform-
ing home lighting and ventilating experiments, and demonstrat-
ing the comparison between the eye and a camera are activities
in which the scientific method can be employed. Since the prob-
lems of heating, ventilation, and lighting will be studied in more
detail later, the teacher should select very simple and easy ex-
periments on these problems. This area also presents many op
portunities for social behavior types of problems the best of
which may illustrate the scientific method in problem solving.
The many possible outcomes in this area should be obvious to
the teacher who has read this section carefully. Here again,
specific outcomes will depend upon the specific problems of
specific children and upon the teacher's alertness in sensing tht







LIVING WITH OTHERS 15


best teaching situations in bringing about the most desirable
outcomes. In general, however, an adequate study of the prob-
lems of "Living With Others" should lead to the child's prog-
ress in developing understandings, attitudes, and practices re-
flected in the manner and degree to which he:
1. Regards as essential a regular health examination, knows his own health
status, and has remediable defects corrected
2. Performs successfully the early morning activities in preparation for
his daily program
3. Observes safety precautions in his daily activities
4. Participates actively and favorably in an advisable number of school
activities and shares, with interest, his responsibilities for school upkeep
and improvement
5. Takes proper care of his eyes and ears as well as of his general health
6. Secures sufficient sleep and rest
7. Makes successful progress in his school studies
8. Values fine home and family relationships and contributes favorably in
the sharing of home pleasures, possessions, and responsibilities
9. Makes increasingly better adjustments in solving home problems that
arise
10. Understands his own motives, desires, and personality traits to a favor-
able extent for his expected maturity level
11. Is considerate, tolerant, understanding, mannerly, and kindly to others
because of his sensitivity to the needs and interest of others
12. Achieves his successes and gains the approval of others in socially desir-
able ways
13. Converses pleasantly with others
14. Displays both good leadership and good followership abilities in vari-
ous group endeavors
15. Presents an attractive personal appearance
16. Is emotionally balanced and self-controlled in daily actions and
thoughts
17. Selects and keeps his friends discriminately
18. Is increasingly happy in self-directing his adjustments to his own life
problems
PROBLEMS
PROBLEM I. How can we most enjoy our school life?
A. How can we best be prepared for school?
1. What should we do to be prepared for any school year?
a. Why is a good vacation important? What is a "good" vacation?
What is recreation?
b. Why is our health condition important in preparation for school?
How can this best be determined? How often and when should we
have health examinations? By whom should we be examined? For







16 EVERYDAY LIVING

what health conditions? What should we do about health exam-
ination results? Why is prevention cheaper than cure? What do
the school and county health units do to help with health examina-
tions for school children?
(The teacher should either make a copy of each child's health examination
record from those of the county school nurse or a summary of these to keep in
her own files. These should be used frequently throughout the year for a num-
ber of purposes. The teacher should be responsible for motivating the correc-
tion of remediable defeats. Even though in many places the regular school
health examinations are performed only once every several years, the teacher
should emphasize the importance of annual examinations by family physicians.
The teacher should become familiar with the present health status of his student
by referring to past health examinations and by conferences with the county
nurse, former teachers, and parents.)
c. What preparations should we make with respect to our clothing,
our school supplies, and our plans for getting to and from school?
2. What should we remember in being prepared to associate with others
at all times?
(This should involve discussions of cleanliness, attractiveness, appropriate dresi
and grooming, carrying clean handkerchiefs, staying away from school or other
public places if afflicted with colds, and planning activity needs. Other local
problems may suggest similar topics for discussion.)
3. What are our daily problems in getting ready for school?
a. Do we allow plenty of time for morning routine?
b. Do we make our own "personal morning inspections"; i.e. check
on our own cleanliness, clothing, health status?
c. Do we eat sufficient breakfast? What are good breakfasts for us?
d. What home responsibilities should we share in the morning?
e. Do we allow sufficient time to assemble our needed school supplies?
f. Have we prepared our studies?
4. What are our problems in getting to school?
a. What safety problems have we in walking and riding to school?
b. Why and how should we show consideration of others and of
public property on the way to school? What public property or
property of others do we use in getting to school?
c. Have we "bus-riders" adjusted our schedules to eliminate long
waiting? Are we prepared for inclement weather? If our bus
rides begin early and extend late, do we plan for plenty of sleep
and plenty to eat each day?
(Suggest that children who leave home early bring a light lunch to eat before
school)
d. What good times can we have going and coming from school?
What are some good bus or "car club" recreations? What inter
testing things can we observe in walking or riding to school?
B. How can we live most comfortably in our school home?
1. What is the floor plan or room arrangement in our building? Where
are the places we will want to be at various times?
2. What can we do to make more comfortable, more safe, and more







LIVING WITH OTHERS 17

attractive our classrooms, hallways, locker rooms, rest rooms, lunch
room, library, gymnasium, shower rooms, and school grounds?
3. How is kitchen cleanliness maintained in our school?
4. How is our school heated, lighted, and ventilated? How can we
assist with these problems so that all of us are safe and more com-
fortable?
5. How is the building, its furniture, and its fixtures cleaned? To
what extent can we and should we assist with this?
6. Are our toilet rooms clean, safe, and attractive? How can we help
to improve them and to keep them comfortable and healthful?
7. What should we remember in taking care of our personal school sup-
plies and equipment? Why should we be careful to keep pencils, etc.,
away from our mouths?
8. Where can we keep our books and our wraps? Can we improve
these arrangements in any way by our usage of them? What should
we do to take best care of our lockers?
9. What can we do to make our building more attractive and our
school grounds more beautiful?
10. What is our daily schedule? What must we remember to have ready
before our morning classes? Afternoon classes?
11. What regulations apply to our re-entering school after an absence?
12. What school regulations govern tardiness, excuses from class, use
of certain rooms, etc.? What are the school fire drill regulations?
13. What can we do to be sure our play periods are safe and the most
fun? What safety precautions should we take in using play equip-
ment? What can we do to help conserve play supplies? What prac-
tices should we observe in caring for our play clothing, our gym
lockers, and our shower room?

C. What shall we do to enjoy best our spare time after school, before school,
and during the noon hour?
1. What are some of the best after school activities and recreations avail-
able to us, such as home responsibilities, club activities, sports and
games, music lessons, etc.?
2. What safety precautions should we observe in getting home from
school and to and from after-school activities?
3. After we have allowed plenty of time for eating our lunches leisurely,
what are some good noon-hour activities?
4. What are some games and recreations, both active and quiet, that
are suitable for before school, for bus trips, club meetings, and the
like?
D. How can we get along well with our studies?
1. What is our program of studies? What are the purposes and the re-
lationships between the courses we are taking?
2. What do our grades mean? Why is worrying too much about "good







18 EVERYDAY LIVING

grades" one way of being unhappy at school? How are good thinking
and planning better than worrying?
3. How can we save the most time and energy in our study practices?
How much time should we spend studying? How can we make the
most effective use of school time for studying? What plans should
we have for home study? What room conditions are helpful for
effective study?
4. What practices should we observe in our postures and in the care of
our eyes, especially when we are studying?
E. What are our best tools for enjoying school life and how can we keep
them ready to serve us?
1. What might we consider our general tools for school living?
(This might involve the discussion of such types of "tools" as school supplies,
sound bodies, alert minds, etc. The discussion can be guided to that of the "special
tools" with us always-the eyes and ears. The study of these important sense organs,
their functions, and related hygenic practices can well be related to study, reading,
and lighting problems at home and at school.)
2. What are our special and personal tools for observing the things that
go on around us?
a. What are our eyes and how do they work for us? How do they
help to protect themselves? How do we see? How can we help
our eyes to do good work? (How can we keep these "tools"
"sharpened" and ready for effectively serving us?) How does
eating the right kinds of food help to serve good eyesight?
(1) How can we be sure we have the right amount of light to
help our eyes with their work at school and at home? How
can we protect our eyes from glaring sunlight? What should
we know about the direction of light in relation to the posi-
tions of our bodies? Have we lighting problems at school or
at home that we might help to solve?
(2) Why do some of us need glasses? How are our eyes examined?
How often should this be done? How often should glasses
be changed? How can we be sure of thorough eye examina-
tions? How should we take care of our glasses? How should
we take care of our eyes when we are wearing our glasses?
(3) Why do our eyes need rest? How can we rest them? What
practices are fatiguing to the eyes?
(4) What is the first thing that is done to protect our eyes after
we are born? (The administration of silver nitrate by
physicians at birth to prevent diseases and infections that
might cause blindness.)
(5) What eye infections or eye injuries might dull these im-
portant tools? What care should be taken in administering to
these disorders?
(6) Why are our eyes important in personal appearance? How
can attractive glasses enhance personal appearance?
b. What are our ears and how do they work? How do we hear? How







LIVING WITH OTHERS


can we help our ears do good work? How can we protect them
from harm? Why are they so essential to happiness and success?
(1) What practices should we observe in caring for our ears?
(2) What diseases may affect our hearing and how can we avoid
them?
(3) How can our ears be "tested"?
(4) What should we remember in swimming and diving to pro-
tect our ears?
(5) What are some first signs of ear trouble?
(6) How do sounds come to us? What are some interesting facts
about sound and the effects of sound as related to our hear-
ing? How can we help to protect the hearing and "ear com-
fort" of others?
F. In what school activities can we participate?
1. What are our major school activities? To which do we belong? To
which may we choose to belong? Upon what basis can we know in
which activities we would be most interested and most able to par-
ticipate?
2. What general school funds, sports, homeroom activities, student
council activities, or others, should we support? How can we help
build good school spirit?
3. What major school functions are on the calendar and how can we
prepare for our part in them?
G. What social practices, in general, will help us to enjoy most our school
life? (See Problem III, p. 3 1.)
1. How do we make good or bad impressions on those at school?
2. How do qualities of promptness, dependability, consideration for
others, interestedness, loyalty, and truthfulness help us to live more
happily with others at school?
3. How can alertness, self-control, and the avoidance of over-excite-
ment and emotional extremes help us to enjoy school life to a fuller
extent?
4. What everyday courtesies can we practice to make our social living
at school most pleasant?
5. How can thinking ahead and good planning help us to eliminate
strain and worry so that most of our time is spent pleasantly?

Suggested Activities:
Plan for and engage in the following general class activities:
'-Invite the best qualified person available to conduct a weighing and
measuring program for the total class. (This may have been done re-
cently as a part of the general health examinations. This examination
should be the first of the weighing and measuring procedures which
should continue at intervals throughout the year. Individual growth
charts may be secured or may be made by the children in graph form.)







20 EVERYDAY LIVING

,'Conduct eye and ear examinations. (The county school nurse or the
teacher may conduct them.)
''Discuss the items important in personal morning inspections and
make individual notebook records of items named. (The following may
be a guide for making individual check-lists. Such lists can serve as
guides for the students in developing correct practices.
AM I PREPARED FOR TODAY?
Did I:
Wash thoroughly?
Clean my teeth?
Use the toilet?
Dress appropriately and carefully in clean clothing?
Check the condition and appearance of my shoes?
Make sure I was free from any headache, abdominal pain, running
nose, coughing, sneezing, fever, skin rash?
Get a clean handkerchief?
Eat sufficient breakfast leisurely?
Do my home chores cheerfully?
Prepare my lesson assignments well?
Assemble all my needed school supplies?)
"Discuss and decide upon group standards for classroom health and
safety practices, group courtesies, study practices, use of reference books,
desk tidiness, room cleanliness and attractiveness, and daily routine to
be followed throughout the year. Make plans to assist each other in
living up to these standards.
Select a group member to report on and demonstrate "How Our Eyes
Are Human Cameras."
"Begin individual notebook projects and plan for the following:
Reminder lists for school supplies needed for each class
*'"What to do if-" lists concerning school regulations, etc.
'"Items for personal morning preparations
Social games for home noon hour, club meetings, class parties, before
school, bus, auto, or outing uses
Resolutions and progress charts on most urgent personal practices
Personal calendars or "date books" of coming events, including plans
for weighing and measuring, and the correction of defects
'*Home study schedules
'"Weekly after-school activity plans
"Things to do today" lists
"Books to read" lists
Special personal safety problems
Participate in the plans or suggestions of the various committees work-
ing on special projects. (See Committee Activities). Present an i :,i':'
program combining the best of the class and committee projects and
dramatizations (See Committee Activities) to enlist the cooperation o0







LIVING WITH OTHERS


other classes in safety, study, cleanliness, etc. projects. Use "quizz pro-
grams," etc., concerning school regulations.
Invite speakers or visitors to assist your class study. Some of the follow-
ing are suggested:
*'Invite a local physician, the county health officer, or the county school
nurse to explain the values and importance of health examinations, the
items included on health examination record blanks, the reasons for each,
the general methods of conducting school examinations, the part students
and parents can play, the importance of and procedures for having cor-
rections made-promptly, observable symptoms for which students should
stay home from school, the state laws and county regulations concern-
ing the control of communicable diseases, and others.
Invite the county sanitary engineers, a sanitary inspector or the best
qualified person to explain to the class or to conduct a class tour of the
building to show some general reasons for inspections made of the san-
itary facilities, drinking fountains, heating, lighting, ventilating, and
general school cleanliness.
Invite the city recreation director, the physical education teacher, or
the best qualified person to explain about school Safety Patrols, avail-
able recreation facilities and activities, safety hazards in playing in town,
and community precautions being taken.
Invite the officers or a member of each school organization or club
to explain the purposes, values, activities, and membership of school
activities.
Invite the school librarian to introduce the most interesting books
available which are related to problems in this study.
Select committees to conduct the following studies, surveys, or projects:
Study the possibilities of forming a school Safety Patrol if one has
not already been formed. A member of the Safety Patrol might be in-
vited to explain the activities of his organization and the regulations and
practices they are trying to encourage.
"'Divide among a number of committees the responsibilities for a
survey of the school buildings and grounds.
[The entire class should contribute in making a check list to be fol-
lowed. A list such as the following might offer some suggestions:

HOW SAFE, COMFORTABLE, CLEAN, AND ATTRACTIVE
IS OUR SCHOOL?
1. Where are any repairs needed in the building or on the grounds?
2. How well are we prepared to prevent or stop fire? Have we
enough fire extinguishers? Who knows how to use them? Do
we have regular fire drills? What are the regulations?
3. Is our drinking water safe? Are the drinking fountains well
placed, in sanitary working order, and used properly?
4. Have we sufficient sanitary hand washing facilities? Is warm







22 EVERYDAY LIVING

water supplied? Soap? Paper towels? Receptacles for soiled
towels?
5. Are our toilet rooms sanitary and used properly?
6. Is our sewage disposal safe and sanitary?
7. Is proper ventilation provided and are those facilities used prop-
erly? Are there provisions for eliminating drafts?
8. Is there sufficient light for the uses made of each room or hall-
way? Ten foot candles is minimum; 15 to 20 foot candles are
recommended for most study rooms. Light meters can be secured
from the electric company. They will also demonstrate how
light meters are read.)
9. Are all parts of our building and grounds kept as clean as pos-
sible?
10. What part do the teachers and students play in school cleanliness?
11. Is our building well heated? Is room temperature kept between
68 and 72 degrees?
12. Are classrooms pleasant, homelike, attractive?
13. Is sufficient space and equipment provided for hanging wraps?
14. Are seats and desks well adjusted for healthful and comfortable
use?
15. Is there sufficient provision of equipment and space for needed
school work and supplies? (Shelving, tables, desks, and the like.)
16. Is there a health room? Rest rooms for teachers and students?
17. Are scales available for weighing and measuring?
18. Are mirrors provided and conveniently placed?
19. Are First Aid provisions adequate. Who is qualified to administer
First Aid?
20. Are provisions made for pupil rest through the changes in activ-
ities at intervals during the daily program?
21. Is the lunchroom clean, pleasant, and orderly? How is the
kitchen kept clean?
22. Are the science, industrial arts, art laboratories, and other rooms
clean and safe?
23. Are hot lunches and the right kinds of food served?
24. Is ample time provided for eating lunch?
25. Is there safe and adequate play space? Is it well equipped?
26. Is play supervised? Is physical education taught?
27. Are our grounds safe and attractive?
28. Is there proper parking space for bicycles and automobiles? What
recommendations can be made? What class or committee school.
improvement projects could we undertake?]
"Conduct projects related to improvements students can do such as:
1. Classroom beautification and grounds beautification projects
2. A division of classroom heating, ventilating, and lighting re-
sponsibilities
3. Construction of ventilators for the windows
4. Re-arrangement of classroom seating for best light and comfort







LIVING WITH OTHERS 23

5. Conducting a toilet-room cleanliness drive through posters,
whisper campaigns, and other devices
6. Placing additional coat hooks where needed
7. Securing and placing extra mirrors in needed places
8. Repairing loose boards
9. Securing extra refuse boxes for the grounds
10. Conducting drives for safe use of drinking water and fountains
11. Conducting a drive for a school Safety Patrol
12. Volunteering to guide hallway traffic, lunch room traffic
Report on the requirements for bus drivers. The committee, or one
of its members, could interview the bus driver asking him about the
safety precautions he takes, the special equipment he has in his bus for
safety and first aid, the special traffic regulations concerning school
buses, and safety rules for pupils riding buses. A report to the class
could be made on the results of the interview.
Secure suitable quiet games for before school and noon hour. Have
the committee demonstrate these games to the class or lead the class
in playing them.
"'Study possibilities, make plans, and conduct a committee project on
handwashing procedures before lunch in which the class and school may
participate.
Select a fire drill committee to explain fire drill regulations, divide
classroom responsibilities for fire drills (such as closing windows, taking
care of doorway traffic problems, etc.), and conduct a class fire drill.
Select a dramatic committee to plan, direct, and present short skits,
pantomines, or plays depicting practices discussed in class, such as:
dramatizing the right and wrong ways to enter and leave on the school
bus; good and poor ways to carry books, to enter a room, to sharpen
pencils, to study in study hall, and to come to class after physical edu-
cation.

Construct the following diagrams, charts, graphs, posters, or stick-figure
drawings, as individual project work:
1. Floor plan of the building
:2. A spot map of the community and nearby places showing vaca-
tion and recreational facilities (in one color) and safety hazards
(in another color)
3. A thermometer type chart showing the percentage of health cor-
rections made prior to the opening of school and since the opening
of school, as related to the 100% mark which would be the class
aim for having all corrections made as soon as possible. (Be sure
only remediable defects are counted.)
4. Charts showing how the school activity fund is used
5. A diagram showing school activities, the number of students be-
longing to each, their functions, activities, and meeting times
6. Stick figure drawings or other posters revealing the most com-







24 EVERYDAY LIVING

mon of the poor safety practices around school and the correct
practices related to these
'7. Cartoons contrasting the better and poorer practices in school
courtesy; safety observances; cleanliness care; grooming practices;
eating practices; play, study, classroom, and "school spirit" prac-
tices
'8. Question and answer posters portraying what a student should do
with respect to certain school regulations such as: hall and stair-
way traffic, tardiness, returning to school after absence, illness at
school, first aid needs, lost and found articles, schedule changes,
excuses from school, and telephoning
9. Charts or spot diagrams showing safety hazards and places where
accidents and falls have occurred in the school building and on
the grounds
:'10. Charts showing fire-drill procedures for the class
11. Spot map or floor plan of school showing where special lighting
arrangements should be made
12. Chart showing the total class weight (sum of the weights of all
members) and another showing heights (sum of the heights of all
members) so that both charts, under the possible label "Watch Us
Grow," could be brought up to date periodically to show contrast
in "total class size"
13. Reminder signs for the lunch room, such as: "Take Your Time,"
"Choose Wisely," "Eat Slowly," "Did You Wash Your Hands?,"
"We Like You Best When You're Cheerful." Other similarly
appropriate signs could be made for study halls, shower and locker
rooms, toilet rooms, or hallways
Additional individual activities might be as follows:
Spend one library period (if you can afford the time) to observe un-
noticed the study practices and activities of a class-mate. Time him on
each activity. Pantomine his actions or give an oral report to the class
(without mentioning names) if your findings are particularly interest-
ing. Do the same sort of project in observing study postures, or school
courtesies in the lunch room.
'Conduct and report on a home-study project, which includes secur-
ing proper light, finding a quiet corner, using or adjusting suitable study
furniture, making and following a study schedule, checking use of
time, avoiding or minimizing distractions, and enlisting the cooperation
of others at home.
Present one-man pantomines or skits portraying any suitable practices
or points discussed in class or suggested by study.
''Make at least one contribution to room beautification projects.
'Join and participate in school activities most suited to your interest
and abilities.
Purchase a school activity ticket.
''Improve your study practices.







LIVING WITH OTHERS


":Check on and improve practices related to your eye and ear health.
*:Observe carefully class standards for study, cleanliness, and courtesy.
Write a theme on the following or other suitable topics: "Our School
As I Enjoy It Most"; "How I Study and Why"; "Our Classroom As It
Could Be."
':Have all needed health corrections made.

References:
STATE-ADOPTED TEXTBOOKS:
Be Safe and Live; pp. 7-43, 263-270
The New First Course in Homemaking; pp. 98-121, 151-176, 188-197,
423-431, 443-453
Helping the Body In Its Work; pp. 168-195, 242-252, 146-167
The Boy and His Daily Living; p. 162
The Body and Health; (Burkard, Chambers, Maroney. State adopted
for Sixth Grade.)
OTHER TEXTBOOKS:
Living At Our Best; Emerson and Betts; pp. 1-10, 61-69, 110-119,
213-227
Healthful Living; Williams, J. F.
Progress in Living; Brownell, Ireland, and Towne
Building Healthy Bodies; Turner and Burton
STATE-ADOPTED LIBRARY BOOKS:
Bacon, F. L., and E. A. Krug. Our Life Today: An Introduction to
Current Problems
Bancroft, J. H. Games
Bennett, Margaret E. and H. C. Hand. School and Life
Bond, F. F. Give Yourself Background
Geister, Edna. Ice Breakers and the Ice Breaker
Holway, Hope (K.). Story of Water Supply
Keith, Harold. Sports and Games
Tunis, J. R. Sport for the Fun of It
Williams. S. J. and W. W. Charters. Safety
OTHER BOOKS:
Bowman and Boston. Living Safely (A workbook)
Crawford, C. C., Cooley, E. G., and C. C. Trillingham. Living Your
Life
Mason, B. S., and E. D. Mitchell. Active Games and Contests
Mason, B. S., and E. D. Mitchell. Soical Games for Recreation
Park, Lewis. What You Should Know About the Eyes
Rohrbough, Lynn, (ed.). Handy, the Blue Book of Social Recreation
Rohrbough, Lynn, (ed.). Handy II, the Red Book of Social Recreation
Rowell, H. G. Hear Better
Salt, et al. Teaching Physical Education in the Elementary School
(Note Chapter on Classroom Games for noon hour, before school,
indoor games.)







EVERYDAY LIVING


Sharmer, F. M. Boys Guide to Living
Wood, Phelan, Lerrigo, Lamkin, and Rice. How We Live
Wood, Phelan, Lerrigo, Lambin, and Rice. New Ways For Old
PAMPHLETS AND MIMEOGRAPHED MATERIALS:
Available from the State Department of Education:
"Tentative Source Units":
Bulletin 22-j, Skillful Living
Bulletin 22-1, Living With Others
Available from the General Extension Division, University of Florida:
Package Libraries: School Health, Children's Growth and Develop.
ment, Medical Service in Schools, Playground Equipment
ADDITIONAL:
Care of the Eyes (Metropolitan Life Insurance Company), Take Yot
Bearings (Metropoliatn Life Insurance Company), Handwashinl
Facilities in Schools (Metropolitan Life Insurance Company),
What is a Health Examination Anyway? (American Medical Asso.
ciation), School Sanitation (Floridk State Board of Health),
Bicycles (National Safety Council), Your School Child's Healti
(U. S. Dept. of Labor, Children's Bureau, Folder 22) Daylightii
the Schoolroom, by Anette M. Phelan (National Society for thl
Prevention of Blindness), Safety and Health of the School Child,
by J. F. Rogers (U. S. Dept. of Interior, Office of Education,
Pamphlet 75 (10o)), Sanitary Drinking Facilities with Speciad
Reference to Drinking Fountains (U. S. Dept. of Labor, Bulletin
of the Women's Bureau No. 87 (100)), Health Inspection oi
School Children (American Medical Association), Testing the Sigl)l
of the Young Child (American Medical Association), A Tale oc
Soap and Water (Cleanliness Institute), After the Rain (American
Soap and Glycerine Producers), Cleanliness Teaching for Boys ad
Girls of Grades 6, 7, 8, and 9 (for teachers) (Cleanliness Institute),
Healthful School Living (Florida Tuberculosis Association)
See Bibliography for other materials and for suggested audio-visual aids

PROBLEM II. How can we live most happily with others at home?
A. What personal qualities help us to live happily with other members of
the family?
1. How do the same social practices and personal traits that help us at
school also contribute to happy home living?
2. How do the qualities of promptness, dependability, honesty, and
consideration for others apply in successful home life?
3. What are the everyday courtesies which may be practiced at home!
4. How is our "growing up" largely based on the degree to which vr
contribute to our home and family life?
B. How can we contribute to the family goals and purposes?







LIVING WITH OTHERS


1. Why do we need our parents? Why is a good home so necessary to
happiness?
2. What are some goals and purposes of family living?
(Some goals which should be mentioned are: health, comforts of life,
education, home ownership, security, and group spirit.)
3. How should a family group share in the choice and attainment of the
family goals and purposes?
a. What do we mean by family organization?
b. What are some of the advantages of organized living?
c. How can science help us to guard well and to plan well for good
homes and good family living?
4. How can we contribute more to the family spirit at home?
5. How can we help in the attainment of some family desires and needs?
6. What are the advantages of family councils in planning and in mak-
ing decisions?
7. Why is the thoughtful and respectful obedience of children in a
family necessary?
C. How should we best share the family possessions?
1. What are considered family possessions?
(In general, family possessions might be considered the actual home,
its equipment, and the family income.)
2. What thrift practices can we employ to help stretch the family
dollar?
3. Since our allowances are a part of the family income, how can these
best be handled? How can we learn to manage our own money
through thrift practices in the spending of our allowances? For what
items should our allowances provide?
4. What possessions of family members should not be considered the
possessions of all members? How should we show respect for the
personal belongings of others in the family? What respect should be
shown our personal possessions? Is privacy a personal right?
D. How may we best share family pleasures?
1. What are our family recreations at home? How can we plan for
these? What are some additional family recreations which would be
interesting to introduce at home? How should a family share recrea-
tion facilities in the home? What are the advantages of a family
vacation planned over a period of time?
2. What are our problems in home entertaining? What types of home
entertaining should we plan? What interests of other family mem-
bers should we consider in our plans? What school practices should
assist us in carrying out our plans at home? How can we help other
members of the family to carry out their plans?
3. What types of hobbies can we easily carry on at home? Why do we
all need hobbies? How should we feel about the hobbies of other
members of the family?






28 EVERYDAY LIVING

4. How can family planning and organization help to insure enough
leisure time for all members to enjoy group or individual pleasures?
E. What family responsibilities can we share?
1. What are the responsibilities of each member of the family? What
routine duties of housekeeping should be shared by all? What safety
and health observances should be shared by all?
2. How can we share the responsibilities for the care of our own clothes?
3. How can we share the responsibilities for the care of our own rooms
and places for study and play? For care of our own personal pos.
sessions?
4. What considerations should be given to invalids in the home? What
attentions, services, and home conditions does an invalid appreciate?
How can we help, when necessary, in observing isolation and quar-
antine practices? How does this help the family and others, as well
as the invalid? What entertainment is suitable for an invalid?
5. How can we share in the care of our younger brothers and sisters?
What responsibilities have we, and what knowledge should we have
to better share these? What attitudes and practices toward younger
members of the family should we have to be most helpful at home?
How can your own happiness be increased at home by increasing the
happiness of other family members? Is caring for children outside
your family a possible way to increase your personal income?
6. Why is it important that the growing members of the family assume
more responsibilities so that our parents are less burdened with un-
necessary worries and tasks?
F. How can our study of family living help us to contribute more to home
life?
1. In what ways may our home life benefit from what we have studied?
2. What home living practices have we begun as a result of our dis-
cussions? Are these discussions worth while? Do our parents notice
any difference?

Suggested Activities:
*Check on the success of your home study corner and home study plans,
noting improvements and making further plans.
'*Keep a record of personal spending for a week. Decide upon im-
provements needed and act upon these decisions.
Conduct a debate or discussion on the problem of allowances for young
persons, formulating a statement of beliefs about allowances and their
proper use.
'Plan for observing some thrift practices at home. Practice these and
enlist the cooperation of other family members. Report to the class your
results.







LIVING WITH OTHERS


Interview people in your community who were born abroad or in Latin
America to find out how families of foreign countries manage to have
fun with limited means. Suggest simple forms of entertaining that could
be borrowed from Latin American countries.
"Make plans for a simple tea to be served at school. Include plans for
choosing and inviting guests, for preparing refreshments, for greeting
guests, for serving, and for entertaining. Carry out your plans.
Plan and carry out a simple home party. Limit the cost to a small sum,
but take pains to make details attractive.
Learn some simple and quiet guessing games suitable for the dinner
table, for Sundays with the family, or for other times. Try them out at
home and report on your success. Asking every member of the family to
bring one interesting topic of conversation to the dinner table is a sug-
gestion worth trying.
Plan a family recreation area, a game corner, a back yard play space for
younger children. Construct some safe play equipment. Learn some
games and secure equipment for entertaining your younger brothers and
sisters.
''Write or discuss descriptions of your difficulties in being prompt at
home, in being dependable, and in practicing courtesies. Make plans for
solving these difficulties.
List your personal possessions which you would like to keep "personal."
Ask your brother or sister to do the same. Make these lists into attractive
"bulletins" and post them inside the closet door or in some spot where they
are not "eye-sores" but will serve as reminders. Enter into an agree-
ment with your brother or sister about the use and meaning of these.
List some additional home responsibilities you feel capable of assuming
Add these to your present home activities voluntarily as time permits.
Participate in or observe in a nursery or pre-school.
Dramatize a family council.
Interview adults in various walks of life as to what home life means to
them. Good persons would be lawyers, doctors, ministers, business men,
laborers, home makers, and women in business.
Be host or hostess with groups at a school party for your parents.
'"Tell the class about the most interesting hobbies of other members of
your family.
Conduct panel discussions with other students on such subjects as:
Should boys and girls have education for family life in high school?
How does the fact that women are in business affect family life?
Do we take our parents for granted?
Should a high school pupil expect an allowance?
How far can parents expect obedience?
Do adolescents need parents?







EVERYDAY LIVING


References:
STATE-ADOPTED TEXTBOOKS:
The New First Course in Homemaking; pp. 1-10, 36-56, 311-385, 405-
422, 443-487
The Boy and His Daily Living; p. 162
The Girl and Her Home; pp. 7-42, 191-213
Be Safe and Live; pp. 43-61, 79-113
Care and Guidance of Children
OTHER TEXTBOOKS:
Living at Our Best; Emerson and Betts, 170-177, 194-199, 28-36
STATE-ADOPTED LIBRARY BOOKS:
Coatsworth, Elizabeth. You Shall Have a Carriage
Ellenwood, J. L. There's No Place Like Home
Hall, A. N. Big Book, of Boys' Hobbies
Hall, A. N. Handy Boy
Hall, Ruth M., and A. N. Home Handicraft for Girls
Hibben, Thomas. The Carpenter's Tool Chest
Leeming, Joseph. Tricks Any Boys Can Do
Scacheri, Mario and Mabel. Fun of Photography
Verrill, A. H. Pets for Pleasure and Profit
OTHER BOOKS:
Greer, C. C. Our Home and You
Laitem, Helen H. and Miller, Frances S. Experiences in Homemaking
Rockwood, L. Pictures of Family Life
Van Duzer and Others. Everyday Living for Girls
PAMPHLETS AND MIMEOGRAPHED MATERIALS:
Available through the State Department of Education:
"Tentative Source Units":
Bulletin 22-i, Health and Safety in the Home
Bulletin 22-j, Skillful Living
Bulletin 22-1, Living With Others
Available from the General Extension Division, University of Florida:
Package Libraries: Children's Care and Hygene, Child Welfare, Man-
agement and Training of Children, Children's Amusements,
Children's Homes, Maternal Welfare, Home Playgrounds
ADDITIONAL:
Safe at Home (John Hancock Life Insurance Company), Home Care of
Communicable Diseases (John Hancock Life Insurance Company),
Entertaining the Convalescent Child (American Medical Associa-
tion), Health, Happiness, and Long Life (Metropolitan Life In-
surance Company), Three Meals a Day (Metropolitan Life Insur-
ance Company), Good Habits for Children (Metropolitan Life
Insurance Company)
See Bibliography for other materials and for suggested audio-visual aids.







LIVING WITH OTHERS


PROBLEM III. Why is successful living with others largely de-
pendent upon our own personality traits and the way we
express ourselves?
A. What are personality traits? How are they developed? How is one's
character a part of his personality? How are all people alike and at the
same time a little bit different?
(Perhaps the simplest way of defining the general terms of "personality" and "char-
acter" to children is to explain that these terms refer to "our usual ways of doing
Thingss" The teacher should attempt to build the concept of personality as the sum
total of each individual's various physical, mental, social, and emotional traits, abilities,
skills, practices, habits, and attitudes. All actions and reactions, to a large extent, ex-
press personality.)
1. How do family traits as well as home, school, church, and club train-
ing help to develop our own personality traits?
2. How are our "usual ways of doing things" partly determined by past
practices and habits? What are habits? How are they formed? How
can they be changed?
3. How are our actions largely determined by our needs and wants?
a. What are the things we need and want?
(Review the basic needs and wants of man as discussed during the orientation
area.)
b. How do our "usual ways" of securing our needs reveal personality?
(With respect to the so-called physical needs, for example, the question might
be asked, "How do our personalities differ from those of the cave men in the
way we secure our needs for food, shelter, and clothing?")
c. Why do we all want the approval of others? Why do we all seek
and enjoy success? Why are our ways of doing things often in-
fluenced by the way others do things?
B. Why are our desires for success important in developing our personali-
ties?
1. What do we mean by success? What many kinds of successes do we
enjoy?
a. How do abilities and skills help us to gain successes? What is meant
by the statement, "We like to do most the things we do well."?
When we say we "don't like to do" certain things, how often is it
an admission that we don't know how to do them very well?
b. What personality traits help us to achieve success, to develop
abilities and skills, and to practice acceptable ways of doing things?
c. What personality traits do we often reveal when we aren't as
successful as we'd like to be? Can we always expect to be thor-
oughly successful? How can failures help us to gain future suc-
cesses?
C. In what ways is the approval of others important to us?
1. What is meant by the "approval of others"? In what ways do you
enjoy the approval of others?
2. How do we gain the approval of others both by being like others and







EVERYDAY LIVING


by being a little bit different from others? When is it wise to be "in
style"? When is it wise to be a little bit different? Can we be too
much concerned or too little concerned about the approval of others?
3. How is our pretending not to care what others think either an at-
tempt to attract attention or an attempt to hide the fact that we
really fear the opinion of others?
a. How are we judged by the way we face our problems and diffi-
culties? How do many of our problems arise from efforts to get
what we want? Do we always know what -we want? Why is this
important? How can we learn to "think through" and recognize
our real wants? To what extent is growing up a matter of learn-
ing to adjust to social situations where we can't always have what
we want? What are some of the poorer and better ways to ad-
just to these problems?
b. Why is it a weak personality trait to evade problems and difficulties
rather than to face them?
(1) Is it ever possible to gain the real satisfaction of success if
we never "tackle" tasks that are a little difficult or unpleas-
ant? Do you feel especially successful when you have done
a very easy task? Does it make you very happy when a
difficult or unpleasant task "licks" you because you haven't
done it, have tried to get out of it, or have done it poorly?
What are some unpleasant tasks that have given you a "lick-
ing" lately? How can you better face and solve these prob-
lems?
(2) Do you ever avoid social gatherings because you lack the
courage and confidence to do what is necessary for social
approval at these gatherings? How is this just a way of
"side-stepping" your real problem? How could this problem
be faced rather than evaded?
(3) Do you ever "quit" on problems or tasks by trying to "get
out of them" or by making excuses? Do you ever make up
"good" reasons for doing or not doing things because you
are afraid people won't approve of your real reasons? How
often do we fool ourselves by making up such strong alibis
that even we believe them? Have you ever caught yourself
doing this? How can it be avoided?
(4) Do you ever make-believe illness or inabilities that don't
really exist to evade problems or difficulties? What are
better ways of adjusting to such problems?
c. How do our ways of adjusting to problems of this sort influence
the opinions of others? How do you notice the ways other people
adjust to similar problems? How does our understanding of our-
selves help us to be more tolerant of others?
d. What are some good personality guides to help all of us in ad-
justing to our problems?
(1) How do the persons you admire a great deal solve problems







LIVING WITH OTHERS


of this sort? What would you name as the characteristics of
an ideal person? Which of these characteristics do you
possess?
(2) How do codes, standards, and mottoes of our clubs express
some of the personality traits that help us to be successful
and socially accepted?
(3) Why must we be good followers as well as good leaders to be
liked by others? What qualities of a good follower or of a
good leader could you develop further?
(4) How do our parents try to show us how to be happy, suc-
cessful, and well liked?
(5) How do the Church and Sunday School help to guide us in
the ways of happiest living?
(6) How does the school help to guide our personality develop-
ment?
E. Why are these personality traits important in our selection of friends?
1. How do we select our friends? What personality traits are most im-
portant?
2. Are you the kind of person others select as a friend?
3. How do your friends help to determine the kind of person you are?
4. How can you help to determine the kind of friends you have?
F. Why must we consider the interests and desire of others for happy social
living?
1. To what extent do.you think about the interests and desires of others,
as well as your own, in the things you say and do?
2. How can we improve upon our ability to "put ourselves in the other
person's place"? Why is this a valuable ability?
3. What is the basis for good manners?
4. What everyday courtesies are most important among friends, class-
mates, family members, and new acquaintances?
5. What courtesies should we observe at home, at school, in public
places, in shopping, in travelling, on outings, at parties, when eating?
G. How does our personal appearance reveal many of our personality traits
to others? What personal appearance factors are most important?
What mistakes do many of us make in misjudging the values of many
personal appearance factors? How does our posture, especially, express
personality? Is cleanliness a factor?
H.How is the "art of conversation" important in living happily with
others? How do our speech mannerisms, our choice of words, our dic-
tion, and our voice modulations influence the opinions of others? How
can these often indicate a forgetfulness of others? Why is being a good
listener an important art? What are some good subjects for conversa-
tion in different social situations?







34 EVERYDAY LIVING

I. How is our total health and vitality an asset in social relationships?
1. How does a healthful, wide-awake, vital feeling make our social
problem solving easier and more enjoyable?
2. To what extent do you find that you live more happily with others
when you are "feeling good all over"?
3. How can others tell when we're "under par," "out of sorts," and
"feeling low" without being told?
4. What general practices help to keep us feeling fit as much of the
time as possible?

Suggested Activities:
Report on readings begun during the first week of school pertaining to
personality points discussed in class. Discuss the personality traits of fic-
tion, movie, or historical heroes.
Invite the best qualified person available (the high school dramatics
coach or a local Little Theatre member) to demonstrate to the class the
way actors must alter personal appearances and postures to represent
certain character types. Ask him to demonstrate make-up procedures in
facial lining that indicate contrasting personality traits.
*Write an autobiography emphasizing how some of your own personality
traits were developed.
:'Write short personal stories about the ways you have evaded certain
problems and the ways you could have faced these same problems more
successfully.
Write several personality case studies on common social problems and
present them to the class for best solutions, or write some good questions
on social problems for a class "Quizz" program. For example: "What
should one do if a girl whom one doesn't like very well wants to be especially
friendly?" "What should one do to overcome shyness at a class party?"
"What should one do to control boisterousness at a class party?"
Conduct a mock trial, selecting a "jury" to represent "The Opinion of
Others," selecting a defendant to be "A Seventh Grader Who Solved A
Problem in One Way," selecting a lawyer for the defendant, and a prose-
cuting lawyer to present ways by which the problem could have been
solved more successfully. Use as realistic problems as possible. Perfect
your dramatization and present it on an assembly program.
':Establish a list of qualifications for class or homeroom officers. Plan
a score sheet on which candidates could be rated on their qualifications.
Conduct an open "trial" election of a class chairman to test the effective-
ness of this election method. Analyze your results carefully and honestly.
Suggest your improved check list to the student council for possible use
by the school prior to election time.
Conduct mock movie or play try-outs by selecting a director, judges,
and contestants. Ask contestants in turn: "Register worry!" "Register








LIVING WITH OTHERS 35


excitement!" "Register impatience!" Do the same for any personality
traits you can think of, such as: anger, poise, calmness, happiness, persever-
ance, fear, attentiveness, boredom, indifference, or carelessness.
:'Write a theme depicting your feelings after you have accomplished a
difficult task or after you have voluntarily been thoughtful to another
person. Try to describe the values of your self-satisfaction even if your
good deed hasn't been noticeably recognized by others.
List some of the more unpleasant tasks you must do. Try to assume the
very best attitude you can toward them. See if a task does not become less
irksome because you have conquered it.
Demonstrate most needed courtesy practices. Ask a qualified person to
describe the courtesies expected of a traveller. Ask a sales person to give an
account of some good and bad shopping manners he has noted in his work.
'"Present several skits demonstrating poorer and better courtesy prac-
tices in such situations as: going to the movies; eating in the lunch room;
table manners at home; Sunday morning manners at home; and before-
school manners at home. Indicate in your dramatizations the comparative
effects of these courtesy practices on opinions, reactions, and feelings of
other persons or bystanders. Make your plots and morals realistic rather
than extreme.
Observe your school and class leaders. Try to analyze their leadership
and personality traits.
Invite your Scout Master or another club leader to tell the class about
the club standards or codes, how they originated, what they mean, and
their importance.
-"Check yourself on your leadership and followership qualities. A list
of leadership and followership components may be found in Bulletin #21,
Source Materials for Physical Education in Florida Elementary Schools.
(State Department of Education bulletin, available through county super-
intendents or most elementary school principals.)
Read and learn some favorite poems emphasizing admirable personality
traits.
Practice putting yourself in the "other fellow's" place several times.
Try to determine whether the tone of your voice, your choice of words, or
your contemplated actions are any different from what ordinarily would
have been the case.
*Describe some things you have done for "good" reasons. (Or things you
have not done for "good" reasons.) Compare these reasons with the real
reasons you probably had.
Observe the classmates with whom you enjoy doing committee work.
Try to analyze their followership traits.
'"List your personality assets and liabilities. Plan to lower the number








36 EVERYDAY LIVING

of liabilities. Get others to help you. Ask someone to evaluate your prog-
ress after a time. Be honest with yourself.
"Do some quiet checking on your friends and on yourself as a friend,
Are your friends an asset to you? Are you a real asset to them?
*Fill out the following personality and personal practices list. There are
no right or wrong answers to these problems. They are to help you think
through a few problems you may have.








LIVING WITH OTHERS 37


WHAT KIND OF PERSON AM I?

(A PERSONALITY AND PERSONAL PRACTICES CHECK LIST)
DIRECTIONS: For each of the following questions three alternative answers might
be given. Read the three different types of answers at the top
of the columns on the right. Then read each problem and place
a check mark in the column under the answer which most closely
represents the way you think or feel about the problem.

Almost Always Half the Time Almost Never
P R 0 B LE MS Great Extent Fairly Well Slight Extent
Very Often Medium Extent Very Few
Very Well MediumAmount


1. To what extent have you an-
alyzed your personality so that
you know your shortcomings and
your good points?

2. When you receive a criticism
from a leader or another member
of your group, how frequently do
you try to "think through" the
criticism rather than make ex-
cuses for yourself?

3. When you do little things for
other people, how often is it be-
cause you feel like doing things
for other people rather than be-
cause you feel you should do so?

4. How frequently do you get so
irritated that you can't control
your temper and you "have to
take it out" on someone or some-
thing?

5. When you are engaged in a group
discussion, how frequently do
you "talk out" when you have
something to say, rather than
wait until others have finished
talking or until the leader or
chairman recognizes you?








EVERYDAY LIVING


WHAT KIND OF PERSON AM I? (Continued)

Almost Always Half the Time Almost Never
PR 0 BLEMS Great Extent Fairly Well Slight Extent
Very Often Medium Extent Very Few
Very Well Medium Amount


6. If the majority of the group has
decided against a suggestion you
have made, how frequently do
you enter enthusiastically into
activities decided upon by the
majority rather than take a "back
seat" or drop out of the activ-
ities?

7. To what extent do you think
things are right or wrong be-
cause of the way your friends
think, rather than because you
have tried to weigh both sides
carefully and decide for your-
self?

8. In the time when you are free to
do so, how often do you partici-
pate in such activities as swim-
ming, skating, bicycling, hiking,
or dancing?

9. How many games of a quiet na-
ture do you know how to play?
(such as card games, checker
games, guessing games, or puz-
zles.)

10. When opportunities arise for you
to play active games, how often
do you hesitate to play because
you feel you can't play well
enough?

11. When opportunities arise for you
to play active games, how fre-
quently do you hesitate to play
because you don't want to play
even though you can play well
enough?







LIVING WITH OTHERS 39


WHAT KIND OF PERSON AM I? (Continued)

Almost Always Half the Time Almost Never
PR 0 BLEMS Great Extent Fairly Well Slight Extent
Very Often Medium Extent Very Few
Very Well Medium Amount


12. How often do you consider
whether or not your leisure activ-
ities are interfering with the
activities of someone else?

13. How much do you depend on the
recreational facilities of the com-
munity for your own use?

14. To what extent would you like
to help on a project to improve
recreational facilities in the city?

15. How often do you make an effort
to find out about assignments or
new regulations which you might
have missed hearing, rather than
feeling, "I didn't know about it,
so I can't be blamed if I make a
mistake"?

16. When you see others breaking
regulations or rules, how often
do you try to influence them to
obey regulations?

17. How often are you anxious to do
very well the tasks assigned you
rather than just well enough to
satisfy requirements?

18. How much do you worry over
such things as school work, fam-
ily troubles, or personal troubles?

19. How often in play do you ever
have fear of such things as bodily
injury, equipment, or the ridicule
of your classmates?








40 EVERYDAY LIVING


WHAT KIND OF PERSON AM I? (Continued)

Almost Always Half the Time Almost Never
P R 0 B L E M S Great Extent Fairly Well Slight Extent
Very Often Medium Extent Very Few
Very Well Medium Amount


20. How often do you try to over-
come fear by learning all you can
about the thing you fear, in the
hope that in understanding it you
will fear it less?

21. How frequently do you plan for
your recreation rather than "tak-
ing it as it comes"?

22. How much need is there for im-
proving sanitary conditions here
at school? (Such as in the girls'
lavatory, the shower and locker
rooms, the cafeteria, the hall-
ways, and the classrooms.)

23. How much need is there for mak-
ing the features of our school
plant safer from the standpoint
of accident prevention?

24. If the physician who examined
you this year is your family
physician whom you have known
for a number of years, to what
extent do you feel that he seems
to know your condition fairly
well and consequently is not so
strict in giving you all phases of
the examination?

25. When visiting the dentist, how
often do you hope he doesn't find
the cavity you think you might
have?







LIVING WITH OTHERS 41


WHAT KIND OF PERSON AM I? (Continued)

Almost Always Half the Time Almost Never
P R 0 B L E M S Great Extent Fairly Well Slight Extent
Very Often Medium Extent Very Few
Very Well Medium Amount


26. How often do you take chances
rather than obey the rule of
"safety first" 'when bicycling,
skating, swimming, obeying traf-
fic lights, walking on busy streets,
hiking, camping, or in home
activities with medicines, match-
es, or kitchen utensils?

27. How often have you taken slight
risks for the sake of a good time
which might have or did cause
you to catch cold?

28. How often do you worry about
your associations with the oppo-
site sex?

29. How often do you quarrel with
your brothers and sisters at home,
if you have such?

30. If you have younger brothers and
sisters, how much do you mind
giving up some of your time to
play with them?

31. How often do you argue with
your parents?

32. To what extent do you like to in-
vite your friends into your home?

33. How much do you resent having
home duties to perform?

34. How often does your mother or
someone else have to pick up your
clothing after you?







42 EVERYDAY LIVING


WHAT KIND OF PERSON AM I? (Continued)

Almost Always Half the Time Almost Never
P RO BLEMS Great Extent Fairly Well Slight Extent
Very Often Medium Extent Very Few
Very Well Medium Amount


35. How much do you think you
contribute toward making your
family and home life more enjoy-
able for the others?

36. How often do you do a little
more work than is expected
or required of you at home or in
school?

37. How often do you feel tired,
grouchy, or nervous?

38. How well can you understand the
reasons for your feeling fine one
day and not so fine the next, or
another day?

39. How well can you explain to out-
siders about such city services as
garbage collection, street clean-
ing, and sewage disposal in your
town?

40. If a project for bettering our
town were in progress in which
you could be of assistance, but
from which you would gain very
little direct or personal advan-
tage, to what extent would you
really help of your own accord?

41. To what extent do you feel that
something should be done to im-
prove the sanitary and living
conditions of the Negroes in
in town?








LIVING WITH OTHERS 43


WHAT KIND OF PERSON AM I? (Continued)

Almost Always Half the Time Almost Never
PR 0 BLEMS Great Extent Fairly Well Slight Extent
Very Often Medium Extent Very Few
Very Well Medium Amount


42. To what extent do you spend
most of your leisure time away
from home?

43. To what extent do you think that
the things you have learned in
Sunday School or Church help
you to make decisions in your
personal problems?

44. To what extent do the things you
have learned from your parents
help you to decide those personal
problems you must decide for
yourself?

45. To what extent do the things
you have learned in Scouts, in
clubs, or in social groups of girls
or boys of your own age help you
to decide these personal problems?

46. To what extent do the things you
have learned from teachers help
you to decide such problems?

47. How often are you more likely
to try to "fight off a cold" with-
out treating it than you are to
take care of it through medical
treatment?

48. To what extent do you feel you
are a welcome member of any
clubs or groups to which you be-
long?

49. By how many of your classmates
do you feel you are liked?








44 EVERYDAY LIVING


WHAT KIND OF PERSON AM I? (Continued)

Almost Always Half the Time Almost Never
P R 0 B LE MS Great Extent Fairly Well Slight Extent
Very Often Medium Extent Very Few
Very Well Medium Amount


50. About how many of your class-
mates do you like?

51. How often do you weigh your-
self?

52. How often do you eat less than
three regular meals a day?

53. To what extent are you cheerful
as you eat your meals?

54. How often do you pay attention
to the ventilation of your home
or school room?

55. How often do you take a laxa-
tive to check constipation with-
out a doctor's advice?

56. How often do you think about
your eyes and their care?

57. How much do you worry about
whether or not you will pass in
school?

58. How regularly do you take a
shower or bath after physical
exercise?

59. How often do you change cloth-
ing for play activities?

60. How regularly do you cover your
mouth when you cough or
sneeze?

61. How often do you carry a clean
handkerchief to school?







LIVING WITH OTHERS


WHAT KIND OF PERSON AM I? (Continued)

Almost Always Half the Time Almost Never
PRO B L E M S Great Extent Fairly Well Slight Extent
Very Often Medium Extent Very Few
Very Well Medium Amount


62. How often are you sure to wash
your hands after you have used
the toilet?

63. How regularly do you keep your
own clothing and shoes clean?

64. How many times did you wash
your hands yesterday?

65. How often do you think about
your posture and try to improve
it?

66. Of the times when you are free
to do as you please, how often do
you choose to do things with
other people rather than alone?

67. How often do you find yourself
without anything to say among a
group of people where strangers
are present?

68. How often in conversation do
you find yourself listening to
what the other person has to say
rather than talking yourself?

69. How often do you find yourself
making fun of or laughing at the
ideas or tastes of other people,
either in their presence or behind
their backs?

70. How often do you find yourself
defending people when others are
criticising them?







46 EVERYDAY LIVING


WHAT KIND OF PERSON AM I? (Continued)

Almost Always Half the Time Almost Never
P R 0 B L E M S Great Extent Fairly Well Slight Extent
Very Often Medium Extent Very Few
Very Well Medium Amount


71. If you see that a timid person is
ill at ease in a group of people, do
you try to entertain him by talk-
ing, to make him feel less self-
conscious?

72. When playing in a group or en-
gaging in a group or club dis-
cussion, how often do you com-
ment upon or argue with the de-
cisions or suggestions of the
leader?

73. When you say or do something
that is not very popularly re-
ceived, to what extent do you try
to analyze your mistake rather
than to forget it or to defend
yourself?

74. When you participate in group
activity under a leader who is not
particularly strong, how fre-
quently do you give directions
yourself, or enter into activities
without waiting for explanations
or directions?

75. When a girl whom you do not
like particularly does a good piece
of work, how often do you ex-
press your admiration to her?






LIVING WITH OTHERS


References:
STATE-ADOPTED TEXTBOOKS:
Helping the Body in Its Work; pp. 146-168
The New First Course in Homemaking; pp. 11-21, 405-422, 151-163,
176-186
The Boy and His Daily Living; pp. 11-53
Be Safe and Live; pp. 157-172
OTHER TEXTBOOKS:
Living at Our Best; Emerson and Betts, pp. 158-175, 1-5
Building Healthy Bodies; Turner and Burton, pp. 208-211
Healthful Living; Williams, pp. 372-426
STATE-ADOPTED LIBRARY BOOKS:
Atkinson, W. K., and T. F. Nelson. Personality Through Speech
Badt, Ernestine L. Everyday Good Manners for Boys and Girls, rev. ed.
Bailey, Namadji B. Good Manners
Brockman, Mary. What Is She Like?
Clarke, Mary E., and Margery G. Quigley. Etiquette, Jr.
Goodrich, L. B. Living with Others
Van Arsdale, May B. and Lingenfelter, Mary R. Manners Now and Then
Wallis, Grace (S.) and W. D. Our Social World
OTHER BOOKS:
Allen, B., and Briggs, M. P. Behave Yourself
Craig, H. T., and 0. D. Rush. Clothes with Character
Elliott and Elliott. Solving Personal Problems
Fowlkes and Jackson. Success through Health
Lyster and Hudnall. Social Problems of the High School Boy
McLean, Beth. Good Manners
McLean, Donald. Knowing Yourself and Others
Reid, Lillian N. Personality and Etiquette
Rhoades, Winfred. The Self You Have to Live With
Wieman, Regina. Popularity
OTHER BOOKS FOR THE TEACHER, available through the General Exten-
sion Division, University of Florida:
Burnham, William Henry. The Wholesome Personality
Morgan, John Jacob Brook. The Psychology of the Unadjusted School
Child
Zachry, Caroline Beaumont. Personality Adjustments of School Children
PAMPHLETS AND MIMEOGRAPHED MATERIALS:
Available through the State Department of Education:
Bulletin 21-Source Materials for Physical Education in Florida Ele-
mentary Schools
"Tentative Source Units":
Bulletin 22-g, Improved Appearance through Better Health Prac-
tices






EVERYDAY LIVING


Bulletin 21-1, Living With Others
Available through the General Extension Division, University of Florida.
Package Libraries: Backward Children, Gifted Children, Social Ad-
justiment, Mental Health, Mental Discipline, Morale, Self Con
fidence, Worry, Play, Recreation
Understanding Ourselves; McKnight and McKnight
See Bibliography for other materials and for suggested audio-visual aids.

PROBLEM IV. How can we live most successfully on twenty.
four hours a day?
A. How can we get sufficient sleep and rest to be successful with our active.
ities and to live most happily with others?
1. Why do we all like to sleep? What is sleep? What happens to us
while we sleep? Why do we feel better after a good sound sleep?
What causes fatigue? Why is sleep so necessary?
2. What are the effects of our not getting enough sleep? What are
some signs that we are not sleeping well or that we have not had
enough sleep? How are our personalities and our appearances in-
fluenced when we get insufficient sleep? How are our bodies harmed?
3. How much sleep do we need? What kind of sleep is best? What con-
ditions are favorable to the best sleeping? What practices should
we observe so that our sleeping time is not wasted?
4. What is the difference between sleep and rest? What are many ways
in which we can rest? How can we better balance our daily activities
so that we are not engaged in those of one kind for too long a period
of time? How does the school help to plan our schedules so that we
balance our school activities?
5. How can we engage in our activities in a more relaxed manner so that
we do not tire ourselves so much? Why is over-excitement, boister-
ousness, or jumpiness a waste of valuable energy? How can we go
about our activities and our movements from one place to another
with greater calmness and relaxation? How is this valuable to our
safety? Is this a valuable personality trait? How do our practices in
this respect help to influence the opinions of others? What is the
difference between vitality and boisterousness? How can our prac-
tices in this respect help our bodies with their work?
6. In addition to its other values, why is recreation so important to the
balance of our daily programs? What kinds of recreation can provide
balance in the lives of people with different work or in varying
types of physical condition? What kinds of recreation do you need?
7. Why is getting sufficient sleep, rest, and relaxation such a difficult
problem for all of us?
B. How can we plan our daily programs to include sufficient time for sleep,
rest, eating, and for all of our activities of home, school, play, clubs,
hobbies, and socials?








LIVING WITH OTHERS 49

1. What factors should be considered in planning a time budget?
2. How can we make a time budget that is workable?
3. What are the values of-budgeting time?
4. How can we use our time budgets most effectively?

Sn r/~ iJ Activities:
*"As a major culminating activity for this area, the construction of in-
dividual time budgets is suggested: Make a complete budget of how you
can "live on twenty-four hours a day," or make time budgets on a weekly
basis. Precede this with the keeping of a weekly record of activities en-
gaged in without such definite planning. These records make the best
bases upon which to think and plan for a new time budget. Include, of
course, adequate time for sleep, study, eating, play, school activities, early
morning activities, rest periods during the day, after-school activities,
music lessons, and other activities. Be careful to allow for flexibility and
for sufficient time intervals between activities. Follow your plan to
determine its effectiveness in saving time. Improve upon it as needed.
Conduct an experiment concerned with fatigue. To compare the en-
durance or "fatigue rates" of several members of the class, ask contestants
to sit before a table on which each should lay one arm straight out with
the palm of the hands up. Tie a string around the joint nearest the finger-
nail of the index finger of each contestant. At the other end of the string
(about one yard long), tie a weight (equal weights, of course). Suspend
the string and weight over the opposite side of the table from the con-
testants. The contestants begin pulling the weight by raising or crooking
their index fingers. They should continue just as long as they can, keeping
their arms on the table. Scores may be kept by counting the number of
times the finger is raised and lowered in the time consumed before fatigue
sets in. Sooner or later the contestants will tire. The "count" rather than
the time should be the determiner of the winner. The experiment shows,
of course, the relationship to fatigue or endurance between the speed of
activity and the amount of activity.
"Check on your own sleeping practices to be sure that you get ten
hours sleep a night. Check also on the restfulness of your sleep and your
comparative difficulty in going to sleep quickly.
"Check on and improve your home practices of quietness and considera-
tion when others are asleep.
'Check carefully on your practices related to relaxed activity. Avoid
tension and over-excitement. See if others can note improvement.
":Check again on your recreational activities to be sure they are best for
you and that you are getting sufficient active exercise.

References:
STATE-ADOPTED TEXTBOOKS:
Helping the Body in Its Work; pp. 73, 133, 211, 230








EVERYDAY LIVING


The New First Course in Homemaking; pp. 60, 44, 462, 315, 485, 424
The Boy and His Daily Living; pp. 3-10
The Girl and Her Home; pp. 333-345
OTHER TEXTBOOKS:
Living at Our Best; pp. 287-294
Building Healthy Bodies; pp. 202-204
STATE-ADOPTED LIBRARY BOOKS:
Partridge, E. D., and Catherine Mooney. Time Out for Living
See references for other problems in this area.
OTHER BOOKS:
See references for other problems in this area.
PAMPHLETS AND MIMEOGRAPHED MATERIALS:
Available from the State Department of Education:
Tentative Source Units:
Bulletin 22-h, Sleep and Rest
Bulletin 22-g, Improved Appearance through Better Health Prac-
tices
ADDITIONAL:
Refresh Yourself (National Tuberculosis Association),
Sleep, the Restorer (John Hancock Mutual Life Insurance Company)
See Bibliography for other reference materials and for suggested audio-visi
aids.










AREA III


FINDING FOOD FOR FITNESS


OVERVIEW
Americans today are keenly aware of the importance of food
knowledge in improving daily living. Since the progress of the
nation is influenced by food habits of its citizens, it is believed
that wise food choices, careful home storage, and improved
methods of preparation and serving are topics worthy of con-
sideration.
Conditions in Florida with respect to nutrition present many
problems. A large proportion of our population is subsisting at
present on diets definitely deficient, and many others are receiv-
ing diets below the optimum. Studies made by the School of
Home Economics, Florida State College for Women, and by the
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Flor-
ida, have recognized the prevalence of deficiency diseases in our
state. These studies indicate frequent shortages in such foods as
milk, green vegetables, and fruits, and considerable variation in
the use of animal foods, such as lean meats and eggs. This con-
dition is due many times to poor habits on the part of family
members in omitting the protective foods served to the family.
Acquaintance with the home problems of each pupil will help
the teacher to determine which activities need emphasis. In
developing experiences, it is suggested that many direct contacts
with the community be utilized. It is hoped that laboratory ex-
perience in food selection, care, and preparation will be made
available to members of the class. Because children of this age
frequently take active part in family meal preparation and other
home activities, the teacher should suggest problems which in-
volve the child's more effective participation. It is hoped that
improved practices and skills of exactness, accuracy, and close
observation will result.







52 EVERYDAY 'LIVING

One possible approach to this area may be made by a survey
of food practices of the children. Another may be through a
health examination. Such surveys and tests will afford an ap-
proach to a consideration of these food practices, and to other
fields. The results should indicate the emphasis to be given to
the various problems suggested in the area.
It is hoped that the following outcomes will be achieved:
1. A better understanding of the relationship of adequate food to health
2. An increased knowledge of, and improved practices in selection, care,
preparation, and conservation of foods
3. A knowledge of shopping procedures and of the principles for securing
variety in foods
4. A desire to become more fit physically
5. A greater knowledge of the part Florida food plays in keeping us well

PROBLEMS

PROBLEM I: Is fitness worthwhile?
A. Why is fitness necessary?
1. How is enjoyment of work and play related to fitness? Some one has
said, "Football teams are not made up of invalids." Can you make
similar statements?
2. How are one's plans for the future related to fitness?
a. Do you know of some people who have succeeded in spite of handi-
caps of poor health?
b. Do you know of some people whose success has been aided by good
health?
c. How is employability related to fitness?
B. What does fitness include?
(The class should name and discuss the qualities that would be listed under physical,
emotional, and mental fitness, such as normal growth and weight, eating proper foods,
developing normally, observing health practices, initiative, concentration, accuracy,
thoroughness, alertness, happiness, calmness, poise, ability to work with others, desire
to be with others, and ability to complete a task started.)
1. What are some of the signs of good nutrition?
(Sturdy body, deep broad chest; strong, straight legs; shoulders square; back
flat; spine straight; muscles firm; trunk well proportioned; sound teeth; proper
weight for height-age; luxuriant hair; happy alert expression; clearness of skin;
brightness of eyes.)
2. What are some characteristics that would indicate lack of adequate
food?
3. What is meant by buoyant or optimum health?
4. How do we compare with the state physical fitness standards?







FINDING FOOD FOR FITNESS 53

(Standards are outlined in the Florida Physical Fitness Guide, State
Department of Education and State Board of Health.)

Suggested Activities:
(Select committees to carry out by appropriate means many of the fol-
lowing activities.)
Read biographies of President Roosevelt, General Douglas MacArthur,
Madame Curie, Walter Reed, Helen Keller, as examples of people who have
achieved greatness.
Study pictures of animals that are normal and below normal, to de-
termine the part played by food.
*'Organize a physical fitness club. Consult the physical education teacher.
Set up a standard to be achieved by members.
'Read Florida Physical Fitness Program as outlined by the State Council
for Defense.
Ask a member of the armed forces to discuss the military physical fit-
ness program, including such topics as the planning of meals, the scientific
procedure of measuring food for rations and other matters. Compare the
youth programs of Sweden, Denmark, and Germany with our own pro-
gram.
:,Make a list of habits and practices that you could do better each day
to make yourself more physically fit. Check yourself each day.

References:
STATE-ADOPTED TEXTBOOKS:
The New First Course in Home Making; pp. 57-60, 31, 98
The Healthy Home and Community; pp. 258, 260, 267-271, 247-277
Our World Changes; pp. 320, 464-469
The Family's Food; pp. 427-446
Understanding the Universe; pp. 469-470, 522-525
The Boy and His Daily Living; pp. 54-107
OTHER TEXTBOOKS:
Food and Family Living; Gorrell, McKay, Zuill
Everyday Living for Girls; Van Duzer and Others
Living Your Life; Crawford Cooley, and Trillingham
Sharing Home Life; Baxter, Justin, Rust
Food and Life; 1939 Yearbook of Agriculture
The New Home Economics Omnibus: Harris and Huston
Successful Farming in the South; Chapman
Foods; Justin, Rust, Vail
STATE-ADOPTED LIBRARY BOOKS:
Williams. Men Who Found Out
Curie, Eve. Madame Curie








EVERYDAY LIVING


Hill. In Little America with Byrd
Benz. Pasteur, Knight of the Laboratory
Doorly. The Microbe Man
PAMPHLETS AND MIMEOGRAPHED MATERIALS:
Available from the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company:
Health Heroes Series, Overweight and Underweight, Health through
the Ages
Available from the Children's Bureau, United States Department of
Labor:
The Healthy Well-Nourished Child, Your School, Yoar Young
Child's Health
ADDITIONAL:
Bill Gets the Work (Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C.)
Keeping Fit (United States Public Health Service)
See Bibliography for other reference materials and for suggested audio.
visual aids.

PROBLEM II: How does food make a difference in one's fitness?
A. Does the kind of food make a difference?
1. Why do we need food?
a. In what ways is the body like an engine?
b. In what ways is the body much more than an engine?
(Makes its own repairs; is self-directed; continues working tem-
porarily on stored food)
c. What is meant when we say that food should make us "Go, grow,
and glow"?
2. What does the body need and why?
3. What kinds of foods will give us what the body needs?
(Almost all foods are used for more than one purpose in the body; oatmeal, for
example, is used for energy, for growth, for repair, for protection, and for regu.
lation.)
B. What kinds of food make the greatest difference?
1. What are the protective foods?
(The term "protective foods" should be used by the teacher. A new concept of
"foods as protection" may here be developed. Milk and dairy products, eggs, fruits
and vegetables, whole grain cereals, and meat are protective foods.)
a. How do they protect us?
b. What vitamins are important to us?
(Green leaves are vitamin factories.)
c. What minerals do we most often need or lack?
d. What Florida foods will supply us with these vitamins and min-
erals?
2. What will vitamins and minerals do for our bodies?
(Local health problems and food practices determine to what extent pellag,,
rickets, scurvy, riboflavin deficiency, and vitamin A deficiencies are emphasized
The pupil should become aware of the borderline symptoms rather than of [








FINDING FOOD FOR FITNESS 55


acute stages of deficiency diseases. The teacher should stress throughout the im-
portance of optimum health and its relation to the use of protective foods.
It must be remembered that minerals contribute to growth as well as to pro-
tection and regulation. The teacher should be aware of the relationship between
anemia and the lack of iron, copper, possibly protein and vitamin C. The teacher
should be aware of the relationship between minerals, vitamins, and dental caries.
He should make use of this information to whatever degree he deems it applicable
to his locality.
It is much better teaching procedure to emphasize the value of the recommended
foods, rather than to emphasize deficiencies and deficiency diseases.)
a. What is the history of our knowledge of vitamins? Why do we
need vitamin A? What foods are good sources? The B group con-
sists of several vitamins having similar protective qualities. What
is the use of thiamin? Of niacin? Of riboflavin? In what foods
are they found? Why do we need vitamin C, or ascorbic acid?
,What foods will supply it readily? Vitamin D has been called the
"sunshine vitamin." Why? Why do we need it? What foods will
supply it? What are some of the substitutes for sunshine in caus-
ing the activation of vitamin D? What are some uses of sun lamps
and violet ray machines? Are other vitamins worthy of consider-
ation? What are they?
b. What minerals are needed for strong bones and teeth? What foods
are the best sources of these minerals? What minerals help in mak-
ing red blood cells? What foods will supply them? What mineral
is needed for the functioning of the thyroid gland? What Florida
foods will supply this mineral? Why is goiter less prevalent in
Florida than it is in the Middle West?
3. From our study of vitamins and minerals, what can we say about the
necessity for including in our daily diet the following foods: milk,
green and yellow vegetables, fresh fruits, whole grain cereals, eggs,
and lean meat?
(An alert teacher may wish to improvise devices for measuring the contributions of
specific foods to the days' total requirements. Some devices which might be used
are Chinese counting boards, bar graphs, share-sticks, or colored paper strips. By
means of such devices a comparison of several menus might be made. Several menus
at equal cost might be shown to vary widely in protective quality.)
C. Does the amount of food make a difference?
1. How can boys and girls know how much they should eat?
a. How is one's energy requirement measured?
b. What is a calorie? (Measure of heat stored in food)
c. How do we know that food is a fuel?
d. Are foods equal as fuels?
e. What is a calorimeter?
f. Why do some people need more food than others?
g. What is the effect of activity on food intake?
h. What is the effect of climate?
i. What is the effect of age?
j. What effect does size have on food requirement?
2. How much food do you need?







56 EVERYDAY LIVING

a. How do you spend calories?
(Consult calorie table on page 93 in The New First Course in Home Making
or compute calories by using following figures from Roberts' report to the
White House Conference in 1932.
Girls 6 to 16 years - 39 to 40 calories per inch in height
Boys 2 to 17 - - 35 to 55 calories per inch in height
Because children are so active and because their requirement is great, it is
difficult for them to secure more food than their body needs.)
3. What happens if we eat more energy food than the body can use?
What happens if we eat less energy food than the body needs?
4. Nutritionists have worked out for us a plan to be followed in select-
ing the kind and amount of food we need each day. What foods are
recommended as being essential to a day's diet for us? If we lived in
other parts of the world, how might we have to vary this diet? What
is meant by the statement "Eat what you should, then eat what you
want"?
5. Do you eat these foods in these amounts every day?

Suggested Activities:
'*Keep a record of all the food you eat for three days. Save records to be
used in the next problem.
Select committees to carry out the following activities:
'"Set up small animal experiments, using chickens or rats; give one group
of animals protective foods; give another group or pair a diet lacking or
deficient in these foods. Two cages of animals may be used to show, first,
a fairly good diet plus milk; second, an inadequate diet. Weigh the animals
at intervals; make a careful record of results, using tabular or graph form;
interpret results.
(The stock diet for experiments with albino rats consists of 1/3 dried
whole milk, 2/3 whole grain cereal, with 2% salt. Green leaves added will
make even better diet. A diet of this proportion given to a rat supplies as
much milk as would proportionally give a child one quart a day.
For chickens, the proportion is 1/6 dried whole milk and 5/6 whole
grain cereal. Again, green leaves improve the diet.)
'Make and set up a whole school exhibit of foods that feed our teeth and
bones. Try to make the exhibit original and interesting to younger as well
as to older children.
Prepare a three minute talk on some of the differences food makes in our
lives and bodies. Make a poster to illustrate your talk. Arrange to give
these talks and to show the posters to the rooms of the school.
Compare the food eaten by an Eskimo with that of a person who lives
in Florida, to show what adjustments need to be made to get an adequate
diet. Prove that people learn to use foods that are around them.
":Show a Vitamin B-1 film. (This is a free film distributed by Eastman
Kodak Co. and may be secured from Camp Roosevelt, Ocala, Florida.)







FINDING FOOD FOR FITNESS 57

Prepare experiments to show that food burns. (Use equal amounts of
cornstarch and lettuce and burn in a crucible or a small metal container.)
From past experience, recall examples of burning food.
Select committees to carry out the following activities:
Practice "spending calories." Refer to chart or table (see bibliography)
to see how many calories are used in various activities.
'Make a simple calorimeter. (The materials necessary are two cans, one
to go inside the other like the parts of an ice cream freezer, a dish in the
inner one with oil and wick, a measured amount of water in the outside
container, a thermometer in the water, wrapping or other method of pre-
venting heat loss. Put fat and wick in inner can; wrap outer can care-
fully; put water in outer can; let stand until the water reaches room tem-
perature. Put thermometer in; read the thermometer; ignite fat; cover
cans tightly. After a time take the temperature of the water. How many
degrees did it raise the temperature of the water? How many calories
of heat did the fat contain?)
Compare famous holiday meals of fiction or meals of the "gay nineties"
with our meals and interpret the differences. Estimate the calories we would
need to spend to indulge in an old time meal. List characters from fiction
who have been fed "not wisely but too well."
Compute your calorie requirement for a day.
Compare recipes in old cookbooks with those of today. Compare them
as to writing, procedures, and kind of measurement.
*Demonstrate correct technique in measurement of level teaspoon, level
tablespoon, half-teaspoon (using teaspoon), quarter teaspoon, part of cup
of fat, (example: three-fourths cup water in measuring cup; fill cup with
submerged fat; pour off water; remainder is one-fourth cup fat).
*By experiment find out the number teaspoons in one tablespoon and the
number of tablespoons in one standard measuring cup.
Name types of food thermometers and demonstrate the use of one type.
Demonstrate to the class the "flour test," "paper test," and "hand test"
for oven heating and compare their use to the use of an oven thermometer.
*Check your previously kept diet record to determine its content of the
recommended foods in correct amounts. Correct the diet record to in-
clude the foods you should have eaten. Try to eat these foods in some
future meals.
*Make models or posters of an "A" lunch. Set them up in the school
cafeteria. (An "A" lunch consists of a main dish, milk, and a green vege-
table, a salad, or a fruit.)
*Check pupils in lunch room to see how many good lunches are eaten.
Decide what kind of foods we would have to have to get an "A" lunch.
Place several bowls on a table; measure into bowls amounts of food you
usually serve to yourself; compute the approximate number of calories in
your lunch.








58 EVERYDAY LIVING

Plan good menus that might be used in the school lunch room. Be sure
that they provide the requirement of an "A" lunch.

References:
STATE-ADOPTED TEXTBOOKS:
Exploring Our World; pp. 398, 415
The Healthy Home and Community; pp. 98-101, 90-93
Helping the Body in Its Work; pp. 86, 88, 148, 92
Foods; pp. 477-478
Our World Changes; pp. 424-428
The New First Course in Home Making; pp. 73-91
The Family's Food; pp. 427-438, 468-470
OTHER TEXTBOOKS:
Successful Farming in the South: Chapman, P. W.
The New Home Economics Omnibus: Harris and Huston
Let's Study Foods: Harris and Henderson
The Boy and His Daily Living: Burnham and others
Teaching Nutrition to Boys and Girls: Rose, Mary Swartz
Feeding the Family: Rose, Mary Swartz (for spending calories)
Sharing Home Life: Baxter Justin, Rust
Living at Our Best: Emerson and Betts
Useful Science: Weed and Rexford
Food and Family Living: Gorrell, McKay, Quill
Young America's Cook Book: The Home Institute of the New York
Herald Tribune
Everyday Foods: Harris and Lacey
STATE-ADOPTED LIBRARY BOOKS:
Building America. Food Supply
PAMPHLETS AND MIMEOGRAPHED MATERIALS:
Available from the United States Department of Agriculture:
Food for Children (Farmers Bulletin, 1674)
Menus and Recipes for Lunches at School (Misc. Publication 246)
A Guide to Good Meals for the Junior Homemaker (Misc. Circ. 49)
Available from the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company:
Good Teeth at All Ages, Three Meals a Day, Pellagra
ADDITIONAL:
School Lunches (Agricultural Extension Service, University of Flor-
ida), This Problem of Food (No. 33) ( Public Affairs Pamphlets),
What to Eat and Why (John Hancock Mutual Life Insurance
Company), Healthy Teeth (John Hancock Mutual Life Insurance
Company), Eat the Right Food (Bureau of Home Economics, U. S.
Dept. of Agriculture), Substitutes for Sun (U. S. Dept. of Labor,
Children's Bureau)
See Bibliography for other materials and for suggested audio-visual aids.







FINDING FOOD FOR FITNESS 59


PROBLEM III: What do we need to know in order to make best
use of our protective foods?
A. Why is milk considered our most nearly perfect food?
1. What is the comparison between evaporated milk; dry whole milk;
condensed milk; and skimmed milk?
2. What practices should be followed in sanitary milk handling in the
home?
a. In what part of the refrigerator should milk be placed? Why?
b. How may milk dishes be used in every course of the meal?
c. Can milk be taken apart? What is cream? What is butter?
d. What makes milk sour? Why is sour milk still a good food? How
may sour milk be used in cooking?
e. Is skimmed milk the equivalent of whole milk? If skimmed milk
is used daily, what must be increased in our food?
f. What is cheese? By what methods can it be made? How do micro-
organisms make the flavor of cheese? Why is cheese a good food?
How can cheese be used in cooking? How can cheese be used in
place of meat?
B. Why should we include fruits and vegetables in our daily food?
1. What are some available fruits and vegetables?
a. How may they be used?
b. Why should we eat some of them raw? Does drying change their
food value?
c. What use should be made of the green outside leaves that are
usually discarded?
d. Why should we eat green leaves? (The thinner and greener the
leaf, the richer in vitamins.)
e. Of what use is cellulose?
2. Why should we eat yellow fruits and vegetables?
3. What are proper cooking methods for vitamin and mineral saving
in fruits and vegetables?
4. What is the value of the peanut and the sweet potato in economical
meal planning?
C. Why have people through the ages depended on whole grain cereals?
I. What are the cereal grains in this country? Which ones are grown
in Florida?
2. What are the essential parts of a cereal grain?
a. Which parts are removed when the cereal is "refined"?
b. What nutrients are lost?
c. What is meant by enriched cereals and bread?
3. How may cereals be served at each of the day's meals?
D .Why is an egg an excellent protective food?
1. Why is the yolk more nutritious than the white?
2. How may eggs be used in our day's food?







EVERYDAY LIVING


E. Why is lean meat an important food?
1. From what animals do we get meat for food and what are their meats
called?
2. Why is meat an expensive food? Is it worth what it costs?
3. What foods will take its place to save money and give variety?
4. What internal parts of an animal are used for food? What is thek
special value?
5. On what basis do we select meat?
6. From what part of the animal do the tougher cuts come? Are they
cheaper? Are they equally nutritious? Can they be made tender!
How is fat meat, or white bacon, classed? Should it be considered as
meat?
7. What is found in seafood that is not abundant in other foods?
8. Why should we encourage the use of sea food in Florida?
F. Why are some fats protective foods?
1. What additional value do we receive from fats?
2. What fatty foods are not protective?
3. What is fortified fat?
G. Why is molasses called a protective food? What are some ways to use
molasses in cooking?

Suggested Activities:
(Arrange for committee work in these activities:)
Visit a dairy or farm to note the precaution taken in handling milk and
the care given to the equipment to make milk safe.
Arrange for a demonstration in the class room that will show how to
care for milking equipment in your own home. Show household means
of sterilizing bottles, pans, strainers, and pails.
'*Pasteurize milk. (Home pasteurization may be carried out by placing
the milk in the top part of a double boiler and heating it, boiling water i
the bottom part of the boiler until a dairy thermometer placed in the mik
registers 160 degrees Fahrenheit. The milk must then be removed from th
stove and cooled as rapidly as possible by placing cold water in the bottom
part of the double boiler and changing the water repeatedly until the milk
is chilled.) Compare this process with the commercial process as to prepare'
tion, length in time of heating, etc. Explain the difference.
*'Make junket, rennet buttermilk, and cheese.
'*Prepare milk beverages, cream soups, and desserts of milk, such as iC
cream, custard, etc. Plan simple menus to accompany these dishes.
Prepare dishes that may be made of cheese, such as Italian rice, macaroni
and cheese.
Set a table correctly for a simple luncheon service.







FINDING FOOD FOR FITNESS


Have a vegetable and fruit contest. Gather samples of available fruits
and vegetables; allow the class to try to name and label them. Find recipes
in books or magazines for the preparation of them.
'Using similar containers and conditions, cook one portion of a vege-
table a short time and another a long time. Show the differences between
resulting flavor, texture, and color.
Visit a grocery store and have the grocer tell you some of the ways he
knows of selecting the produce he buys.
* Make a list of the methods customers use in choosing the best products
from the various bins of fruit and vegetables. Suggest some of the pre-
cautions which will prevent damage to the fruits and vegetables.
Make a survey to find out the fruits and vegetables that are in season.
Keep a record of the price and notice how it varies at the beginning and
the end of the season.
Prepare a soup stock from the outside leaves and tops of vegetables.
*Demonstrate pan broiling.
Ask the county agent or vocational agriculture teacher to come to your
class and tell you about the crops that can be grown in your locality.
*Take a large grain of cereal apart to show the bran, endosperm, and the
embryo. (This can easily be done by soaking a large grain such as corn,
overnight, and then separating with a pin.)
Set up standards for a well-cooked cereal. Plan and give a cereal party.
Study the differences in the cost of cooked and uncooked cereals. Com-
pare weights of packages in relation to the number of servings. Make a
chart showing how much of each you could get for a penny.
'Plan to serve cereal to the children who come long distances to school.
Find out about vitamins and their history. Work in committees and
bring the information back to the class.
*Show what happens to a bone which has been soaked in vinegar, or 5 %
hydrochloric acid (hydrochloric acid works more quickly than vinegar),
and one which has been soaked in a lye solution. Write up the experiment.
Demonstrate the correct way to store meat in a refrigerator.
Clean and bone a fish. *
Collect and compare the labels of different margarines and their prices.
-'Prepare and serve to the class a confection made entirely of dried fruits.
Find out what nutrients are found in dried beans and peas. Show ways
that they may be used as meat substitutes.
Grow some sugar cane in your yard.
Start a hive of bees. Learn to care for them yourself.
Show the correct way to fry foods in deep fat.







62 EVERYDAY LIVING


References:
STATE-ADOPTED TEXTBOOKS:
Be Healthy; pp. 152-172, 254, 350-354
Exploring Our World; p. 53
The Healthy Home and Community; pp. 34, 46, 51-53, 66, 71, 74,
95-96, 124
Helping the Body in Its Work; pp. 73, 138, 89-93, 104, 108, 222, 29
The New First Course in Home Making; pp. 134-135, 82-85, 67-72,
376-377, 107-109
The Family's Food; pp. 103-278
OTHER TEXTBOOKS:
Everyday Foods: Harris and Lacey
Success through Health: Fowlkes, Jackson and Jackson
Our Home and You: Greer
Cook It Out Doors: Beard
The Story of Cookery: Lamprey
A First Book in Home Economics: Friend and Schultz
Foods and Nutrition: Silver
Junior Foods: Kinyon, Hopkins
Sharing Home Life: Baxter, Justin, Rust
OTHER BOOKS:
Petersham Series: Story of Food, Corn, Wheat, etc.
STATE-ADOPTED LIBRARY BOOKS:
Maltby, Lucy M. It's Fun to Cook
New York Herald Tribune. Young America's Cook Book
PAMPHLETS AND MIMEOGRAPHED MATERIALS:
Available from the Bureau of Home Economics (Department Leaflets):
Cooking Beef According to Cut (No. 17), Boning Lamb, (No. 74),
Lamb as You Like It (No. 28), Pork in Preferred Ways (No.
45), Reindeer Recipes (No. 48), Rabbit Recipes (No. 66),
Market List for Low Cost Meals (for sale) (No. 3)
Available from the United States Department of Agriculture:
A Fruit and Vegetable Buying Guide for Consumers (Miscellaneous
Publication 167), Making and Using Peanut Butter (Circular
384), Nuts and Ways to Use Them (Miscellaneous Publication.
302), Aunt Sammy's Radio Recipes (Revised), Eggs at Any
Meal (Leaflet 39), Corn and Its Uses (Farmers Bulletin No.
1236), Milk for the Family (Farmers Bulletin No. 1705) Meat
Dishes at Low Cost (Miscellaneous Publication No. 216), Home-
made Breads, Cakes and Pastries (Farmers Bulletin No. 1775),
Poultry Cookery, Making and Using Cottage Cheese in the HoWne
(Bulletin No. 1451), Neufchatel and Cream Cheese (Bulletio
No. 960), Improved Sanitation in Milk (Leaflet No. 3), Ice
Creams Frozen Without Stirring (Leaflet No. 49)
Available from the Florida State Home Demonstration Department:







FINDING FOOD FOR FITNESS 63

Florida Vegetables, The Goodly Guava, The Fruitful Papaya, The
Fig, The Succulent Peach, For Health and Economy, More Flor-
ida Honey, Plums, Wild and Otherwise, Baking with Florida
Citrus Fruits
Available from the Agricultural Experiment Station, University of
Florida:
Selecting and Using Beef and Veal, Improved Sanitation in Milk Pro-
duction, Crisp Head Lettuce in Florida, Your Poultry and Egg
Supply, The Good Family Cow Helps Fill the Health Cup,
Meat-Wholesome, Nutritious
See Bibliography for other materials and for suggested audio-visual aids.

PROBLEM IV: How do our bodies prepare and use the foods we
eat?
A. What happens to all foods before our bodies can use them? What is this
process called?
B. What are the duties of the mouth in digestion?
1. Why do we need teeth?
2. What foods can we eat to keep our teeth in good working order?
3. What digestive juices are found in the mouth and how do they help
to digest food?
C. What happens to food in our stomach?
1. Why should we take time to eat slowly and chew well? Why does
this make thorough chewing important?
2. Will the size of the meals have an influence on the stomach?
3. Why should we avoid strenuous exercise just after eating?
D. What happens to food in the small intestine?
E. What relation does our food have to the work of the large intestine?
1. What foods will help to make it unnecessary for us to use laxatives?
2. What are some laxatives?
3. How can the continued use of laxatives become harmful?
4. What must we become aware of in the advertising of laxative rem-
edies?
F. Over what digestive processes do we have control?
1. How can we help our digestive tracts to work efficiently?
2. How does cheerfulness aid in digestion?

Suggested Activities:
"Demonstrate by experiment, the action of saliva on starch. Assemble
two test tubes in which a dilute solution of starch has been placed. In one






EVERYDAY LIVING


tube place saliva. After a few minutes, add a few drops of diluted io0
into each test tube. Shake well. Note difference in color.
Secure the opinion of a reliable physician on the subject of laxatives

References:
STATE-ADOPTED TEXTBOOKS:
Helping the Body in Its Work; pp. 20, 94-96, 101, 110
The New First Course in Home Making; pp. 99-100
Be Healthy; pp. 172-176
Understanding the Universe; pp. 509-512
Our World Changes; pp. 426, 430-434
The Boy and His Daily Living; pp. 91-95
OTHER TEXTBOOKS:
Growing Up Healthily: Charters, Smiley, and Strang
Health in a Power Age: Charters, Smiley, and Strang
A Sound Body: Charters, Smiley, and Strang

PROBLEM V: How does income influence food selection and ex.
penditure?
A. Is money a good way to determine whether or not you may get an ade.
quate diet?
B. What foods on your market should be selected by the person with
limited food budget?
C. When more money may be allowed what changes may result in fod
selection?
D. How should the dollar spent for food be divided?
E. What change takes place in the division of the food dollar when money
decreases?
F. How can you decide which store will be the best place to buy?
G. What shopping practices will help save your family income?

Suggested Activities:
When deemed advisable, carry out much activity through committees,
''Compute the cost of a day's meals for a family. Use your own fanO
if desired.
Choose one article and find its cost in various stores.
"Make a day's food plan limiting the cost of your family's food t
fifteen cents per person per meal.

References:
STATE-ADOPTED TEXTBOOKS:
Fa..:,i) Foods; Lanman, McKay, Quill








FINDING FOOD FOR FITNESS


Sharing Home Life; Baxter, Justin Rust
Boys Will Be Men; Burnham, Jones, Redford
STATE-ADOPTED LIBRARY BOOKS:
Brindze, Ruth: Johnny Get Your Money's Worth (and Jane, too!)
Bailey, N. Beth: The Gracious Hostess
PAMPHLETS AND MIMEOGRAPHED MATERIALS:
Diets to Fit the Family Income (United States Department of Agricul-
ture, Farmers Bulletin No. 1757)
Buy Health With Your Food Dollar (Florida Agricultural Extension
Division)

PROBLEM VI: What can we do with surplus foods?
A. What are some of the surplus crops?
B. What nutrients are lost when these crops are not used?
C. What are some of the ways for preserving these foods for future use?
D. Why do you preserve food?
E. What are some of the advantages of pickling? Sun preserving? Salt-
ing? Smoking? Dehydration?
How do commercially dehydrated foods save time and money?
F. What is meant by the slogan, "Fight Food Waste"? How can you do
your part?
(There are often surplus crops in a locality that might be made available for use.
Very often it means only the effort of picking the crop. Where a certain dietary defi-
ciency is present and where a crop supplying the desired nutrients is lying idle or wast-
ing, it is the duty of the teacher to see that this crop is saved and that the children who
need this food are supplied with it. This would be a great service to a community. The
teacher should become aware of the possibility of canning with honey. He should
become alert and watchful of all new conservation measures.)

Suggested Activities:
Work in committees and groups to carry out the following activities.
Preserve meat by the hot pack and cold pack method.
Invite the county agent or home demonstration agent to tell about crops
suitable to the area in which you live.
Demonstrate the pectin test. Make jelly with grape juice and com-
mercial pectin.
Salt and smoke fish. Serve to the class at a later date.
Danish people pickle fish and the Germans prepare a dish called Sauer-
braten. Find recipes and prepare these dishes.
Pack fried chicken or cooked meat in lard.
"Dehydrate some vegetables in an oven. Weigh the vegetables before








66 EVERYDAY LIVING

putting them in. Dry them. Weigh after taking them out. Store part
and use part in cooking.
"Study and arrange an informative display of dried foods in your
school. Set up standards for dehydrated foods. Judge the products shown,
Ask the county home demonstration agent to arrange with some mem-
ber of the community for an inspection of her supply of home canned
foods. Find out the amount of food necessary for a farm family to store
in order to have an adequate food supply for a year.
"*Select, prepare, and can some local product. Compare the cost of
home canned and' commercially canned food.

References:
STATE-ADOPTED TEXTBOOKS:
Understanding the Universe; pp. 542-544, 479
The Healthy Home and Community; p. 96
New First Course in Home Making; pp. 192-197
OTHER TEXTBOOKS:
Fundamentals of Home Economics: Jensen, Jensen, Ziller
Wise Spending: Hamblen and Zimmerman
Living Your Life: Crawford, Cooley and Trillingham
A First Book in Home Economics: Friend and Schultz
Everyday Foods: Harris and Lacey
Better Rural Living: Chapman
Using Dollars and Sense: Floyd and Kinney
Junior Foods: Kinyon-Hopkins
Useful Science: Weed and Rexford
Sharing Home Life: Baxter, Justin, Rust
PAMPHLETS AND MIMEOGRAPHED MATERIALS:
Available from the Agricultural Extension Service:
Florida Vegetables, A Food Supply Plan for Florida Families, Preserv.
ing Florida Citrus Fruits, Pickles and Relishes
Available from the Florida State Home Demonstration Department:
The Last Lap on Strawberries, Canning at Home for Florida 4-I
Club Girls, Conserving Florida Berries, Menus from the Florida
Pantry, Canning in War, Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits, Can
and Save, Can and Have, Sugar in War Time Canning
ADDITIONAL:
Managing the Family Income (Household Finance Corporation)
Home Canning of Fruits, Vegetables, and Meats (United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture)
Canning of Meat (Kerr Glass Manufactory Corporation)
Home Canning Book

PROBLEM VII: Can we live on foods produced in Florida?
A. What foods are produced in Florida? Why are others not produced?






FINDING FOOD FOR FITNESS 67


B. How do the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico help to feed us
the foods we need?
C. What efforts are being made to produce new food products? What
are some of the new products?
D. How is our state trying to improve livestock?
E. What are some of the wild greens that might be used in an emergency?

Suggested Activities:
Make a product map of Florida.
Write down a list of the food you had for lunch. On your map with
different kinds of lines, trace the places from which your food came.
*Plan adequate meals for a day, of foods produced in your area. Plan
and serve one meal of foods produced in Florida. Make an effort to find
interesting facts about these foods and ways of using them in your daily
food. Remember, variety is the spice of life.
If you live near the coast, plan an exhibit of edible sea foods. If possible
gather or catch some for the class. Prepare one of these foods for your
class to taste. Example, barbecued mullet, shrimp salad. Show how to
bone a fish. Show how to clean a crab. Name some shell fish that we eat.
State some of the precautions with which we must be familiar when
buying sea food. (Crabs should be alive when placed in boiling water; the
tail of a lobster, or Florida crayfish, should snap back into place when re-
leased; the anus of the fish should not be swollen.)
Select one pupil to write to the Department of Agriculture and secure
for your class information on the new Florida products. Grow one of the
new products in your school yard.
''Plant and care for a school garden. Can, sell, use, or give to the school
lunch room all of the food produced. Keep records of the length of time
required for seed germination, weeks that pass before crop is mature, prices
received for products, length of time spent in cultivation, and other points.
Discover what wild greens grow in your section. Tell how they may be
prepared for food. Prepare some of these greens for eating.

References:
TEXTBOOKS:
Today's Agriculture: Hammond and others
Sharing Home Life: Baxter, Justin, Rust
STATE-ADOPTED LIBRARY BOOKS:
Geriche: Complete Guide to Soil-less Gardening
PAMPHLETS:
Agricultural Extension Division: Florida State College for Women:








68 EVERYDAY LIVING

The Florida Home Garden; Gather Health from Your Own Garden;
Florida Fruits and Vegetables; Planting Plans for Florida Home
Gardens; The Florida Home Garden; Native Plant Life; A Food
Supply Plan for Florida Farm Families
Nature Magazines, July, 1942: Would You Starve?
Saturday Evening Post, June 20, 1942: Fun with Weeds
Kilgore Seed Company: Florida Planting Chart

PROBLEM VIII: How does the storage and preparation of food
make a difference?
A. What relationship has preparation and cooking of food to health?
1. What cooking practices save food value?
2. How can food values be lost from products before they are cooked?
a. How can you prevent wilting?
b. How should food be placed in a refrigerator to receive the benefit
of varied temperature?
B. How does a good shopper select her food at the market?
1. What test does she use in selecting perishable foods?
2. What information should you have to be able to read labels?
a. What is an informative label?
b. What are the common can sizes? How will this knowledge help
you to buy for your family?
c. Of what should you be conscious when comparing weights of
cans? In watching your food being weighed?
C. How do stores take care of and store food?
D. How do homes care for and store food?
E. How are onions, potatoes (Irish and sweet) stored on a farm?
F. What part has science played in making frosted foods available to us?
1. Are vitamins destroyed by this process?
2. When one is considering time in meal preparation, are frosted foods
expensive?

Suggested Activities:
'Make soup stock using the outside leaves of vegetables and tops of
celery, etc.
Build a fireless cooker.
Rearrange food in own icebox after ascertaining the correct place for the
various kinds of food in the box.
Make a refrigerator at home.
*Discuss and arrange a label exhibit.








FINDING FOOD FOR FITNESS


Visit the market with your class or have some woman of the community
who is a good buyer describe to the class the various points she checks in
buying.
If possible, visit the ice plant. Watch for refrigerated lockers.
:Plan an emergency shelf for your family with enough food on the
shelf for a three day supply. Plan a menu using these foods.
Make or decorate containers for food storage from such things as empty
cracker cans, lard cans, syrup buckets, etc. Paint or decorate with Decals
fr pictures from magazines. Apply shellac over these to protect the color.
Discuss the question, "It is more advantageous to buy in large quantities
than in small ones."
Find out if you can get the use of a dehydrator. Plan to show the P.T.A.
how to dehydrate foods successfully.
Visit a wholesale grocery.
Participate in the storage of food at home and at school.
Rearrange pantry shelves to make a more attractive pantry and one in
which the food is easily seen and reached.
"Plan and prepare a supper for your family. Keep a record of the time
it takes, the results of the products, the comments made by your family,
and the ways in which you might improve.
Clear a table using a tray and count the steps. Do the same without a
tray.
Assemble in the classroom a scrap book of various suggestions for parties
that your group would like.
'Plan and carry out a simple class room party using the information
gained in this course.
Make a plan for storing sweet potatoes or other vegetables.

References:
STATE-ADOPTED TEXTBOOKS:
The Healthy Home and Community; pp. 67-74
The New First Course in Home Making; pp. 191-193, 375-377, 129,
192-193, 127-139
OTHER TEXTBOOKS:
Sharing Home Life: Baxter, Justin, Rust
Foods and Nutrition: Silver
Everyday Foods: Harris and Lacey
OTHER BOOKS:
Brindze, Ruth. Johnny Get Your Money's Worth (and Jane, too!)
Gorrell, McKay, Zuill. Food and Family Living
Harris and Huston. The New Home Economics Omnibus








70 EVERYDAY LIVING

PAMPHLETS AND MIMEOGRAPHED MATERIALS:
Available from the United States Department of Agriculture:
Home Storage of Vegetables (Farmers' Bulletin No. 897)
Preparation of Beets, Carrots and Turnips for Market (Farmers' Bu.
letin No. 1594)
Getting the Most for Your Money
Diets to Fit the Family Income (Farmers' Bulletin No. 1857)

Culminating Activities:
"Write up your work in this area and publish it in the school news-
paper or in the city newspaper.
Arrange a display of kitchen gadgets. Exhibit the one you feel has been
of greatest value to you. Justify the cost of the gadget.
*Plan to assume the responsibility of refreshments for P.T.A., using the
knowledge gained in this area.
Write an original playlet on the work you have just completed and
arrange to give it at a chapel program or a meeting of your parents.
Marionette shows are always interesting. Write one and present it for
the small children of your school, stressing the difference between the
choice of a good lunch and poor one.
Arrange an exhibit of unusual Florida products.
Prepare some of the following foods:

ITALIAN BAKED RICE
/2 c. grated cheese /4 c. chopped pimento
1 V/ c. tomato juice 2 t. salt
3 c. cooked rice V8 t. pepper
Mix all the ingredients and place in a baking dish. Put pulp of toma-
toes on top of rice and other ingredients. Bake 30 min. in a moderate
oven 375. Serve hot.
HARD SHELL CRABS
Plunge live crabs in boiling water. Add one tablespoon of salt and
boil rapidly for 20 min. When cold, scrub with brush, break off the
apron or tail. Hold crab firmly in hand, with the thumbs in the opening
at tail end, pull the upper end lower shell apart. Discard the spongy
yellow or white materials. Be particularly careful to discard all spongy,
grayish white gills along the front part of the body. The edible part of
the crab lies within the body cavity and can be removed by breaking
the partitions of shell with fingers, or nut crackers. Carefully wash
claws with brush. Remove meat by cracking.

BARBECUED FISH
Select fish weighing about two pounds each. Mullet is best. Wash;
leave scales and head attached. Split at back bone and remove bone,








FINDING FOOD FOR FITNESS 71


Dress flesh side with salt and pepper to taste. Brush on melted butter.
Split large end of palm stem or use green forked stick. Hang fish by
gills to fork. Stick in ground with flesh side toward open fire. Cook
until flesh begins to draw away from skin. Serve hot.
TO BONE AND FILLET A FISH
Remove head and anus of scaled fish. Grasp the fish tail firmly in
one hand. With a sharp knife cut along the backbone, keeping the
knife close to backbone. Repeat on other side, remove the remaining
bones with fingers or small pliers.
PERSIAN DIAMONDS
20 prunes 10 dried apricots
10 pressed figs c. syrup, maple, corn,
10 dates or ginger)
4 t. salt 2 T. lemon juice
Wash and pit prunes and dates. Wash and remove stem from figs.
Wash apricots. Put through food chopper. Add syrup, lemon juice, salt.
Put in shallow pan in flat sheet. Cut into diamonds. Dust with confec-
tioner's sugar.












AREA IV
BUILDING BETTER BODIES


OVERVIEW
The seventh grade child has reached an age when his growth
in self-direction should be accelerated. Adult decrees which he
formerly accepted readily are no longer the only criteria on
which he bases his actions. The junior high school child wants
to know why certain things must be done at certain times. "Be-
cause it is good for you," is no longer a satisfactory answer. He
now demands to know, "Why is it good for me?" He will need
at least a general understanding of body structure and function
to see the reasons for the health practices he is urged to observe.
No single method for teaching physiological concepts has been
found that will assure the development of sound practices. The
study of physiology can easily become a meaningless, uninter-
esting, and fact-memorizing area unless the teacher is skillful
in presenting problems. A recent tendency has been to omit
the study of physiology as such, and to present physiological
concepts only as questions arose concerning general health prob-
lems. Waiting for questions to arise, however, may result in
irrelevant and incomplete learning. Pupils often fail to develop
clear concepts of the important inter-relationships between
body processes. An understanding of these inter-relationships is
essential to an understanding of the reasons for sound health
practices. The outline of problems in this area should clarify
the relationships between body processes so that more meaning-
ful pupil experiences are motivated. The progress that is made,
however, will depend largely upon the teacher's ability to make
the concepts clear.
In presenting this area, the teacher should try to. build a sin-
cere respect, if not an actual reverence, for the human body as
it performs what are truly the miracles of life. The teacher's






74 EVERYDAY LIVING

attitude in presenting these materials is the most vital deter.
nant of student attitudes. These concepts should not be pr
sented as a series of big words to be memorized, but as a revelatin
of a marvelous and personal wonder of creation. If treated E
this manner, the important concepts basic to sound living mn
be developed and practiced. The human body is a definite pat
of the universe which surrounds it, and the inter-relationship
between man and his environment should be described as vividly
as possible.
An outstanding problem in Florida today is the failure of i
large percentage of children (and adults) to take advantage oi
the immunization procedures which would protect them from
many preventable diseases. It is urgent that greater and mrno
definite instructional emphasis be given to this problem. Chi
dren can never be expected to seek immunization unless they
understand and value its protection. This course should clarify
the values, the needs, and the procedures for securing surer pro-
tection through sound immunization. Understandings, atti-
tudes, and practices should be developed in such a way thai
evident progress is made toward the solution of local problems
The teacher is expected to have his own records of the health
examination results of his students. These records and infor-
mation secured from the county nurse should reveal the specific
immunization needs of the pupils.
There are other specific health problems with which local
communities in Florida are greatly concerned. The teacher is
urged to read the State Board of Health pamphlet entitled, "The
Health Situation in Florida," which describes the results of the
recent all-state health survey. Many problems of local sig-
nificance are revealed in this report. The advice and assistance
of local public health personnel, of local physicians, and of other
health agencies should be sought so that the necessary empha`s
may be placed upon the most urgent local problems. The pupil
health examination records and the teacher's knowledge of en-
vironmental living circumstances should serve as additional
guides to emphases. Although this study area is not the only
area concerned with the disease problems which need attention,





BUILDING BETTER BODIES


the suggestions given here may guide the teacher in presenting
the problems.
The study of specific diseases should be approached care-
fully. The basic concepts related to the problems are, of course,
that prevention is better than cure, and that early diagnosis is
important for sound and effective cure. There is danger in
emphasizing "disease" because undesirable worries may be in-
stilled in the child. It is also true, however, that the effort to
guard against this danger has led many teachers to discuss disease
problems too generally. Both extremes should be avoided. The
teacher should not frighten the child. On the other hand, he
should be definite in his teaching. In studying tuberculosis, for
example, specific and reliable information about the causes,
prevention, and cure of tuberculosis should be presented so that
the child does what is scientifically sound to be sure that he is not
and will not be a victim of tuberculosis.
One reason for our rather ineffective teaching with respect
to disease problems is the dearth of reliable information avail-
able to teachers. Textbooks do not give many essential facts
about specific Florida health problems. The teacher will need
to secure the facts about local conditions. The county health
unit personnel should be of assistance and should be consulted.
Attention is called, also, to the State Department of Education
Tentative Source Units, which were compiled to supply infor-
mation to teachers concerning such serious Florida problems as
hookworm, malaria, pellagra, and others. The State Board of
Health has pertinent information for classroom use. The
monthly publication of the Florida State Board of Health,
Health Notes, will be sent free of charge to anyone who requests
it.
The area on building better bodies is concerned with two
major phases of study:
1* The positive building of sound bodies, wherein the various body sys-
tems (circulatory, muscular, skeletal, respiratory, nervous, and excretory
systems) are presented in the light of their inter-related functions and
the things that children can do in better assisting these processes
2. The positive protection and defense of the body against general destruc-
tive forces and against certain specific disease problems






76 EVERYDAY LIVING

The approach to this area should be closely related to student
interests. Both boys and girls of junior high school age are usually
interested in the high school athletic program. They idolize the
coach and his or her teams. An approach based upon interest
in athletics is suggested for this area. There are valuable oppor-
tunities for presenting sound and understandable reasons why
interscholastic athletics are dangerous for junior high school
children who are undergoing rapid growth. This area can be
taught so that it motivates sound health practices as the means
for attaining the growth, the strength, and the skills desired by
the children for participation in athletics in the near future,
There is no need to have interscholastic athletics in the local high
school. Intra-mural participation and even "sand lot" play
activities interest the children of this age sufficiently for motiva-
tion purposes. Good opportunities are present for pointing to
the needs for improved high school interscholastic athletic prac-
tices and policies, although this is certainly not the major con-
cern of this study area. Through the use of the suggested
approach, this area could be developed by relating the building
of better bodies to the building of a better team. For example,
the use of terminology such as "our best offensive plays," "de-
fensive plays" (health practices), our "line up of players," the
"position of the opponents," a "strong offense is the best de-
fense," and others, and the comparative relationships inferred
thereby, can form, if carefully done, a sound and interesting
method for presenting these experiences. This, of course, need
not be the only approach used in the area. The junior high school
child's interest in growth for many reasons can be directed
toward the factors which help him to grow.
Concerning the important problem of alcohol and narcotics
education, it is sincerely hoped that the brevity with which the
problem is included in these materials is not interpreted as an
intention to minimize its importance. Such is certainly not
the case. Specialized workers for the State Department of Edu-
cation have compiled a very complete and detailed syllabus
concerning the best recommendations in this field. Additional
teacher guidance could do little to enhance the suggestions of
the syllabus. A strong recommendation for the more wide-






BUILDING BETTER BODIES


spread use of the teacher guidance materials already prepared
is the best emphasis that can be given to the problem. State De-
partment Bulletin No. 22-KX, Suggestions for Teaching the
Actions and Effects of Alcohol and Other Narcotics, furnishes
more complete help to the teacher than these materials could
hope to provide. Teachers may secure copies of the source unit
through-their school administrators, county superintendents,
or directly from the State Department of Education. Oppor-
tunities for the major emphasis on alcohol and narcotics are pro-
vided during the study of this area, although good opportunities
throughout the year should not be overlooked.
Throughout this area, opportunities are provided for the
further development of specific understandings, attitudes, and
practices instituted earlier in the year. The second weighing and
measuring procedures should be conducted with re-emphasis on
experiences related to the first weighing and measuring pro-
gram. Added reasons are to be seen during this study for the
food and nutrition practices discussed earlier. Recreation needs
and practices, class study and behavior standards, class use of
scientific problem solving, the use of committee work in de-
veloping social practices and self-direction, re-emphasis on the
correction of remediable defects, the needs and values of health
examinations, and other scientific health and home living prac-
tices already begun will find additional emphasis through the
experiences of this area.
The child's progress with respect to the general outcomes of
this area should be indicated primarily by the increasing degree
to which he:
1. Regards his body and his health as his most valuable possessions
2. Understands the inter-relationships between his body's structure and
functions and his growth, activity, and opportunities for happiness
3. Understands the inter-relationships between his body development
and protection and the total environment in which he lives
4. Observes the scientific health and home living practices related to the
understandings above
5. Practices thoughtfully and with increasing success the body coordina-
tions essential to safe and skillful living
6. Observes the scientific health practices related to the protection of








78 EVERYDAY LIVING

his body from general destructive forces and from certain specific
disease and safety hazards
7. Observes practices related to the similar protection of others
8. Has needed diagnostic tests and immunizations
9. Understands and values to a greater extent the needs for determining
his health status through periodic health examinations competently
performed
10. Does all in his power to better build his body

PROBLEMS
PROBLEM I: How do we build our bodies? How do we grow?
A. What are the building stones of our bodies?
1. What are cells and how do they live together?
a. What do cells look like? What are they made of? What do they
do? How do they live? How do they multiply? Do they die?
b. How are they different in size and shape and appearance? What
different kinds of cells are there?
c. How do cells group themselves together? What are tissues? Wat
kinds of tissues are there? What do tissues do?
d. How are tissues grouped together? What are organs? How do
our organs cooperate? What are the systems of the body? What
do they do for us
B. Upon what framework do we need to build?
1. What are bones and of what are they made? Are bones alive? Whee
do we get the materials to build them? How can we be sure that W
are building strong bones? What is the function of the pituitay
gland in the building of bones and similar tissue? What is boan
marrow? Why is some bone marrow especially important? Why do
we need red blood cells?
2. How are our bones joined together to form the framework for or
bodies? What helps the bones to work together smoothly? 'Th
should we do to protect our bones from fracturing? Our joints from
spraining?
C. What makes us grow, and where do we get our power to "go"?
1. How does our strength depend upon our muscles?
a. What are muscles? How are they built? What kinds of muscd
are there? Where and how do our muscles get the power to mo"'
and function?
b. How does the food we eat furnish us with energy?
(1) How do the muscles themselves help to prepare the food i.
eat for their own use?
(2) What muscles help to transport this prepared or digsai
food all over the body?







BUILDING BETTER BODIES


(3) Why is the blood stream necessary for this transportation of
"stored energy" and other nutrients? What is the blood
stream?
(4) How do the muscle cells receive or assimilate these nutrients?
Do other cells also assimilate nutrients?
(5) What foods do we eat that are especially important for sup-
plying the energy we need? What foods are important in
helping our bodies to receive full benefit from "energy
foods?"
3. Why is the oxygen we breath also very necessary for the building of
power and energy from nutrients?
a. Where do our cells get the oxygen they need? How do we breathe?
What are our lungs and how do they work for us? What muscle
is vital to their functioning? What special blood cells transport
this oxygen around the body? How do the muscle cells and other
cells secure the oxygen they need from the red blood cells? What
might happen to prevent the red blood cells from performing this
important work efficiently? What are anemias? What foods should
we eat to assist our red blood cells? How can we determine whether
or not they are doing their work well?
4. How is our energy produced from food and oxygen? What are the
by-products of this power production? What happens to them?
How is the blood stream important to this process? What is the very
important and special work of our kidneys?
5. How can we use this energy to help us to grow? What, also, is the
function of the thyroid gland in regulating our growth? What is
body metabolism?
6. How can we use this energy not only to help us to grow, but to
keep us fit and strong, and to help us to move about the world
easily, comfortably, and skillfully?
a. What makes our bodies move? How do our muscles control our
bones? What is a lever? How do our bodies apply the principles
of leverage? In what ways are levers used to help do work out-
side the body? What is muscular contraction? Muscular relaxa-
tion? How do our muscles use team work in moving?
b. Why must muscles move to grow? What happens to muscles that
are not exercised sufficiently? Is it possible to store up muscle
power for long periods of time? Why is regular exercise neces-
sary?
c. What kinds and amounts of exercise do we need? How should
one's exercise be adapted to one's sex, age, physical condition,
and health status?
(1) Why is the heart muscle and its correct exercise and rest most
important?
(2) What are the big fundamental muscles of the body? Why is
their exercise so important, and how can they best be ex-
ercised?








EVERYDAY LIVING


(3) Why are our smaller accessory muscles important? What
kinds of movement do they enable us to perform?
(4) What is meant by natural movement? By artificial move.
ment? What are the values of each?
(5) What are the values of exercising by engaging in games and
sports? Why should we remember the importance of caring
for the heart in playing games?
(6) What muscles are exercised in the lifting, carrying, pushing,
pulling, reaching, stooping, bending, hammering, thrusting,
heaving, and throwing of daily activities or "utilitarian"
movements?
(7) Why is it important to have a balance in your muscular de.
velopment between game activities and everyday work active.
ties? What are the social and recreational values of engaging
in games and sports that should not be overlooked, in addition
to the variety in muscular exercise these games provide?
Why does "all work and no play make Jack a dull boy" al
well as a boy who lacks well-balanced development?
(8) How can our muscles be strained or poorly exercised by their
improper use in many activities? How can we be sure that
we are using our muscles correctly?
d. What is endurance and how is it developed and increased?
e. How is this "growing and going" process governed?
(1) Why is the nervous system so important?
(2) What are the neurons? How are they stimulated? Whatisa
stimulus? A response?
(3) What is meant by reflex action? How does this occur?
(4) How do both the central nervous system and the autonomic
nervous system govern our body actions?
(a) How is the work of our internal organs controlled?
(b) How is our behavior controlled?
(5) What practices assist the nervous system with its important
work? What practices might harm it?
f. What are neuro-muscular skills? What is the difference between
skill and strength? Is it possible to store-up skill? Why is prac-
tice important to skill development? What is meant by "getting
out of practice?" Under what conditions does practice make per-
fect? Under what conditions does practice fail to make perfect!
How can we be sure we are practicing correctly?
g. What is meant by coordination? How are skill and coordination
related? Why is good coordination necessary in playing games?
Why is good coordination important in all daily movements?
h. Why are all the factors related to growth, strength, skill, coot-
dination, and endurance important in developing a good athletic
team? How are they important in building Americans fit to set'
our country? Why must girls be strong? How are these factor




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