• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Preface
 Industrial arts in general...
 Industrial arts in the junior high...
 The senior high school industrial...
 Administration of the program
 The teacher and the profession
 Appendix A: Bibliography for industrial...
 Appendix B: Periodicals for industrial...
 Appendix C: Sources of industrial...
 Appendix D: Industrial arts...
 Back Cover






Group Title: Bulletin
Title: Brief guide to teaching industrial arts in the secondary schools
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00096245/00001
 Material Information
Title: Brief guide to teaching industrial arts in the secondary schools
Physical Description: 117 p. : diagrs. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Department of Education
Donor: unknown ( endowment )
Publisher: Florida Department of Education
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date: 1948
Edition: 2nd edition
 Subjects
Subject: Industrial arts -- Study and teaching   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: Florida Department of Education bulletin number 12
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00096245
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 10574277

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Preface
        Preface 1
        Preface 2
    Industrial arts in general education
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Industrial arts in the junior high school
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
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        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    The senior high school industrial arts program
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
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        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
    Administration of the program
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
    The teacher and the profession
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
    Appendix A: Bibliography for industrial arts
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
    Appendix B: Periodicals for industrial arts teachers and students
        Page 113
    Appendix C: Sources of industrial arts supplies and equipment
        Page 113
        Page 114
    Appendix D: Industrial arts films
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
    Back Cover
        Page 119
        Page 120
Full Text
















A BRIEF GUIDE
TO


IN THE

SECONDARY SCHOOLS







IMPR V EMEN







Bulletin No. 12, 2nd Edition 1948
STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION















TABLE OF CONTENTS

PREFACE


CHAPTER PAGE

I. INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN GENERAL EDUCATION--...........--------- 1

II. INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL........ 11

III. THE SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL INDUSTRIAL ARTS PROGRAM 50

IV. ADMINISTRATION OF THE PROGRAM.............-------............--------- 86

V. THE TEACHER AND THE PROFESSION .........................---------------..101


APPENDICES

A BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR INDUSTRIAL ARTS........................................... 108

B PERIODICALS FOR TEACHERS AND STUDENTS ...............................----------- 113

C SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT.....................................--- ........------ 113

D INDUSTRIAL ARTS FILMS .......... ........................................... ----- 115









PREFACE
The purpose of this guide is to present a number of the
major educational needs in an age of technology, during which
the science of industry has become a dominant element in our
national life. This bulletin may be used as a guide for basic
procedures. Its suggestions should be utilized not in any nar-
row, specific scheme of instruction, but in that large overview
which will meet the needs of all youth in general public secon-
dary education.
This bulletin was prepared by a select group of industrial
arts teachers of Florida. Praise and appreciation are here
accorded the members of the group: A. D. Cates, Tampa; M. W.
Cheney, Gainesville; N. M. Faulds, Clearwater; T. S. Goddard,
West Palm Beach; P. Goodman, Orlando; W. H. Hendrix,
Alachua; C. E. Hoyt, Cocoa; W. F. Jardine, Clearwater; V. C.
Knepper, Sarasota; H. H. Kolitz, Jacksonville; C. G. Lind,
Marianna; H. K. Meyer, Jr., Gainesville; Mrs. J. 0. Mitchell,
Gainesville; G. W. Neubauer, Sebring; Mrs. H. F. Philpott,
St. Petersburg; M. J. Willis, Miami; Mrs. J. A. Woods, Or-
lando; and W. L. Yeilding, Gainesville.
Especial appreciation and recognition are due the consul-
tant Dr. Walter R. Williams, Jr., Professor of Education and
Head Professor of Industrial Arts, College of Education, Univer-
sity of Florida. Appreciation is also due Dr. Clara M. Olson of
the College of Education, University of Florida who served as
general curriculum consultant and coordinator. Without the
friendly services of Mrs. Mildred H. Williams, the typist for the
group, the task could hardly have been completed on schedule.
The group is also indebted to Miss Mary R. McCracken for inter-
preting various phases in the bulletin with excellent sketches and
drawings.
To the youth of Florida, who must inevitably assume an
increasingly vital position in a growing and complex society,
and to all teachers, administrators, and conscientious laymen
who are devoting their lives to the younger citizens, this bro-
chure is sincerely and hopefully presented.



STATE SUPERINTENDENT PUBLIC INSTRUCTION










CHAPTER I


INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN GENERAL EDUCATION
The pupil stands at the center of any school program with
his needs and potentialities. In the background is the still
greater need and obligation of the faculty to share with and
wisely guide the pupil into the dynamic, changing, and ever
challenging stream of human endeavor.
Thus, the obligation of the teacher is to use his particular
area to integrate and make vital the total school program. This
necessitates an interest in and knowledge of other subjects and
a willingness to cooperate and plan with the whole school and
faculty in order that the pupil will have a realization of a united
life-centered experience. Here is opportunity for all teachers
to focus their respective interests on the common problems.
The school must be a democratic school. Because the school
will be a center of democratic living, it will concern itself with
health, recreation, family, home and community relationships,
together with the total needs of youth, to provide unlimited
opportunities for all youth regardless of background.

Scope of Industrial Arts
The degree of progress in the industrial arts has, from
prehistoric times, determined the measure of group culture.
Knowledge of the use of tools upon materials has been the magic
formula which released man from grinding toil. It has given
him leisure for the pursuit of the cultural arts and time for
the expansion of his scientific knowledge and its application to
the problems of living.
Man in the primitive state had very little need for science,
mathematics, language, history, or any of the other divisions
of education as they are interpreted today. He could communi-
cate with his fellows through simple signs or words. The dis-
covery that he could make fire by striking two stones together,
lift large rocks with a pole used as a lever, and move these rocks
and other objects by means of logs used as rollers, led to the
development of the first crude cart. Thus, primitive man en-
tered into his first phase of science.







2 TEACHING INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

Following these discoveries, the desire to convey this in-
formation to his fellowmen brought about a greater need for
language arts. In a like manner, when primitive man found
that a longer pole would life a larger rock, he developed some
idea of comparative unit measurement, and the need for a
greater knowledge of mathematics was thereby created. The
necessity for history developed in order that the information
of all these discoveries might be passed on from one generation
to the next by the crude
marks and signs which were
characteristic of the time.
Thus, with the ever-increas-
ing building of new things and
the discovery of new methods,
coupled with the recording
r, \ of these processes, an ever-
widening scope of education
evolved.
SIn these struggles for ex-
Spression was seen man's first
form of communication. The
m M idea of multiplying his effort
S. to increase his power was used
Pop Ievers aobendinMaw when he was able to move the
stone with the pole. His crude
efforts in building the cart were probably man's first attempt
in the realm of manufacture and construction. The use of the
cart offered the first idea of transportation. Hence, in this
broad interpretation, the varied industrial arts are the bases
of all education throughout all time.

Industrial Arts as a Basic Part of Education
For a time the true educational concept of industrial arts
was lost, and its position was relegated to a secondary place
in the scheme of general education. In some places it had even
taken on the misnomer of a frill and fad. Now, under the pres-
sure of a complex technological society, the narrow view of the
manual arts concept is fast giving way to a more comprehen-
sive and flexible interpretation of industrial arts or technology.







CHAPTER I, INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN EDUCATION 3

The duty of public education in a democracy is to develop
responsible citizens for participation in the life of that de-
mocracy. Present-day schools on the secondary school level
must be alert to seize all opportunities for such development.
In an essentially industrial age, the good citizen must receive
education which develops his appreciation for the dignity of
work and his recognition of its necessity. He should receive
intelligent guidance in his search for that type of work-learning
experience which will provide
individual satisfaction and the
joy of worthwhile achieve- VifWere there'
ment. \ /
Knowledge acquired by \ he
observation is likely to be only
half knowledge. Real and full
meaning is most effectively '
acquired by means of first
hand contacts. The realm and --
area of experiences must be
broadened to include the most
vital situations. In order to
become wisdom, knowledge
must be refined through ap-
plication.
Schools which provide an 0
over-all educational program 'be
must present work-areas --there must be fire.
which embrace all the needs
of the institution. These work-areas are predicated upon a
sound and adequate philosophy and conception of the purposes
of the entire school. Duplicated effort may be avoided through
the full and earnest cooperation of the whole school in order to
provide experiences which will fully reach each individual's
capacities. Thus, interests may be explored through the de-
velopment of manipulative skills in conjuction with academic
training.
Opportunities for integration are numerous. For example,
the English teacher may ask a pupil to give a description of
making a model boat. This assignment may serve the double







4 TEACHING INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

function of an English composition and an industrial arts ex-
perience. In like manner, civics assignments also parallel the
industrial arts laboratory outcomes through the study of trans-
portation, communication, manufacture, construction, and power.
History is the account of man's progress to provide a more
abundant life. It is readily seen that the assignments of the
pupil in history and industrial arts may also serve these broad
purposes. The relationship of mathematics and industrial arts
provides the practical expression of mathematical terms to give
a clear and full understanding. These are but a few of the many
examples which may be used to indicate the rich possibilities
of inter-relationship between industrial arts and other subject
matter fields.

Industrial Arts in Education From A National Viewpoint
Industrial arts, from a national viewpoint, like any other
subject matter field, must include consideration of (1) its of-
ferings in relation to the pattern of life existing throughout the
country and (2) the present practices which are identified
with it.
An educational program must be in harmony with the cur-
rent pattern of society. Since the beginning of this century,
our social pattern has been greatly changed by the developments
resulting from inventions and discoveries deeply affecting our
mode of life. Changes in transportation as exemplified by the
automobile and airplane, together with the very rapid develop-
ment of radio, television, and radar in the field of communi-
cation, have had revolutionary effects upon our social order.
These and many other technological improvements have caused
the globe literally to shrink in a physical sense, thereby bring-
ing into close physical relationship the peoples of the world.
Methods of construction and the increased variety of con-
struction materials have also caused many social changes. The
constant increase in labor-saving devices which relieve man
from much of the heavy labor and long hours of employment,
has resulted in his having more hours for spare time activities.
Not the least significant of the changes taking place in
our social order during this period are those relating to the
home. Changing methods of living have revolutionized home








CHAPTER I, INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN EDUCATION


and family life and consequently family occupations and re-
sponsibilities. Today the predominant element of our society is
industry-industry characterized by the power driven machine.
More than any other factor, the development of the machine
and of its varied uses, together with the production of power
and its universal applications, is determining the pattern of our
civilization.
Every civilization has had its dominant element. In Greece,
for example, it was art and language. In Rome it was law and


government. The most con-
spicuous element in our civil-
ization is industry, in which
the machine, together with
the use of power which oper-
ates it, predominates. No one
can claim to be cultured in
his civilization who neglects
to study the dominant element
in the pattern of its social
relationship. The machine
must ever be the servant of
humanity and not its master.
The industrial arts cur-
riculum is significant insofar


rg





MM

Of org ot &pP-!i, Pop.


as it is one of the few curriculum areas which provides direct
laboratory experiences with varied media together with related
vicarious learnings.-

Industrial Arts in Education From a State Viewpoint
The industrial arts program as it deals more directly with
Florida presents some challenging problems. Florida is a state
possessing many natural resources. Many of these have been
only slightly developed. An intelligent and well-guided educa-
tional program will prove a tremendous factor in Florida's in-
dustrial development and in the enrichment of the lives of its
citizens. Since industrial arts will surely play an important
part in this development, industrial arts teachers must be alert
to these possibilities and use all of the available local resources
to enrich the program.







6 TEACHING INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

Levels of Industrial Arts in Education
The educational values of industrial arts are paramount for
all, regardless of age, schooling, or maturity. It is not suffi-
cient to depend upon the mere reading, hearing, or seeing in
order to secure an appreciation and understanding of the pro-
gram. It is also necessary to provide liberal opportunities for
participation in order to achieve the fullest meaning in the lives
of every individual. For the purposes of instruction, industrial
arts have been developed with-
in the following major areas:
Nursery and Kindergar-
ten. In the beginning of pub-
lic education, industrial arts
makes its first contribution
to the development of the
S child on the nursery and kin-
dergarten level. Here the
child plays with models and
replicas of objects such as
-, telephones, trains, boats, dolls,
t-M f and houses, which in later life
S ---_ to- will have a very basic mean-
--?j -ing in all experiences. This is
a very satisfactory introduc-
Im WV // A el' le t 0r tory process for the develop-
or ment and stimulation of the
our greQt-grandchildren,MNQ. very young learner.
Lower Elementary. Con-
tinuing in the lower elementary grades, the child expresses the
desire to create something with his own hands. In addition
to satisfying his creative urge, he has the opportunity to learn
how to work with others in group participation, to learn about
the various materials at his disposal and how other people have
utilized these materials. The learning processes of children
are often stifled by not offering enough creative work. The
child's mind is very formative at this stage and is most recep-
tive to the creative ideas of an enthusiastic teacher who is well
supplied with an abundance of enrichment materials.







CHAPTER I, INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN EDUCATION 7.

Upper Elementary. Approaching the *upper elementary
level, the child is ready to explore further those fields which
his investigative mind has opened to him. With the founda-
tional knowledge that he now possesses, he has the. ability to
understand better something of the industrial age, the changes
it has made in the modern way of life, and the contributions
which ,have been made by industry.
Junior High. Emphasis on industrial arts in the junior
high school may well provide the pupil with a wide variety of
learning experiences related to industrial living. These may be
emphasized as orientation or exploratory experiences based on
the many phases of industrial arts values which will include a
study of the products of the local community. It must be re-
membered that industrial arts opportunities are an integral part
of the general education program of the junior high school.
Hence, the subject has a status equal to that of any other .sub-
ject matter field.
The scope of the offerings must include as many phases of
communication, power, manufacture, construction, and trans-
portation as it is practicable to offer. During this period boys
and girls become aware of the complexities of the technological
world in which they live. This is the time to motivate and
stimulate these interests. The greater the variety of offerings,
the richer should be the learning experiences of the child.
A comprehensive general shop is not confined to a single
instructional medium. For example, such a laboratory might
well include several, or all, of the following areas: woods, metals,
plastics, leathercraft, mechanical drawing, ceramics, and others.
In many cases the unit shop in woods is the only laboratory
available, but even here a much wider scope of work is possible.
In addition to woods, some of the following areas may well be
incorporated: home mechanics, electricity, ceramics, plastics,
metals, leathercraft, and others.
Senior High. The senior high school program is still ex-
ploratory. Increased emphasis is placed upon the development
of skills, industrial information, and the practical application of
these in real life experiences.
The student having selected industrial arts is given the
technical aspects of the uniits of work and their social and trade








8 TEACHING INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

implications. This information should assist him in his choice
and understanding of his desired field of specialization. After
he has completed work in the selected units of instruction, he is
enabled to pursue further specialization. The student must
understand that as a marketable commodity he has only begin-
ning skills. The degree of excellence of work, basic knowledge
of the subject matter, and related information will be directly
proportional to the type of instruction, the physical plant, and
the equipment limitations of the school program.
While in the senior high school, pupils acquire certain skills
which involve abstract thinking and require workman-like pre-
cision in execution. Courses of study should provide values of
workman-like habits and attitudes through safety, care and
maintenance of machines, and shop management.
The ability of the community to support the program is
another conditioning factor. The kind and qualifications of the
teacher, available equipment and supplies, and general labora-
tory arrangement will reflect the support given the work by the
community. In communities where financial support is limited
or where the total school enrollment is small, the composite
general shop may be advisable in order that pupils may have
greater opportunity for exploratory learning. This shop, how-
ever, is likely to restrict the extensive use of machinery and
depends more upon hand tool operations. The general unit shop,
therefore, may well be adopted wherever possible, as the objec-
tives of work on the senior high school level are generally better
realized in this more thoroughly equipped laboratory.
Junior College. Industrial arts on the junior college level
will offer general unit shops of an exploratory nature, in which
students who have been denied privileges of industrial arts ex-
periences in past educational preparation, may have a chance to
find themselves and do more extensive work in selected special
fields such as mechanical and architectural drawing, advanced
machine shop, advanced forestry, industrial arts teacher-train-
ing. The subject field will be governed by representative in-
dustries native to the locality and also by the desire of the
individual student for specialized training.
Senior College. Advanced college work in industrial arts
may -render important services by raising and implementing








CHAPTER I, INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN EDUCATION


scholastic attainments, ideals, and standards. Suggested areas
of concentration for those pursuing special types of instruction
should include cultural, related, technical, and special courses.
This specialization will be carried on further in developing
skills leading to a variety of professional work such as advanced
mechanical and architectural drafting, engineering, and special
shop courses which may include machine shop practice, pattern
making and foundry work, and any other specialized shop in-
struction as may seem desirable.
Adult Education. All during the war period and also during
the very critical period of adjustment following the war, it has
become evident in a very forceful way, that there is an urgent
need for adequate courses in adult education with special em-
phasis on industrial arts education.
Industrial arts offerings in the adult field will need to be
flexible in order to meet the individual needs of members within
the community. The limiting factors will be local demand, physi-
cal facilities, and the ability of the teacher. Evening classes
may well include furniture and cabinet making, mechanical
drawing, house design, home furnishings, home mechanics, boat
building, courses in metal work, and machine shop, provided
facilities are available for this work. The program may be re-
creational, vocational, or both.
Adult education is a definite responsibility of the state and
the community, and the school is a logical place to conduct such
a program. The school laboratory and facilities may be used in
the evenings while they are not in operation during regular
school hours. There is probably no better method to unify
school and community than to offer industrial arts in an adult
education program. The logical result is an expansion and im-
provement of the entire school.
Vacation Groups and Camps. The public school may well
offer industrial arts courses of a flexible nature in order to
provide recreational and leisure-time activity during vacation
periods. The purpose of these courses is to provide opportunity
for self-expression and worthwhile use of leisure time. This
directs children's energies into wholesome and desirable channels
leading to personal satisfaction and emotional stability.







10 TEACHING INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

The remarkable growth of summer camps and the success-
ful programs of pupil-centered activities is a challenge to public
education. Camps and camping offer the opportunity to develop
a. year around program. The school camp should utilize work
experiences, outdoor crafts and living, and productive social ac-
tivities. In short, the school camp will blend the best in camping
with that which is best in schooling to foster democratic ideals
and basic cultural values.
Exceptional Children. The satisfaction of accomplishment
instills self-confidence, and the crafts area of the industrial arts
offerings may well be used to offer a direct approach to the
mentally retarded child.
Similarly, teachers of physically handicapped children, in-
cluding the major types of the blind and partially seeing, crip-
pled, deaf and the hard-of-hearing, lowered vitality groups, and
speech detectives may maintain a high morale of their pupils
by supplementing academic work with the crafts. These provide
a sense of accomplishment which normal children receive from
desirable and coordinated activity.
Teachers of these children and of the other two major
groups of exceptional children, the mentally gifted and the so-
cially or emotionally maladjusted, will find invaluable the assist-
ance obtained by integrating handwork with academic work.
Special materials, facilities, equipment, and instruction are
needed for these varied groups.

Significance of Life-Centered Instruction
Education implies growth in the ever-present; not a con-
stant cycle of preparation for life at a later date. Subject mat-
ter now becomes a means to be used in developing the flexible
program; not a mass of stereotyped material, definitely selected,
compartmentalized, and put away for the ever-elusive future.
Growth is realized and experienced through the student's own
coordinated mental, moral, and physical activity. It is not some-
thing done to them; it is rather something that they themselves
do. The scope of experience is enlarged better to meet the chal-
lenge of an ever-changing civilization.







CHAPTER II, INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS 11


CHAPTER II

INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL
The fact that school work is life itself, and not merely prep-
aration for life, points up the necessity for real-life experiences
in the arts and industries. Native impulses must be considered
on all levels. The formation of a well-rounded personality needs
recognition of these impulses and their expression at an early
age. It is desirable, therefore, that these impulses be anticipated
and met with plan and action in preparation for the more specific
work on the secondary school level. Bonser1 has identified these
impulses as manipulative, investigative, art and social. These
are found to be closely interrelated. Art impulses find an outlet
through manipulation. The investigative urge may lead to social
experience and provide a satisfaction of the social impulse. The
strength of a pre-high school activity program lies in the close
relationship between knowing and doing, thereby contributing to
the development of a well-balanced individual. Further, an ac-
tivity program on the elementary level lays the foundation for
a continuing and more specific type of instruction, through in-
dustrial arts experiences and learning in the junior and senior
high schools.
If, on the other hand, the native impulses and their relation-
ships are not recognized and provided for, their undirected ex-
pression can be of definite harm. If the satisfaction of these
innate urges on the elementary level is too localized, too specific,
many values may be lost. Only through a carefully planned,
adequately supervised, and imaginatively executed synthesis of
impulse satisfactions can the elementary program claim com-
pleteness. Related information must be present in a wisely or-
ganized program. Skills, while important, do not constitute
the primary function of the pre-high school activity program.
Appreciations and social values are implicit in the satisfaction
of art and social impulses.
Briefly, then, a pre-high school activity program is desir-
able because:
'Frederick G. Bonser, Industrial Arts for School Administrators, pp.
12, 13









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CHAPTER II, INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS 13

1. It satisfies the manipulative, investigative, art, and
social impulses.
2. It contributes to the development of well-rounded
individuals.
3. It furnishes a foundation for the more specific ex-
periences of the secondary schools.
4. It is realistic in terms of life experience and the
purposes of education.
5. It furnishes the setting for social growth.

The Junior High School Program-An Orientation Period
Since industrial arts is an integral part of general educa-
tion, its function on the junior high school level is considered to
be primarily that of orientation. This orientation function has
two major implications for the child (1) the recognition of his
place in the technological complexity of the world community;
and (2) the opportunity to choose from a wide range of activi-
ties the area of his greatest interest. This latter is not neces-
sarily a vocational implication. The chief functions implied
during this orientation program may be classified under the
five broad headings which follow:
Manipulative-having to do with the development of
skills, the training of the hands
Investigative-dealing with the satisfaction of natural
curiosity and a deep-seated thirst for knowledge
concerning the work of the world, and of the world
itself
Appreciative-concerned with aesthetic understanding
separate from mere curiosity and interest-adol-
escent and pre-adolescent pursuit of beauty
Creative-involving the synthesis of manipulative skills
with investigative learning and appreciative de-
sires in the creation of originals and tangibles
Associative-predicated upon the relationships of ex-
perience, both in breadth and limitation, and de-
pendent on the interaction of moral, spiritual,
and social values which are component parts of
character







14 TEACHING INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

Previously, these and similar objectives have been met with
the technique of analysis. It is here proposed that they be ef-
fected through synthesis. To this end the junior high school
program in industrial arts must be concerned with both time
and content. Methods, techniques, and various special functions
such as guidance may be adapted to any overall decision on the
vital questions of (1) what to teach and (2) how much.
A long developmental consideration by a number of leaders
in the field of industrial arts has resulted in a complete re-
definition of the position of industrial arts in general public
education. The result is a new industrial arts curriculum, pro-
jected not in the narrow sense of materials or crafts areas, im-
portant as they are, but through the five broad realms of human
experience, power, transportation, communication, construction,
and manufacture. The timelessness and all-embracing qualities
of this areal division are evident at once. Here is a curriculum
which may not be superseded or outmoded by new developments
in atomic energy or by a conquest of inter-planetary space. For
the essentially horizontal concept of orientation in the junior
high school, this curricular structure has a definite character, a
penetrating focal nature, that cannot be ignored.
It must be understood that this curriculum implies no dis-
card of practices which have been good in the past. Projects
and information which were sound and kept up-to-date yesterday
may be just as good tomorrow. However, the relationship will
not be in terms of wood, leather, or metal; and not in the limited
sense of trades such as carpentry, masonry, or plumbing; but
rather in the broad, inclusive, and sharply pertinent connotation
of the five areas. The aims and content of junior high school
industrial arts may with this treatment be blended in a stream
which is the very essence of technology; an intelligent under-
standing of and participation in the science of industrial arts.
If pupils are to be oriented in the maze of technical experiences
which confront them, industrial arts teachers must themselves
be aware of this new and more challenging view.
The time involved in allowing the new curricular concept to
be the instrument of orientation may vary from one to three
years. This wide range of time devoted to exploring technology
is made possible by the horizontal approach. The number of







CHAPTER II, INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS 15

experiences in each of the five areas is inexhaustible and en-
riched understandings are infinite. Therefore, complete cover-
age of each of the areas of power, transportation, communica-
tion, construction, and manufacture is impossible. This allows
a discriminatory selection by the teacher of the materials to be
presented and gives him free reign to present the work repeat-
edly to the same group, if necessary, without the need for repe-
tition. It furthers flexibility and necessary adaptations due to
limited space or inadequate physical plant facilities.
In summary, it may be stated that:
1. The junior high school industrial arts program and
function is one of orientation.
2. Orientation in terms of technology may be effected
by implementing the five areas of the new curri-
culum-power, transportation, communication, con-
struction, manufacture.
3. If the horizontal concept is retained, the elapsed
time for work on this level may vary greatly with-
out affecting unit value.

Broad Aims and Objectives of the Junior High Program
Orientation has been given as a comprehensive goal for the
junior high school industrial arts or technology program. Cer-
tain purposes and objectives which relate to that end may, how-
ever, be stated. It is recognized that this is not a new enter-
prise, and that most of the purposes which follow have been
previously formulated. In considering the content of power,
transportation, communication, construction, and manufacture,
it must still remain evident that child development is more than
implied. While some of the objectives relate specifically to in-
dustrial arts, many of them are equally applicable to other fields.
The junior high school is concerned with the turbulent
period of early adolescence. Purposes and objectives should cen-
ter about the development of certain qualities and habits and the
fulfillment of desires. The listing which follows is not intended
to be exhaustive, but to suggest the possibilities in relating
junior high school technological experiences and learning to the
other branches of general education and to life itself.







16 TEACHING INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

Development of Worthwhile Personal Desires
Approval--the deepseated need for public endorsement
of personal enterprise
Personal Satisfaction-the expression of an idea or
creation of an object which promotes self-respect
and satisfaction
Usefulness-the inner compulsion to be worthwhile,
the need to be not only doing, but doing something
useful
Success-the fundamental need for productive fruition,
for triumph over failure, and for competent com-
pletion
Participation-in part an expression of the desire to be
with the group, the wish to be identified with a
satisfying activity

Development of Desirable Qualities
Vision-the desire to see beyond horizons, to sense the
greater goal both materially and spiritually
Breadth-the wish to develop a wide range of experi-
ence, to participate in a variety of learning and
activities
Curiosity-the desire to pry into the why and how
Originality-the chance to follow unmarked paths and
to explore the great unknown
Creativeness-the opportunity to put into dynamic ac-
tion the ideas of origination, to practice design, to
arrange and choose line, form, texture, and color
Patience-the chance to develop the willingness to wait,
the courage not to fret
Character-the desire to create that well-rounded men-
tal-moral-spiritual entity which expresses the in-
nermost man in word and deed; the chance to see
value beyond things, personality beyond matter,
and Deity as the utmost meaning in life
Maturity-the change to be grown up, to accept and
discharge responsibility, to exercise judgment







CHAPTER II, INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS 17

Initiative-the opportunity to carry out boldly a pre-
conception, to be resourceful, to be persistent
Discrimination-the chance to select ideas, activities,
products, friends, to recognize the real and the
spurious
Manual Dexterity-the chance to develop skills
Social Flexibility-the realization that others affect
every action, to adapt according to that knowledge
Aesthetic Awareness-the chance to know and to look
for beauty, to sense design, to recognize order
Independence-the wish to perform on one's own with
resulting approval or censorship

Development of Desirable Individual Habits
Courtesy-the framework of satisfactory human re-
lations
Cleanliness-a fundamental of health, safety, and
morals
Teamwork-working in helpful harmony with others
Cheerfulness-an atmosphere conducive to pleasant and
inspired productive activity
Carefulness-an element of consideration for public and
private property, and for people
Faithfulness-dependability and the devotion to an
ideal
Attentiveness-a necessity for progressive learning
Promptness-the virtue of being on time ,
Decency-the guarding of speech, thought, and action
against the vulgar and profane
Open-mindedness-the willingness to seek ideas, to ac-
cept suggestion and criticism, and to learn thereby
Efficiency-doing the most with the least effort and
expenditure of time
Tenacity-the ability to recognize and challenge ap-
parent defeat







18 TEACHING INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

Summary Statement
All of the foregoing statements may be grouped under
three classifications as follows:
Orientational-the gaining of a directed picture of
human technological experience and achievement,
the acquiring of an overview
Avocational-the leisure time and recreational aspects
of technology, the seeking and development of a
hobby
Pre-vocational---the implications of technology for life
work, eventual training in a specific line of en-
deavor, and taking one's place in a complex world

Methods and Techniques
The following list of suggestive laboratory experiences and
the breakdown of suggestive understandings and enrichments is
in no sense to be regarded as final or complete. They are
exactly as the name implies-suggestive. The teacher will im-
mediately recall many shop-tested and satisfactory projects
which are not included in the list. Then too, he may decide
that many of the division breakdowns are inadequate in terms
of his situation and community.
Does this mean that further project suggestions are to be
ignored and further understandings are to remain undeveloped?
Quite the contrary! It is urged that the teacher supplement the
suggested breakdown and experience listings wherever possible.
The ultimate aim of the entire program is the enrichment
of pupil experiences in the industrial arts laboratory. The
achievement of this aim does not require the construction of a
new laboratory or the purchase of vast amounts of costly equip-
ment. It is suggested that the teacher survey his laboratory
and assess the needs of his community and adapt to his program
those parts of the breakdown which lend themselves readily to
inclusion. Only as much or as little will be added as may be
satisfactorily included in his program.
The completed project and the acquisition of manual dex-
terity, the traditional manual arts concept, are no longer ends
of industrial arts in themselves. Instead, they are merely the








CHAPTER II, INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS 19

means to an end. When combined with selected and adapted
units from the understandings and enrichments breakdown they
contribute to the goal which industrial arts in the junior high
school has set for itself; the interpretation for the student of
the complex technological society of which he is a part. The
primary revision of the teacher's plan which is suggested is the
substitution of new, vital, and purposeful projects for those
which have outlived their usefulness. In this area the teacher
must be ever on the alert for new and more satisfactory projects
which will contribute to a broader and richer variety of labora-
tory experiences and understandings.
It will be unnecessary to evolve new and elaborate teaching
methods and techniques to present satisfactorily this broadened
concept of industrial arts. Each teacher will continue to use
those methods and combinations of methods which have proven
most satisfactory in the past. Teacher and student demonstra-
tions will continue to be of great value as will guided student
research and teacher explanations. Industrial visitations and
field trips will be of aid if adequate preliminary class prepara-
tion has been made. As formerly, audio-visual aids, sound pic-
tures, film strips, slides, mockups, display panels, and pupil
progress charts, will prove extremely valuable.
The methods employed, the amounts of time, daily or weekly,
to be allocated to vicarious enrichment experiences as contrasted
with student manipulative experiences will be determined by
the instructor in terms of his facilities and the purely mechanical
administrative adjustments he must make. A part of each period
or of several periods during the week may be used for vicarious
enrichment experiences growing out of the students' laboratory
work.
Because the development of manual skills is not the primary
function of industrial arts in the junior high school, it is sug-
gested that students are not to be regarded by the teacher as
being in competition with each other. Each of the students
coming into the laboratory is an individual. All have varying
degrees of ability and differing backgrounds. The purpose of
industrial arts, stated again, is to broaden by a diversity of
means the student's understanding of the technical society in
which he finds himself. With that concept as a basis in grading,








20 TEACHING INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

the student is to be regarded as in competition with himself in
the acquisition of those broadened industrial arts understandings.
In summary it may be stated that:
1. The suggestive list of Laboratory Experiences and
the breakdown of Suggestive Understandings and
Enrichments is not final and complete.
2. The teacher will pick and choose those experiences
which lend themselves most readily to interpreta-
tion and inclusion in his program. He is encouraged
wherever possible to amplify the number of learning
experiences and to develop them further.
3. A new shop is not necessary. New equipment need
not always be purchased. Adaptations and addi-
tions are made in terms of the laboratory and its
facilities.
4. Traditional methods and techniques of presentation
will continue to be used.
5. Time allotted to the presentation of various types
of experiences is determined by the teacher.
6. Each student is an individual and is to be regarded
as in competition with himself rather than with his
classmates as he acquires a broadened range of
technological understandings and experiences. Stu-
dent grading is to be done on the basis of this
concept.
7. The industrial arts teacher will utilize every oppor-
tunity to integrate his work with that of his col-
leagues. He will initiate integration procedures if
necessary.
8. The industrial arts teacher will move cautiously in
adapting the program to his laboratory before all
interested persons are completely aware of the full
implications.

Direct Application
The following is an illustration of a practical class room
application of. one learning unit selected at random from the








CHAPTER II, INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS 21

power division. The learning experience is the introduction of
the electrical section of the power division and its application
in a laboratory experience.
Through assigned readings, visual materials, and questions
and answers, the students have been familiarized with the major
hypotheses of the electronic theory. The discussion centers
around the generation of an electric current through chemical
reaction. A dry cell has been cut in half for close inspection by
the students. The poles of the cell are indicated by the instruc-
tor, and the chemical reaction which takes place within the cell
is explained.
The students are then provided with an instruction sheet
containing the steps in wiring a simple bell or lighting circuit.
Symbols used on the wiring diagram are explained by the in-
structor and reviewed by the students.
Materials are then issued; bell or flashlight bulb depending
upon the type of circuit, miniature receptacle, switch, copper
wire, insulated staples and dry cell. The students arrange the
circuit on a panel according to the steps contained in the instruc-
tion sheet and the wiring diagram. The instructor gives par-
ticular emphasis to the neatness of appearance of the completed
circuit. He emphasizes cleaning the ends of the wire and the
careful fastening to the dry cell poles to ensure good electrical
contacts. The circuit is tested for correct operation.
After the hookup has been approved, questions concerning
the circuit and the dry cell are answered in the student's syllabus.
These questions together with information references are in-
cluded in the instruction sheet. The circuit is then dismantled,
the materials stored, and the students are ready for their next
discussion and experiment-the generation of electrical power
by the wet cell. Short achievement tests are included at various
intervals at the discretion of the instructor.

Guidance
The junior high school student stands at the threshold of
youth, eager, alert, and usually with an unbounded enthusiasm
and desire to explore the new world unfolding before him. This
situation provides the industrial arts teacher with the oppor-
tunity for worthwhile guidance. The pupil should enter a labo-









22 TEACHING INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

ratory whose whole atmosphere will reflect the American indus-
trial scene in a real though necessarily modified way. Here, in
the laboratory are practical illustrations and applications of the
age of power, of construction, of manufacture, of transporta-
tion, and of communication. The learner is given an opportu-
nity through guidance and aptitude tests to discover just where
his particular talents may best be used and enlarged. His pro-
gram of work will be developed on his own level, and grading
will be based on his personal growth, not upon a comparison
with someone more gifted or retarded than himself. Periodically
his progress will be checked against his own planned program
of study and activity. At the end of the junior high school pro-
gram, he should have an appreciation of the field of technology
and should then move forward into further training either on
a vocational or on an avocational basis. Through his participa-
tion in worthwhile activities, he should attain a practical and
well-founded conviction about his place in human achievement
and his share in the larger aspects of the cultural scene.
For those students whose formal schooling will end prior
to the completion of high school, a terminal program of study
in industrial arts should be planned to the end that they may
engage constructively and happily in routine types of community
work. Such a program must be adapted in a special sense to
individual students and local situations.
In summary, then, guidance on the junior high level will
include:
1. Guidance and aptitude testing
2. Grading on the basis of growth
3. Pre-vocational opportunities by implication
4. Avocational pursuits and developments
5. Terminal curricula for the non-graduate

Power Area Breakdown
Power is fundamental to our technological civilization. In
one or more of its forms, it is the prime-mover to which the
"wheels" of all industry, transportation, communication, and
construction are geared. Without power, in its fullest sense,
even human locomotion would be an impossibility. Therefore





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24 TEACHING INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

power is one of the fundamental bases upon which our technical
society rests.
The power area of the new industrial arts program is treated
in terms of three major classifications (1) natural power; (2)
electrical power; and (3) thermal power. Natural power con-
siders the direct and indirect influence of the sun as well as the
power derived from wind and water. The electrical section in-
cludes the generation of electrical energy by chemical and me-
chanical means. Thermal power incorporates energy generated
by the combustion of solids, liquids, and gasses as well as that
resulting from nuclear fission. A further refinement is the
treatment of power in terms of its transmission and utilization.
Laboratory experiences and understandings are only sug-
gestive. They serve to indicate the tremendous range of learn-
ing possibilities inherent in the power division.

Power Area


SUGGESTIVE LABORATORY
EXPERIENCES

Construct and operate one of the
following:
Windmill
Water wheel
Water turbine
Paddle boat
Use power generated for some
purpose:
Lift weight
Operate machine
Run boat








Study and use dry and wet cells in
a simple electrical circuit:


SUGGESTIVE UNDERSTANDINGS
AND ENRICHMENTS

I. Overview of Power Division
A. Sources
B. Generation
C. Transmission
D. Utilization
II. Natural Power
A. Sun
1. Boilers (solar heating
systems)
2. Storage tanks
B. Food
1. Plant
2. Animal
C. Wind
D. Water
1. Water turbine
a. Impulse
b. Reaction
2. Water wheel
a. Types
III. Electrical Power
A. Electronic theory
B. Chemical generation
1. Dry cell
a. Types
b. Construction and op-
eration










CHAPTER II, INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS 25

Power Area (Continued)


SUGGESTIVE LABORATORY
EXPERIENCES

Light circuits
Bell circuits
Buzzer circuits

Demonstrate laws of magnetism

Construct and operate:
Electromagnet
Telegraph set
Splice wires

Use electrical measuring instru-
ments

Construct and operate:
Transformer
Shocking coil
Small electric motor

Demonstrate types, structures and
operation of fuses


Make and read:
Symbols
Wiring diagrams
Wire simple electrical circuits:
Door bells
Lights
Read electric meter
Compute cost of electricity
Repair and construct home electri-
cal appliances
Construct and operate:
Electric hot plate
Construct and operate lighting
panel:
Circuits illustrating auto, ship,
plane or train
Demonstrate structure, function,
and operation of vacuum tube
types
Construct and operate:
Crystal detector
Simple telephone

Construct and/or operate an inter-
nal combustion engine. Study
and demonstrate:


SUGGESTIVE UNDERSTANDINGS
AND ENRICHMENTS

2. Wet Cell
a. Types
b. Construction and op-
eration
C. Mechanical generation
1. Theory of magnetism
2. Turbine and generator
a. Types
b. Operation
D. Transmission
1. Wires ,
a. Voltage, amperage,
resistance
b. Ohm's Law
2. Transformer
3. Motor and generator
4. Rectifier
5. Amplifier
6. Dynamotor
E. Utilization
1. Manufacture
a. Power tools
2. Construction
a. Household

(1) Lighting
(2) Refrigeration, etc.



b. Industrial
(1) Welding
(2) Furnaces, etc.
3. Transportation
a. Aircraft
b. Automotive
c. Trains
d. Ships
4. Communication
a. Telegraph and tele-
telephone
b. Radio
c. Television, etc.

IV. Thermal Sources
A. Types
1. Solids
2. Liquids
3. Gasses
4. Atomic
B. Generation of power by
combustion
1. Types










26 TEACHING INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS


Power Area (Continued)


SUGGESTIVE LABORATORY
EXPERIENCES

Theory of operation
Carburetion
Ignition
Cooling
Lubrication
Gauges and control systems
Construct and operate an external
Combustion engine



Study and observe shop equipment

Construct model airplane



Study maintenance and minor re-
pair of automobiles



Study operation and construction
of:
Paint spraying equipment



Pneumatic hammer


SUGGESTIVE UNDERSTANDINGS
AND ENRICHMENTS


a. Gasoline
(1) Gasoline
(2) Diesel
(3) Jet
(4) Rocket
b. External combustion
(1) Steam engine
(2) Steam turbine
(3) Mercury turbine
C. Transmission
1. Mechanical
a. Lever
b. Gear
c. Belt
d. Shaft
e. Clutch
f. Bearing, etc.
2. Hydraulic
a. Hose
b. Valves
c. Pump
d. Pistons
e. Hydromatic drive,
etc.
3. Pneumatic
a. Hose
b. Tanks
c. Tubing
d. Valves
e. Power cylinders, etc.
D. Utilization
1. Manufacturing
2. Construction
a. Household
b. Industrial
3. Transportation
4. Communication




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28 TEACHING INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS


TRANSPORTATION AREA
Recorded history testifies to the importance of man's mas-
tery of transportation; his ability to move by more than man-
power his person and his goods from place to place. Transpor-
tation is still one of the few basic modern enterprises. It is a
vital component of modern life and, without it, few aspects
of our current civilization would be possible.
As an area of the new industrial arts curriculum, transpor-
tation problems, investigations, and projects may be brought
into the laboratory under three major divisions (1) land; (2)
sea; and (3) air. In each of these areas, the study of carriers
is a primary consideration. In close relationship to carriers
are found highways, ports, airways, and other essential auxil-
iary components of the transportation system. These, too, are
considered in outlining this phase of technology for industrial
arts.
Suggestive laboratory experiences are listed in terms of
studies, investigations, observations, and operation and project
participation. Related material is presented as suggestive under-
standings and enrichments. No attempt has been made to be
exhaustive.








CHAPTER II, INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS 29


Transportation Area


SUGGESTIVE LABORATORY
EXPERIENCES


Dismantle, inspect, and reassemble
any one of the following:
Engine, two-cycle
Engine, four-cycle
(may be model engines)
Accessories
Lights
Bearings

Check and adjust, clean:
Spark plugs
Wiring
Carburetor
Mixing valve
Fuel pump


Construct and operate models:
Display type
Compressed air powered
Model gas engine
powered
Miniature racers (class
racing)

Historic models
Coaches
Autos
Chariots
Trucks

Buses
Tanks

Construct or repair auxiliary
equipment
Trailers and hitches, auto
Bike trailers
Scooter racks
Tool boxes

Demonstrate physical and chemi-
cal principles which apply to the
automobile

Skills-wire splicing
Use of wrenches


SUGGESTIVE UNDERSTANDINGS
AND ENRICHMENTS

I. Overview of Transportation
Division
A. History and development
B. Types
C. Power
D. Construction
E. Design
F. Operation

II. Land Transportation
A. Highway transportation
1. History, development
2. Automotive transporta-
tion
a. Pleasure types
b. Commercial types
c. Power plants
3. Internal combustion
power
a. The gas engine
(1) Operation theory
(2) Fuel system
(3) Ignition and elec-
trical system
(4) Cooling system
(5) Lubrication
system
(6) Mechanical detail
b. Diesel engine
(1) Development
(2) Theory of opera-
tion
'(3) Fuel systems-
injectors
(4) Blowers, super-
chargers
(5) Cooling
4. Automotive structure
a. Frame design
b. Transmissions
c. Clutches
d. Wheel suspension
e. Differential
f. Brakes
g. Shock system
h. Modern body struc-
ture
5. Operation and regula-
tion
a. The highway network
(1) Development









30 TEACHING INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

Transportation Area (Continued)


SUGGESTIVE LABORATORY
EXPERIENCES

Use of measuring tools

Study and observe the steam-
shovel, paving roller, tournapull,
and other highway building
equipment


Construct foot-bridges, rails,
mix concrete

Construct a simple steam engine-
jet, turbine, or cylinder
Operate and repair model rail
systems:

Components
Signal systems
Controllers (electric)
Rolling stock
Complete model railroad
system
(group project)

Study and observe local practices
in:
Switching
Yarding
Loading
Investigate rail weights, gauge,
specialized railways such as log-
ging roads with geared locomo-
tives

Interpret block and other signals
correctly


Plane and helicopter models
Rubber powered
Gas powered
Gliders
Solid display
Jet
Rocket

Wind sock, wind tee, other airport
auxiliary equipment


SUGGESTIVE UNDERSTANDINGS
AND ENRICHMENTS

(2) Types and meth-
ods of construc-
tion
(3) construction
machinery
(4) Bridges, culverts
(5) Tunnels
b. Government regula-
tion
(1) Licensing
(2) Policing
c. Safety

B. Railway
1. History-development
2. Types
a. Monorail
b. Two-rail
(1) Surface
(2) Subway
(3) Elevated
3. Power Plant
a. Steam reciprocating
b. Steam turbine
c. Diesel-electric
d. Electric
4. Function
a. Passenger
b. Freight
5. Design
a. Streamlining
b. Articulation
c. Passenger comfort
d. Perishable freight
protection
e. Safety
6. Routes
a. Track
b. Surveys
c. Roadbed and main-
tenance
d. Bridges, tunnels
e. Traffic control
7. Operation, control

III. Air Transportation
A. Heavier-than-air
(non-buoyant)
1. History, development
2. Non-powered
a. Gliders, freight and
passenger
b. Sailplanes
3. Powered








CHAPTER II, INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS 31


Transportation Area (Continued)


SUGGESTIVE LABORATORY
EXPERIENCES


Compass and other instrument
testing, test stands

Radio direction finder, communi-
cations equipment

Construct, operate meteorological
equipment
Rain gauge
Weather vane
Anemometer

Demonstrate navigation equipment
techniques

Build and operate wind tunnel
(group project)

Experiment with balloons

Built-up display models, dirigibles,
and blimps

Study local airports and operation,
regulation

Demonstrate simple aero-dynamics

Investigate aircraft and airway
communications

Air-borne electronics
Radar
Loran
Radio
"Gee"


Construction of model boats
Sail, modern
Sail, historic
Galleys, historic
Ships, modern
Small craft, modern


Construction or repair of
Kyaks
Punt
Duck boat
Small sail boat


SUGGESTIVE UNDERSTANDINGS
AND ENRICHMENTS


a. Conventional
b. Auto-gyro
c. Helicopter
d. Jet planes
e. Turbo-jets
f. Rockets
4. Power plants
a. Radial and in-line gas
b. Diesel
c. Gas turbine
d. Turbo-jet
e. Jet
f. Rocket
g. Atomic (future?)

B. Lighter-than-Air
(Buoyant)
1. History, development
2. Non-rigid
a. Free and anchored
balloons
b. Blimps, powered
3. Rigid
a. Zeppelins
b. Dirigibles
4. Design, construction
5. Power types and appli-
cations
6. Lift elements hydro-
gen, helium, etc.
7. Operation

C. Operation and control
1. Airports and operation
2. Airways
3. NACA and CAB
4. Navigation
5. Meteorology
6. Trans-ocean problems
7. International aspects

IV. Sea Transportation
A. History and development
1. Ancient marine
2. Modern marine enter-
prise
3. Air-water operations

B. Carrier types
1. Sailing vessels
2. Modern ships
a. Purpose grouping
(1) Merchantmen
(2) Passenger








32 TEACHING INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS


Transportation Area (Continued)


SUGGESTIVE LABORATORY
EXPERIENCES

Leeboards
Masts
Gaffs
Centerboards
Rudders
Surf-board
Aqua-plane
Water-skis
Float or dock (group)


Study and observe
industries:
Fishing


local marine


Boat-building and repair

Make and operate gas-powered
class racers

Observe, study terminals, port
facilities:
Loading
Docking
Tugs and towing
River traffic
Draw bridges
Naval bases

Learn use of charts and other
navigation equipment:
Caulk seams
Replace ribs
Canvas decks
Repair sails
Overhaul rigging
Make canoe sailing gear


SUGGESTIVE UNDERSTANDINGS
AND ENRICHMENTS

(3) Tankers
(4) Naval
b. Power grouping
(1) Steam turbine
(2) Steam reciprocat-
ing
(3) Diesel motorships
(4) Diesel-electric
3. Small Craft
a. Commercial
b. Pleasure
c. Models
4. Power plants marine
engineering, propulsion
a. Screw-propelled types
b. Paddle types
c. Jet and other types
5.. Steel ship construction
6. Small wooden boat
building
7. Models and model-
making

C. Operation, regulation
1. Terminals and ports
2. Piers and quays
3. Ship discharge
4. Routes
5. Navigation
6. Organization
7. Rates
8. Documents
9. Labor, employment
10. Navigation
11. Meteorology
12. Ocean trade routes

D. Maintenance, repair
1. Ships
2. Small craft





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34 TEACHING INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

Communications Area

Without some form of communication, human progress
would be an impossibility. Recorded history would not exist,
technological achievement would not have developed its most
rudimentary forms, and the advantages of group living would
never have been realized. Communication provides the tie which
knits together the various elements of society and makes tech-
nical progress possible. Three steps or phases comprise this
process. There are (1) a composition of thoughts, words, or
pictures into a desired pattern; (2) this pattern must be trans-
mitted to others; and (3) it must be interpreted correctly to
give the impression for which it was originally intended.
In the new industrial arts program, this entire process is
considered in terms of the three methods by which it is carried
on (1) graphic arts; (2) wire communications; and (3) wireless
communications. Laboratory experiences, enrichments, and
understandings are included only as suggestions typical of the
wide range of communications experiences which might well be
explored.

Communications Area

SUGGESTIVE LABORATORY SUGGESTIVE UNDERSTANDINGS
EXPERIENCES AND ENRICHMENTS

I. Overview of the Division
A. Graphic arts
B. Wire communication
A. Familiarization with period C. Wireless communication
styles
Construct name plates of
wood, metal, plastic, for desks, II. Graphic Arts
lawns, wall lockers, notebooks,
etc., using optional styles A. Script (writing and letter-
ing)
1. History of the alphabet
a. Period influences
(1) Egyptian
(2) Phoenician
(3) Arabic
(4) Hebrew
(5) Greek
(6) Roman









CHAPTER II, INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS 35

Communications Area (Continued)


SUGGESTIVE LABORATORY
EXPERIENCES


B. Familiarization with alphabet
of lines, elementary drawing
tools and techniques involved
Do freehand sketching, draw
simple objects and do projec-
tions; or make simple charts
or diagrams of school activi-
ties







C. Appreciation of the speed, leg-
ibility, and ornamentation of
modern printing
Make linoleum block and
print, or make bookends out of
wood, metal or plastic.










D. Appreciation of color dy-
namics and beauty of design.
Design cover for scrapbooks
or notebook for industrial arts
class. Can be made using
wood, metal, or plastic. Use
paint in finishing.


SUGGESTIVE UNDERSTANDINGS
AND ENRICHMENTS

(7) English
(8) American
b. Writing materials
used by each

B. Formal drawings
(drafting)
1. Working drawings
a. Types
(1) Sketches
(freehand)
(2) Dimensional
b. Materials
2. Diagrams and charts
a. Types
b. Materials
3. Graphs
a. Bar
b. Curved line
c. Pictorial

C. Printing and duplicating
1. History and evolution of
the printing press
a. Old world methods
(types)
b. Materials
2. Modern printing press
a. Types
(1) Horizontal
(2) Vertical
b. Functions
3. Composing machines
a. Types
b. Printing methods
4. Modern printing
materials
a. Inks
b. Papers

D. Fine arts
1. History and background
a. Old world influences
and contributions
'b. Mediums with which
worked
2. Modern contributions
a. Painting
(1) Oils
(2) Water colors
(3) Chalk
b. Sculpturing
(1) Mediums
(2) Tools










36 TEACHING INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

Communications Area (Continued)


SUGGESTIVE LABORATORY
EXPERIENCES


E. Basic understanding of the
principles of photography.
Design and make picture
frames of wood, metal, or
plastic.

Print and develop photographs


F. Audio-Visual aids in industrial
arts work
Demonstration of sound and
light projection in operation
of moving picture machine








A. Principles of electrical trans-
mission and reception. Con-
struct telegraph key, using
wood, metal, and plastic.


FieldTrip


C. Construct note pad for tele-
phone table
Construct telephone table or
chair



A. Principles of wireless trans-
mission and reception
Construct:


SUGGESTIVE UNDERSTANDINGS
AND ENRICHMENTS

c. Weaving
(1) Materials
(2) Looms

E. Photography
1. History and develop-
ment
a. Daguerrotype
b. Modern photography
(1) Types
(2) Film
(3) Printing

F. Sound recording
1. History and develop-
ment
a. Recording devices
and methods
(1) Disc
(2) Cylinder
(3) Tape
2. Significance in modern
living
a. Industry
b. Recreation
c. Education

III. Wire Communication

A. Telegraph
1. History and develop-
ment
a. Transmission
b. Reception
(1) Visual
(2) Auditory

B. Teletype
1. Operation
a. Manual
b. Automatic
2. Uses

C. Telephone
1. Types
a. Conventional
b. Intercommunication
2. Uses


Wireless Communication

A. Radio
1. History and develop-









CHAPTER II, INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS 37

Communications Area (Continued)

SUGGESTIVE LABORATORY SUGGESTIVE UNDERSTANDINGS
EXPERIENCES AND ENRICHMENTS

One-tube receiver ment
Two-tube receiver 2. Types
a. Low frequency
b. High frequency
c. Very high frequency
B. Television
C. Audio-Visual instruction C. Electronics
1. Radar
2. Loran
D. Make blinker light or signal D. Mechanical transmission-
flags visual reception
1. Lights
2. Smoke
3. Flags



Construction Area
The erection of buildings and other structures, the digging
of tunnels and canals, the building of dams and levees have all
been significant constructional achievements in man's prog-
ress toward civilization. They stand foremost among his tech-
nological accomplishments and are fundamental to much of
his progress.
There are three major divisions in the curriculum area of
construction. These are (1) homes, dealing with individual
shelter and limited to private dwellings and allied construction;
(2) commercial and public construction, including all govern-
mental, industrial, commercial and ecclesiastical building; and
(3) carrier-route construction, dealing with the problems of
transportation such as highways, waterways, and airways in-
cluding ports, terminals, bridges, canals, tunnels, and levees.
Laboratory experiences, understandings and enrichments are
presented for each division on a suggestive basis.







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CHAPTER II, INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS 8


Construction Area


SUGGESTIVE LABORATORY
EXPERIENCES


Design a chicken coop

Design a dog house

Design a model house

Display architectural drawings

Make a chart of standard sizes of
doors, windows and stairs

Plan a home workshop


Build forms and pour concrete
door stop


SUGGESTIVE UNDERSTANDINGS
AND ENRICHMENTS

I. Overview of Unit

A. Homes

B. Public and commercial

C. Carrier-route

II. Homes

A. History
1. Primitive man
2. Ancient man
3. Medieval homes
4. Modern
a. Separation of home
and workplace
b. Growth of slums

B. Plans
1. Topographical survey
a. Location and condi-
tion of site
b. Contour lines
c. Report of findings
2. Architectural drafting
a. Geographic location
b. Needs and tastes of
family
c. Building restrictions
d. Availability of labor
and materials
e. Results of survey
f. Resulting plans
(1) Floor plans
(2) Assembly
drawings
(3) Detail drawings
(4) Specifications
3. Schedule for operations

C. Earthmoving
1. Clearing or filling
2. Setting cut and fill
stakes
3. Demolition
4. Types of heavy equip-
ment

D. Foundations
1. Set batter boards










40 TEACHING INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

Construction Area (Continued)


SUGGESTIVE LABORATORY
EXPERIENCES


Build forms and pour concrete
bird bath



Build a chicken coop

Build a dog house

Build a model house

Build a home workshop












Show various types of fastenings

Service plumbing fixtures


SUGGESTIVE UNDERSTANDINGS
AND ENRICHMENTS

2. Materials
3. Provision for drainage
4. Service lines
a. Sewage

b. Water
c. Gas

E. Structures
1. Types of material
a. Wood frame
b. Steel frame
c. Pre-fabricated
d. Brick
e. Rammed earth
2. Standard allowances
3. Methods of fastening

F. Coverings
1. Types of wall coverings
a. Outside
b. Inside
2. Types of roofing
3. Types of floorings
4. Painting or finishing

G. Fixtures
1. Gas
2. Plumbing
3. Electrical
4. Air conditioning
5. Refrigeration

H. Furnishings
1. Interior decoration style
2. Furnishings of each
room
3. Landscaping exterior


III. Public and commercial build-
ings

A. History
1. Ancient civilization
a. Craftwork in homes
b. Community life in
public buildings
2. Medieval
a. Guild halls
b. Churches
3. Industrial revolution
a. Factories
b. Public buildings









CHAPTER II, INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS 41


Construction Area (Continued)


SUGGESTIVE LABORATORY
EXPERIENCES

Plan industrial miniature models

Plan storage rack for bicycles

Draw plans for school or shops
buildings

Lay out lot for athletic field

Plan model airport for model
planes

Plan a weather station

Design and plan drainage tile for
plot




Clear and level vacant lot

Lay drainage tile for plot











Make display of building materials
used locally

Build industrial miniature models

Build storage rack for bicycles


Build model airport for model
planes
Set up weather station


SUGGESTIVE UNDERSTANDINGS
AND ENRICHMENTS

B. Plans
1. Topographical survey
a. Location and condi-
tion of site
b. Contour lines
c. Soundings for foun-
dation
2. Architectural drafting
a. Geographic location
b. Type of neighborhood
c. Need of industry or
public
d. National defense
e. Codes and laws
f. Safety and fire haz-
ards
g. Resulting plans
(1) Floor plans
(2) detail drawings
(3) Assembly
drawings
(4) Specifications
3. Schedule for operation

C. Earth moving
1. Clearing and filling
2. Cut and fill stakes
3. Demolition
4. Types of heavy equip-
ment
5. Drainage

D. Foundations
1. Corner stakes
2. Sub-foundations
3. Drainage
4. Service lines below sur-
face

E. Structures
1. Types of material
2. Allowances for standard
openings
3. Methods of fastening

F. Coverings
1. Types
a. Outside
b. Inside
2. Types of roofing
3. Types of flooring
4. Painting or finishing










42 TEACHING INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

Construction Area (Continued)

SUGGESTIVE LABORATORY SUGGESTIVE UNDERSTANDINGS
EXPERIENCES AND ENRICHMENTS

G. Fixtures
1. Plumbing
2. Lighting
3. Air conditioning
4. Refrigeration
5. Signs for directions
6. Guard rails

H. Furnishings
1. Select style for decora-
tions
2. Set up machinery
3. Move in supplies
4. Set up office or control
section
5. Landscape exterior
6. Direction markers and
safety signs

IV. Carrier-Route (waterways,
highways)

A. History
1. Primitive man
a. Land
(1) Paths
b. Water
(1) Rafts
(2) Primitive boats
2. Ancient civilization
a. Land
(1) Vehicles
(2) Trestles, arches
(3) Roads
b. Water
(1) Boats
(2) Sea going vessels
(3) Port facilities
3. Medieval
a. Land
(1) Roman roads
(2) Viaducts
b. Water
(1) Galleys
(2) Port facilities
4. Modern
a. Land
(1) Improved roads
(2) Larger vehicles
b. Water
(1) Improved port
facilities
(2) Steam vessels








CHAPTER II, INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS 43

Construction Area (Continued)


SUGGESTIVE LABORATORY
EXPERIENCES

Plan a flagstone walk


Plan a gravel walk

Plan walk or driveway


Draw map
markers


of local waterway with


Design and plan pool

Draw cross sections of different
types of roads

Plan a footbridge

Design and plan a small dam

Layfa flagstone walk

Build walk or driveway


Fill in and grade lot

Show strength of various mixes
and types of cement

Build a retaining wall


Display grades of stone, sand, and
gravel that can be purchased
locally

Build a footbridge


SUGGESTIVE UNDERSTANDINGS
AND ENRICHMENTS

B. Plans
1. Construction and ex-
pansion
a. Amount, type of traf-
fic
b. Roads, dams, canals,
levees
2. Topographical survey
a. Location of projects
(1) Land
(a) Contour lines
(b) Terrain
(2) Waterways
(a) Soundings
(b) Test banks
3. Conditioning factors
a. Geographic conditions
b. National defense
c. Construction code
d. Eliminate hazards
4. Structural drawings
a. Cross section
b. Specifications
c. Maps
5. Plan of operations

C. Earth moving
1. Setting stakes
2. Demolition
3. Heavy equipment
4. Clearing obstructions
5. Diverting water
6. Building drainage
7. Dredging-Tunneling

D. Foundations
1. Setting stakes
2. Use of caissons
3. Sub-foundations

E. Structures
1. Forms (concrete)
2. Steel re-enforcement
3. Expansion and contrac-
tion
4. Ventilation

F. Coverings
1. Highways
a. Black top
b. Tar and stone
c. Asphalt








'44 TEACHING INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

Construction Area (Continued)

SUGGESTIVE LABORATORY SUGGESTIVE UNDERSTANDINGS
EXPERIENCES AND ENRICHMENTS

2. Waterways
a. Shelter for equipment
b. Weather coating
G. Fixtures
1. Highways
a. Shoulders--ditches
b. Guard rails
Repair a dock c. Signals and signs
2. Waterways
a. Turbines and locks
b. Guard rails
c. Walks
H. Furnishings
1. Highways
a. Direction signs
b. Safety signals
c. Lane markings
2. Waterways
a. Water controlling de-
vices
b. Channel markers
c. Safety program

Manufacturing Area

Fabrication of materials in items of manufacture is prob-
ably the most characteristic achievement of our age. It is
characteristic because of the modernity of the ideas of mass
production and volume sales. The range of technological
achievement is evidenced in the various phases of the industrial
scene.
The manufacturing area of the new industrial arts program
is considered in terms of three major headings (1) materials;
(2) fabrication; and (3) consumption. Industrial arts has long
been concerned with materials, and there has been a resultant
misplacing of emphasis to the extent that materials came to be
regarded as the identifying elements or branches of the tech-
nology. All are familiar with the woodshop, the sheetmetal
shop, the machine shop. It seems obvious that this concept is
quite limited when industrial arts is seen as an integral part of
general education.
Suggestive experiences and enrichments appear as a means
of indicating the scope and diversity of the work in manufacture.





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46 TEACHING INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

Manufacturing Area


SUGGESTIVE LABORATORY
EXPERIENCES

Study and observe local manufac-
turing plants and processes in

Foods
Durable goods
Chemical products
Fibres
Construction


Demonstrate samples of
manufacture

Cloth
Weaves
Design
Warp and Weft
Dyes

Examine and experiment upon
materials

Woods

Cloths

Metals

Chemicals (simple)

Foods

Fabricated items

Synthetic materials

Discover local materials and use
them in fabrication

Gems

Stones

Shell

Grasses

Woods
Clays


SUGGESTIVE UNDERSTANDINGS
AND ENRICHMENT


I. Overview of Manufacturing

A. History and development
1. Prehistoric
2. Medieval (guilds)
3. Modern (industry)

B. Materials

C. Fabrication
1. Chemical
2. Physical

D. Consumption

E. Application

II. Materials

A. Foods
1. Animal matter
2. Plant life
3. Synthetic

B. Textiles
1. Wool
2. Cotton
3. Synthetics-rayon,
nylon

C. Rubber
1. Natural
2. Synthetic

D. Chemical compositions
1. Liquids
2. Solids
3. Gases

E. Cellulose
1. Cotton
2. Woods
3. Laminated materials
4. Fibres
5. Grasses

F. Leather
1. Natural
2. Imitation

G. Metal
1. Ferrous
2. Non-ferrous








CHAPTER II, INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS 47


Manufacturing Area (Continued)


SUGGESTIVE LABORATORY
EXPERIENCES

Study and observe ceramics in the
home and in industry
Dishes
Building materials
Glass
Ornamental

Sponge diving and processing
Rope manufacture
Knots and splices
Rope fibre types
Rope-laying

Picking, cleaning, and canning
foodstuffs (group work)

Christmas canning project

Food growing, coloring, etc.

Juice extraction

Construct simple food
machinery-as tin can slicers,
etc.

Make simple items as shop aprons

Construct looms, weaving frames,
belt looms
Weave
Rag rugs
Belts
Bead weaving
Towels
Cloth


Upholstering of
projects


other material


Net making
Tennis net
Fishing nets

Mats
Sports equipment
Balls
Swim fins
Diving mask


SUGGESTIVE UNDERSTANDINGS
AND ENRICHMENTS

H. Ceramics
1. Minerals
2. Natural clay
3. Chemicals
I. Miscellany
(Numerous small branches
of manufacture with spe-
cial materials)

III. Fabrication

A. Foods
1. Quantity preparation
2. Packaging
3. Distribution
4. Fabrication processes
a. Chemical
(1) Fermentation
(2) Preservatives
(3) Flavor and color
b. Physical
(1) Machinery
(2) Cooking
(3) Preparation
(4) Storage
(5) Freezing

B. Textiles
1. Chemical processes
a. Dyeing
b. Fireproofing
c. Waterproofing
d. Chemical synthetic
fibres
2. Physical fabrication
a. Cutting
b. Weaving
(1) Hand
(2) Power
c. Sewing
(1) Hand
(2) Power
d. Printing

C. Rubber Products
1. Chemical processes
a. Synthetics
b. Special character-
istics
c. Vulcanizing
d. Treating raw rubber
for properties
2. Physical
a. Forming









48 TEACHING INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

Manufacturing Area (Continued)


SUGGESTIVE LABORATORY
EXPERIENCES


Underwater hand gun
Tire and ball bladder patching
Rubber novelties


Photography, all aspects
Plastic projects
Making finishing materials, clean-
ing fluids

All woodwork projects
Stools
Tables
Etc.

Grass-woven projects


Reed and can
holstery


weaving or up-


Work in leather

Key Case
Bill-fold
Purse
Sheath


Curing and tanning, study and
observation

Making rawhide

Thong work

Construct projects such as:

Weather vane
Ash tray
Paper knife
House numbers
Stands and holders
Bracelets and jewelry


Experiment with metal properties

Temper and harden


SUGGESTIVE UNDERSTANDINGS
AND ENRICHMENTS


b. Dipping
c. Shaping
d. Pressing

D. Chemical compositions
1. Chemical
a. Finishes
b. Synthetics
c. Photography
2. Physical
a. Mixtures
b. Solutions
c. Plastic applications

E. Cellulose fibres
1. Chemical
a. Paper
b. Charcoals
c. Food products
2. Physical
a. Construction
b. Furniture
c. Laminated work
d. Pre-fabrication
F. Leather
1. Chemical
a. Curing
b. Tanning
c. Staining
2. Physical
a. Cutting
b. Lacing
c. Inlay
d. Coloring

G. Metal
1. Chemical
a. Smelting and reduc-
tion
b. Dow processes (mag-
nesium)
2. Physical
a. Alloys
b. Hardening
c. Tempering
d. Raising
f. Turning
e. Chasing

H. Ceramics
1. Chemical
a. Glass-making
b. Clay .preparation








CHAPTER II, INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS 49

Manufacturing Area (Continued)


SUGGESTIVE LABORATORY
EXPERIENCES


Mold and cast
Flower dishes
Plaques
Vases

Glass novelties and ornaments

Study and observe local ceramic
industry

Lapidary work, jewelry
Shell collection and shellcraft
Flower arrangement
Work in plastics


SUGGESTIVE UNDERSTANDINGS
AND ENRICHMENTS


c. Manufacturing ma-
terials
d. Glazes
2. Physical
a. Forming in clay
b. Potter's wheel
c. Shaping in glass
d. Firing
e. Applying glaze
I. Miscellany
1. Covers a vast number of
processes in small in-
dustry and craft shop-
may deal with
a. Sponges
b. Semi-precious stones
c. Rope
d. Plastics


Summary
This is a bewildering age. Not long ago, families, communi-
ties, states, and even nations lived largely to themselves. Re-
cently the certainty that this planet is indeed a very small place
has emerged into world consciousness. Humanly speaking, it
is a huge family bound together by such material ties as speedy
aircraft and atomic energy. Old ties of church and state have
diminished and left in their place a sense of loss. Education is
no longer merely academic in scope. It must be imbued with a
new vitality.
Recognizing these changes, industrial arts leaders have
based the new curriculum on the realities of life and the funda-
mental urges of the individual. The elementary and secondary
schools will, as a result, implement their programs with real
life experiences. The immature girl at a laboratory loom may
be the textile designer of tomorrow. The restless boy with his
home-made buzzer may be the electronic expert of later years.
Industrial arts teachers will seek to establish that work is
not slavery, nor is toil degrading; that home is not just a place
to eat and sleep, but a miniature democracy at work. School
is not a prison from which the closing bell brings release, but
a vantage point from which to survey far horizons and to
glimpse the dawn of days as yet unborn.







50 TEACHING INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

CHAPTER III

THE SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL INDUSTRIAL ARTS PROGRAM
It would be difficult to understand the purposes and ob-
jectives of the senior high school industrial arts offerings, or
to formulate a senior high school program, without reviewing
the two previous educational stages and being constantly aware
of their influence. Industrial arts work on the senior high
school level is based upon the manipulative skills and enriched
understandings developed during the junior high school period.
In a well-planned program, experiences on a higher level are
an outgrowth of previous and orientation experiences. Separa-
tion of one from the other will result in an inadequate coverage.
A brief resume discloses that in the elementary grades
emphasis is placed on the life reality of schoolwork through a
normal realization of the manipulative, investigative, art, and
social impulses. Adequate expression of these impulses tends
to produce social awareness and a generally well-rounded in-
dividual.
Upon this foundation is built the orientation structure of
the junior high school. For the first time, the child is given
an overview of industry as art and science, and through a broad
horizontal spread of experiences in the five areas-power, trans-
portation, communication, construction, and manufacture-he
becomes conscious of a widespread panorama, embracing a va-
riety of the fields of human endeavor. Emphasis is placed upon
the student's recognition of his place in the technological as-
pects of the local and world community, and he here selects
areas of greatest interest which may have avocational or voca-
tional import for him. Here too, he is encouraged to cultivate
useful habits, develop worth while desires, and generally em-
brace character qualities of the highest type.
A senior high school industrial arts program is in its best
interpretation based upon a strong preliminary background.
But it must be clearly perceived that certain of the outcomes
involving manipulative experiences and enriched, understandings
may be restated in terms of a difference in emphasis. For
example, the acquisition of manipulative skills and the perfect-
ing of those already acquired will receive greater focal atten-











0

REALIZATION
INVESTIGATION
AVOCATION
VOCATION
APPRECIATION
CREATION
SKILLS
UNDERSTANDINGS



OATT
0 R R E


N I S
R
A
T


HE VEIALEMWP
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
DEVELOPMENT

THE HORIZONTAL EMPHASIS
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL ORIENTATION
POWER TRANS- COMMUNI- MANU- CONSTRUC-G
PORTATION CATION FACTURE TION
Po- -T j








52 TEACHING INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

tion in the senior high school than was given in preceding
grades.
For many students the work may become truly pre-voca
tional, with more intensive learning experiences provided within
a narrower range of activities. It is in this vertical concept of
senior high school function that the chief difference lies. The
elective character of industrial arts work on this level further
emphasizes that vertical development, rather than increasing
breadth, is the desired goal. Here the breadth gained previously
may become depth. The overview is spread no further but is
subjected to a more penetrating technique with a resultant pil-
ing up of more. specialized experiences and learning.
It will be seen that aims and objectives for the senior high
school are very similar to those on the junior high school level.
Desirable personal qualities and good habits are to be sought
and developed as before. The junior high school objectives are
to be continued in effect, enlarged upon, and expanded. Certain
senior high school objectives, however, are over and beyond
those of the junior high school. These are different in degree
if not in kind. The facts that in the senior high school edu-
cational specialization begins and that in its three or four years
many students terminate their education, place grave emphasis
on the need for clarity of thought, consistency of purpose, verity
of content, and vitality of action.
For the majority of students, graduation from high school
ends the period of formal education. Unless there has been a
vertical increase in the development of individual aims toward
occupational and social goals, the graduate has not been served
to his greatest advantage, regardless of the horizontal breadth
of his total school experience. The advantageous place of in-
dustrial arts in this preparatory period lies in its diversified
character. This may be both pre-vocational and vocational.

Broad Aims and Objectives of the Senior High School Program
The modern purposes of education are realized in the high
school industrial arts laboratory. Health is emphasized in the
overall safety program; the fundamental processes of reading,
writing, and mathematics play a vital part in all planning and
integrated study; consumer knowledge and proper evaluation of








CHAPTER III, INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS 53

industrial products plus instruction in home mechanics con-
tribute to worthy home membership. The avocational and pre-
vocational values are obvious. Through an organized shop per-
sonnel program where students actively participate in all phases
of shop management, the individual student is given an oppor-
tunity for civic participation. Character development is a nor-
mal outgrowth where the student, in order to be successful,
must form desirable habits, develop worth while desires, and
demonstrate qualities of real value.
Some of the outcomes which should be reasonably ex-
pected in the senior high school industrial arts program may
include:
1. Experiential development on a vertical basis-the
improvement of skills and techniques, the increase
of learning
2. Terminal training-specific building upon general
foundations for the student who will go no further
3. Pre-vocational training-preliminary to job-holding
or to further definitely vocational preparation
4. Pre-professional training-manipulative experience
for professional fields that require a high degree of
coordinated manipulative activity
5. Technical training-background for specific further
technical education
6. Avocational development-outlet for and means of
expression of creative desires
7. Socio-economic perception-industrial awareness
and consumer knowledge
8. Curricular integration-a clear understanding of
and working usage of relationships of school content
9. Character formation-the firm formation and fol-
lowing of high spiritual and ethical habits, desires,
and qualities-an emphasis on being

Methods and Techniques
There has been much comment concerning the efficiency
of the teaching methods developed for the armed forces during









54 TEACHING INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

the recent war. Often this comment is accompanied by a de-
mand that these methods be used in the public schools. Tima1
found that none of the teaching methods used in these training
programs was new to industrial arts education. All had been
used in some form along with many others which the armed
forces had not used. The phenomenal success of these methods
was due in many cases to the greater maturity of students, the
lack of regard to expenditure for materials and aids, and the
motivation of a great national emergency; namely, the pressure
of the need for trained people.
Because of the special nature of industrial arts laboratory
work, certain techniques of teaching such as the use of instruc-
tion sheets, lend themselves more readily for use in the labora-
tory than they do to other general areas of education. In addi-
tion, project work, problem solving, investigations, visitations,
models, and visual aids may all be used as stimuli for creating
and increasing interest and for enriching the student's under-
standings. Methods and techniques which have been found
satisfactory on the more elementary levels of learning may be
employed with equal success in the senior high school. Content
materials alone take on a more complex form. Whatever
methods are adopted, however, the educational results are largely
in direct proportion to the amount of diversified activity re-
quired of the students. This is especially true in the industrial
arts laboratory. Several of the general techniques particularly
adapted to industrial arts teaching follow:

DEMONSTRATIONS
1. Class
2. Group
3. Individual

DEVICES
1. Instruction sheets
a. Operation sheets
b. Information sheets
'John A. Tima, Have Any New Teaching Procedures Been Used in
the Armed Forces That Gould Be Adapted to Industrial Arts? Pennsyl-
vania State College, 1945.








CHAPTER III, INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS 55

c. Job sheets
d. Study guide
e. Planning sheets
2. Shop library and reference materials
3. Motion pictures and slide films
4. Models and illustrations
5. Manuals and handbooks

In the various materials areas of industrial arts activity,
there are certain fundamentals of procedure which underlie
methods and techniques, and which may be considered common
to all. They are definitely sequential for any given undertaking,
although the order of sequence may cut across a similar order
for another activity. These fundamentals may be suggested by
the following brief outline:

CREATION
1. Ideas-expressed graphically in the Sketch
2. Design effected by the modification of ideas
through Arrangement
3. Plan the final and complete intention, set forth in
Working Drawings

OPERATION
1. Tools-which assist in bringing reality to the plan,
knowledge of which is essential; two types, hand
and power.
2. Processes-some related to tools, some not; a wide
range of mastery enables selection.
3. Materials-some major, as wood for woodwork;
some minor, as hardware for woodwork. Relation-
ship to tools must be understood.

REALIZATION
1. Expression of design and plan-if this does not
occur, there can be no adequate realization.
2. Synthesis of operations-a complete mastery of op-









56 TEACHING INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS '

erations or single skills does not assure the expres-
sion of creative intent, nor the final realization
of a coordinated whole.
3. Satisfactory completion-r-the final doing of every-
thing necessary and checking of the original con-
cept to assure that what has been done is what was
intended. This does not eliminate desirable change
or ideational growth.

Suggestive Guidance Functions of Senior High School
Industrial Arts
If the exploratory orientation of the junior high school
period is a broad highway of technological experience, then the
senior high work may well be considered as a narrower, up-
ward-climbing road, stemming from the highway, and leading
ever more steeply to the peak of graduation and the mountain
ranges of life experience which follow. It is crucial, then, that
in the senior high school the guidance function be developed
fully. Guidance in terms of counsel is important. There is also
the guidance provided by the laboratory atmosphere, which
should reflect life and its growing, living, everchanging experi-
ences. Even the physical arrangement of the laboratory should
carry a silent message for the future, and thus serve a guidance
function.
Not only is the need for guidance great, but the danger of
its neglect lies in the harm it may do to the pupil whose bewild-
erment augments his need, and also to the student whose full
contribution as a leader in the technological society depends
upon wise guidance.
Certain techniques will aid in effecting both educational and
vocational guidance. Tests are available which aid in giving a
full and complete picture of individual mental, physical, and
moral characteristics. Aptitudes and inclinations may be meas-
ured with some objectivity. The teacher must beware of relying
upon such devices as giving the final or whole story of any in-
dividual student. Hasty guidance judgments based on an in-
adequate or inferior testing program are a danger to sound
guidance programs or intentions.








CHAPTER III, INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS 57

Personal Conferences. Individual conferences, though sub-
jective in nature, are a means for supplementing objective data
and provide the setting for gained confidence and for eventual
counsel.
Extra-curricular Contacts. The opportunities for extra-
curricular counsel provided by the school stage, the athletic
field, the social event, the church program, and the community
will aid the teacher immeasurably in an estimation of the whole
student. The fact that young people come from differing homes
and cultural backgrounds is alone sufficient to explain a diversity
of occupational choices, hobbies, future educational intentions,
social group selections, and other interests. The wise guidance
counsellor will know of the student's home life, parentage, family
relationships, and economic status, as well as the purely educa-
tional and personal facts gleaned in the school setting.
In brief then, senior high school guidance functions include:

1. Aptitude and guidance testing
2. Personal conference and counsel
3. Extra-curricular contacts
4. Vertical improvement of vocational skills and learning
5. Direction of avocational interests
6. Integration of school experiences with each other and,
with the occupation or education to follow
7. Particular recognition of individual differences
8. Emphasis upon the centrality of character

Th'e particularly fortunate position of the industrial arts
teacher as a guidance counsellor is a point to be emphasized.
He is able to interpret to the high school youth the modern
world's complexity. He may direct and open opportunities in a
variety of areas. By exhibiting the growing, creative, dynamic
nature of our civilization, and by exemplifying the spiritual and
ethical values which must be retained to support it, the teacher's
wise leadership may become a central factor in the students'
realization of the deepest and most comprehensive cultural
values.








58 TEACHING INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS


Content Outlines for Specific Areas
In Florida, teacher certification in Industrial Arts is domi-
nant in three areas (1) woods; (2) drawing; and (3) metals.
In the outlined materials which follow, these three areas have
been treated somewhat more fully than the other areas included.
But this does not imply that the other fields of endeavor are
less important. Electricity, weaving, ceramics, and leathercraft
are only a few of the materials areas which might be of primary
interest and need in the cases of individual students. Where
local conditions warrant, any materials area which has had only
craft emphasis, may be expanded to assume major importance.
The following breakdowns, it must be emphasized, are only
suggestive in nature. To this end, while all have the same gen-
eral three-column structure, they differ somewhat in the degree
of detail. They should be used only as they are applicable to
the local situation.




GENERAL DRAWING


SUGGESTIVE LABORATORY EXPERIENCES


Layout of sheet of drawing paper
Draw:
1. Football field
2. Soccer field
3. Baseball diamond
4. Basketball court
Read types of graphs
Draw:
1. Bar graph
2. Pie-graph
3. Line graph


Lay out:
1. Weekly class schedule
2. School athletic schedule
3. Club schedule
4. Auditorium seating plan


BASIC SKILLS AND OPERATIONS


A. Reading a Scale
1. Identify divisions of scale to
16 ths.
2. Make points with pencil

B. Use of Simple Instruments
3. Draw horizontal lines using
T-square and triangles
4. Draw vertical lines using
T-square
5. Draw diagonal lines using
T-square and triangles
6. Draw arcs and circles using
compass
7. Use protractor in laying off
angles
8. Erase pencil lines

C. Lettering
9. Shape upper-class letters
10. Make numerals
11. Make arrowheads
12. Letter notes and specifica-
tions
13. Letter title strip


SUGGESTIVE UNDERSTANDINGS AND
ENRICHMENTS

Importance of drawing as a universal
language.
History of paper and processes in
paper-making

History of writing devices and mak-
ing of pencils




Care of drawing instruments
1. T-square
2. Triangles
3. Compass
4. Protractor
5. French curve

Purposes of graphs




History and evolution of alphabet and
numerals






GENERAL DRAWING (Continued)


SUGGESTIVE LABORATORY EXPERIENCES



Draw various types of irregularly-
shaped blocks





Draw:
1. Types of irregularly-shaped
blocks
2. Simple machine parts
3. Simple tools



Read a working drawing
Make a working drawing:
1. First-aid stretcher
2. Bicycle rack
3. Foot stool
4. Taboret
5. Book ends
Draw:
1. Pictorial sketches
2. Flow sheets
3. Animated charts
4. Free-hand working drawing
5. Design a project


BASIC SKILLS AND OPERATIONS

D. Alphabet of Lines and Conven-
tional symbols
14. Block out drawing
15. Make drawing using conven-
tional lines
16. Dimension drawing

E. Isometric Drawing
17. Choose correct views
18. Project lines using compass
and/or triangles
19. Pencil drawing in correct
order
20. Draw irregular curve using
French curve
21. Transfer measurements using
dividers

F. Working Drawings
2. Choose correct views





G. Sketching
23. Make circles, arcs and
straight lines free-hand
24. Estimate proportion


SUGGESTIVE UNDERSTANDINGS AND
ENRICHMENTS


Uses of isometric drawing










Uses of working drawings






Uses of flow-sheets and animated
charts

Occupational opportunities in com-
mercial art




GENERAL DRAWING (Continued)


SUGGESTIVE LABORATORY EXPERIENCES

Read vector diagrams
Draw:
1. Vector Diagrams
2. Interception problems

Read detail drawings
Make:
1. Detail drawings of simple ma-
chine parts
2. Assembly drawings
3. Operational diagrams
Develop cams
Read contour maps
Survey and map:
1. School ground
2. Boy-scout camp
3. Playground
4. City block
Read a wiring diagram
Draw wiring diagram:
1. Simple bell or buzzer circuit
2. Scout meeting house
3. Garage
4. Simple dwelling
5. One-tube radio set

Layout:
1. Cup
2. Dust pan
3. Fishing tackle box
4. Funnel


BASIC SKILLS AND OPERATIONS

H. Scale Drawing
25. Draw to various scales

I. Machine Drafting

26. Draw bolts with conventional
threads
27. Draw keys and keyways


J. Mapping
28. Use correct mapping symbols
29. Make lower-case letters


K. Electrical Drafting
30. Use correct electrical symbols




L. Sheet-metal Drafting
31. Draw development of square,
prism-shaped object
32. Draw development of cone-
shaped object
33. Draw development of pyra-
mid-shaped object


SUGGESTIVE UNDERSTANDINGS AND
ENRICHMENTS


Function of scale drawing
Problem solving by graphic
representation

Occupational opportunities and em-
ployment conditions in machine
Purpose of assembly drawings


Purpose of operational diagrams

Types and evolution of maps
Employment opportunities in survey-
ing and mapping occupations


Occupational opportunities for elec-
trical draftsmen
Purpose of wiring diagrams



Occupational opportunities for sheet-
metal draftsmen
Purpose of sheet-metal development






GENERAL DRAWING (Continued)


SUGGESTIVE LABORATORY EXPERIENCES

Read floor plan and elevation
Draw floor plan:

1. Club house
2. Simple dwelling
Draw elevations
Plan landscape
Sketch styles of architecture

Read aircraft drawings
Draw:
1. Aircraft structures
2. Fittings and fastenings
Sketch types of aircraft

Blueprint tracing


BASIC SKILLS AND OPERATIONS

M. Architectural Drafting
34. Use conventional architec-
tural symbols
35. Make one-and two-point per-
spectives
36. Make rendering

N. Aircraft Drafting
37. Use conventional symbols in
making aircraft drawings

0. Duplicating
38. Make tracings
39. Ink drawing in proper order


SUGGESTIVE UNDERSTANDINGS AND
ENRICHMENTS


Occupational opportunities in archi-
tectural drafting
Purpose of floor plans and elevations

Need for perspectives and rendering
styles of architecture

Occupational opportunities in aircraft
drafting


Care of instruments used in inking
Care and duplicating materials and
machines
Types of duplicating machines and
processes
Cautions to be exercised in duplicat-
ing tracings


GENERAL WOODWORKING

SUGGESTIVE UNDERSTANDINGS AND
SUGGESTIVE LABORATORY EXPERIENCES BASIC SKILLS AND OPERATIONS ENRICHMENTS

Plan the procedure for work A. Planning and Layout
1. Make working drawing 1. Design by squares Importance of wood in daily living
2. Make bill of materials 2. Measure with rule Design in woodworking
3. Calculate cost 3. Select stock How to read a working drawing
How to calculate board measure and
cost




GENERAL WOODWORKING (Continued)


SUGGESTIVE LABORATORY EXPERIENCES


Construct:
1. Cutting board
2. Knife rack
3. Scrap book covers
4. Bicycle rack

Construct:
1. Tool box
2. Saw horse
3. Trellis
4. Lawn chair
5. Step ladder







Construct:
1. Book ends,
2. Lamp

Construct:
1. Lawn ornaments
2. Bird house
3. Model boat
4. Wall shelf
5. Tray
6. Tool cabinet


BASIC SKILLS AND OPERATIONS

B. Cutting
4. Use a cross-cut saw
5. Use a rip saw
6. Saw to line


C. Squaring
7. Gauge lines
8. Assemble and adjust plane
9. Plane an edge
10. Test with try square
11. Plane a surface
12. Plane end grain






D. Boring
13. Drill holes
14. Bore holes

E. Shaping and Jointing
15. Lay out and cut chamfer
16. Lay out angle with framing
square
17. Adjust and check angles with
T-bevel
18. Shape with draw knife
19. Form with spoke shave


SUGGESTIVE UNDERSTANDINGS AND
ENRICHMENTS


Safety precautions in woodworking
Identifying common kinds of wood
Characteristics and working qualities
of common kinds of wood
Methods of cutting wood
Standard dimensions of lumber

Kinds of wood and their uses and
classification
Forestry, lumbering, and conservation
How lumber is dried and seasoned
Effect of moisure and temperature
upon wood
How veneer and plywood are made
History and development of wood
working tools
Labor organization in the wood-work-
ing industry
Vocational opportunities in wood-
working and allied occupations




Types of joints and where they are
used






GENERAL WOODWORKING (Continued)


SUGGESTIVE LABORATORY EXPERIENCES


7. Boat














Construct:
1. Night table




Construct:
1. End table
2. Dog house
3. Play house
4. Trailer


BASIC SKILLS AND OPERATIONS

20. Use a gauge
21. Lay out curves; divide spaces
22. Saw curves with .coping and
turning saws
23. Saw with back saw
24. Trim with a chisel
25. Lay out and cut cross-lap
joint
26. Lay out and cut dado joint
27. Lay out and cut rabbet joint
28. Lay out and cut mortise and
tennon joint
29. Lay out and cut dowel joint
30. Lay out and cut edge mold
31. Lay out duplicate parts


F. Smoothing
32. Sand wood surfaces
33. Scrape wood surface
hand
scraper


with


G. Assembling
34. Drive and draw nails
35. Use counter sink
36. Fasten with screws
37. Prepare glue
38. Glue up work and clamp
stock
39. Fasten with lag screws
40. Fit hinges
41. Hang cabinet door or cover


SUGGESTIVE UNDERSTANDINGS AND
ENRICHMENTS


Types of abrasives, their use and
manufacture

Kinds, sizes and purposes of nails
and how they are sold
Kinds, sizes and purposes of screws
and how they are sold
Other types of wood fasteners and
their uses
Types of hardware and their pur-
poses
Kinds, purpose and preparation of
glue
Kinds and purposes of holding and
clamping tools








GENERAL WOODWORKING (Continued)


SUGGESTIVE LABORATORY EXPERIENCES


Construct:
1. Wall shelf
2. Foot stool






Clean finishing brushes

Sharpen edge tools

Sharpen auger bits and twist drills

Sharpen rip-saw and cross-cut saw


BASIC SKILLS AND OPERATIONS


H. Finishing
42. Apply wood filler
43. Apply stain
44. Apply shellac
45. Apply varnish
46. Apply wax
47. Bleach stained surface
48. Apply paint
49. Apply lacquer
50. Set cabinet hardware
51. Upholster a seat

I. Care of Tools
52. Clean and care for brushes
53. Sharpen edge tools
a. Plane
b. Chisel
c. Scraper
54. Sharpen an auger bit
55. Sharpen saw
a. Cross-cut
b. Rip
56. Keep tools from rusting


SUGGESTIVE UNDERSTANDINGS AND
ENRICHMENTS


Purposes and types of finishes
Materials of which finishes are made
Care of finishing materials
Distinguishing characteristics of var-
ious types and periods of furniture
New developments in the woodwork-
ing industry and the combination
of wood with other media of con-
struction






GENERAL WOODWORKING (Continued)
(Machine Tool Operations)


SUGGESTIVE LABORATORY EXPERIENCES


Construct:
1. Clothes hanger
2. Mail box





Construct:
1. Cedar chest
2. Wheel barrow







Construct:
1. Waste basket
2. Bench Stool




Construct:
1. Work bench


BASIC SKILLS AND OPERATIONS

A. The Jointer
1. Care for and adjust machine
2. Joint an edge
3. Cut a chamfer or bevel
4. Make a spline joint
5. Take the wind out of a board
6. Cut a rabbet
7. Cut tapers

B. The Circular-Saw
1. Care for and adjust saw
2. Rip
3. Cut off
4. Cut grooves
5. Cut dadoes
6. Cut tenons
7. Cut miters
8. Cut tapers
9. Resaw

C. The Bank-Saw
1. Care for and adjust the saw
2. Saw curves
3. Saw circles
4. Rip
5. Cut off
6. Cut tenons

D. The Surfacer
1. Care for and adjust a
surface


SUGGESTIVE UNDERSTANDINGS AND
ENRICHMENTS


The following items of information
are included for each machine:
Safety precautions in operating:

1. How and where to stand while
using
2. How to start and stop machine
3. Purpose and use of guards
4. Speed of machine


Names of parts and attachments
Range of work which may be done:
1. Usual operations
2. Special operations
Sizes of machines
Manufacturer and cost




GENERAL WOODWORKING (Continued)
(Machine Tool Operations)


SUGGESTIVE LABORATORY EXPERIENCES


2. Table


Construct:
1. Tie rack
2. Taboret




Construct:
1. Desk
2. Window screen
3. Chest of drawers


Turn:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.


Night stick
Handle
Ball bat
Bank (barrel)
Top *


BASIC SKILLS AND OPERATIONS
2. Adjust and control feed
3. Feed work into the machine

E. The Sander
1. Care for and adjust the
sander
2. Operate the sander on flat
work
3. Operate the sander on curved
work
F. The Mortiser
1. Adjust and care for the mor-
tiser
2. Set and adjust chisels and
bits
3. Feed work
4. Make set-up for duplicate
parts
G. The Turning Lathe
1. Adjust and care for the lathe
2. Center stock
3. Mount work between centers
4. Rough down with a gouge
5. Smooth with a skew
6. Lay off pattern on piece
7. Size with a sizing-tool
8. Mark off with a skew
9. Trim with a cut-off tool
10. Use the skew to:
a. Cut shoulder
b. Cut tapers
c. Cut beads on convex sur-
face


SUGGESTIVE UNDERSTANDINGS AND
ENRICHMENTS








GENERAL WOODWORKING (Continued)
(Machine Tool Operations)


SUGGESTIVE LABORATORY EXPERIENCES


6. Lamp
7. Tray
8. Bowl
9. Mould
10. Jewel box


BASIC SKILLS AND OPERATIONS

11. Scrape with diamond-point
and round nose scraper
12. Measure with outside calipers
13. Measure with inside calipers
14. Cut concave curves with
gouge
15. Make and use templates
16. Mount work on face-plate
17. Mount work on a screw-
chuck
18. Size work on a face-plate
19. Hollow-out work on face-
plate
20. Fasten pieces together, tem-
porarily for turning
21. Sand stock in the lathe
22. Cut off stock in the lathe
23. Apply finish on the lathe
24. Make a hollow chuck and
mount work on it
25. Make a spindle chuck and
mount work on it
26. Make a set-up for duplicate
parts


SUGGESTIVE UNDERSTANDINGS AND
ENRICHMENTS




CERAMICS


SUGGESTIVE LABORATORY EXPERIENCES


Make out bill of materials
Compute cost





Form:
1. Tea tile
2; Paper weight
3. Jewel box
4. Pen tray






1. Ash tray
2., Animal figures
3. Figurines


Form:
1. Bowl


BASIC SKILLS AND OPERATIONS

A. Preparation for Clay
1. Prepare dry clay
2. Mix clay
3. Prepare clay "slip"
4. Roll slabs


B. Forming
5. Make template
6. Make plaster mold'
7. Coil clay
8. Cast clay
9. Mould on wheel
10. Incise clay
11. Sponge ware
12. Handle green ware
13. Trim green ware

C. Drying and Firing
14. Test Biscuit ware
15. Light kiln
16. Regulate heat
17. Select cones
18. Stock kiln
19. Place cones

D. Glazing
20. Keep ceramic records
21. Prepare under-glaze
22. Apply under-glaze
23. Prepare glaze


SUGGESTIVE UNDERSTANDINGS AND
ENRICHMENTS

Substance of clay
History and development of ceramics
Sources of clay
Kinds of pottery clay
Pottery products
Importance of ceramics industry
Vocabulary of ceramics
Machines and tools of ceramics

Processes in porcelain production
Pottery forms








Construction of kiln
Methods of heating kiln
Safety precautions


Costs of production
Vocational opportunities in the cera-
mics industry
The ceramics engineer





CERAMICS (Continued)

SUGGESTIVE UNDERSTANDINGS AND
SUGGESTIVE LABORATORY EXPERIENCES BASIC SKILLS AND OPERATIONS ENRICHMENTS

2. Cup 24. Apply glaze
3. Mug 25. Apply over-glaze
Form: E. Finishing
1. Vase 26. Make designs China-ware periods:
2. Desk set 27. Apply designs 1. Haviland
2. Wedgewood, etc.
Applied design.
Selection of dinner ware

LEATHER WORK

SUGGESTIVE UNDERSTANDINGS AND
SUGGESTIVE LABORATORY EXPERIENCES BASIC SKILLS AND OPERATIONS ENRICHMENTS

A. Laying out and Cutting
Make out a bill of materials 1. Use a square, rule and tern- History and development of the tan-
Compute costs plates for laying out pattern ning industry
2. Use chalk in marking off Present-day significance of the in-
pattern dustry
3. Use a cutting knife

B. Skiving
Make: 4. Use a skiving knife Vocabulary of leather working
1. Comb case 5. Use glass, marble, or similar Vocational opportunities in the tan-
2. Book mark hard surface for skiving ning industry
3. Key case Safety precautions in leather working
4. Coin purse C. Surface Enrichment
6. Use sponge to moisten leather
Make: 7. Transfer design Kinds of leather and their uses
1. Billfold 8. Use a tracing modeler Care of leather-working tools




LEATHER WORK (Continued)


SUGGESTIVE LABORATORY EXPERIENCES

2. Book cover
3. Pocketbook
4. Belt







Make:
1. Camera case


BASIC SKILLS AND OPERATIONS

9. Use other designing tools for
enriching the surface
a. Edge beveler
b. Edge creaser
c. Stamper
d. Incising knife
e. Background stippler
10. Dye leather

D. Assembling
11. Use leather cement
12. Wax thread for hand sewing
13. Use jig for cutting lace
14. Splice lace
15. Use a thonging punch
16. Use a revolving punch
17. Use a lacing needle for single
and double stitching
18. Use a machine to sew leather
19. Plait leather thongs
20. Install a snap-fastener
21. Rivet together pieces

E. Finishing
22. Use saddle soap in cleaning
leather
23. Use wax on leather for pre-
serving finish


SUGGESTIVE UNDERSTANDINGS AND
ENRICHMENTS












BASKETRY AND REEDCRAFT


SUGGESTIVE LABORATORY EXPERIENCES

Plan work procedure:
1. Make and/or read working
drawing
2. Make bill of materials
3. Compute cost
Fabricate:
1. Mat
2. Coaster
3. Basket
4. Tray
5. Table
6. Chair
7. Magazine stand

Cane:
1. Footstool
2. Chair


BASIC SKILLS AND OPERATIONS

A. Shaping
1. Arrange fibers for single
weave
2. Arrange fibers for double
weave
3. Arrange fibers for diamond
weave
4. Weave borders
5. Shape basket
6. Block basket
7. Form spirals
8. Braid fibers
9. Weave cane seat

B. Assembling
10. Size glue

C. Finishing
11. Apply enamel finish
12. Apply varnish finish


SUGGESTIVE UNDERSTANDINGS AND
ENRICHMENTS

History and development of basketry
and reedcraft
Sources and types of fibers and reeds
Vocabulary of basketry and reedcraft
Types of raffia
Native materials for basketry and
reedcraft
Materials and equipment used in
basketry and reedcraft




Kinds of glue and their purposes


Kinds of finishing materials

Care of tools and materials used in
basketry and reedcraft




TEXTILES AND WEAVING


SUGGESTIVE LABORATORY EXPERIENCES


Plan work procedure:
1. Compute cost
2. Select design
3. Prepare design and select
proper color combinations

Weave:
1. Book mark
2. Hot plate mat



Weave:
1. Looper mat
2. Toweling
3. Dish holder
4. Purse


Belt
Rug
Table runner
Bed spread
Curtain
Tapestry
Dress goods


BASIC SKILLS AND OPERATIONS


A. Simple Weaving
1. Prepare weaving board
2. Lay down warp thread
3. Separate warp at even inter-
vals
4. Thread weft over and under
warp
5. Make even selvage
6. Pack threads with comb
using comb as a beater
7. Tie warp threads into fringe

B. Weaving on Loom
8. Tie warp string to back beam
9. Wind warp thread over front
beam
10. Tie warp thread to front
beam
11. Pass shed-stick under and
over warp
12. Form shed with shed-stick
13. Wind shuttle with weft
14. Treedle loom
15. Lace weft through warp
16. Draw down pattern
17. Make hems and fringes
18. Tie up a counter-balance
loom
19. Use various types of warp:
a. Stripped
b. Wool
c. Rug


SUGGESTIVE UNDERSTANDINGS AND
ENRICHMENTS


History, development, and importance
of the textile industry
Color systems
Vocational opportunities in the tex-
tile industry
Kinds of thread and how they are
made
Vocabulary of weaving




Kinds of looms; parts of loom
Types of weaves and purpose of each:
1. Plain
2. Serge
3. Satin
4. Tapestry
5. Finger
6. Colonial







TEXTILES AND WEAVING (Continued)

SUGGESTIVE UNDERSTANDINGS AND
SUGGESTIVE LABORATORY EXPERIENCES BASIC SKILLS AND OPERATIONS ENRICHMENTS

d. Mercerized
e. Mercerized filler
f. Linen filler
g. Wool filler
h. Rug filler

PLASTICS

SUGGESTIVE UNDERSTANDINGS AND
SUGGESTIVE LABORATORY EXPERIENCES BASIC SKILLS AND OPERATIONS ENRICHMENTS

A. Planning and Design
Plan procedure: 1. Lay out pattern History and development of plastics
1. Read a working drawing 2. Transfer pattern to plastics Vocabulary of plastics
2. Make bill of materials 3. Choose pleasing color combi- Types and classification of plastics
3. Compute cost nations

B. Shaping and Enriching
Construct: 4. Cut stock Significance of plastics in daily
1.. Letter opener 5. Square stock living:
2. Ring 6. Drill and bore necessary holes 1. Household
3. House numbers 7. Tap holes and cut threads 2. School
4. Dress clip 8. Cut curves in plastics 3. Industry
5. Blotter corners 9. Cut grooves in surface 4. Athletics
6. Paper weight 10. Vein the surface 5. Military
7. Ash tray 11. Carve the surface 6. Accessories
8. Picture frame 12. Carve the shape
9. Napkin ring 13. Inlay a surface Occupational opportunities in the
10. Neckerchief slide 14. Overlay a surface plastics industries
15. Bend plastics to desired shape




PLASTICS (Continued)

SUGGESTIVE UNDERSTANDINGS AND
SUGGESTIVE LABORATORY EXPERIENCES BASIC SKILLS AND OPERATIONS ENRICHMENTS

Construct: C. Assembling
1. Flower-pot 16. Apply drive screws Properties of plastics:
2. Candle holder 17. Cement plastics to other 1. Thermal
3. Lamp materials 2. Physical
4. Book ends 18. Join two pieces of plastic 3. Chemical

Construct: D. Finishing
1. Powder box 19. Rough finish plastics Care of tools and materials used in
2. Cigarette box 20. Polish working with plastics
3. Salt and pepper set
4. Tray

GENERAL METALS
(Sheet Metal)

SUGGESTIVE UNDERSTANDINGS AND
SUGGESTIVE LABORATORY EXPERIENCES BASIC SKILLS AND OPERATIONS ENRICHMENTS

Plan working procedure: A. Planning and Layout
1. Read working drawing 1. Make layout using common Importance of lighter ferrous metals
2. Make bill of materials drafting tools in daily living
3. Compute cost 2. Transfer layout to metal with History and development of metal
punch and mallet working
Make layout 3. Use training square, scriber, Processes in sheet-metal production
and dividers in laying out Kinds and sources of metals
pattern Vocabulary of sheet-metal work
Safety precautions in metal working
B. Cutting
4. Cut metal with tinner's snips Kinds and purposes of tinner's snips
5. Use hawk-bill snips for cut- Kinds and purposes of cold chisels
ting curves and circles How metals are gauged








GENERAL METALS (Continued)
(Sheet Metal)


SUGGESTIVE LABORATORY EXPERIENCES


Fabricate:
1. Cookie cutter
2. Sugar scoop
3. Cup
4. Box
5. Book ends














Fabricate:
1. Mailbox
2. Funnel
3. Waste basket


BASIC SKILLS AND OPERATIONS

6. Cut metal with a cold chisel
7. Sharpen a cold chisel

C. Shaping
8. Smooth edges of metal with
file
9. Bend metal by hand using
wood stock and clamps
10. Use hammer and mallet to
form metal on stakes
11. Use hand seamer and bar
folder to bend metal and
form joints
12. Make wire edge with pliers
13. Use machine to make wire
edge
14. Drill holes with twist drill
15. Use a solid punch for making
holes in metal
16. Use a hollow punch for mak-
ing holes in metal
17. Use burring machine
18. Crimp or shrink edges of
metal

D. Assembling
19. File a soldering copper
20. Light a gas furnace
21. Tin a soldering copper
22. Use fluxes in soldering a
joint
23. Use a rivet set in riveting a
joint


SUGGESTIVE UNDERSTANDINGS AND
ENRICHMENTS


Kinds and purposes of files
Occupational opportunities in sheet-
metal occupations


















Kinds of solder and their purposes
Kinds of fluxes and their purposes
How size of soldering copper is de-
termined
Kinds and sizes of rivets; their pur-
pose and how they are sold


I




GENERAL METALS (Continued)
(Sheet Metal)

SUGGESTIVE UNDERSTANDINGS AND
SUGGESTIVE LABORATORY EXPERIENCES BASIC SKILLS AND OPERATIONS ENRICHMENTS

24. Turn a lock seam
25. Groove by hand and machine

E. Finishing
26. Use gas furnace to heat and Care of finishing materials
anneal metal Care of tools used in sheet metal
27. Immerse in oil work
28. Apply enamel and bronze
powders
29. Apply lacquer

GENERAL METALS (Continued)
(Art Metal and Bench Work)

SUGGESTIVE UNDERSTANDINGS AND
SUGGESTIVE LABORATORY EXPERIENCES BASIC SKILLS AND OPERATIONS ENRICHMENTS

A. Planning and Layout
Plan working procedures: 1. Transfer pattern to metal History and development of non-
1. Read working drawing 2. Lay out pattern on metal ferrous metals industries and theii
2. Make bill of materials using square, awl, scriber and importance in daily living
3. Compute cost dividers Processes in production of non-fer-
Make pattern using squares rous metals
Make working drawing B. Cutting Occupational opportunities in metals
3. Cut metal with tinner's snips industries
Form: 4. Use a hack saw to cut mild
1. Bowl steel History and development of the iron
2. Ash tray 5. Cut curves in metal with and steel industry
3. Letter opener hawk-bill snips Processes in production
6. Cut metal with cold chisel Occupational opportunities






GENERAL METALS (Continued)
(Art Metal and Bench Work)


SUGGESTIVE LABORATORY EXPERIENCES


Form:
1. Wall placque
2. Flower pot holder
3. Foot scraper
4. Stand
5. Candelabra
6. Bud vase
7. Book ends















Form:
1. Shoe rack
2. Lamp
3. Tray


BASIC SKILLS AND OPERATIONS

C. Shaping and Ornamentation
7. File edges of metal smooth
8. Clean metal in acid pickling
bath
9. Use raising hammer and
wooden blocks in forming
metal
10. Cut metal with jeweler's saw
11. Use acids to etch metal
12. Planish metal using stake
and planishing hammer
13. Bend mild steel using stake
and ball-pein hammer
14. Use jig to bend mild steel
15. Use wrench and pipe to twist
mild steel
16. Drill holes in metal using
twist drill
17. Tap holes in mild steel
18. Use peining hammers to pein
mild steel
19. Cut holes in metal with solid
punch and hollow punch
20. Cut threads on metal

D. Assembling
21. File a soldering copper
22. Light a gas furnace
23. Tin soldering copper
24. Use fluxes in soldering joint
25. Rivet a joint
26. Countersink mild steel


SUGGESTIVE UNDERSTANDINGS AND
ENRICHMENTS


How non-ferrous metals are gauged
in size
Safety precautions in working with
acids
Care of equipment and materials

















Sizes, kinds, and uses of machine
screws




GENERAL MIVETALS CContinued)
(Art Metal and Bench Work)

SUGGESTIVE UNDERSTANDINGS AND
SUGGESTIVE LABORATORY EXPERIENCES BASIC SKILLS AND OPERATIONS ENRICHMENTS

E. Finishing
27. Use abrasives of varying de- Processes in production of finishing
grees of coarseness to polish materials
metal
28. Polish metal with rouge and
buffing wheel
29. Apply lacquer
30. Apply enamel
31. Apply bronze powders

GENERAL METALS (Continued)
(Machine Shop Operations)

SUGGESTIVE UNDERSTANDINGS AND
SUGGESTIVE LABORATORY EXPERIENCES BASIC SKILLS AND OPERATIONS ENRICHMENTS

A. Setting up work on:
Plan working procedure: 1. Lathe History, development, and importance
1. Read working drawing 2. Milling machine of the machine-tool industry
2. Make working drawing 3. Shaper Machines and their importance in
3. Make bill of materials 4. Planer mass production
4. Compute cost 5. Drill Safety precautions
6. Grinder Vocabulary
Occupational opportunities in ma-
B. Lathe Operations chine-tool industries
Machine all parts and assemble fol- 1. Facing Types, kind, sizes, manufacturers,
lowing tools: 2. Centering cost of machine tools
1. Plumb-bob 3. Boring Gears and gear types
2. Ball-pein hammer 4. Tapering Types of abrasives
3. Punch a. Tail-stock set-over Kinds of screw threads
4. Cold chisel b. Compound rest Fits and fitting:
5. Screw driver c. Taper attachment 1. Working; running












GENERAL METALS (Continued)
(Machine Shop Operations)


SUGGESTIVE LABORATORY EXPERIENCES

6. Surface gauge
7. Bench vise
8. Drill vise
9. Reamer
Machine following
Machine tool parts
1. Face plate
2. Taper center
3. Pulley
4. Gear
5. Planer parallels
Machine engine parts (Steam or gas,
model or full size) :
1. Crankshaft
2. Piston
3. Cylinder
4. Cam shaft
5. Valve
6. Connecting rod
Grind tool bits
Grind twist drills


BASIC SKILLS AND OPERATIONS

5. Thread-chasing
a. Vee type
b. Square type
c. Acme














C. Tool Grinding
D. Drill Grinding


SUGGESTIVE UNDERSTANDINGS AND
ENRICHMENTS

2. Forced; shrink
3, Allowance
4. Tolerance
Kinds of measuring tools













Kinds and purposes of cutting oils
Ferrous and non-ferrous metals
Mining and smelting


Minina and smelting




GENERAL METALS (Continued)
(Simple Foundry Practice)
r T


SUGGESTIVE LABORATORY EXPERIENCES

Plan work procedure:
1. Read working drawing
2. Compute cost


Cast:
1. Ash tray
2. Placque






Cast:
1. Paper weight
2. Book ends






Cast:
1. Door stop
2. Ornaments


BASIC SKILLS AND OPERATIONS

A. Preparing the Sand
1. Temper sand
2. Test for proper temper

B. Preparing the Drag
3. Place pattern on molding
4. Apply parting sand on pat-
tern
5. Riddle sand on pattern
6. Ram the drag
7. Use strike-off bar
8. Place and use turning board
9. Sprinkle sand with parting
dust

C. Preparing the Cope
10. Place cope
11. Ram cope
12. Use strike-off bar
13. Make sprue-hole
14. Remove cope from drag

D. Prepare Mold for Pouring
15. Use bulb sponge
16. Remove pattern
17. Use touch-up spoon
18. Make channel
19. Vent cope (unnecessary for
lead)
20. Replace cope upon drag
21. Heat metal


SUGGESTIVE UNDERSTANDINGS AND
ENRICHMENTS

History and development of foundry
work and molding and its signifi-
cance today
Processes in foundry work

Vocabulary
Safety precautions to be observed
Vocational opportunities in foundry
work





Kinds, structure, and sources of
metals and sand used in casting






Care of tools and equipment







GENERAL METALS (Continued)
(Simple Foundry Practice)

SUGGESTIVE UNDERSTANDINGS AND
SUGGESTIVE LABORATORY EXPERIENCES BASIC SKILLS AND OPERATIONS ENRICHMENTS

22. Weight mold for pouring

E. Pouring and Finishing
Cast: 23. Pour molten metal Various types of finishes used on
1. Figurines 24. Remove casting castings
2. Tray 25. Clean off surplus metal Types of heating furnaces
26. Finish or polish

GENERAL ELECTRICITY

SUGGESTIVE UNDERSTANDINGS AND
SUGGESTIVE LABORATORY EXPERIENCES BASIC SKILLS AND OPERATIONS ENRICHMENTS

A. History of Electrical Develop-
ment and Occupational Oppor-
tunities
Introductory experiments with per- 1. Read scale B. Magnetism
manent magnets 2. Uncoil wire without twisting Properties of magnets
1. Determine polarity 3. Cut wire Theory of magnetism
2. Magnet field 4. Remove insulation from wire Applications of magnetic prin-
3. Demagnetizing 5. Wrap wire around core ciple
Construct and operate an electro 6. Attach wire to ginding post 1. Door bell
magnet 7. Recognize electrical symbols 2. Telegraphy
Construct and operate door bell 8. Connect dry cells in series
Construct and operate telegraph key 9. Connect dry cells in parallel
and sounder
C. Sources of Electric Current Con-
Cut dry cell part 10. Test dry cells struction and operation of:
Read wiring diagram. 11. Test storage battery 1. Dry cell
Make wiring diagram 2. Wet cell
Make simple bell, buzzer or light Care of wet cells and dry cells
circuits Types of circuits




GENERAL ELECTRICITY (Continued)


SUGGESTIVE LABORATORY EXPERIENCES


Calculate voltage, amperage, and re-
sistance using Ohm's Law
Measure current drawn by various
household appliances
Measure current drawn by shop
equipment

Test conductivity of:
1. Various materials
2. Kinds and sizes of wire






Install, test, and replace fuses
Demonstrate results of overloading
with various sizes of wire
Examine old fuses


Construct and operate:
1. Shocking coil


BASIC SKILLS AND OPERATIONS


12. Use a voltmeter
13. Use an ammeter
14. Use a wattmeter


Use a wire gauge
Light a blow torch
Clean wires
Clean and tin a soldering
copper .
Splice wires
Solder joints
Insulate joints

Install, test, replace fuses


SUGGESTIVE UNDERSTANDINGS AND
ENRICHMENTS

1. Series
2. Parallel
Transformation of mechanical
energy into electrical energy
with generator
Voltage, amperage resistance

D. Electrical Measuring Instruments
Operation, use and care of instru-
ments
1. Voltmeter
2. Ammeter
3. Wattmeter
Ohm's Law

E. Conductors and Insulators
Transmission of electricity
Kinds and sizes of wire
Kinds and purpose of insulators



F. Fuses
Purpose, construction, types, and
care of fuses
Causes of short circuits
How to locate shorts
How to reduce line voltage

G. Rheostats, Transformers, Pur-
pose, Construction, Mainten-
ance










SUGGESTIVE LABORATORY EXPERIENCES

2. Transformer
Make an extension cord


Construct and operate:
1. Toaster
2. Tempering furnace
Repair house electrical appliances






Construct and operate:
1. Electric top
2. Toy electric motor
Clean electric motor

Connect lamps:
1. Series circuit
2. Parallel circuit
Install 2-way switch
Install 3-way switch
Construct miniature automotive and
aeronautical electric circuits

Read an electric meter and compute
cost of electric current


GENERAL ELECTRICITY (Continued)


BASIC SKILLS AND OPERATIONS


23. Tie an underwriter's knot
24. Attach socket
25. Attach plug

26. Replace heating elements
27. Measure resistance







28. Replace brushes



29. Use common hand tools





30. Read kilowatt-hour meter


SUGGESTIVE UNDERSTANDINGS AND
ENRICHMENTS


H. Extension Cords


I. Heating Devices
Construction, operation, a n d
maintenance of household and
industrial heating devices
1. Electrical light
2. Toaster
3. Heater
4. Furnace
5. Stove

J. Motors
Types, theory of operation, con-
struction, maintenance of
motors

K. Circuits
Purpose of connecting lamps in
series and parallel
Types, sizes of:
Automotive electrical
Aeronautical electrical circuits

L. Estimating Costs
Operation and construction of
electric meter
Method of computing cost of
electrical energy






GENERAL ELECTRICITY (Continued)


SUGGESTIVE LABORATORY EXPERIENCES


Read wiring diagram
Make a wiring diagram
Construct and operate:
1. Crystal radio receiver
2. One-tube receiver
3. Two-tube receiver
Install:
1. Antenna
2. Ground


BASIC SKILLS AND OPERATIONS


31. Determine capacity of
condenser
32. Wind induction coil
33. Insulate conductors


SUGGESTIVE UNDERSTANDINGS AND
ENRICHMENTS

M. Safety
Treatment of shock
First aid for cuts, breaks, burns
Precautions in handling electrical
appliances and fixtures
Safety measures followed in
working with electricity

N. Radio
Theory of transmission and re-
ception
Recognition of electric symbols
Purpose, types, construction, and
operation of vacuum tubes
Types and operation of detector
circuits
Types and operation of audio-
frequency amplifiers
Types, purposes, and operation of
radio frequency oscillators and
amplifiers
Types and operation of radio
power supplies
Operational theory of television
Applications of radio to commu-
nication and industry







86 TEACHING INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

CHAPTER IV

ADMINISTRATION OF THE PROGRAM
The need for a well coordinated and effective industrial
arts program in Florida has been felt for some time. A unified
program considering aims, teaching methods, materials, and
equipment must be developed throughout the state if industrial
arts is to take its proper place in the improvement of public-
school education. Such a program could well be developed by
providing a state consultant in industrial arts.
The consultant, working with industrial arts groups and
principals, using the aids set forth in this guide, together with
other materials, may better unify the industrial arts program
in order to meet the specific needs of both state and community.
The immediate outcome of such reorganization will be the en-
richment of the statewide industrial arts program.

Establishment of Demonstration Laboratories
A state-wide survey of present industrial arts facilities
and programs will doubtless reveal schools of outstanding
achievement. These could well be regarded as demonstration
laboratories. In such a school the consultant, working in close
harmony with the industrial arts teacher and principal, should
be able to set up and administer a program which will be of
great assistance to other industrial arts teachers, principals,
and laymen in the vicinity. Worth while projects, exemplifying
outstanding methods of shop procedure and showing how such
projects integrate industrial arts with all other departments of
instruction, will be a natural outcome of such a demonstration
laboratory.
The following are illustrations of the possible application
of this idea:
Illustration 1. A school has been chosen because of its
outstanding program in woodwork. Science classes in this
school provide a means of studying the sources of supply and
means of transportation of the woods commonly used in con-
struction and cabinet work. Mathematics classes make a study
of comparative costs of various woods used for a given purpose.








CHAPTER IV, ADMINISTRATION OF THE PROGRAM 87

COMPREHENSIVE GENERAL SHOP LABORATORY


SCALE0 5 10 15
SCALE


1. Finishing bench
2. Projects storage
3. Bulletin board
4. Dark room curtain
5. Planning bench
6. Library
7. Blackboard
8. Instructor's desk with


LEGEND:

telephone
9. Filing cabinet
10. Draw curtains
11. Lavatory and mirror
12. Craft work bench
13. Drinking fountain
14. Grinder
15. Power and light panel








88 TEACHING INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

Girls in a home economics class learn to refinish old furniture
to bring out the beauty of the wood. All students in the school
should improve in their appreciation of artistic values by learn-
ing to recognize a variety of woods and their beauty of texture,
grain, and color. Appreciation of line and proportion in furni-
ture and other construction should be a natural outgrowth of
such experiences.

Illustration 2. In another part of the state a school might
be selected because of its exemplification of the best in home
mechanics offerings. Students in this program may mend sim-
ple electrical appliances, repair a leaky faucet, hang a shelf,
recondition a screen door, and do countless other small tasks
for which the repairman is usually called.

Illustration 3. In still another school an outstanding pro-
gram in arts and crafts makes a worthwhile contribution to the
entire curriculum. Art metal work, weaving, ceramics, leather
work, block printing, work in plastics, and many other activi-
ties contribute beauty, utility, and satisfaction in creative work
in many phases of home and school living.

Illustration 4. A school may be chosen because of an ex-
cellent electrical laboratory. In this school science, mathe-
matics, and history groups could easily integrate their studies
with shop activities. Classes in home-making would come into


Lumber rack
Metal rack
Tool panel
Storage cabinet
Tool issue window
Fire extinguisher
Moulding bench
Moulding shelves
Lead furnace
Forge
Anvil
Table saw
Band saw
Drill press
Jig saw
Jointer
Machine lathe
Metal bench
Wood lathe
Sander


Electric testing panel
Electrical work bench
Demonstration panel
Display cabinet
Pottery work bench
Glazes
Plaster storage
Clay storage
Sink
Banding wheel
Potters Wheel
Plaster work bench
Kiln
Wood working bench
Loom
Overhead door
Automotive testing panel
Engine mount
Automotive work bench
First aid cabinet







CHAPTER IV, ADMINISTRATION OF THE PROGRAM


the field of the electrical shop through their interest in electrical
appliances for the home.
The number of demonstration laboratories should not be
limited, nor their location definitely restricted, as expanding
needs may go beyond present requirements. Schools should be
selected for outstanding work at various levels of the industrial
arts program, and schools representing several levels chosen in
the same area of the state.

Establishment of a Central Laboratory
The establishment of these demonstration laboratories in
divisional areas of the state will naturally bring about the crea-
tion of a central laboratory in which a more comprehensive pro-
gram may be developed. The central laboratory may even go
into industrial arts teacher-training work and the more exten-
sive phases of the subject. This plant will of necessity be much
larger and will have the most comprehensive equipment for all
phases of the industrial arts program. It must be staffed with
adequate personnel of the best type, trained for teaching the
many different phases of industrial arts education by the most
up-to-date methods.

Clearing House for Use of Industrial Arts Teachers
A clearing house for new successful teaching aids is one
of the immediate goals for bringing about the unification and
advancement of industrial arts in this state. It is here that
the best tried and proven projects and methods developed by
the teachers throughout the state will be made available to all
teachers in the field of industrial arts.
This Industrial Arts Clearing House will operate in the
following manner. A teacher wishing to submit a project that
has proven successful will compile the material neatly, accom-
panied by drawings, measurements, photographs or any other
instructional material needed to give full information for utiliz-
ing the project. All material must be submitted on heavy bond
paper 81/2" x 11", using one side only. Each sheet should be
clearly labeled and numbered so the natural sequence of project
development will not be lost. This material should be sent to









90 TEACHING INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS


ARTS AND CRAFTS LABORATORY


SCALFp 5 o0 51


LEGEND:


1. Kiln
2. Clay and glaze storage
3. Sink
4. Storage cabinet
5. Library
6. Drinking fountain
7. Movable display cabinet
8. Floor and display cabinet
9. Storage room
10. Jig saw
11. Fire extinguisher
12. Polishing unit
13. Bulletin and display board
14. Filing cabinet
15. Bookshelf


16. Instructor's desk
17. Floor loom
18. Table looms
19. Textile storage
20. Blackboard and projection
screen
21. Potter's wheel
22. Clay work bench
23. Individual work bench
24. Jewelry table
25. Tool bench
26. Metals work bench
27. Woods work bench
28. General utility bench








CHAPTER IV, ADMINISTRATION OF THE PROGRAM


the Industrial Arts Clearing House, College of Education, Uni-
versity of Florida, Gainesville.
The Industrial Arts Clearing House will have available the
necessary equipment for multilithing, proper filing, and dis-
tribution of all submitted material. Short bulletins listing all
materials available through the Industrial Arts Clearing House
will be published and mailed at regular intervals to all schools
requesting these materials.


















Statewide Uniformity of Scheduling and Class Size
It is clearly recognized that industrial arts taught as recom-
mended in this guide will have the same status and importance in
the curriculum as any of the other subjects. When industrial
arts is taught with its various phases of related subject matter,
its importance relative to other subjects becomes self-evident
and therefore it must be given equal credit.
In dealing with the time element, it is the general policy
that class periods for industrial arts must not be less than one
hour per day five days per week. Whenever possible, a double
period is much more desirable even though the classes may be
scheduled for only one semester. This, of course, is equivalent
to the previously stated condition of one hour per day five days
per week. A double period is -used to greater advantage than








92 TEACHING INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS


GENERAL WOODS LABORATORY


SCALE 0 5 I0 15


1. Work bench
2. Machine tool cabinet
3. Band saw
4. Lathe tool cabinet
5. Floor lathe
6. Finishing supply cabinet
7. Finishing room
8. Stock room
9. Stock rack
10. Access door
11. Supply cabinet
12. Assembly and glue bench
13. Tool Room
14. Bulletin board
15. Grinder
16. Fire extinguisher
17. Planning center
18. First aid cabinet


LEGEND:

19. Planning table
20. Library
21. Instructor's desk
22. Drinking fountain
23. Filing cabinet
24. Lavatory and mirror
25. Overhead door
26. Planer
27. Jointer
28. Sander
29. Shaper
30. Mortiser
31. Drill press
32. Jig saw
33. Table saw
34. Work bench
35. Blackboard








CHAPTER IV, ADMINISTRATION OF THE PROGRAM


two single periods. A definite amount of time is consumed in
checking out tools and materials, giving general instructions,
and the usual class routine, and also for those activities relative
to the proper closing of such a class period. This amount of
time is necessarily used whether the period is single or double.
Therefore, the advantage of the double period manifests itself
in the greater amount of instructional and laboratory work time
available for the pupil. Under such a plan the productivity of
the pupil may be increased.
The number of students to be taught effectively in an in-
dustrial arts class will vary greatly according to conditions as
they exist in each local situation. It must be recognized that
the varying abilities of the teachers affect class sizes. Some
laboratories will have equipment and space of such limited na-
ture that only a small group should be scheduled. On the other
hand, there will be laboratories that will have very adequate
space and excellent equipment to take care of much larger
classes. The health and safety of the pupils must not be sacri-
ficed just to meet the demands of a large enrollment. Even in
an ideal situation where there is ample room and splendid
equipment, the number in the class should never exceed thirty.

Local School Administration
Primary responsibility for the success of the entire school
program rests upon the principal. However, he can achieve suc-
cess only insofar as he receives cooperation from his faculty.
Hence, his initial job is to inspire cooperation, not only between
himself and the individual teacher, but among all teachers and
departments in his school.
The selection of competent teachers is of great importance.
The final success of any school program rests upon the teacher.
The finest physical plant and equipment obtainable cannot
guarantee a satisfactory program, but an excellent teacher may
have a measure of success in spite of the handicaps of a poor
building and equipment. The human element here, as in all life,
is the vital one.
Pre-school faculty meetings and planning sessions provide
one of the best possible means for attainment of full school
cooperation. These group meetings give liberal returns for the










94 TEACHING INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS


GENERAL METALS LABORATORY


SCALE 0 5 10 15


LEGEND:


1. Supply room
2. Lavatory
3. Drinking fountain
4. Work bench
5. Display cabinet
6. Storage cabinet
7. Forge
8. Fire extinguisher
9. Crucible furnace
10. Lead furnace
11. Moulding bench
12. Electrical bench
13. Automotive bench
14. Overhead door
15. Soldering and welding bench


16. Floor lathe
17. Bench lathe
18. Tool room
19. Bulletin board
20. Buffer
21. Grinder
22. Drill press
23. Anvil
24. Power hacksaw
25. Shaper
26. Sheet metal bench
27. Milling machine
28. Filing cabinet
29. Instructors desk




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