TEACHING OF THE SOCIAL STUDIES
Bulletin No. 2.8 (Rev.) 194S
STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
COLIN ENGLISH, Superintendent Tallahassee, Florida
TEACHING OF THE SOCIAL STUDIES
BULLETIN No. 2.8 (Revised)
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
Clara M. Olson, Director and Consultant
Henry F. Becker, Part Time Consultant
J. K. Chapman, Coordinator
STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
COLIN ENGLISH, State Superintendent of Public Instruction
JOE HALL, Director, Division of Instruction
At the request of teachers, principals, supervisors, county super-
intendents, and the State Courses of Study Committee, A Guide to
the Teaching of the Social Studies in the Secondary Schools, Bulletin 2.8,
has been revised. This is the activation of the philosophy of the
Florida Program for Improvement of Schools which is based upon
the principle that improvement of instruction is a continuous pro-
cess. Such a program provides for the continuous preparation and
revision of materials for use as curriculum guides.
The primary object of this bulletin is to assist teachers of social
studies. It is hoped that it will aid them in developing more effec-
tive teaching procedures so that each student will realize that he
is a part of our democracy and is vital to its perpetuation and im-
provement. He needs to acquire understandings, attitudes, and
skills which will enable him to participate effectively in our demo-
cratic society, and it is for this purpose that this bulletin has been
Like all other curriculum guides this bulletin has been prepared
by a committee of Florida teachers working with the State Depart-
ment of Education and consultants from institutions of higher
learning. Grateful acknowledgment is made to the members of the
committee who worked during the first summer term of 1948 at
the University of Florida: Mr. James L. Wattenbarger, Chairman,
Gainesville; Miss Anna Appleby, St. Petersburg; Mrs. Ruth Belcher,
St. Petersburg; Mrs. Helen Blanchard, Jacksonville; Mrs. Mildred
Clark, Panama City; Miss Mamie Ruth Douglas, Pensacola; Mr.
C. A. Griffin, Falmouth; Mr. Charles H. Hamblen, Jr., Gaines-
ville; Mr. James Bernard Hunt, Old Town; Miss Marguerite Lump-
kin, Lakeland; Mrs. Mary Jane Malphus, Ocala; Mrs. Clara
Meacham, Kissimmee; Miss Alice Neef, Lutz; Miss Emily Porter,
Apalachicola; Mr. T. E. Royal, Gainesville; Miss Fannie Smith,
Winter Haven; Miss Mary Virginia Spivey, Naples; Mr. J. L.
Strickland, Homosassa; Mrs. Hariette A. Wall, Cocoa; and Mr.
J. E. Weatherford, Hilliard. The bulletin itself is evidence of the
fine quality of their work.
Deep appreciation is expressed to Dr. Clara M. Olson, College
of Education, University of Florida, who directed the production,
served as consultant and edited the material for publication; to
Mr. J. K. Chapman, Field Supervisor of Instruction, State Depart-
ment of Education, who served as coordinator; to Mrs. Dora Skip-
per, Coordinator of State Supervisory Program, State Department of
Education, who served as special consultant and assisted in the pre-
planning work; to Mr. Henry F. Becker, Professor of Geography,
Florida State University, who served as part-time consultant; and
to the county superintendents, supervisors, principals, teachers,
graduate students, and others who worked with the committee
from time to time during the preparation of the materials for the
The help of Mr. D. E. Williams, Supervisor of Negro Education,
State Department of Education, and the members of the faculty of
the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College who, with the
Supervisors of secondary Negro schools, met with the committee
during discussion of the various sections of the bulletin is grate-
Acknowledgment and thanks are extended to the P. K. Yonge
Laboratory School, which contributed the cuts for pictures found
within the bulletin. Appreciation is also extended the Florida
Courses of Study Committee and members of the staff of the State
Department of Education who assisted with the planning, develop-
ment, review, and editing of the bulletin, particularly Mr. W. H.
Marshall and Mr. T. George Walker. It is believed that this ma-
terial will be very valuable to both individual teachers and to
faculty groups as they move forward in curriculum planning.
State Superintendent of Public Instruction
I. Philosophy of the Total School Program ................ 1
Aims of the Social Studies............. ............ 3
II. Place of the Social Studies in the Total Program.......... 9
Areas of Living.... .. .. ...... .. .... .. .. .. 11
III. Relation of Secondary Social Studies to Elementary Social
Studies............. ...... ... .. .............. . 16
IV. Relation of Secondary Social Studies to Resource-Use
Education.. ...................... ............ 18
I. Materials and Techniques Useful in Enriching the Social
Studies.......... .......................... 26
Textbooks............. ..... ................. 27
Libraries and Types of Material ....................... 27
II. Ways of Adding Variety.... .. .... .............. 42
Debate........... ....................... 42
Roundtable .... . . . . . . . . . 43
Forum, Panel, A Check-up. ...... ................. 43
Drama... ....... .............. 43
Socio-Drama..... . . . . . . 45
Clubs .................. ................... 47
Trips ..................... ................. 48
Audio-Visual Aids .. .. .. .. .. ...... .. 56
III. Some Materials of Instruction Available from General
Extension......... .................... 57
Reference Service... ............................ 58
Package Libraries .......................... ... 58
Dramatic Materials..... . . . . . . . . 58
Professional Library for Teachers. ............... .. 58
Films .............. ....................... 58
Standard Glass Slides........... ...... ......... 59
Film strips ... . ... .......................... 59
Recordings............... .................... 59
Children's Library of Florida... ........ .......... 59
Unit Picture Collections ...................... . . 59
How to Borrow Materials...... ................... 61
I. Planning Instruction.................... .......... 63
Chart: Scope and Sequence of Social Studies ........... 64
Minimum Requirements ........................ 66
Types of Planning... ............. ........ .. 67
W written Reports..... ...... ... .... ........ .. 71
Oral Reports..... ............. .............. 74
Techniques of Democratic Discussion................ 74
Resource-Use.............. . ........... 75
Approaches to Resource-Use. ................. . 75
Examples of Activities and Procedures............... 77
The Resource Unit................................. 79
The Textbook..................... ............. 82
The Core Curriculum ........................... . 83
II. Planning Experiences at the Various Grade Levels........ 86
Grades Seven and Eight ........................... 86
Grade Nine .. .... .......................... 90
Grades Ten and Eleven ........... ............... 101
Grade Twelve.............. .................. 111
I. PHILOSOPHY OF THE TOTAL SCHOOL PROGRAM OF
The schools of Florida have taken as their aim a program which
will develop individuals as persons and as citizens in a dynamic
and democratic society, and more particularly in the democratic
society that is the United States of America. As Dwight D. Eisen-
hower, President of Columbia University, has said in "An Open
Letter to America's Students," learning to develop fully one's own
character requires one to know the character of one's country.1 To
quote further from his advice to students:
To be a good American is the most important job that will ever confront you.
But essentially it is nothing more than being a good member of your community,
helping those who need your help, striving for a sympathetic understanding of those
who oppose you, doing each new day's job a little better than the previous day's,
placing the common good before personal profit. The American Republic was born
to assure you the dignity and rights of a human individual. If the dignity and
rights of your fellow men guide your daily conduct of life, you will be a good
Accomplishment of this aim in all the schools in Florida requires
thought, preparation, planning, and all other democratic procedures
of teaching as well as of administration.3 The degree and extent to
which the schools of the state understand this broad aim and its
implications and use it in thinking through and developing the
kind of program they should have to meet the needs of their situ-
ations will determine, in a large measure, the success of the state
Of primary importance in planning a social studies program which
will implement this development is an understanding of human
growth and development. In the secondary school it is particularly
important that all the teachers understand the growth and develop-
ment of the adolescent. The school must not attempt to become a
mold into which each child or youth in his turn is pressed to come
out years later a perfect (or imperfect) replica of his parents and
teachers. If the school attempts to understand the child, or the
youth, as an individual and to provide for him as such, mass pro-
duction will not be possible. As Dr. Arnold Gesell of Yale Uni-
versity pointed out in a recent meeting of the American Association
I The Reader's Digest, October, 1948, p. 3.
Ibid., p. 5.
Bulletin Two, Ways to Better Instruction in Florida Schools, p. 38.
2 TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
for the Advancement of Science, "Every child has a unique pattern
of growth which is the basis of his individuality and of his ability
to profit by experience. Growth can be guided, but it cannot be
imparted by environment or education."
There are certain basic assumptions4 underlying the Florida Pro-
gram, assumptions which should be understood. The core of these
assumptions with respect to the laws of learning is that learning,
which results from interaction with the environment, causes modi-
fication in the behavior of the individual. This modification is
reflected in both self and social adjustments. The kind and quality
of these adjustments should be of great concern to the school.
Among the adjustments of particular concern to the teacher of
social studies are those he makes to the changing conditions of the
society in which he lives.
The school must then provide experiences which will enable each
individual to make desirable and satisfactory adjustments both to
self and to society. Democratic procedures in the classroom, group
planning, retention of individual rights, and, at the same time,
acquiescence to group decisions, knowledge, and feeling for the
duties and responsibilities of citizenship in a democracy, all these
will aid in the development of the well-adjusted individual.
New techniques, new methods, new books alone cannot provide
better teaching and better learning unless these "new's" can be
evaluated in the light of established aims of education. Teachers
must also search constantly for new truths. Often a new idea will
require thought and evaluation even of established aims. If the
aim is found wanting, it must then be re-phrased and re-established
in light of newly discovered truths.
With this in mind, teachers who read this bulletin should use this
bulletin. The programs of our schools are developed basically for the
individual and his growth as a member of democratic society;
4These assumptions, quoted from p. 51 of Ways to Better Instruction in Florida
Schools are as follows:
I. The individual organism is unique, dynamic. and creative.
2. The environment is dynamic.
3. Learning is continuous and is a result of the interaction of the dynamic or-
ganism with the dynamic environment.
4. The growth of the individual is accomplished through his own activity; from
birth, and in every situation, he reacts as a whole to his total environmental in-
5. Growth proceeds at a varying rate and intensity for different individuals.
Likewise, rate and intensity of growth vary from time to time in each individual
in accordance with the dynamic interaction of his capacities and environmental
6. A democratic culture furnishes the most favorable conditions for optimum
growth and satisfaction of the individual and of the group.
PHILOSOPHY AND RELATIONSHIPS
democracy rests upon the individual; the youth will develop to
the optimum in an atmosphere which is sensitive to his worth as
an individual, but he must realize that the privileges enjoyed by
the individual are based upon responsibilities. The individual must
learn to give in to group decisions; he must learn to accept majority
rulings, although his own inclinations may be with the minority;
he must learn the value of being an individual, and, at the same time,
a cooperating member of the group. He must learn socially accept-
able ways of initiating action, of cooperating, of maintaining his
own integrity. Democracy is dependent upon both group action
and individual integrity.
AIMs OF SOCIAL STUDIES
The issues and aims of the social studies program must serve in a
measure as criteria for the selection of subject-matter and for the
determination of methods of procedure. They must lead to desirable
procedure in learning activities, organization, supervision, and ad-
ministration. The basic aim is to develop all pupils into functioning
citizens in the communities in which they live by guiding them to plan
wisely their own actions in the full light of all the facts that can be gath-
ered about themselves and the world in which they live and work. A func-
tioning citizen is one who, by participation, understands increasingly
how, when, and why the government and the other cultural insti-
tutions operate. The all-important objective is to assist every youth
to become a well-adjusted individual who seeks further opportunity
for self-development and for social service.
Because of rapid developments in science, specialization of labor,
and centralization of industry, youth must be taught in the interest
of self-preservation, self-realization, and civic responsibility, how
to use the tools of our technological knowledge to solve the prob-
lems of complex society, how to live with people, how to work
with groups, and how to develop through the group the welfare of
each member of the group.
In general, the aim of education in living is to improve the culture
and, at the same time, to develop individuals into personalities
whose capacities have been developed to the optimum. The ideals
and purposes of the social studies program must reflect the aim of
democratic society. First among the conditioning realities which
must shape our program of civic instruction is the changing nature
of the society in which we live. The fact that our world today is
changing is certainly not new, but the rapidity with which changes
4 TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
occur is a distinguishing feature. The rise of the radio and of other
means of rapid communication and transportation and the avail-
ability of translations both of the literature and significant public
utterances from countries throughout the earth have resulted in a
higher level of inter-cultural flow, which tends to develop an in-
formed citizenry. The clash of totalitarian and communistic ideals
with democratic ideals is inevitable. Therefore, maturing citizens
must be informed and guided into ways of thinking which will
enable them to clarify, to understand, to extend, and to defend
their own ideals.
Whatever may be the limitations imposed upon the instructor in
social studies by requirement or circumstance, whatever the prob-
lems confronting him may be, there is always the obligation of
assisting in the development and the enrichment of the personalities
of the pupils. The aims of the social studies must include a certain
amount of knowledge, ideas, understandings, the development of
reasoning power, independent study habits, critical judgment, and
acceptable ways of behaving. Such knowledge and attitudes should
aid pupils to accept their opportunities and responsibilities in a
Knowledge is essential to the conduct of public affairs, but as an
objective it must not be regarded as an end in itself; rather as a
requisite for achieving our purposes. The ideal social studies pro-
gram will make much use of subject-matter from many fields, but
the subject-matter will be related to an understanding of problems,
each contributing to the pupils' understanding of certain aspects
of one or more of the basic concepts which serve as the skeleton
around which the content is organized. The teacher must connect the
material of the course with the community in which the pupil lives. In
brief, the teacher will try to relate the pupil's knowledge to activities in the
community, to current social changes, and to the pupil's own experiences.
The probability that we are educating our children for failure has
been suggested by certain critics of education because heretofore we
have overemphasized preparation for professional training. Some
schools have found it advantageous to include in the school pro-
gram direct work experiences and to give credit for them. The
processes of work lead often to recognition of responsibility in
home, community, and world affairs.
The Florida Program for the Improvement of Instruction has set
up the following six general aims. Each aim is herewith restated
and discussed briefly from the point of view of the social studies.
6 First formulated in Bulletin Two, Ways to Better Instruction in Florida Schools,
State Department of Education, 1939.
PHILOSOPHY AND RELATIONSHIPS
I. To develop boys and girls who are socially sensitive.
Social sensitivity is two-fold. It involves social acceptability and
social obligations. It involves an increasing concern on the part of
the individual for the welfare of the group, and on the part of the
group for the welfare of each individual. A well-rounded person
must develop sensitivity or concern in both senses. The instructor
in social studies must direct or lead the student into an under-
standing of the necessity of developing into a person with quali-
fications that will make him a credit to his own social orbit. There-
fore, every teacher is a guidance teacher and must strive to develop
increasing understanding, appreciation, and concern among his
But social obligations involve still more. They involve "getting
a view of the whole of America," to quote from Dwight D. Eisen-
hower, "how it started, how it grew, what it is, what it means."
It involves studying America's problems. It implies a willingness
to do something about them within the limits of one's ability and
opportunity. "It is dangerous to assume that our country's welfare
belongs alone to that mysterious mechanism called 'the govern-
ment.' Every time we allow or force the government, because of
our own individual or local failures, to take over a question that
properly belongs to us, by that much we surrender our individual
liberty, and with it a comparable amount of individual freedom."7
With obligations such as these the social studies teacher must be
concerned and must develop the program accordingly. The re-
sponsibility accentuates the obligation to include in the program
problems and issues, and the obligation to give students an oppor-
tunity to understand and to participate in the solution of community
z. To develop boys and girls who are striving for increasing control over
those skills necessary for participation in a democracy.
In order that one may get the point of view of his fellows, it is
necessary that he develop the ability to read, to write, and to
listen attentively. To transmit one's feelings and meanings to
others it is necessary to speak and to write effectively and to gain
control over expression, particularly in the language arts. In good
teaching, the pupil's experiences must be related to the material
we are presenting. If the pupil lacks the necessary experiences,
6 Op. cit., p. 2..
7 Ibid., p. 3.
6 TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
then we must provide him with material which will enable him
to develop the necessary experiences. Herein lies one of the greatest
possibilities for enriching the social studies course.
Skills necessary for participation in democracy involve more than
the arts of communication, however. They involve, among other
things, appreciation and some mastery of the techniques of dis-
cussion, some skill in detecting and analyzing propaganda, ac-
quaintance with, and some mastery of, ways of resisting the efforts
to control men's minds, and some skill in parliamentary procedure
and in committee work. The development of such skills is the very
core of the social studies program.
3. To develop boys and girls who will strive for increasing control over the
process of reflective thinking and the scientific method.
Some psychologists would deny the ability of many individuals
to think logically or critically. They would not deny, however,
that the schools could improve the quality of thinking of the
pupils if they would give more emphasis to the steps in logical
thinking and 'in the scientific method. The necessity for getting
at the facts is as important in social studies as in science. The
ability to draw conclusions from sufficient data and to suspend
judgment and the ability to understand and detect prejudices and
biases should be taught.
4. To develop boys and girls who strive for increasing understanding and
control over self and over the relation of self to other people.
Control has both a positive and a negative effect. Usually it is
thought of as discipline. It means disciplining oneself as well as
understanding something of one's opportunities and obligations to
others. No one can live entirely apart from the social group. Physical
well-being, emotional stability, and constructive personal atti-
tudes are necessary if one is to participate fruitfully with other
members of society. Good health must be considered from a social
as well as an individual point of view. A competent teacher in
guidance and counseling by exercising a reasonable amount of
understanding and self-control may develop ways of behavior
which may bring about desirable relationship between the indi-
vidual and the group. The limitations of the individual must be
PHILOSOPHY AND RELATIONSHIPS
recognized and his inclinations taken into consideration. If he has
understanding and self-control, then he can go forward to im-
prove his relationship with others.
5. To develop boys and girls who strive to produce and to enjoy the process
and products of creative effort.
Accomplishment is foremost among the satisfactions and pleas-
ures of life. To complete a job successfully brings its own reward.
Every pupil should do something successfully, no matter how small
the achievement. The informal method of conducting work offers an
abundant opportunity to cultivate the wide range of skills em-
ployed in expressions of individual interest.
6. To develop boys and girls who will strive to perform some useful work
and see the relationship of their work to democratic living.
A continuous effort should be made throughout the secondary
social studies to help the individual develop his potentialities to
the optimum. Activities should be planned to meet individual
needs and interest. Much time should be devoted to the study of
vocations, thus acquainting students with the requirements and
opportunities of many fields. Throughout the social studies pro-
gram the dignity of work and the relationship between work and
wealth should be clarified. Work experiences should be encour-
The relationship of the foregoing general aims of education to the
social studies can be developed at great length by a teacher with
imagination and ingenuity. Inspiration and practical aid may be
gained by applying these principles to our work in social studies.
We must progress, however, from general aims to specific aims, for
the social studies program in the state of Florida. The very nature
of the state and its business makes it necessary for these aims to be
a little different from those used in other situations. For the formu-
lation of specific aims the teacher is responsible, the teacher work-
ing in cooperation with others in the same field.
The following statement of the aims of the social studies should
assist teachers in local schools to plan their programs.
The program in social studies should be planned to develop in
each pupil the following:
TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
i. An awareness of the worth and dignity of the individual as a
2. Willingness and ability to share in the responsibilities of citi-
zenship in a democratic society
3. Knowledge and appreciation of the cultural heritage and skill
and ability in analyzing the culture today
4. Knowledge of local, state, national, and world government,
including an understanding of the United Nations
5. Knowledge and understanding of local, state, national, and
world resources and their relationship to man's survival and
6. An awareness of social controls, both direct and indirect,
which affect the individual
7. Skill in participating effectively on 'committees and in group.
8. Skill in preparing and evaluating reports based on direct re-
search- in the local community
9. Skill in using and interpreting maps, graphs, and published
reports of social significance
io. Sympathetic understanding of people as human beings and the
desire to render social service
In a democracy the school must not only develop ideals and atti-
tudes, but it must educate the people for intelligent responsibility
for citizenship and for voting. The curriculum should be flexible
enough that the teacher may adapt it to local situations. The edu-
cational program must be planned in terms of the needs of all boys
and girls concerned. All activities should be selected to provide
maximum opportunities for application to life situations with prece-
dence given to experiences in the lives of the pupils.
The social studies have been defined as "bodies of knowledge and
thought pertaining to the relations of human beings-men, women,
children-and to the physical environment in which they live and
work." 8 Therefore, the two broad aims of education are to assist in
8 Social Studies Curriculum-r4th Yearbook, Dept. of Supt. 1936.
PHILOSOPHY AND RELATIONSHIPS
the growth of the individual personality and to foster the develop-
ment of a functioning citizen in a democratic society. In contributing
to these aims and in dealing with the materials pertaining to the
relation of human beings, the social studies program is very closely
related to every day living.
II. PLACE OF THE SOCIAL STUDIES IN THE TOTAL PROGRAM
As has been pointed out, the problem of social studies teachers is
one of developing a program adapted to the needs of boys and
girls and of clarifying for every boy and girl the meaning and values
of democracy. There must be an understanding of what the needs
include. There are the physical needs involving food, clothing,
shelter, and mental and physical health. There are the social needs,
including how to get along with people, how to participate effec-
tively in home and family life, and. how to participate in com-
munity life. There are the emotional needs. Every youth must have
the assurance that he has worth as an individual. He needs to ex-
press himself by creating, and what he creates must meet with
approval. There are the intellectual needs, the need for mastery of
requisite subject-matter. In an era that has given emphasis to de-
veloping and changing social attitudes, the tendency has been to
infer that subject-matter is no longer necessary. Yet intelligent
action is often dependent upon knowing and using specific subject-
matter. The psychological need for mastery is a powerful drive
that can be utilized by understanding teachers in giving youth
functional civic knowledge. For example, if a youth is to partic-
ipate effectively in local government, he needs to know not only
about local government, but why and how local government actu-
ally operates.10 The what, the why, and the how of contemporary
institutions and of social processes are the backbone of subject-
matter in the social studies.
To develop democratic living in a school requires thoughtful
planning and careful guidance by individual teachers and by the
faculty as a whole. It requires a total program in which values
I For further study of this need, see Herbert A. Carroll, Mental Hygiene, Prentice
Hall, Inc., 1947, pp. 55-80.
10 Actually he is often personally affected by traffic regulations, by recreational
provisions, by police, and by local courts. He needs to understand what his obliga-
tions and his rights are.
10 TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
consistent with the democratic ideal are consciously sought both
in and out of the classroom. It requires methods, techniques, and
subject-matter through which these values may become an integral
part of the behavior of all youth. Procedures, such as delegating re-
sponsibility to committees, making decisions in accordance with the
preference of the majority, permitting the minority to be heard, en-
couraging youth to decide what they will study, attempting to
guide the dynamics of group relationships, in themselves will not
produce democratic living. However necessary such procedures are
in effecting democratic living, they may fall short of the mark unless
they are so planned and so used as to develop in all boys and girls
social sensitivity and an ever-widening understanding of, and con-
cern for, humane living and efficient self-government. They are
ineffective also if they do not provide actual experience in intelli-
gent social action. Chaos in or out of the classroom carried on in
the name of individual "freedom and democracy" is as inimical to
the development of democratic living as mob rule is to the develop-
ment of orderly and effective government. Fascistic control by the
That every youth may realize his optimal growth and development, counseling
becomes an essential phase of the social studies program.
PHILOSOPHY AND RELATIONSHIPS
teacher with a sugar coating of democracy is equally inimical."1
A movement among many schools tends to introduce into the
social studies program problems of daily living that are of vital
concern to students and to society. This practice is founded on the
belief that individuals develop into functioning citizens in a demo-
cratic society by attacking problems which are of significance in
their own lives and that knowledge is most effectively acquired in
solving such problems.
The following list of areas of living"1 is suggestive of problems
that might well be introduced into the social studies program. Units
of work developed from these areas could draw upon materials and
knowledge pertaining to the relations of human beings.
AREAS OF LIVING
In Ways to Better Instruction in Florida Schools and in A Guide to a
Functional Program in the Secondary Schools of Florida, eight areas of
living were selected as one means of defining the scope of general
education or the core curriculum in the secondary schools of the
State. These areas are, as follows:
I. Protecting life and property
2.. Making a home
3. Adjusting to the natural and man-made
4. Cooperating in social and civic action
5. Earning a living
6. Securing an education
7. Expressing aesthetic and religious impulses
8. Adjusting to leisure
These areas of living are of major importance in planning social
studied s. They suggest the scope of the social studies program. Within
these areas are found many of the persistent human problems.
1x Cf. Florida State Bulletin No. 48, A Brief Guide to the Teaching of Social Studies
in the Secondary School, pp. 1-3.
12 The term "areas of living" is sometimes criticized and "functions of living"
suggested as more exact in meaning. In this bulletin the terms will be used inter-
changeably, since the former appeared in The Changing Curriculum (Henry Harap et
al.) and is widely used in former Florida Bulletins.
12 TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
The area cooperating in social and civic action is of vital concern to
the social studies. It includes the fundamental relationships found in
the home, in the community, in the nation, and in the world. It
involves the study of family life and its development, the study of
school life and the extension of educational opportunity. Likewise,
it includes not only civic and governmental forms but the evolution
of those forms and the way in which government functions in our
The area earning a living is of great importance in the social
studies program. It includes information and issues involved in
earning a living in an industrialized society. It includes a study
of distribution, production, and consumption of goods as they
relate to the ways men work and live in our nation and in the
The area adjusting to the natural and man-made environment involves
a consideration of the social and economic influences on science and
invention on the life and work of our people. It treats problems of
communication, transportation, and conservation as they relate to
social living. It emphasizes resource-use education.
The other areas become important to the social studies program
in that the social studies teachers share with other teachers in the
total school the responsibility for the personal development and
guidance of the pupils. Social studies may not be directly respon-
sible for experiences in recreation, or physical health, or the de-
velopment of the cultural and aesthetic life of the people, but, as
these areas relate to the need for personal adjustment and for the
development of better social behavior, they assume major import-
ance to the social studies.
How a school may develop its program around areas of living
or how it will emphasize or develop the persistent human prob-
lems included in the areas should be a matter of faculty planning.
The following outline developed by one Florida group may prove
helpful to other groups. The outline overlaps and is not exhaustive.
The topics will suggest omissions and additions.
I. Living in the home
i. Appreciating the family as an institution-the high privilege of sharing in
the perpetuation of human life
z. Understanding the economics of the home and appreciating the struggle
to maintain a standard of health and efficiency
3. Understanding relationships in the family-parents, grandparents, and
Students assist in cafeteria, broadcasting morning bulletin, and serve at homecoming
tea. Excellent ways all of realizing some of the social values in everyday living.
w* 1, ** In'14:'
14 TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
4. Sharing responsibilities
5-. Making the home attractive
6. Having fun in the home
7. Practicing good manners
II. Meeting people and making friends
i. Becoming socially acceptable in a variety of situations
2.. Appreciating the importance of having friends and being friendly
3. Learning to make friends and keep friends of both sexes
4. Respecting the rights and opinions of others
5. Helping new-comers to feel that they "belong"
III. Living in the community
I. Coming to understand the modern concept of the community as "one
7. Assuming civic responsibilities in a democratic society
3. Sharing in the work and welfare of the community
4. Sharing in the government of the community
5. Feeling a responsibility for the wise use and conservation of community
resources, both human and natural
6. Becoming sensitive to the demands, opportunities, and advantages of
7. Feeling concern for the growth and improvement of the community in
undiscovered and new ways
IV. Earning a living
i Appreciating the dignity of all kinds of work
2.. Recognizing the responsibility of the worker to give full value for the
3. Recognizing the responsibility of the employer
4. Understanding labor management problems and relationships
5 Sharing earnings with the government in return for services received
6. Planning a program of studies for the last years of the secondary school
with some vocation as a goal
V. Adjusting to opportunities for leisure"3
i. Recognizing conditions that deprive many people of leisure, and working
for conditions that will guarantee leisure opportunities for all
2.. Surveying community resources for leisure activities
3. Planning cooperatively with the school and community for leisure activities
4 Planning a leisure program that will include such activities as broad read-
ing, membership in clubs, and participation in various types of play
13 Leisure as here used refers to time with no assigned duty.
PHILOSOPHY AND RELATIONSHIPS
5. Pursuing hobbies
6. Appreciating the value of leisure in reducing tension and in contributing
to mental health
7. Learning the art of relaxation and enjoying free time profitably
VI. Maintaining health in mind and body
i. Realizing that a healthy mind and a healthy body are real assets to the
individual in developing into an attractive personality
2. Striving for wholesome relationships with both sexes
3. Developing emotional stability
4 Understanding the biological, cultural, and psychological effects of the
tensions of the age in which we live
5. Acquiring the ability to think and to act reasonably in a world of pres-
sures and tensions
4 Practicing habits of healthful living
VII. Buying goods and services
i. Living within one's income-budgeting
2.. Selecting and using goods wisely
3. Learning to evaluate advertising
4. Becoming familiar with and using the services of consumer agencies
5. Studying the problems of production and distribution and how they affect
VIII. Protecting life and property
i. Practicing safety in all areas of activity
2.. Maintaining respect for property, both public and private
3. Becoming familiar with the various types of insurance
4. Appreciating the protective services of the government
IX. Communicating with others
i. Developing skill in written and oral expression
2. Realizing that "one world" can be maintained only when communication
is possible between all peoples
3. Realizing the social implications of the effects of our technological ad-
vance in communications
4. Using effectively the means of communication
5. Understanding the emergence of conflicts in ideologies-the resistance of
the social order to change
6. Evaluating information and propaganda disseminated by all agencies of
16 TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
X. Planning for continued educational experiences
i. Becoming acquainted with the means of expanding education
2. Realizing the social and economic advantages of continuing education as
3. Taking advantage of educational opportunities in the community
4. Choosing a college
5. Taking advantage of cultural agencies of the community such as libraries,
forums, museums, government agencies, and others
6. Using school experience as a springboard for interests to be pursued further
XI: Expressing esthetic and creative impulses
I. Developing an appreciation of the esthetic impulse
z. Discovering beauty in the environment
3. Making use of opportunities for creative expression
4. Becoming acquainted with the finest esthetic productions in our cultural
5. Understanding the social implications of the relation of esthetic and cre-
ative expression to cultural advance
6. Understanding that the bizarre and the erotic in modern art mirror the ills
of the present day society, in many cases
XII. Developing moral and spiritual values
x.. Becoming acquainted with world philosophies and world religions
z2. Developing a sympathetic understanding and appreciation of world religions
3. Developing a code of ethics
4. Taking advantage of moral and spiritual opportunities in the community
5. Realizing that the individual cannot attain a full-rounded personality with-
out spiritual and moral growth
III. RELATION OF SECONDARY SOCIAL STUDIES TO ELE-
MENTARY SOCIAL STUDIES
Since the general aims of the social studies are the same for all
grades from one through twelve, the ideal curriculum is so planned
and organized as to maintain a continuous flow of related experi-
ences in the broad areas begun in the elementary school and con-
tinued through the secondary school. Frequently teachers complain
that their work is made difficult because the children come to them
unprepared. An understanding of the work being done on other
PHILOSOPHY AND RELATIONSHIPS
levels will be of great advantage to any teacher. To aid in the suc-
cess of his own program, the teacher needs definite information
relative to the work in previous grades. He should know what
problems and phases in areas of living have been studied, what
materials have been used, the basis on which certain materials have
been selected and others rejected as unsuitable for the children of
the particular group with which he is concerned. He should know
what abilities other teachers have attempted to develop, what
activities have been used to develop those abilities, and what suc-
cess the children have had in attaining them. He should have a list
of the concepts and generalizations other teachers have attempted to
develop in the realm of social studies. Similar information concerning
the grades that follow will be of help to him in making his contri-
bution to the total program.
A program in keeping with the philosophy of child growth and
development will be so executed that the children will draw on
their former knowledge and experiences, possibly the setting of a
new problem in an old context serving to recall former associations.
In any given grade level the children need to start with the knowl-
edge they have acquired and the experiences they have had. How-
ever, provision must be made for individual differences. Children
develop along various lines at different rates. Some mature earlier
than others of the same chronological age. Some develop physically
more rapidly. Children also differ in their past experiences, some
coming from a more sheltered environment while others may have
had more direct experiences in the realities of life. The teacher who
has a full understanding of these differences will plan a program
which provides for needs of boys and girls in accordance with their
varying abilities, background, and experiences.
To do this involves a good deal of planning. There are several
approaches. The teacher may get some knowledge of what has
gone before from the children themselves, from their cumulative
records, and from conferences with their former teachers. He may
plan with the pupils. The administration needs to provide a pro-
gram for consultation, experimentation, adjustment, and evaluation.
This would mean that the entire faculty would plan together; the
faculty would plan with the pupils; teachers of different grade
levels would plan together. A forward step would be taken if plans
were made so that teachers from different grade levels could be
given an opportunity at regular intervals to observe the work
done in the grades both preceding and following the grade in which
they are teaching.
18 TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
The areas of living suggested in this bulletin may provide the
basis for developing a relationship between elementary and sec-
ondary social studies. Certain problems of living in each of these
areas persist through all ages. Some problems are more pertinent to
the children in the elementary school; some are more pertinent to
secondary school pupils. Good curriculum planning will take into
consideration, first, the problems which meet the needs and interests
of boys and girls; second, the problems which arise from social
living in the community-the local, the national, and the world.
The elementary children need help to fit them for living securely
and fully at their own level. Materials selected must be suited to
each child's comprehension, simple enough to assure progress in
learning, yet advanced enough to be challenging. As boys and
girls advance in the school program, they face the requirements of
social living on a more mature level. Again materials selected must
be suited to each pupil's comprehension; they should call for more
mature thinking. They must likewise be suited to the developmental
tasks of adolescents. The scope of experiences and concepts has
broadened. Problems become more complex; interests are more
varied. The problems selected at each level of maturity must be
suited to the interests and attention of boys and girls individually
and in groups and must provide continuity throughout the social
IV. RELATION OF SECONDARY SOCIAL STUDIES TO RE-
Resource-use education is a significant, integral part of the social
studies program rather than an added, superimposed area of instruc-
tion. It can, and should, be centered around understandings which
are essential to satisfying needs of the young people in the secon-
dary school. Each aspect of the areas of living given above in this
bulletin is closely related to resources of the unified environment of
which man is a part.
The purposes of resource-use education as set forth by the South-
ern States Work Conference in June, 1947, are as follows:
i. To lead people to become more sensitive to, and concerned
about, the problems of using resources
The whole school cooperates with the music department and the community in producing the Pirates of PenZance.
Participation in such projects is conducive to growth in citizenship.
20 TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
2.. To help people become more intelligent in the use of resources
3. To lead people in the solution of problems of resource-use, to
be concerned about the present and long-term welfare of the total
According to an arbitrary division, which has come to be gen-
erally accepted, there are three classes of resources to be considered:
i. Natural resources. These consist of those factors provided by
nature, such as soil, water, sunshine, air, minerals, plant life, and
i. Human resources. This means man with all his capabilities to
work, think, plan, and appreciate esthetic and ethical values.
3. Social resources. These include government, language, schools,
customs, technology, and social and economic institutions and
The school is faced with the necessity for developing concepts of
interrelationship between man's use of resources and his responsi-
bility toward coming generations. It must educate the community
in the wise use of these resources. It must cooperate with all com-
munity agencies in improving life in the community. For general
citizenship training, school people need to turn to experts and
technical advisers. Where it concerns the child directly, the school
should assume leadership in initiating and directing action that will
remedy the situation. The education or training should result in the
following highly significant understandings-
i. That the scale of development and levels of living attained by
a people depend to a large extent upon the resources of the region
and how they are used.
Fertile soils, favorable climatic conditions, and good natural grasses have con-
tributed to a high scale of development in the Kentucky blue-grass region;
little rainfall, rapid run-off, and rapid evaporation, mountainous land, and few
people have retarded the development in many sections of Nevada.
Well-drained relatively fertile soils, favorable climatic conditions and a moder-
ate population contribute toward the successful development of the Ridge Section
of Florida; low, poorly-drained soils together with the difficulties of drainage
and hazardous results of over-drainage-in spite of fertility of soil and warm
winters-tend to keep many portions of the Florida Everglades sparsely popu-
lated and poorly developed.
PHILOSOPHY AND RELATIONSHIPS
z. There is much unjustifiable waste of human and natural re-
Destruction of forests in lake regions, the over-use of fertile delta lands of the
Mississippi; many lives lost, homes destroyed, and millions of dollars in prop-
erty wiped out.
Depletion of natural wild-life of Florida, large areas of cut-over, burned-over
forest areas, badly eroded farm lands in some sections; low-income, poor housing,
nutritional diseases, low education levels of too many people, are examples.
3. When man upsets the balance of nature, he must supply a
Respect for the balance of nature would lead to a sustained yield-"tree farms"
in which the rate of cut does not exceed the rate of growth. It implies that if
the res( urce has been over-used, it may be replenished-restocking of fish in
fresh water lakes and streams. It would mean that in case the resource has been
depleted it may be necessary to substitute a new resource. The people of Den-
mark, after much of the wealth had been destroyed by cutting off the forest
cover, developed new industries of grazing and dairying. A respect for the
balance of nature also would lead to the use (not non-use) of exhaustible re-
sources-supply of minerals.
4. That the conservation (wise use) of human and natural re-
sources is imperative to the well-being of the people of any region.
Dust Bowl of West-over-grazing, over-cropping of arid lands resulting in low
level of living and loss of population.
Cut-over, burned-over lands in portions of West Florida-lowered level of living,
loss of sustaining industry, "ghost" villages left behind.
5. That man should play an active rather than a passive role in
adjusting and readjusting to a continuously changing environ-
The attempt to protect life and property from tropical hurricanes or to prevent
beach erosion; it may be actually moving away from the danger zone in time
of hurricane--Seminole Indians moving to high land-or moving away from
areas where the sustaining industry has been depleted-moving from the Dust
Bowl to richer lands and resources farther east. (Note: We do not believe in geo-
graphical control or determinism. Man is an active agent making choices within
the limits of his environment.)
6. That past experience can contribute to solving present day
22 TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
Increasing knowledge of health practices has made it possible to control com-
municable diseases; destruction of forest cover with resulting growth of scrub
oaks in some sections makes reforestation difficult and costly.
Lack of effective use of past experience seen in Dust Bowl experience-people
"trying again," perhaps because of interest in high wheat prices.
7. That there is a need for people to adjust to the natural dis-
advantages as well as the natural advantages of a region.
Good adjustment to hot summers by proper dress. Poor adjustment by failing
of institutions to provide air-conditioning and flexibility of schedule to adjust
to near tropic climates.
Adjustments of industries in Florida to off-set much infertile sandy soils and
large areas covered with water.
8. That modern industrial development has accelerated the rate
of the use of natural resources.
Uncontrolled drainage and destruction of forest cover to make way for great
farming and city areas, and uncontrolled flow from artesian wells-lowering
the water table to the point that wells are dry or salt water is intruding on
fresh water supply.
9. That specialization in work leads to interdependence between
peoples of different regions.
South Florida-citrus and winter vegetable growing specialization; dependence
on other regions for markets, supplies, etc.
North Florida-general subsistence farming, forestry; greater degree self-
sufficiency, loss of benefit from specialization as a source of wealth, perhaps
fewer diffici Ities in time of depression.
10. That the social conditions and conflicts of peoples in various
parts of the world are in part an outgrowth of their natural en-
vironments or of their use of their environments.
Large numbers of small counties in North Florida because of early settlement
when transportation was difficult makes possible a powerful influence on legis-
Japan-limited amount of land ph s a rapid birth rate resulting in over-crowded
conditions furnished an "excuse" for occupation of Manchuria.
PHILOSOPHY AND RELATIONSHIPS
Norway-little level land and other resources forced sons to turn to the sea
early in the history of the country.
Oil of Near East-great influence on political and economic activities of ours
a-d other governments.
ii. That interdependence and widespread misuse and waste of
natural resources in the past and at present makes imperative a
world-wide program of conservation of resources for our own and
i. Honest curiosity regarding the relationships existing between
human and natural resources
i. Appreciation of, and respect for, achievements and ways of liv-
ing of other people
3. Tolerance for resource-use problems and conditions of other
4. Intolerance of needless and inexcusable waste
5. A realization of the futility of a blanket indictment of past
use and misuse of resources
6. Desire for participation in a program of better use and adjust-
7. Personal responsibility for wise present and future use of human
and natural resources
8. An intelligent interest in fitting resource-use into an active com-
i. A study of resource-use contributes to development of such gen-
eral study habits as ability to think accurately; to follow di-
rections; to use the dictionary, atlas, indexes, and tables of
z. Resource-use study trains pupils to work independently in
a. Securing significant information from landscapes, pictures, maps, graphs, sta-
tistics, and from reading materials
24 TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
b. Raising significant problems from facts gained
c. Organizing effectively facts gained from various sources
d. Learning to put significant information into written form, on maps, and
e. Applying knowledge gained as an aid in understanding and interpreting pres-
ent and past events, and in attempted solution of present day problems14
The understandings, attitudes, and skills which are allocated to
resource-use education are basic for the entire social studies pro-
gram. This bulletin includes variations of these as objectives in
each of the grade levels.
These understandings, attitudes, and skills cannot be developed
through one or two units or courses. A program that will furnish
experiences to build them up must be provided at every level, be-
ginning with the primary grades and continuing through the senior
high school. The underlying philosophy of resource-use education
must pervade the curriculum of the entire school, and its funda-
mental concepts must be woven into the units and courses with
consistency and continuity. To do this, school officials, the faculty
as a group, and individual teachers must:
i. Know what the resources of the community are
2. Appreciate the limitations (needs) and the potentialities of the
3. Cooperate with available agencies in overcoming the limita-
tions and developing the potentialities of the community
4. Project the program of the school into the life of the commu-
nity, especially in the areas of health, homeliving, applied
economics, and recreational opportunities
.5. Devise ways of utilizing the resources of the community realis-
tically in developing the social intelligence and the technical
competence for which the individual teacher in his own subject
field must take responsibility
6. Allocate time for and gear direct and incidental instruction to
improvement of community living
In addition to the usual helpful materials for social studies
teachers, the following will be useful in planning for resource-use
14 Cf. Florida School Bulletin, December, 1945, pp. 2.1-2.3.
PHILOSOPHY AND RELATIONSHIPS 25
i. "Education Helps Build a Region," The High School Journal,
Vol. 2.9, No. 3, May 1946.
2. Florida: Wealth or Waste? State Department of Education, Talla-
3. Ivey, John E., Jr., Channeling Research into Fducation. A Report
of the Committee on Southern Regional Studies and Education.
Washington: The American Council on Education, 1944.
4. Large Was Our Bounty. 1948 Yearbook, Association for Super-
vision and Curriculum Development of the National Education
Association, z2oi 16th St., N.W., Washington, D.C.
5. Scott, Joe W. "Schools Can Create Democracy's Communities."
The Bulletin of the National Association of Secondary-School
Principals. Vol. 30, No. 139. May, 1946. Pp. 73-84.
I. MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES USEFUL IN ENRICHING
THE SOCIAL STUDIES
Social studies as used in this bulletin is more than an interrelation
of geography, history, economics, and sociology in the explanation
of a problem. Social studies is concerned with developing a way of
life, a democratic way of life, a way of life in which the dignity of
the individual is paramount and in which the individual's respon-
sibilities in group life are equally significant.
The social studies teacher will be concerned in assisting with the
development in the pupil of attitudes which will promote the
democratic way of life-the American way of life. These attitudes'
cannot be developed in a selfish and isolated atmosphere; they can
be nurtured only in an atmosphere which will cause the pupil to
know that liberty and a free way of life are his not for the asking
but because those before him fought and died that he might have
them. He must stand firm and strong if he is to keep them and pass
them on to those who come after him. He must want these atti-
tudes for his fellow-man-regardless of nationality, creed, or color
-if this nation's way of life continues to be the hope of the world.
Securing the optimum results in social studies necessitates plan-
ning. The first planning must be done by the whole faculty for the
purpose of developing a school program so in harmony with the
democratic way of life that the pupils experience democratic living
and come to cherish it as their own. This type of planning must
concern itself with the organization of the school day, with human
relationships within the organization of the school day, with
human relationships within the school, and with joint enterprises
of the school and the community.
The second type of planning must be done by the social studies
teacher and the pupils. Its primary aim is threefold: to stimulate
interest in problems to be studied and to generate a purposeful
attack on these problems; to utilize the creative resources of the
group in securing the best attack on the selected problems; and to
provide experience in group planning, one of the techniques of demo-
cratic living. This type of planning may come at many points
during the school year. It is vitally important at the beginning of
the school year when the pupils and the teacher consider the big
MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES
things they wish to accomplish during the year. It is equally im-
portant when the teacher and the pupils begin to explore a large
area as they seek to define for study one or more problems within
the area. It is of great significance when difficulties arise during the
exploration and study of a problem.
In this section, materials, techniques, and procedures are sug-
gested or described briefly. They should be helpful in stimulating
The textbook is one of the aids to learning. It gives the teacher
and the pupil a sense of security; it furnishes the class with a com-
mon core of content; it makes for a definite basis for specific assign-
ments, drills, and projects. The alert teacher will not rely upon one
text but will have a number available. The adopted textbooks have
been selected with care and provide many excellent opportunities
for all pupils to learn.
The teacher and pupils can explore the text to great advantage.
In introducing the textbook the teacher should be unhurried and
deliberate. Attitudes and skills will be developed if the examination
of the textbook is effectively carried on. The successful introdi:tion
to the textbook means that the pupil will also be able to use other
texts and references more effectively.
Early in the year, the teacher should check each pupil's ability
to read the textbook with understanding. One way to do this is to
prepare a number of questions the answers to which require careful
use of all parts of the book: index, table of contents, title page, bib-
liographies, appendix, lists of maps and illustrations, and preface.
The teacher may select a paragraph or picture at random, give a
few minutes of study, then make a quick test of the pupil's compre-
hension. The result will determine, in part, whether the pupil needs
help in reading the text.
Central. Fortunate are those pupils who have access to a good
school library in which there is an alert librarian to help them en-
rich and continue their classroom experiences. The social studies
teacher should, during the pre-school planning conferences, become
fully acquainted with the resources of the central library and work
out plans and schedules with the librarian. Worthwhile activity
in the main library is more likely to result where plans have been
discussed, agreed upon by teachers, librarians, and principal. Waste
28 TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
will result if the library assignments are only spur-of-the-moment
Classroom. The great advantage of the classroom library is that
only the teacher and pupils need be concerned with planning for its
use. The social studies teacher should teach the pupils how to look
for information on a problem related to the unit. This must be em-
phasized as a real duty of the teacher. A well-equipped classroom
library will lose its usefulness unless the pupils are trained in the
techniques of locating the information they need in their effort to
understand a problem.
The classroom library should contain the books, magazines,
bulletins, pamphlets, and reference works which are suited to the
grade level and to the units which are to be used during the year.
As new units are introduced, books and other reference materials
may be borrowed from the main library for use during that time.
New books should be added from time to time so that the classroom
may become a busy, inviting workshop-a place where pupils like
to be because of the atmosphere and because it is a vital part of their
In the libraries will be found many types of materials. The special
use of a few is mentioned here.
i. Atlas. The maps in an atlas have many advantages. The con-
stant use of the atlas will save time and develop valuable study
skills. The typical atlas gives a number of pertinent suggestions
on how to use maps to the best advantage.
2. Yearbooks. The World Almanac, with its vast amount of informa-
tion, will add interest and give recent data in many instances.
A collection of World Almanacs for the years will furnish a
background for comparisons and contrasts in all phases of social
3. Reader's Guide. Indispensable is the Reader's Guide in social
studies activities! It is one of the central sources for the location
of materials on given subjects. The intelligent use of the Reader's
Guide provides a person with sources of information which will
enable him to expand and enrich the problem on which he is
4. Census Report. The pupils should be made aware of the different
MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES
types of information included in the Census. They should come
to know it as a source of authority and to use it for its value.
5. Statistical Abstract. A Statistical Abstract of Florida Counties is in-
valuable in a study of resource units, resource-use material, and
other projects on which authentic figures are needed. It provides
factual information, as detailed as possible-a general purpose
collection of local data. The latest edition should be on hand.
6. City Directories. An educated person is not a person who knows
everything, but a person who knows, among other things,
where to find what he wants when he needs it. The knowledge
of what is in a directory can be of great help at many times in
the life of a pupil. The main objective is to know what is there
and how to use it.
The city directory has a vast fund of information which can be
very valuable to a person on a job or in helping him to find
persons and places in a strange city or in his own city. The
street index will help in locating a telephone or the possibility
of contacting a person by telephone if only an address is known
and it is known that a telephone is in the house. In the street
index he will find the number of every house or building on the
street and the name of the person responsible for it. With this
knowledge a person could find the street, the number of the
house, and the name of the person in charge; then by using the
telephone directory the chances are that he could contact the
person desired. There is also much other information which is
very pertinent when it is needed.
If the pupil can become acquainted with the types of informa-
tion which may be found in one kind of directory, he will have
an idea of what may be found when he is in pursuit of information
in other lines of work.
7. Encyclopedia. World Book and Co;pton's Pictured Encyclopedia were
recommended in Library Book List for Florida Schools, Bulletin
No. 6 (Tallahassee: Florida State Department of Education, De-
8. Periodicals. No social studies teacher can afford to overlook the
values of the many current periodicals which present carefully
prepared analyses and interpretations of contemporary events and
30 TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
problems. Such magazines as Time, 1 Newsweek, The American Ob-
server, 2 Current Fvents, 3 Scholastic, 4 and other magazines and papers
for various grade levels may be used to great advantage by the
teacher in relating the past to the present-day world. In addition
to the use of one or more of these weekly periodicals as means
of keeping pupils well-informed, many valuable teaching ser-
vices, such as special teacher editions, quizzes, maps, travel in-
formation, and other helps, may be obtained if desired. Where
local conditions warrant the expenditure, social studies classes
will probably find it helpful to subscribe to one or more maga-
zines. If each pupil has a personal copy to use in class, it is de-
sirable that he later take it home so that his family may share
in what he has had at school. The teacher and pupils should
select the magazine which will best serve their needs and inter-
ests. Where possible, the teacher should correlate current hap-
penings with the framework of the units being studied.
9. Newspapers. The daily newspaper will be the most commonly
used periodical throughout the life of the pupil. The large metro-
politan papers have many sections; however, most of the pupils
will have constant use only of smaller ones. The following is
suggestive of some of the sections which need to be called to the
a. Front page. At least by the ninth grade the pupils should become acquainted
with the front page, they should know that there is m)re than the funnies
to a paper. The ninth grade social studies covers a wide variety of interests;
these interests are front page news, and today front page news usually affects
the living of most of us.
As the pupil advances to the study of social living in its world relation-
ship and finally to problems of living in our democracy in "One World," his
interest and understanding of the significance and interpretation of the news-
paper should increase so that he can better appreciate the problems. He should
come to analyze more critically the news and to realize that he is a part of it
all and has a responsibility to help make a better society.
b. Society page. Yes, Mrs. Jones had a party and the lite of the town were
invited. The decorations, the dress, and many other things were discussed.
The party for the graduation class was in the same paper. Walter Brown, a
home town boy, received the degree of Doctor of Medicine. The wedding
of Helen White to Ted West occupied a very prominent place-pictures, who
1 Time and Newsweek have special educational services. Write for them.
American Observer, Weekly News Review, The Junior Revi'w. Civic Education Ser-
vice, 1733 K St., N.W., Washington, D.C. Teacher's edition-The Civic Leader.
I Our Tiwea, Every Week, Current Events. American Education Press, Inc., 400 S.
Front St., Columbus 15, Ohio. Teachers' edition--Civic Training.
I Senior Scholastic, Social Studies Edition; World Week. Scholastic, 2.2.o East 42.nd
St., New York i7, N.Y. Special Teacher's Edition.
MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES
were there, what they wore, etc. These human interest stories are real, every
day stories about people the pupils know directly or indirectly.
Poking fun at the society page has become a daily pastime. This is part
of our living, but the importance of this page in the thinking and the morale
of the people in general must not be overlooked. It is one of the most sought
after parts of the paper, and one which helps to boost the sales. A person's
name is on the society page-sure, he'll clip it!
c. Sports. The daily newspaper affords a vast fund of materials for interests
on all grade levels. Seventh and eighth graders are becoming increasingly
conscious of organized sports. This interest can be channeled to acquaint
them with the sports page-to read and interpret baseball percentages. This
has been carried over into the schools during the football season to increase
interest in the games.
d. Weather reports. In the new social studies text book for the seventh grade,
by Atwood, there is a very fine opportunity for the pupils to learn about
weather. At the time schools begin in the fall, the people of Florida are
usually very conscious of the weather. Here !s a wonderful opportunity to
make the experience interesting and of lasting value to the pupils. Those
who live along the coast can capitalize on the flag signals displayed to indi-
cate the type of weather so that shipping and other boating interests would
know how to plan their sailings. Low pressure and high pressure areas can
be located on the map, their movements traced, and the resulting effect on
the weather noted. Weather affects occupations in general; pupils can check
this effect in their own communities.
Weather reports should not be confined to the seventh grade but should
be an interest of each class. In the high school, teachers can enlarge upon
the weather unit and go into more details since the students are more mature.
e. Editorials--columnists-commentators. Pupils should be taught to evaluate as
well as to understand sections of the daily newspapers which interpret as
well as report the news. News commentators on the radio often take opposing
viewpoints in analyzing and sifting news items for their audiences. Editorial
opinions usually deal with local problems, and p pils should be encouraged
to read and discuss these, to search for facts behind their viewpoints, and to
decide for themselves the application of the logic involved.
Opposing viewpoints of the leading daily columnists provide interesting
and thought provoking problems of national and international importance.
An occasional class session using materials from syndicated columnists will
provide interesting and pertinent spring boards for class discussion and class
work. Incidental reference to their writings may provide ties between past
The radio commentators offer interpreted news and opinionated state-
ments which are often challenged by alert pupils. These broadcasts may be
used in much the same way as the daily columnists. Sometimes printed copies
of talks are prepared and may be ordered for class inspection by teacher and
f. Vital statistics. Vital-affecting life-statistics-numerical facts. Vital sta-
tistics-numerical facts affecting life-births, deaths, marriages, divorce,
32 TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
wills. These are facts which pupils need to be able to locate and to under-
g. Business statistics. The larger daily papers have a section devoted to business
statistics-numerical facts which show the status of business at a given
time. Stock market quotations, foreign exchange, dividends declared, com-
modity index-the wholesale price index of commodities, treasury notes,
and many other facts of similar nature are included.
This source of information should be of timely interest and of use in later
h. Bank statements. The periodic bank statements published in the newspapers
contain information which pictures the "health" of the bank. Pupils need
to know the meaning and significance of the items in the statement.
i. Polls. Polls and other straw votes are included in the papers from time to
time. These have become an established means of giving indications of trends
of public opinion. Pupils can make a more effective adjustment to their social
environment if they understand the purpose of the polls, how one is made,
how wide a sampling is taken to arrive at conclusions, the influence polls
may have on public opinion, the reaction of people to them, and the fact
that they are sometimes wrong. Everyone in a democracy should be con-
scious of this method of "keeping an ear to the ground" to find what people
j. Comics. Comics and cartoons are probably the most sought-after portions of
the newspaper. Certainly they cannot be overlooked in a social studies pro-
gram. A teacher might take a poll of the class to determine how many and
how soon pupils turn to the comic section and which comics are the most
popular and why. Comic strips bring to the pupil a number of vicarious ex-
periences-situations that tell amusing stories, those that reflect social cus-
toms and attitudes, those that depict scientific facts and historical happenings.
The teacher can share an appreciation of the comics with his pupils; he
can encourage them to seek a worthwhile trend of thought behind the comic
angle; he can help pupils substitute worthwhile literature for comic books.
k. Cartoons. Cartoons, too, have become a vital force in the world of public
opinion. Good cartoons are central in thought and are clearly stated. They
usually have one big idea that "leaps up at you" as you look at it. Cartoons
are often related to the news, using personalities and events that are head-
liners. They help to emphasize some critical or crucial point. Pupils should
be trained to discover, recognize, and evaluate the significance of cartoons.
Road maps. Dad's vacation is here and the family is off to the
mountains, the beach, or to places! The teacher of social studies
can help to improve the mechanics of the trip by acquainting
pupils with reading of road maps, signs, symbols, and other items.
What fun to trace routes, add mileage, and note interesting places
along the route! Road maps of the various service stations should
MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES
Attention should also be called to the services of the American
Automobile Association and like organizations, and of the various
gasoline distributing companies in helping to plan trips, suggest-
ing best routes, making hotel or over-night reservations, and offering
many other helps and suggestions.
Time Tables. With the going and coming of peoples today, the
need for the ability to read and to interpret time tables and maps
is most necessary. The pupil should know that one side of the time
table reads up and the other reads down; that the number of the
trip is in heavy numbers at the top of each column; the meaning
of blank spaces as to whether there is not a stop, whether the trip
terminates at the last time listed or whether it is a limited schedule.
There are many other pertinent facts which the teacher will recog-
nize as she prepares to present the material to the class.
Elections. Election day arrives and all the city, the state, and
the nation are excited over the outcomes. The radio, newspapers,
sound trucks, and every other device which can be used for publi-
city have been put into action. The pupils have heard the candidates
discuss the issues; they have heard and seen the public reaction to
these. They are alert and keenly interested in what is going on.
On their way to school many passed the voting places. Why not
arrange for them to go as classes to the polls so that they can see
the people vote! They could see the person come in and watch him
as he goes through all the steps of casting his ballot. Show them
at close range the book which contains the names of the registered
voters, the pad on which the names of each voter is written, the
ballot and about the perforation at the top, the voting booth, the
ballot box, and explain how the number of ballots must tally
with the number of names and the like. If it is the voting machine
which is used, they should know how it works. This will make a
very lasting impression on the pupil; when he is ready to vote he
will not be a stranger to the procedure.
In presidential election years, a party convention will stimulate
interest. Discuss the how and the why of the difference in the
number of convention delegates and the number of electors for
In school elections the procedure of government elections can be
used. Pupils can register, candidates can have petitions signed,
campaign speeches can be made, and secret voting can take place.
Graphs. The skill in reading graphs is one of the tools for an
intelligent understanding of much social studies material. The pupils
should learn to read them and to know their significance. Graphs
34 TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
present specialized data-population patterns, products, income,
railroads, budgeting, and the like. They are made on many levels
-city, county, state, national, world, industry, etc. Filing of the
graphs would make for greater use.
Maps. Pupils are more conscious of maps than ever before. They
were anxious to see just where their brothers or fathers were in the
last war. Today there is a carry-over of this interest into the news
items which are in the papers and which come over the radio.
Maps tell of more than places. They tell of roads, rainfall, eleva-
tion, population, history, political divisions, crops, languages,
markets, trade routes, and many other varieties of information. A
map is a representation; it is to be regarded as a symbol of the
reality. It can be of a single or simple idea or it can be a highly
condensed compilation of information. To the person who knows
how to read them, maps can reveal a great variety and wealth of
The teacher has a great opportunity and challenge in teaching the
use of maps. Map symbols should become a first hand tool of the
pupil. A teacher must see that these are known and understood.
The pupil should have an understanding of the graphic scale and a
sense of direction-the new direction concept that places west or
east by sea is north by air. They should understand the conven-
tional symbols of the map. They should understand the symbolism
of such practical elements as land, water, elevation, roads, bridges,
human and natural resources. They should likewise understand
the symbolism of such hypothetical elements as poles, equators,
circles, parallels, and meridians. The relationship between latitude
and climate and the relationship between longitude and time are
two of the more difficult ideas to be gained from proper interpre-
tation of maps.
Scale, or the ratio which indicates the size of the map compared
with what it represents, makes a logical approach to map study.
The teacher may start with something the pupils can see-the
classroom or a plat of school ground. The distance should be meas-
ured and the scale decided upon. For example, if the schoolroom
is twenty feet wide and thirty feet long, one inch on the map may
represent five feet of the room.
Testing each pupil for these abilities must be one of the obliga-
tions of the social studies teacher. By the use of enthusiasm and
initiative, reading maps can become a most profitable and enjoyable
part of teaching. It can broaden the horizon of the pupil who has
not traveled and help him to understand the actual living of other
MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES
peoples. This broadened vision will enrich his understanding and
Map companies have series of Beginner Maps in Global Geogra-
phy; one of these is on map symbols. The use of this series in the
elementary schools would give a good basis for understandings on
which secondary schools could build.
In recent years engravers and printers have discovered that lighter
colors make for greater use of maps. The deep colors obscure some of
The use of maps in textbooks should be stressed. The pupil should
be encouraged to study them; their relation to the context is usually
Pictorial maps that show such varied features as kinds of crops,
historical features, natural features, parks, roads, camps, fish, and
many other interesting items are growing in popularity. These
maps are becoming popular in history, economics, geography, and
even in sociology. They make a special appeal to young readers and
help to deepen and clarify everyone's understanding.
Large wall maps offer very definite advantages for class use. By
pointing out the exact place or feature under discussion, the teacher
can facilitate group attention, avoid the delay and confusion in
trying to locate it in the textbook. Large maps center attention
and are an excellent aid for the student who is encouraged to desig-
nate the place, route, or area under discussion.
This using of map skills and techniques will impress them upon
the pupil and make him more conscious of what has been learned.
Outline maps-either made by hand, bought, or run off on the
duplicator-are invaluable for this work. The use of maps needs to
be taught the same as any other type of educational device or
Development of an understanding of the network, or system of
lines on which a map is laid out, will necessitate careful study by
both teacher and pupil. Geographers call the network of lines used
in map making a projection.
Relative positions and areas on various maps confuse pupils. As
an example, Greenland on some maps is very large and out of pro-
portion to the size of the United States or of South America. On
another map it is much smaller. The type of projection is the reason
for this discrepancy. Each pupil should become familiar with four
types of projections:
i. The Mercator projection has very great distortion at the far
north and far south. For instance, Greenland is greatly out of pro-
36 TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
portion. It is easy to show the whole globe on one map with this
projection. It is easy to tell direction on it; so it will probably
always be used for navigation. The shapes are correct-; it is the
size which is distorted. The same scale of miles cannot be used all
over the map. If a scale is given, it is usually good only at, or
near, the equator.
.. The Mollveide projection, an equal-area map is oval in shape.
The areas are. shown in the right proportions but are out of shape.
There is no scale given, because the same scale cannot Le used all
over the map.
3. The Goode equal-area map is also oval in shape, but it is
broken up or interrupted. If one flattened an orange skin and left
the holes, he would get the same result. This projection keeps the
shapes of countries better than the Mollveide does. It has the same
4. The North Polar map. The North Pole is the center. This
map tries to flatten out the earth just like all maps. Countries
farthest from the North Pole are most out of shape. There is no
scale. One finds distances by using degrees of latitude. Parallels are
shown as circles with the North Pole in the center. It is easy to
follow the great circle paths on this map. It is a good map for
showing air routes.
Chalkboards. From the standpoint of continued usefulness, the
chalkboard is one of the best visual aids. The alert teacher uses it
constantly. The teacher should write plainly and quickly. The
chalkboard is useful for diagrams, sketches, drawing, decorative
work; as a screen for still projections-map outlines, pictures,
fade-outs; for outlines; for summaries; for directions; and for indi-
vidual or group work; and as a substitute for a bulletin board. The
effectiveness with which the chalkboard is used depends very much
upon the good judgment of the teacher in adapting its use to class
needs and upon the techniques employed. In cases where the diagram,
map, or illustration is the object rather than the process of making
it, the teacher should prepare the work before the class period
Chalkboard lighting is a very important factor. Much of the
effectiveness of the work depends upon the ease with which work on
the chalkboard may be followed. In replacing blackboards, teachers
should see that the best. modern material is used to protect the vision
of the pupils.
Bulletin boards. The bulletin board is widely used and should
have an even greater use. It appears to be a good index of the teach-
MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES 37
her's alertness and resourcefulness. Well selected contents attractively
arranged give an indication of competence, whereas large, unused
spaces and the yellowed appearance of those displays that are
present, give one the impression of a teacher who has lost his
The class bulletin board should be attractively arranged, con-
spicuously displayed, and like the chalkboard should be in constant
use. It can be used for displaying illustrative material on a given
topic; for a display of work done by individual pupils; for making
assignments and announcements; and for stimulating an interest in
The maintenance of the bulletin board can be an excellent class
and small group project. All members of the class should be en-
couraged to take an interest in, and to contribute to, the bulletin
board, but in most cases the actual posting of materials and the
evaluating and selection of materials should be done by a reason-
ably small committee which is changed frequently enough that the
responsibility does not become a burden. The bulletin board com-
mittee should work under close supervision of the teacher, but
should be made to feel that the success or failure of the displays
rests largely upon the committee. This group is guided in the
evaluation, selection, and posting of materials; it is responsible for
keeping the board up-to-date, for removing the old material, keep-
ing a file of the materials valuable for future use, and scheduling
material for future posting. It must devise plans to interest the class
in the bulletin board displays and to promote class evaluation of
the organization, completeness, and effectiveness of the bulletin
Flat pictures. With the recent technical advances made in photo-
graphy, there is little excuse for leaving this mine of assistance
untouched. A quick survey of any late pictorial magazine will
quickly show the scope of a modern camera.
Many schools make effective use of the modern map; an alert
history teacher, however, may stimulate interest by obtaining or
collecting reproductions of old maps which will add flavor to the
period to be studied. Many interesting reproductions can be ob-
tained at the Government Printing Office in Washington for only the
cost of publishing and postage. Their catalogue will be sent on
request. As an example of this type of map, one of the bulletins on
"areas and boundaries of the United States" includes a reproduction
of the map used by the framers of the Constitution to determine the
early limits of these United States. It is interesting to make com-
38 TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
parative studies of these maps to modern day maps as to accuracy,
towns, and geographical knowledge.
Globes. A globe must be more than a ball on a stand or in a
cradle. It should challenge the imagination of the student! A globe
is a must in a school. Each classroom should have one.
There are Beginners Globes. These are simple and used with the
Chart on Map Symbols, mentioned before, will give a firmer basis
for geographical understanding.
It will help the pupil to read and interpret maps if he has first
studied a globe. It is our best symbol of the earth. Since it is like
the earth, only smaller, it may be used in estimating areas, shapes,
directions, and distances accurately. It can be used to show clearly
the movements of the earth; to demonstrate changes in time; to
teach the meaning of the sunrise, long and short days, changes of
season, and other phenomena incident to the movement of the
The globe is the best aid in teaching the meaning of latitude and
longitude. Pupils need to develop an increasing understanding of
these concepts. The seventh grade social studies teacher may find
she needs to spend some time in explaining the origin of the system
of latitude and longitude. She may need to emphasize the following
information and experience.
In order to find places on the globe and on the earth and in order
to tell people where they are, men have devised a system of lines.
The earth has two natural starting points. These are the North and
South Poles. An imaginary line, the equator, was drawn halfway
between the poles running all around the earth. This line gives a
good starting point for locating places north and south.
The next dividing line was much harder to establish. The Green-
wich Observatory in England had such a good method for keeping
time by the stars that people in the Western World began giving
locations as east or west of Greenwich. So that point was used
for establishment of the prime meridian.
To be more exact, more lines should be drawn and places should
be pointed out and located. For example, a place might be about
one-fourth of the way to the North Pole and one-sixth of the way
around the earth west of Greenwich. There should be drill of this
type until the class understands that it is possible to locate places
by this method. However, the scientists have found a better and
easier way. A little knowledge of geometry is necessary to under-
stand the scientists' way. They divided the circle into 3600. Any
MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES
line which runs around the earth is a circle. These degrees should
be pointed out. on the globe, and the class should be required to
locate places by giving their degrees north or south of the equator
and east or west of Greenwich.
Many factors make the globe indispensable to a social studies
class. Since we are living in the air age and the significance of dis-
tance has been greatly reduced by modern planes, the use of the
globe has been accentuated in acquiring an understanding of world
events. During the hurricane season in Florida, boys and girls may
be given practice in using the globe to follow the path of the storm
as charted in the local newspaper. That experience alone would
throw much light on global weather.
History File. Pupils can make a "current history file" from write-
ups and pictures in magazines which they read. Pictures should be
chosen for essential points of interest, composition, simplicity, rele-
vance to subject. They must be large enough to be easily seen and
must give a sense of realism to the subject. In order to preserve usable
pictorial materials and to insure availability at the time needed, a
filing system is necessary. Keeping a file is a continuous process. Ma-
terials need to be added or discarded to keep a file fresh and up-
Possibly one of the most generally used terms in regard to photo-
graphs and pictures is "composition." A word of advice here might
be indicated. In the first place, the human eye normally reads
from left to right; therefore, it is helpful to a good picture if the
lines or masses lead in from the left. Horizons or objects generally
should not bisect the picture. The "center of interest" should be
clear and should definitely be subordinated to the primary subject.
Avoid the "cluttered" picture in classroom use and make sure the
print is sufficient size to be easily seen.
Scrapbooks. The scrapbook has a double value in that it teaches
current thought concerning the problems of today and of the past
to members of the family as well as the pupil. The pupils learn to
discriminate and evaluate, for the pictures and articles will not I e
included unless they are closely related to the subject. Extensive
reading will be necessary in order to know what to eliminate or to
include. Very often parents and other members of the family will
become interested in the project and lively discussions will be
part of the table conversation. They will all become conscious and
look for material on the subject and will help gather articles or
instructions as to where to locate them. In this way, it can become
40 TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
a family project with the various members interested and taking an
active part in the gathering of the desired information.
In one Florida community a local organization offered awards for
the best scrapbooks on the United Nations. The parents became
very much interested, learning much about the topic. This was an
enriching experience for both the pupil and his parents, as both
benefited by the activity and the exchange of viewpoints.
The collector's scrapbook could be another type. Instead of just
putting all the things in a box, they could be put into a scrapbook
or mounted on cardboard. This systematic way of keeping things
will aid the pupil in his collecting and teaching other pupils about
what he has. Such things as stamps, arrowheads, shells may be
some of the objects which might be related to social studies.
Radio and Phonograph. The radio and phonograph can add variety
to the social studies program. The schedule of the school cannot be
timed to fit all good radio programs, but an occasional interruption
to listen in on a national hook-up might be a stimulating experi-
ence to the'whole school. Merely listening is not enough; plans
should be made so that the listening experience can be effective.
As with the motion picture, suggestions should be made as to what
to listen for and how to listen. The teacher, by understanding the
needs and interests of his pupils and by knowing the variety of
programs and records, may guide the pupils to an appreciation of
the better type of program and record.
The radio is a part of our daily life. It can serve a number of pur-
poses whether the class utilizes national or local programs. The
pupils can hear the President's message to Congress, the speech of a
prominent foreign visitor, reports of latest news events from all
parts of the world, and on-the-spot news reports. Transcriptions of
many programs can be secured and used at hours convenient for the
classes. Thus radio programs enrich the daily lesson, furnish vivid
contacts with the world, keeping teachers and pupils up-to-date.
Under the careful guidance of the teacher the programs can be
used to train pupils to listen with awareness and discrimination.
Later discussions can make possible critical and constructive re-
The phonograph may be used to listen to speeches or to programs
that discuss problems related to the unit. Class activities will be
enriched by using the phonograph for playing music of different
MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES
periods and of the different nations-music of the masters as well
as modern music.
Recordings. Wax and/or wire recordings may be made of radio
programs that come at a time not convenient for the class. These
recordings have the advantage of being replayed as the need arises.
If the school does not own a recording machine, it will be possible
to buy transcriptions of radio programs. One use of the magnetic
wire recorder would be to have several pupils interview some
prominent person or some official on a question of public interest.
The interview would be recorded on the machine and then played
back to the pupils.
Wire recordings can be used by the teacher (i) in an effort to help
the pupil speak better. A record can be made of the speech and then
played back to the pupil so that he can listen to himself and become
av, are of his weakness in order that he may make conscious effort
to correct it; (z) to study the effectiveness of round table dis-
cussion-make a recording and study it as it is reproduced; (3) to
study the dynamics of group discussion-to note how the status
leadership shifts from parts of the group to another; to note factors
affecting leadership in discussion; to count times a person talked,
the length of time; to spot those who had not contributed; and to
evaluate the discussion as a whole.
Movies. In order to comprehend history one must realize what
has taken place, must have a mental image of what is taking place.
If the teacher's words do not produce the images that are desired,
w hat means are there left? The motion picture affords one way, for
the ideas in the words of the books and of the teacher take on a
Motion pictures make the subject far more vivid than hooks or
lectures or discussions. They arouse interest, bring about thinking,
and stir the emotions. It is well known that emotionally tinged
experiences are more powerful than those that are not. Motion
pictures arouse the emotions, and for this reason are great educa-
tional aids. Caution is advised, lest propaganda be the motive and
undesirable results be the end. Free movies should be carefully
Films may be used profitably either at the beginning or the end
of a unit. If the film is used at the beginning, the idea should be
to capture interest and to direct thought to a better understanding
42 TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
of what is to be studied. If used at the end, the picture will be the
climax-the culminating thought on the subject. It will crystallize
the impressions, leaving in the mind of the pupil a vivid print that
will not soon fade. Therefore, in most cases it is best to make use
of films both at the beginning and at the end of a unit.
The teacher, in selecting the films, should be careful with regard
to the age level and the maturity of the pupils. The teacher should
preview each film, prepare the class for the movie; place it in the
sequence of work or thought for the pupils, and after the showing
discuss it with the class. Some pictures are more effective if shown
twice. This is especially advisable if there is a great number of facts
which would be difficult to absorb at one sitting. Class discussion
should intervene between the showings so that the pupils will be
more alert to the other points of interest.
Still Pictures. Still pictures have the advantage of being per-
manent. One is better able to study what is being shown-to examine
it carefully for details. Still pictures are more valuable than films
when motion is not essential to the idea. Some of the types to be
considered are the slide, the film strip, the photograph and also
included are the opaque projector, the stereoscope, and other such
devices as the tru-vue.
Special mention might be made of the opaque projector since it
has a use that makes it of particular value to the teacher. It is able
to project in actual color any reasonably flat object or picture that
will fit the machine. Various attachments ate available, but unless
the school is small it is not advisable to buy one.
Television. The value of television in education has yet to be
realized. Its possibilities are great. Teachers should look forward
to its use in the schools as it becomes available in Florida.
II. WAYS OF ADDING VARIETY
Some of the ways of adding variety to the presentation of social
studies materials are included at this point.
Debate. Debate offers the chance for the group to explore the
many ramifications of a problem. It presents the opportunity to
hear both sides of a question-not the old idea of debate for the
purpose of converting to a certain point of view. Pupils who pre-
pare the different viewpoints benefit to a great extent; while for
MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES
others, it is a saving of time to be able to get information from
those who have gleaned the facts from materials at hand.
Roundtable. Preparation for this necessitates exploratory pro-
cedure. Pupils meeting for preparation for a roundtable learn to
organize their thinking and presentation. They have the chance for
e, pression of opinion and the challenging of opinions. They learn
to respect others in presenting their parts.
Forum. The forum makes possible the opportunity for individual
questioning after the problem or topic has been discussed by those
qualified to do so. It stimulates interest as each pupil has the oppor-
tunity to make a contribution.
Panel. The panel divides the problem into several parts, and the
presentation is made on that basis. This allows for a well-rounded
exploration of the question.
A (heck-up. Many teachers overlook the opportunity to help
pupils learn to participate in the social processes of democratic
li ing. An excellent way in which to observe democracy at work
is to study the dynamics of group discussion in the classroom.
Someone, without the knowledge of the group, might take notes
(a recorder could be used here to great advantage) of points made
by the various pupils, noting where they sit around the room,
the crossfire of comments, and the time consumed for each. This
record of the statements and procedures should be read to the group
at the end of the discussion so that pupils and teacher will become
conscious of the parts they played: (i) who the status leader was
(status leader refers to the person who is the center of the discussion
-pupil or teacher), (2.) how this leadership shifted, (3) the factors
that affected this leadership, and (4) the response of the group.
This same technique if used in several situations will point out the
value of a circle or semi-circle seating arrangement to encourage
Drama. Social studies is a study of people-their actions and re-
actions. The drama is a medium of experiencing vicariously the
events and conditions of certain periods, situations, and the re-
actions of personalities to these. Pupils in acting out the parts
Creative drama! In the Roman Senate, a scene from The Cloak of Cataline, an original historical play by a group of
high school students. The play's the thing, whether it be psychology or sociology.
MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES
have an opportunityy to relive the experiences of the characters
Frequently the plays may be original with the pupils. The research
and study needed for this activity would reap rich rewards for the
group involved. Many plays and pageants may be bought to give
the pupils this broader experience.
Sociodrama. The sociodrama (pupils spontaneously acting out a
situation) or its companion technique, the psychodrama, offers an
excellent opportunity for creative social experiences. Alike in
underlying principles the two techniques differ somewhat in ap-
proach. By most authorities the psychodrama is interpreted as
referring to a personal situation and the sociodrama to a group
situation. However, the terms are used interchangeably in many
instances. For the sake of clarity the term, sociodrama, will be
usel in this bulletin.
Relatively new as a technique to be used in the classroom, the
underlying principles of the sociodrama have been known for many
years. It was first noted by Aristotle as he observed spectators as
they saw a Greek drama. The psychological phenomenon produced
he called catharsis. The phenomenon remained buried in libraries
and for all practical purposes unnoticed, during medieval and early
modern times until the psychodrama method brought it back into
the consciousness of the social scientist of our time. The phenome-
non may be observed in our everyday world in the reaction of a small
child to a stage or screen production before he has been made aware
of the trappings or fixtures behind the scenes. To him it is the
actual thing-not a play.
Although it is an unrehearsed dramatization, the sociodrama is
planned by the teacher (it may be planned by pupils as a part of
committee work, etc.) to include subjects showing current prob-
lems and those from which pupils might be expected to receive
Sociodrama is a technique which the teacher uses to enable the
pupil to discern truths or reasons for certain responses on the part
of others toward problems and questions which arise in normal
everyday life. Pupils play unrehearsed parts in situations. For ex-
ample, one pupil might play the part. of the son and another the
part of the father in the discussion of the use of the family car for
the night. Thus, one pupil is placed in the role of the parent and
SCf. M:rino, Sociodrama. Psychodrama Monographs, No. I, 1944.
46 TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
given the conditions which prompted the refusal. He must justify
the refusal to another who is taking the part of one refused. In
this manner he is led to see and to know the reason for the action
of the parent. The players in many cases would substitute actual
experiences for vicarious experiences. 6
The teacher should be careful not to plan directly for those sub-
jects based on the actual experiences of the pupils or those that
would bring immediate antagonism rather than wholesome re-
sponse. It is quite likely, however, that as the teacher becomes
experienced in the use of the technique he can set the stage for
many varied situations.
The eager comments of the pupils when the drama has been
completed, and the many ideas of how it should be done may lead
to a re-enactment of the scene, using new players or an exchange of
roles. The pupils may find, on the other hand, they need to obtain
more information about the subject and personalities before they
try again. Pupils will want to describe how they felt as they acted
out the situation. The teacher will want to make clear that no
one is expected to do a perfect interpretation in a sociodrama. Em-
phasis is placed on the understanding and attitudes developed
rather than on any skills in production gained.
Successful use of the sociodrama depends upon a cooperative group
feeling, some knowledge by the pupils of the situation and the per-
sonalities they are to represent, and the use of the sociodrama as a
learning device rather than an end in itself. Of particular value is
the discussion period following. The enthusiastic comments of the
group and a stimulation of discussion which centers around how
people feel and why they act as they do form a major contribution
of the sociodrama.
This procedure can be used directly in such fields as the promo-
tion of interracial understanding and cultural exchange, as well as to
give the pupil opportunities in writing, in diction, and in related
fields. Instead of "art for art's sake," the theatre can present prac-
tical approaches to life's obstacles and happenings. Social studies
offer an almost limitless fund of situations and ideas which can be
dramatized for clearer understanding.
The specific problem can be set up by the pupils with the guid-
ance of the teacher. In the study of race relationships, for instance,
roles may be played by students that will represent different races. It
will be necessary to study the background, ideas, and problems of
r Cf. 17th Yearbook National Council Social Studies. Study and Teaching of American
MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES
these races before they can be presented. If, for example, relations
with China are studied, some history, geography, and current
events must be looked into before the role of the Chinese can be
presented. Such a role should be broad, based on traditions and
customs of that country. Social conflicts can be staged with an
eye to modifying the pupil's opinion from one of prejudice to one
of understandings so essential to proper adjustment of unpleasant
Subject-matter for the sociodrama is infinite. It can include per-
sonal problems, history, current events of any pertinent situation
past or present which will lend itself to dramatization. Sociodrama
falls into line with our concepts of democracy very well. It can be
used to bring people, problems, and events into proper focus for the
pupil. It causes them to think and subsequently to seek understand-
ing or adjustment as the case may require.
SITUATIONS THAT MIGHT BE USED IN A SOCIODRAMA
I. A girl or boy plans for an advanced education with various ob-
stacles to overcome.
i. A group of boys leave a lighted campfire. They return late: to
find a fire raging and forest rangers fighting it back.
3. A girl from Latin America comes into a Florida classroom,
trying to make friends, adapt to a new language, customs, etc.
4. Conducting a caucus during election year.
Clubs. The social studies teacher has a good opportunity to faster
a continued interest in the various phases of his course. This is
through clubs-Pah-American Clubs, International Relations Club,
Collector's Club, and others. The social studies teachers surely may
take the initiative in forming such clubs or should contribute a great
deal toward them if they are already organized.
Pan-American Clubs are formed to foster an understanding and
an appreciation of the countries and peoples of the Americas, in-
cluding Canada and Central America. The geography and Spanish
teachers can help in such a club. The International Relations Club
helps to develop a one world concept. It considers all countries and
the people which compose them. It will be easy to find speakers
who have visited various places and are willing to talk to the
These clubs are an answer to the problem arising when individual
48 TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
students wish to pursue a particular problem which they have
studied in class. Perhaps on a somewhat younger level, a social
studies class might favor a Collector's Club. Most every one has a
collection of some sort, the sharing of which will be a broadening
experience. It may be related to the work in the class or related.
Trips. Going places and seeing things are valuable in helping
the pupil to broaden his experiences. In this day of increased travel
and a narrowing world, pupils need to have as intimate amd as
broad contacts as conditions permit. The recent war gave impetus
to interests in other peoples and places.
The going and the seeing may be to places of local interest. It
may be an industry, a government contact, or historic interest
which prompts the project. The activity may take the group a
greater distance-to places in the county, in the state, into another
state, or across several states.
These trips may serve one of the following purposes:
i. To serve as a preview of a project and for gathering instructional
2.. To create situations for cultivating observations, keenness, and
discovery; to encourage children to see and know the things
3. To serve as a means of arousing specific interests-as in trees,
birds, art productions, historical settings
4. To supplement classroom instruction; to secure definite informa-
tion for a specific unit
5. To supplement class discussions and conclusions or individual
experience, and to verify previous information
Whatever the distance or the purpose, detailed planning must be
a part of the preparation. Pupil interest and participation in the
selection of places and in the planning of the trip will lead to
keener anticipation and more alertness in what is to be seen and
Some suggestions to the teachers in charge of the planning and
in the execution of the plans:
i. Planning and arrangements for the trip will be in cooperation
with the total school program.
MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES
z. Have a definite objective in selecting a particular place.
3. Contact the people in authority at the place selected as to:
b. Prices of admission. Most places have student rates. Caution-check prices
just before you go-prices are changed frequently. Keep your correspondence
and take the list of prices quoted with you.
c. Food. Eating arrangements will need to be made. It may be best for the stu-
dents to take their own lunches for one or two meals.
d. Make arrangements for guides if they will be needed.
If something should prevent the making of the trip after ar-
rangements have been made, notify those concerned immedi-
4. Decide on the class or classes going so as to determine the size
of the group. Size should be in accordance with the means of
transportation. If a school bus will seat forty pupils comfort-
ably, that will govern the number of pupils who could make
the trip. Distance and the object of the trip will influence the
total number to go.
5. Definite contacts should be made with the bus drivers so that
they will know the schedule.
6. Time for rest stops must be taken into account. Rest stop
facilities should be known. A good policy would be to buy
gas at that stop.
7. The cost will be influenced by several factors-the number to a
bus, the admission prices, and the arrangements concerning the
expense of the bus which are made by the county board. In
some counties bus drivers receive extra compensation for these
trips, and the group pays the expense of the bus.
8. Long trips are too hard on younger pupils. The planning of a
long-range program of travel- will make it possible for pupil;
to have different trips to look forward to as they advance in
school. Interdepartment cooperation in planning will add much
interest. Pupils like to have their pals on these trips.
9. Teachers of classes participating should serve as chaperones.
The number needed will depend on age of the pupils and means
of transportation used.
School buses are a much less expensive means of transporta-
tion and make the checking on pupils easier. Some easy scheme
50 TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
of accounting for the pupils should be devised. One way is to
number each pupil and then let them count themselves off.
10. Permits from parents give stability to the trip and protection
to the school. Safety should be stressed. Permits for swimming
are a MUST. Life guards from the group are necessary.
ii. Pupils should be "briefed" on the itinerary and as to some
"do's" and don'tts" Pupils unfamiliar with the use of school
buses should be informed as to rules governing their use.
12.. In their preparation for the trip the pupils should have investi-
gated and discussed the places of interest to be visited. The
sharing of experiences and the evaluation of the trip on the
return would serve to make a more lasting impression on the
pupils. A display of camera results would add interest.
13. Many places and things of interest can be seen along the way.
Teachers should call these to the attention of the pupils as they
14. A list of pupils on the trip should be left with the principal in
case of an emergency.
Some results which may be desired:
i. An increasing acquaintance with the state-beautiful places,
types of land, crops, etc.
2. Learning to read road maps
3. Courtesies of travel
4. Appreciation of industry, government, and of historic places
5. Respect and appreciation of property
6. Realization of the necessity for planning of a trip and of the
7. Learning how to plan adequately for a successful trip
8. Appreciation of the need for cooperation of the members of the
group in planning and making the trip
9. Becoming aware of other peoples; that environment helps to
condition life; that these conditions have had a part in shaping
MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES
io. Developing a background and basis for thinking through con-
tacts and experiences on the trip
The visit of a rural group to the city would enrich the experi-
ences of those pupils. A trip to the nation's capital is a compara-
tively new venture for Florida schools but one which has great
possibilities for the pupils. A list of interesting places is included
as suggestions for pupil trips.
Visit of a rural 'group to the city. The social studies teacher in a rural
community will want to take advantage of the many resources of the
city or neighboring large town for the enrichment of his pupils.
What could make for a finer experience for rural school children than
to plan a day or a weekend just seeing the intricate workings of city
life and the cooperation necessary to keep things running smoothly!
Preplanning will make interviews possible as well as the availability
of competent guides.
A one-day's trip could include a visit to the administrative offices
in the city hall; the juvenile court and connected agencies; a news-
paper; a bank; a big department store; a radio station; air, rail, and
bus terminals; fire and police departments; a museum; an art gallery;
or other places of interest. A ride on an escalator would give a thrill.
On the pleasure side there might be a visit to a large theatre, res-
taurant, or cafeteria. A weekend could include attendance at a large
church on Sunday.
The excellent opportunity for observing persons of various nation-
alities, races, ages, and occupations as they mingle together to make
up the life of the city would not be overlooked by the alert teacher.
A trip to Washington. The thrill of seeing their national capital
has a very great appeal to the pupils. It gives them a keener inter-
est in national and international affairs and in national and inter-
Very detailed plans must be made-best to leave nothing to
chance. If regular commercial bus transportation is used, the trip
going could be one route and the return another route. Stops along
the way could be made to see many interesting places and things if
the group is large enough to have its own bus. In Washington pro-
vision must be made for hotel reservations, sight-seeing bus, food,
entertainment, and possible transportation other than bus. In con-
sidering the cost all of the above are necessary, and tipping is a dis-
52 TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
tinct item in the cost of the trip. Announcement of the trip should
be made far enough in advance that pupils may work and save for
it. Parents and friends might give the trip as a present for gradua-
tion, Christmas, birthday.,
Visit the State Capital. A trip to Tallahassee when the legislature
is in session would serve a double purpose: (i) seeing the capital,
(z) watching the lawmakers at work. It should cause the pupil to
have a more direct interest in his state government and the prob-
lems which it faces.
By air. Travel by air on educational trips is a reality, and its fu-
ture possibilities should not be overlooked. Classes are being trans-
ported by air to observe the workings of various projects and to
participate in discussion and solution of problems.
Places to visit. This is a suggestive list for Florida. There are
many other places of interest and importance which groups will
want to visit.
i. Tallahassee: Capitol building, Florida State University, exhib-
its in state buildings, relics of Spanish days, fossil collection of
Florida's prehistoric animals, Florida A. & M. College for
z. Wakulla Springs: sixteen miles south of Tallahassee-beauti-
ful spring, glass bottom boats.
3. Quincy: Fuller's earth mines. Tobacco section.
4. Chattahoochee: Florida State Hospital.
5. Marianna: Florida Caverns State Park-electrically lighted,
guides. Cave with stalactites and stalagmites in fantastic for-
mations. Limestone mines. Florida Industrial School for Boys.
6. Panama City: International Paper Company, Tyndall Field
(Air University), and Naval Countermines Station. Paper com-
pany will send representative (if school is close enough) to pre-
pare pupils for what they are to look for and expect.
7. Choctawhatchee National Forest-between DeFuniak Springs
and Pensacola, along U.S. 90 and Fla. 85-rich in Indian, Span-
ish, pirate, and Andrew Jackson history.
MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES
S. Eglin Field: at Fort Walton, between Pensacola and Panama
9. Gulf Scenic Highway, U.S. 98: Panama City to Pensacola. Out-
standing for various shades of blue and green in the water.
o10. Mobile, Ala.: Bellengrath Gardens. Early March best time.
ii. Pensacola: Large liners and battleships enter harbor. U.S. Nav-
al Station and Navy Yard. Fort San Carlos and Fort McRae
may be visited if permission from the Commandant is secured.
12. Jacksonville: Shipyards and docks. U.S. Naval Air Station
(Yukon). Many industries.
13. Mayport: Fort Carolina-old. French fort.
14. Dinsmore: U.S. i. Dinsmore Duck Farm. Six miles north of
15. Fernandina: Fort Clinch State Park.
16. St. Augustine: Castillo de San Marco, Oldest House, Oldest
Wooden School House, Old Gates, Fountain of Youth, Alli-
gator Farm, and many other historic and interesting places.
Florida State School for the Deaf and Blind.
17. Fort Matanzas: Ten miles south of St. Augustine-ruins of
coquina rock fort-Ft. Matanzas National Monument.
18. Marineland: Marine Studios Oceanarium. Eighteen miles south
of St. Augustine.
19. Green Cove Springs: Navy docks and shipyards. Many differ-
ent types of ships stored in river--moth ball fleet."
o10. Palatka: Cypress mill, paper mill, kaolin mine, Ravine Gar-
21. Ocala: Silver Springs, Seminole Indian Village, Reptile farm,
Ocala National Forest, limestone mines, Florida Industrial
School for Girls.
12-. Raiford: Florida State Prison.
13. Dunnellon: Only hard rock phosphate mine in operation in
the entire state. Rainbow Springs north of Dunnellon.
54 TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
24. Gainesville: University of Florida, State Museum, Florida
Farm Colony. Austin Caty Memorial Forest-seven miles north.
2.5. Lake City: Osceola National Forest and tree nursery-about
fourteen miles east on U.S. 90. Olustee Battlefield Monument.
2-6. High Springs: Camp O'Leno.
2-7. St. Petersburg: Maritime Training Station, Municipal Pier,
Phillippi Park, City Museum, Gresh Wood Shop, Bee Line
Ferry, Bay Pines Hospital, Mullet Key Park, Turner's Sunken
z8. Tampa: Shipyards, steamship piers, University of Tampa,
Davis Island, University of Tampa Museum, Hillsboro State
Park, Ybor City-Latin section. Many industries. Dupree
29. Tarpon Springs: Sponge fishers, Greek Settlement, Innes paint-
ings in the Church of the Good Shepherd.
30. Sarasota: Ringling Museum of Art, Ringling Home, Circus
Museum, winter quarters for circus, Myakka River State Park.
31. Bradenton: Gamble Mansion.
32. Deland: Stetson University. De Leon Springs near.
33. Daytona: Famous Ocean Beach Speedway, twenty-three miles
34. New Smyrna: Turnbull Colony (Minorcan), ruins of old sugar
35. Orlando: Lakes, Sanlando Springs, Mead Botanical Garden.
36. Winter Park: Rollins College.
37. Lakeland: Florida Southern College, Carpenters Home, tan-
nery-finished leather, citrus packing and canning plants.
38. Lake Wales: Bok Singing Tower, Spook Hill, citrus packing
and canning plants.
39. Winter Haven: Cypress Gardens, citrus packing and canning
40. Lake Alfred: Citrus packing and canning plants.
41. Mulberry: Center of phosphate industry.
Visual aids, an integral part of classroom instruction in social studies.
56 TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
42-. South of Bartow: Largest phosphate mine and facilities in the
43. Sebring: Highlands Hammock State Park.
44. Dade City: Large citrus packing and canning plant.
45. North of Brooksville: Lewis Plantation-turpentine still.
46. Cocoa Beach: Canaveral Light House-Ponce de Leon is said to
have landed at this point.
47. Vero Beach: McKee Jungle Gardens.
48. Dania: Seminole Indian Reservation.
49. Miami: University of Miami, Pan-American Airways, Hia-
leah, Orange Bowl, Causeway, Lincoln Road, Monkey Jungle,
and Parrot Farm.
50. Homestead: Everglades National Park.
51. Key West: Fort Jefferson, Overseas Highway, U.S. Naval Base.
52.. Clewiston: United States Sugar Corporation-sugar mill and
cattle ranch. Lake Okeechobee dikes.
53. Fort Myers: Edison home.
54. Tamiami Trail between Miami and Fort Myers-Seminole
Indian villages, birds, mangrove swamps, and forests.
By taking advantage of the "audio-visual way," the social
studies teacher has an opportunity to enrich pupil school experiences
undreamed of a few years ago. Learning will be fun; the classroom
a pleasant place in which to live; and the pupils a happy, alert
group, eager for meaningful experiences, varied yet organized in
accordance with their own plans. Imagine a seventh grade group
coming to school in the morning ready to study Brazil through the
use of maps, pictures, and a movie or slides giving an over-all pic-
ture of the country. Also helpful would be exhibits such as tnose
demonstrating the coffee industry, articles of dress, diet, and rec-
. words giving language or national music (it is likely that in most
Florida cities some of these materials can be borrowed from private
sources.) The pupils will read to obtain other information concern-
ing the problem, make oral and written reports to explain the
MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES
exhibits or arrange for discussion (class or group) of the subject.
A plan such as this will make for vitalized experiences for. both
teacher and pupils.
In addition to the values derived from these materials in increas-
ing interest, the audio-visual way can provide a deepening of
concepts and understandings for a more permanent learning. It is
one thing to read and memorize that the earth moves around the
sun; it is another to "see it move" id a demonstration. "Seeing is
believing" too when pictures of a badly eroded land area are shown
alongside those of well-terraced sloping land or contour plowing.
Visual aids are not a technique in themselves, they merely sup-
plenient other techniques. They should be used after a careful con-
sideration of the materials that are to be studied. This fact indi-
cates that visual aids should be collected and utilized for specific
Some functions of visual education:
i. To give correct initial concept
z. To broaden sensory experience of the learner
3. To intensify impressions
4. To vitalize instruction
5. To give vicarious experience in activities outside the pupil's
6. To give experience with concrete things
7. To motivate
8. To supplement other learning
9. To vary classroom activity
io. To save time
Some reasons for using visual aids:
i. To stimulate interest and expedite learning
z. To augment the learning process by providing something other
3. To increase understanding by relating experiences to life
4. To test for the application of learning
III. SOME MATERIALS OF INSTRUCTION AVAILABLE
FROM GENERAL EXTENSION
Available to the schools of Florida are extensive collections of
materials admirably suited to the needs of teachers of the social
58 TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
studies and their classes. These aids, assembled over a period of
more than a quarter of a century by the State in its Extension Li-
brary and audio-visual aids collections, can be borrowed quickly
and easily from the General Extension Division.
Below are listed with brief descriptions, different types of avail-
able social studies materials which may be used separately or in
combination to enrich the secondary school curriculum.
Reference Service. At the disposal of Florida residents through
this service is the collective knowledge of the faculties of Florida's
state-supported institutions of higher learning. Inquiries will be
answered directly by members of the General Extension Division
staff after search of authoritative publications, or they will be re-
ferred to other sources from which accurate information can be
Package Libraries. Each package library is a collection of maga-
zine articles, pamphlets, or reprints on a single subject. A package
is available on almost any subject of current interest. These collec-
tions are especially valuable as a means of keeping abreast of cur-
rent thought in a rapidly developing society.
Dramatic Materials. Plays with social implications, often use-
ful in pointing up economic and social conditions, may be borrowed
for reading only.
Professional Library for Teachers. Books on the teaching of the
social studies as well as for background reading are available to
individual teachers or to study groups.
Films. Informational i6mm films sponsored by industrial con-
cerns and government and private agencies are available from the
Florida Film Depository for cost of transportation. Loan period:
One day for each scheduled showing.
The Florida Cooperative Film Library, containing approximately
400 prints of classroom teaching films, is housed by the General
Extension. Division. Circulation is restricted to members of the
Cooperative Library. Any school or public agency is eligible for
membership upon purchase of an approved film or payment of
equivalent. membership fee. Loan period: Two days for each sched-
MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES
Standard Glass Slides. Standard (31Y x 4 inches) slides and slide
projectors are available for cost of transportation. Projectors are
loaned in cases where borrowers cannot otherwise obtain them. Loan
period: One day to two weeks.
Filmstrips. Filmstrips are "still" pictures on 35mm film which
may be shown with a filmstrip projector. Projectors are loaned in
cases where borrowers cannot otherwise obtain them. Costs of
transportation are assumed by the borrower. Loan period: One
day to two weeks.
Recordings. Musical recordings of many nations and speech re-
cordings such as "Jane Addams of Hull House" and "Then Came
War-1939" may be borrowed. There are also recordings for the
teaching of Spanish and French.
Children's Library of Florida. Although fewer books on the sec-
ondary school reading level than on the elementary level are con-
tained in the Children's Library, hundreds of fiction and non-fiction
volumes dealing with areas in the secondary social studies curri-
culum are available. The possibilities of the collection may be
illustrated by two titles:
Langdon: Everyday Things in American Life 1607-1776
Goetz: Half a Hemisphere
Unit Picture Collections. Sets of mounted pictures, illustrative of
many social studies topics, are arranged to supplement classroom
CORRELATION OF MATERIALS
Sometimes only one type of educational aid is needed by a teacher
for a specific situation; more often he prefers to enrich the learning
experience by using a variety of materials; such as pictures, objects,
and recordings along with reading matter.
To save time for the teacher the Division is glad to lend, on re-
quest, a box of correlated materials selected from the various types
One problem may be taken to illustrate this correlated service.
The Division can send, barring previous commitments, all of the
60 TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
PROB1.EM: HOW CAN WE CARRY FORWARD THE GOOD NEIGHBOR POLICY
BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND MEXICO?
TYPES OF MATERIAL
-Church and State
-Description and Travel
-Politics and Government
Baker: Juarez the Just
Ferguson: International Garden Party
Harrington: Visitors from Around the World
Program of Mexican Music (Album)
The Swallow- zi41 or 80753
Children's Books for Background Reading
Banks: The Story of Mexico
Bronson: Stooping Hawk and Stranded Whale, Sons of Liberty
Diaz del Castillo: Cortez and the Conquest of Mexico
Janiver: The Aztec Treasure House
Lide: Princess of Yucatan
Morris: Digging in Yucatan
Peck: Young Mexico
Thomas: Our Mexican Neighbor
Barnes: Carlota, American Empress
Charters: Latin America, Twenty Friendly Nations
Ferguson: Fiesta in Mexico
Franck: The Pan American Highway
Goetz: Half a Hemisphere
Green: Our Latin American Neighbors
Greenbie: Next-Door Neighbor -(Good Neighbor Series)
Henle: Mexico, 64 Photographs
MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES
Johnston: Regional Dances of Mexico
Lansing: Liberators and Heroes of Mexico
Museum of Modern Art: Twenty Centuries -f Mexican Art
Rosa: Mexico Speaks
Sanchez: Stories of the Latin American States
Smith: Made in Mexico
Spicer: The Book of Festivals
Strade: Timeless Mexico
Williams: The People and Politics
Lasbastille: Canciones Tipicos
Segundo: Canciones Populares de Espana y de Mexico
Films and Film Strips
Land of Mexico-Florida Cooperative Film Library
People and Customs-
People of Mexico-Florida Cooperative Film Library
The Day Is New
PatZcuaro-All Florida Film Depository
Arts and Crafts of Guatemala and Mexico (Color)-Pan-American
How To BORROW MATERIALS
The General Extension Division has available free bulletins de-
scribing their teaching aids such as visual materials, recordings,
plays, package libraries, and books. The loan period for most of
the materials is two weeks, time in transit not included; loans may
be renewed for an additional two weeks by a card or letter re-
questing such renewal. The only charge for materials is postage
from Gainesville and return. The borrower is expected to pay
replacement costs of lost or badly damaged materials.
Requests from teachers should indicate specific topics and grade
For printed materials, recordings, and mounted pictures requests
should be addressed to:
62 TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
For films, filmstrips, and slides requests should be addressed to:
DEPARTMENT OF VISUAL INSTRUCTION
General Extension Division
For correlated materials, requests may be addressed to either
department and should indicate whether film, filmslide, glass slide
projectors and/or a record player are to be used for the unit.
I. PLANNING INSTRUCTION
Social studies as interpreted in this bulletin is more than the
interrelation of geography, history, economics, and sociology in
the exploration of a problem. Social studies is concerned with de-
veloping social attitudes. Its primary purpose is to develop a way
of looking at things, the American way of looking at things. Social
studies is a way of studying how man lives and why he lives that
way, what his problems are and how he may solve them, and how
we may live together today in keeping with our democratic ideals.
It utilizes vast bodies of social data drawn from the past and from
the present. It emphasizes democratic procedures. It is concerned
that socially significant meanings be experienced. It looks forward
to positive social behavior.
Grades One, Two, Three: Living in the Immediate Environment
The child in these three grades is primarily interested in the
home, the school, and the community. His experiences are related
to the problem of food, the care of pets, play, toys, his home, his
family and playmates, and various other home and community
activities. The postman, the baker, the merchant, the milkman,
and the policeman-all play an important part in helping him to
understand how each individual is dependent upon the services and
cooperation of others.
Grades Four, Five, Six: Life and Discovery in an Expanding Environ-
The child's broadening concepts of the immediate world about
him leads to an interest in other communities and other people.
He compares his own with others and sees how they contribute to
and influence his own life. The study of more complex adaptations
of the physical world creates a great interest in the study of maps,
charts, globes, ships, compasses, airplanes, and trips to historical
places. The child sees the influence of physical environment on the
life of the people and gains an understanding:of the need for ad-
vancing the frontiers of today's world-and realizes something of
the future possibilities in these fields.
CHART SCOPE AND SEQUENCE OF SOCIAL STUDIES
Living in the Immediate Environment Life and Discovery in an Expanding Environment
ist Grade 2nd Grade 3rd Grade 4th Grade 5th Grade 6th Grade
Adjustment to Home Adjustment to Neigh- Adjustment to Living Adjustment to Living Adjustment to Re- Adjustment to World
and School Living borhood Living in Immediate and in Typical Communi- gions Living and Man's Ad-
Nearby Communities ties vancing Frontiers (Sci-
entific and Social)
Personal-Social Adjustment Civic-Social Adjustment
7th Grade 8th Grade 9th Grade ioth Grade iith Grade iith Grade
Adapting to and Con- Appreciation of the Orientation to the Social Living in Its Social Living in Its Problems of Living in
trolling the Natural Development of In- Economic, Social, and World Relationships American Relation- our Democracy in "One
Environment stitutions in the Political Order ships World"
PLANNING INSTRUCTION AND ACTIVITIES
Grades Seven, Eight, Nine: Personal-Social Adjustment
As the child develops and broadens and deepens his concepts, he
feels increasingly the need as an individual for adjustment to the
economic order. He becomes interested in the economic status of
his family as it affects him in the things that he wants to do. He
becomes interested in deciding what he would like to do to earn
money and to make a living. He is old enough to be concerned with
his economic relationships and future activities in the world of
work; however, no effort should be made at this point to force him
to decide on his life's vocation. He needs to find out about the
fields of industry in order that he make a tentative choice of his
life's work and prepare himself for effective adjustment to the
economic order. He needs skill in the wise selection and use of
goods and services since he is moving from the family group into
broader group "relationships. He dnust develop an understanding,
based on his degree of maturity, of basic economic problems. The
adolescent must see that personal health is vital to his successes and
individuality in the industrial world and that the community health
problems bear a definite relation to his own welfare.
During this period of the child's development, he is awkward,
ill at ease, and sensitive to group approval or disapproval. He
shifts his affections from one individual to another.
In striving for maturity in all these relationships, the adolescent
seeks to realize and to maintain feelings of affection and security
and to gain in the groups within which he is active, a status appro-
priate to his ideal self. In fact, "the adolescent lives in three worlds,
the family world, the world of age-mates, and the world of adults."
All of these worlds lie within the area of immediate personal social
adjustment. As the adolescent moves from one of the worlds to
another, he normally seeks increasingly mature and effective rela-
tionships with his associates in face-to-face contacts. He wants a
feeling of assurance, of belongingness, affection, adequacy, security,
and status in these relationships. As they become more and more
effective and satisfying, he tends to develop a personal philosophy
and to assume a role which will enable him to attain and express
his selfhood and individuality as a person.
Emphasis to be placed here, according to grade level is as follows:
Grade Seven-Creative Adjustment to the Economic Order
Grade Eight-The Development of Social Institutions
Grade Nine-Directing and Operating Social Agencies
66 TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
Grades Ten,[Eleven, Twelve: Civic-Social Adjustment
The dominant urge of the pupil at this stage of his development
is to establish himself as an adult. He feels a need for a purpose to
determine his role in life, and he strives for high ideals and for suc-
cess in social-civic affairs. He has a desire to identify himself with
great movements, and his idealism often takes on an almost cru-
sading spirit. If the process of growing up has been successful, he
begins to give evidence of emotional and social maturity. He wishes
for the opportunity to assume increasingly mature responsibilities
and to gain some sense of achievement. In this transition he will
need to recognize and understand some of the problems which have
resulted from machine production and to see his own relationship
to these problems. He will need to understand the technological,
associational, and transitional nature of American society as it
is today and to realize that the place of the individual in such a
society is different from that of former years. The individual may
adapt himself to these changing conditions by participating in
activities which will equip him for projecting ways by which social
conditions and institutions may be improved.
In senior high school emphasis will include:
Grade Ten-Social Living in Its World Relationships
Grade Eleven-Social Living in Its American Relationships
Grade Twelve-Participating in and Improving Social Liv-
ing in One World
The minimum courses required of all boys and girls apparently
set out mainly to give pupils knowledge of world geography, of the
history of our country, and of the organization of its government.
The social studies program of most secondary schools in Florida
follows this general pattern:
Seventh and Eighth Grades-Social Studies-two year block (re-
Ninth Grade-Civics (required in some schools)
Tenth Grade-World History (elective)
Eleventh Grade-U.S. History and Government (required)
Twelfth Grade-Modern Problems of World Geography (elective)
PLANNING INSTRUCTION AND ACTIVITIES
At present three credits in social studies are required in grades
nine through twelve, one of which must be in United States history
and government. Teachers should refer to current bulletins for re-
quirements in this field.
Florida teachers have not been unmindful of the inadequacies of
the program in social studies. Therefore, bulletins have been de-
veloped with the purpose of helping the teachers of Florida to
improve their instruction, such a guide to be considered as a start-
ing point, not a goal, in developing social meanings. Through these
meanings the individual understands the implication of inter-
dependence in group living; that his privileges and liberties in our
form of government imply obligations for the perpetuation of, and
contributions to, the American way of life; and finally he under-
stands that the school is maintained as an essential agency for
experiences in democratic living.
In order to do this the individual must develop the skill of work-
ing cooperatively with others, and an attitude which recognizes
the integrity and potential worth of all other persons as citizens
in a democratic society.
TYPEs OF PLANNING
Wise utilization of the outlines suggested for the grades necessi-
tates planning of two types. The first type of planning must be
done by the whole faculty. Its primary purpose is to develop a
school program so in harmony with the democratic way of life
that the students experience the democratic way of life and come
to cherish it as their own. Faculties will find help in Part One,
particularly in Chapters Three and Four, of A Guide to a Functional
Program in the Secondary School,1 and in Ways to Better Instruction in
Florida Schools, 2 particularly in Chapters Three, Five, Seven, and
Eight. This type of planning must concern itself with the organi-
zation of the school day, with human relationships within the
school, and with joint enterprises of the school and the community.
The second type of planning must be done by the social studies
teacher and the pupils. Its primary aim is threefold: to stimulate in-
terest in problems to be studied and to generate a purposeful attack
on these problems; to utilize the creative resources of the group in
securing the best attack on the selected problems; and to provide
experience in group planning, one of the techniques of democratic
1 Bulletin io, State Department of Education, Tallahassee, Fla., 1940.
2 Bulletin 7, State Department of Education, Tallahassee, Fla., 1939.
68 TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
living. This type of planning may come at many points during the
school year. It is vitally important at the beginning of the year
when the pupils and the teacher consider the big things they wish
to accomplish during the year. It is equally important when the
teacher and the pupils begin to explore a large area as they seek
to define for study one or more problems within the area. It is of
great significance when difficulties arise during the exploration and
study of a problem.
The teacher who is unaccustomed to planning with his pupils may
find the following suggestions helpful. He should first familiarize
himself with the large area to which the problems to be studied are
related. He should know the sources of materials for this area and
to what extent these materials are available to the pupils. He should
then think of the many ways by which the problem may be ap-
proached. He is then ready to anticipate the questions which pupils
will ask, if they are given a chance.
Having anticipated the questions which pupils will ask and
having grouped the questions under the major heads to which they
are related, the teacher should then consider the kinds of activities
which the pupils may engage in to satisfy the demands of their
questions and to assist them to work toward some solution or
understanding of the problem. In the teacher's preparation this
step is perhaps the hardest, for it means that he must see the re-
lationship between problems raised by pupils and the activities
engaged in. To engage in activities merely for the sake of thinking
oneself progressive is passe, ridiculous, and artificial. Activities are
the means which the learner uses to realize his aims and purposes
and should result in meaningful experience. For example, at the
eleventh grade levtJ, if the class were trying to find out who the
people of the Western Hemisphere were, where they were, and why
they were there one appropriate activity would be for a committee
to find out the population concentration from census reports, Pan
American Union pamphlets, and governmental reports of the sev-
eral countries of the Hemisphere and make a dot map of the Hemi-
sphere showing the population pattern. The committee which
prepared the map might well present it to their class by means of a
panel discussion with the members of the committee explaining
reasons for the concentrations of population in the different coun-
tries. As they made their explanation, they should invite questions
and discussions from the class as a whole. If they failed to utilize
authoritative source material, or if they were careless in the graph-
ical representation of theiridata,tthe teacher and the class should
PLANNING INSTRUCTION AND ACTIVITIES
challenge the value of their report. Such an activity as the fore-
going is related to the purposes of the group and should result in
meaningful experience. On the other hand, if the group decided to
have a pageant with representatives from the various countries, it
is doubtful whether such an activity would result in the exact
information and the depth of understanding implied in a full explor-
ation of Where are the people of the Western Hemisphere and why are
An approach must be rooted in the experience of the pupils and
must have the possibilities either of broadening and deepening that
experience or of leading to new experience which is significant. It
is, as it were, a bridge from meaningful past experience to mean-
ingful present and subsequent experience.
An approach may be made in three ways: (i) directly-the usual
approach where teachers are accustomed to assigning lessons or
where students are so motivated that they are anxious "to. begin
work" as they call it; (2.) incidentally, through bulletin board dis-
plays, moving pictures, and assigned readings indirectly related to
the area-the approach usually employed when the teacher must
set the stage for the study problem; and (3) informally, through
class discussion-the approach often used when rapport exists
between the teacher and students to such an extent that they share
news items, readings, and experiences, any one of which may lead
to a vigorous discussion and a decision to find out the answers to
questions raised by the class and to bring them back to the class.
For example, at the eleventh grade level, the teacher might
approach directly the first problem of the outline, Where are the
people of the Western Hemisphere and why are they there? by writing the
question on the blackboard and plunging the class into a discussion
of it. After the class had discussed where they might find informa-
cion, assignments of reports could be made to individuals or to
committees. If the approach to the same problem were to be made in-
cidentally, for several days, perhaps even a week, the teacher would
have placed on the bulletin board picdtures, clippings, and questions
related to population problems of the Hemisphere. He would have
placed on his desk, or on the reading table in the room, attractive
pamphlets on the different countries of the Hemisphere, such as
those put out by the Pan American Union. If possible, he would
have on the wall a map of the Hemisphere and even of the world.
Whenever the opportunity presented itself, he would make refer-
70 TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
ences, incidentally, to population problems, especially as they
affected the Western Hemisphere. If possible he would show slides
or a motion picture related to the problem. He would be on the
alert for commentaries on the problem either from authoritative
radio commentators or newspaper columnists. In these ways the
teacher would build up experiences through which he would be
able to approach the problem directly. If the teacher were to ap-
proach the problem informally, he might open a discussion in some
such way as the following: "The other day I was reading a new
book on Latin America. I was amazed to find how many of the
people of Latin America are in Brazil, and yet the density of popu-
lation of Brazil is relatively small compared with that of the United
States. Have you ever thought where the people of our country are
and why they are there? And where the people of other parts of
our Hemisphere are and why they are there?" Having introduced
the question very informally, he would then guide the class to
express themselves and to ask questions. After a goodly number
of the group had expressed a point of view and asked questions,the
teacher might then ask, "How would you like to find out where
the people of the Western Hemisphere are and why they are there?"
And then he would add the questions designed to start the planning,
"What would we need to know? How would we find out? How
should we plan to report our findings to the class?" The advantage
of the informal approach is that it capitalizes on the interest of the
group in current affairs and on their intellectual curiosity with
respect to things of the past. The informal approach does not pre-
clude the use of realia suggested above in the direct approach. In
fact, a combination of the three approaches might, in many cases,
be most effective.
As has been pointed out previously, activities must be related
to the purposes of the group and to the needs of individuals within
the group and must result in bringing socially significant meaning
to the individual and to the group. If activities are planned by the
teacher and the pupils to carry out specific purposes which are
socially significant, they are likely to result in meaningful experi-
ence. Among the activities frequently used by social studies teachers
are reading, informal class discussions, written reports, oral reports,
debates, and tests. Activities less frequently used include panel
discussions, forums, dramatics, motion pictures, field trips, and
direct participation and work experience in school and community
PLANNING INSTRUCTION AND ACTIVITIES
enterprises. Often the teacher's sole criterion for having a class
engage in an activity is that "It makes them do a lot of reading and
work." Sometimes his criterion for the selection of an activity is
merely that "It is something new I learned in summer school."
Written Reports. The written report is a common activity in
social studies classes. It may be a profitable and appropriate activ-
ity. On the contrary, it may be highly inappropriate. For example,
written reports are often assigned students merely to have them
cover a wide range of reading matter, organize it around a selected
topic or problem, and present it in suitable form. In such cases, so
far as the student is concerned, his purpose is often mainly to satisfy
the demands of the teacher and receive a grade. The whole perform-
ance is relatively extraneous to the basic purposes of his life, and
thus the subject-matter covered by his report often fails to become
a vital part of the stream of his experience. The report on assigned
topics which require broad reading may be a very good activity for
an individual student, provided he recognizes his inability to glean
from writings of others and organize his gleanings into a simple,
understandable, and relatively short report, and provided-he wishes
to improve his ability to organize. Such reports may prove to be
thoroughly unsuitable, however, for the purposes of a group who
are exploring a problem and need the vigorous exchange of ideas
that comes in an informal oral discussion.
When written reports are required, however, they should conform
to standards which have been evolved by the teacher and the class
through discussion. At the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth grade.
level, the standards agreed upon by the group should include:
i. A digest of material from several sources pertinent to the topic
rather than a mass of quoted material
2. Careful selection of material and care in relating the material
to the selected topic
3. Exactness in direct quotation with correct footnotes giving
the source of the quotation
4. A well planned presentation of the report, suited to the pur-
pose and interest of the group
5. An appropriate and pleasant style, necessitating good sentence
structure and discrimination in the choice of words
6. Sincerity with respect to the point of view expressed in the
72 TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
7. A scientific attitude in making conclusions
8. A carefully prepared bibliography of sources used
9. Accuracy in such mechanics as spelling and punctuation
o10. Attractive form
At the junior high level, while the standards will be much the
same as the foregoing, the wording of the standards as the class
evolves them should be more simple and more in harmony with
the personal emphasis so prominent at this age. The standards
might be written as follows:
i. We will read from several sources and try to understand what
the authors say. Then we will try to put into our own words
what we have learned.
z. We will use only the information that pertains to our report,
and we will be careful to put what we use in order so that it
makes some sense.
3. If we use the direct words of an aut. or, we will give him
credit by including his words within quotation marks and by
making a footnote giving the exact page from which we took
4. We will make our report interesting so that our group will
5. We will have a variety of sentences and use interesting words
that say exactly what we mean.
6. We will be sincere and mean what we say. We will try to have
something worth saying.
7. We will not make broad statements unless we can back them
up by facts or by good authorities. We will know where we *
get our facts.
8. We will make a list of the sources which we use and attach it
to the end of our report. We will learn how to make a bibli-
9. We will be careful to spell words correctly and to punctuate
as accurately as possible.
io. We will make our written reports in good form. That means
that we will write them in ink, will observe margins and para-
graph indentations, will space our words and lines attractively,
and will write legibly and neatly.
PLANNING INSTRUCTION AND ACTIVITIES
The student should work toward improving his ability and in-
creasing his power to organize in written form a significant report.
Many teachers have found it helpful to hold a conference with a
student after he has submitted a long written report and then to
have him file his report to be compared by him for evidence of his
growth with reports he will make thereafter. It is important to
note that reports kept by students in their own files for purposes
of comparison are more effective than those kept by the teacher
for the same purpose. After all, the student should be concerned
A COMMITTEE OF PEERS
Representing their class in a community project of national as well as local import,
they feel responsible for making good plans and carrying them out.
Social Studies in Action!
74 TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
with his own growth; in comparison, the matter of a teacher's
records is relatively unimportant.
Oral Reports. The oral report should be related, also, to the pur-
poses of the individual or the group. The purpose for making the
report should govern its nature, length, style, and form. For ex-
ample, an oral report may be as short as the correct pronunciation
of a word, or as specific data taken from Census Reports, or as a
few facts of a man's life. It may be as long as it is necessary to
report in interesting detail a trip or the results of an investigation.
The oral report may be as informal as a contribution made spon-
taneously by a member of the group, or it may be as formal as a
student lecture from which the other members of the group must
take extensive notes. No matter whether the oral report is long or
short, it should be prepared in such a way as to engage the atten-
tion of the group and challenge their thoughtful consideration.
Unless the oral report contributes to the knowledge and growth
of the whole group, it fails.
By sharing their reading, members of the group enrich their ex-
perience. The oral report enables the group to utilize a wide range
of reading material. If the report is carefully prepared and effectively
presented, each pupil in the group profits by it. To insure having
effective oral reports, the group should understand the purpose of
oral reports and should develop their own standards for effective
Techniques of Democratic Discussion. McBurney and Hance have
defined discussion as "the cooperative deliberation of problems by
persons thinking and conversing together in face-to-face or co-
acting groups under the direction of a leader." As such, it is the
very life blood of democratic living. The nature of the social studies
is so attuned to the implications of democratic discussion that it
makes the development of techniques of democratic discussion by
social studies teachers not only desirable but mandatory. Democ-
racy working at its maximum and optimum needs a citizenry skilful
in discussing their mutual problems.
Teachers need to .understand the nature and purpose of discus-
sion, the values and limitations of discussion, the occasions for
discussion, problems for discussion, and ways of preparing for dis-
cussion. A good book on discussion such as McBurney and Hance's
The Principles and Methods of Discussion will provide the teacher
with background. A class-room paper will furnish a wealth of in-
PLANNING INSTRUCTION AND ACTIVITIES
formation about current events which may raise any number of
questions and serve as the basis of discussion.
The understandings and attitudes to be derived from the inter-
related activating of a school-community program of resource-use
have been presented and discussed in Part I of this bulletin. The
emphasis here is directed toward ways of initiating and developing
APPROACHES TO REsOURCE-USE
If the teacher is to capitalize upon this tremendously challenging
opportunity, he will need to understand clearly what is meant by
resource-use and how it can be made an integral part of an on-
going, functional program, designed to improve the quality of
living in the "here and now" as well as in the future. The teacher
will need to understand the community-or if he is new he must
at least possess an honest desire to learn with his pupils-and a
concern for the needs of those around him. In short, the teacher
must become a part of the community in which he lives. In selecting
problems for study he will need to consider the following:
i. Does the problem deal with material and experiences within the
range of pupil interest and ability?
z. Does the subject or problem under consideration have a discov-
erable body of fact upon which the pupils will be able to formu-
late sound generalizations?
3. Would the study be of some value to the community, if shared
4. Would the community welcome such a study?
5. By making studies of this type can the school encourage a
concern for and a participation in projects begun by the com-
There are many ways of developing with a group of boys and
girls a satisfactory study of the aspects of community life. No one
approach is "best." In planning to study the community with a
group of pupils, the teacher will find it helpful to consider the
76 TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
i. If the school is to utilize and contribute to the resources of
the community, the teacher and the pupils should first identify
resources and find present use and potentialities of the resources
of the community. The meanings implicit in the term community
must be understood. A sensitivity to the community and to the
communities within the larger community must be developed.
What forces, agencies, and activities characterize the community?
In what ways do they conflict? In what ways are they in har-
mony? How are they related to us? How are we related to them
and what is our responsibility?
z. It is helpful to cooperate with the elementary school teach-
ers in planning to develop a deepening and broadening concept
of the community; of ways of using resources wisely; and of the
responsibility for making a contribution to community life.
Provision should be made through consciously directed effort
throughout the school to secure cumulative development.
3. It will be helpful in planning with pupils to set up certain
phases of community life for study. The selection of phases will
depend, in part, upon group interest, ability to explore, the op-
portunity for exploration, and the nature of the locality. A com-
plete survey of the community would include the following: the
people and how they live, historical and legendary information;
economic development; natural resources; institutional resources;
and the resulting problems growing out of interrelated community
4. A plan of the purpose, methods of study, and form for re-
porting findings should be set up. The pupils should consider
such questions as: What do we want to find out? Who is equipped
to answer our questions? What methods for collecting materials
will be most helpful? What materials lie at hand? How can we
best share information? How shall we write up our findings? In
what form shall we record them?
5. Conducting the survey is only a small part of the teaching
and learning experiences of the community study. Pupils should
find the answers to such questions as how we can best share our
information and how we can report and write up our findings.
The way in which pupils gain insight and understanding in com-
munity living and actually put them into practice will be the real
test of whether the experiences have been of value to the class
and to the community.
PLANNING INSTRUCTION AND ACTIVITIES
EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES AND PROCEDURES
The following is a list of activities that may be used to help
provide a rich and interesting program of community study. It is
not to be considered all-inclusive; there are many others which
might be proposed. Resourceful teachers will find for themselves
other ways to provide for this program.
Pooling of Information by Pupils: This means of initiating or fur-
thering a study should not be overlooked. After pupils have lived
in a community for most of their lives, they at least feel that they
"know everything about everything." The establishing of prob-
lems for further study is made easy when pupils find that there is
information they do not have. Such a discussion, too, can be used
to bring out pupil interests and prejudices and give them a chance
to analyze the reasons for their attitudes.
Exploring Available Reference Materials: It is not wise to let pupils
rush into activities as they will want to do. Exploring community
resources means much more than conducting a series of casual or
superficial surveys. One should know the "who, what, when, why,
and where" of resources.
I. Planned as in field trips. This very effective aid in community
study is discussed fully in another portion of this chapter.
2.. Informal. The teacher should not overlook the possibilities
of training pupils to "see" things around them, as they go on
pleasure trips, etc. For instance, do pupils enjoy the beauty of
a forest area? Do they see the eroded slope at the back of the
school yard? Do they "see" a relation between the rich green
of the truck garden and the fertility of the soil?
Photographs. Making, collecting, and organizing snapshots and
other illustrative materials that show good and bad use of resources
will add interest and increase participation. It will also lead to a
greater understanding of the problems involved.
Interviews. Much can be learned from personal interviews with
various persons in the community who can give desired information.
These interviews may be made by individuals, a committee, or
perhaps the whole class if the person is invited to school. The
78 TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
following suggestions should be helpful in selecting and planning
for interviews. Always make an appointment at a time and place
convenient for the one being interviewed; have specific questions in
mind so as not to waste time; take pencil and notebook; be courteous;
thank the person interviewed for his time and information.
Community Mapping: This may take many different forms depend-
ing on the needs and interest of the group. Pupils may want to make
a map of the city giving places of major interest; they may want
to map a portion of a city (i.e., the concentration of factories,
warehouses, and wholesale establishments near the railroad); they
may want to make terrain models of the community. Whatever the
means used, the teacher has the responsibility for bringing into
the classroom visual evidence of the pupil's own local community
environment. Another form of community mapping that perhaps is
not so well known is that by which the child can be taught to dis-
cover his own community by mapping his relation to the services
and institutions in which he participates. On large-scale county or
district maps the pupil locates his home in relation to the institu-
tions-church, school, government, business, and services-con-
tacted by his family. Whenever breaks occur the teacher can point
to the emergence of new neighborhood relations. Thus, a series
of maps is produced that demonstrates the fact that the organiza-
tion of a community consists in the interrelations of its institutions.
Through the interpretation and analysis of these maps the teacher
will lead the pupils to see the social meanings of these relations.
City Officers for a Day: Certainly no survey of a community would
be complete without a study of governmental features involved.
Just as pupils need an understanding of this phase of city life, the
city needs the help of youth in planning its future. From the cour-
age of youth great ideals can develop. A culminating activity that
will prove interesting to both school and community is to make
arrangements-with the cooperation and under the guidance of
city officials-for pupils to elect officers and rule the city for a day.
Graphs, Statistical Materials: Pupils should be trained to read,
interpret, and understand graphs and other statistical materials
suited to their age and grade level; the use of these materials in
gaining clear concepts of the specific community being studied,
mrd how it compares and relates to larger communities.
PLANNING INSTRUCTION AND ACTIVITIES
Films, Filmstrips, and Slides: The teacher should not overlook the
importance of these and other visual aids in the resource-use study,
Some films, as the Florida: Wealth or Waste? were produced as a part
of the state and regional program. The Audubon Society and vari-
ous state agencies have very fine films dealing with conservation
of wildlife. Perhaps some filmstrips and slides can be produced in
the community and exchanged with other communities.
Summary: All of the outcomes to be worked for in a community
study may not be immediately evident. The pupils, however, should
show an increasing interest in the community and a concern for the
quality of civic, social, and economic development in the commu-
nity. The school can lay the foundation for a total school-com-
munity program of resource-uses. It can be made to reach also to
regional development and resource-use. A wise use of resources is
good business on a regional as well as a local basis. The water
control problem in Florida is not confined to one district. Forest
fires are no respecter of county lines. Wars are not confined to
Europe. A regional development of resources requires the best of
people-the best of research, the best of education, the best of
administration. Through the cooperation of all forces involved
people can move a little closer to the answer they seek: to know
themselves in their environment and to act according to what
THE RESOURCE UNIT
It must be made clear that the terms resource unit and source unit
are synonymous, the former having the wider and more current
usage. A resource unit differs from a teaching unit in that: (i) it is
prepared for the use of teachers; it is not intended for pupil read-
ing; (2) it covers a broad area rather than a specific topic or prob-
lem (for example, Problems of Water Control might well be the title
of a resource unit, while How a City Gets Its Water would be the
title of a teaching unit which might have drawn upon the resource
unit for materials directly related to the problems of city water
supply and control); (3) it contains much more material than can
be used by any one class.
Many resource units have already been prepared by eminent
authorities and master teachers in the social studies area, "as a
service to teachers in presenting accurate information and fresh
materials on contemporary problems and as a demonstration of a
new technique of pre-planning for democratic teaching in the
80 TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
classroom." A listing of only a few of the titles of these resource
units should arouse the enthusiasm of the social studies teacher.
Problems in American Life
Unit i. How our Government Raises and Spends Money:
Teaching American Youth How Local, State, and National
Governments Finance Their Activities
Unit z. American Youth Faces the Future: Responsibilities
and Opportunities for Youth in the World of Today and To-
Space does not permit an enumeration of all the titles of resource
units prepared by the National Council for the Social Studies. The
titles mentioned here show the emphasis on functional learning
which must be our compass if we are to point the way to a higher
type of citizenship. In brief, we might add that other resource
units survey such pertinent and significant problems as recreation
and morale, agriculture, population, and public opinion, to men-
tion only a few.
However, these research-prepared units will not meet the needs
of each local situation in the thousands of American secondary
schools. In fact, the Committee itself urges teachers to develop
their own resource units to meet local needs and to draw any in-
formation, ideas, or materials that are helpful in that task from the
units available. Teachers who assist in making resource units them-
selves find that they can use the resource units made by others
We shall attempt to suggest procedures which teachers may use
in "working up" a resource unit. Let us assume that we intend to
write a resource unit on Water.: Supply and Control.
i. Analyze the problem completely. Read all available materials,
-do not, however, attempt to read the highly technical writ-
ings which would pre-suppose civil engineering background.
Take notes and organize in written form the information that
a teacher would need. This is very essential. This is dependent
on a thorough job analysis. The teacher should be fully ac-
quainted with the facts and theories relating to the problem
before he decides just what objectives, etc., are integral to
2.. State the outcomes which should result from the study. Ex-
amples: (i) Understanding of the dangers of polluted water'
PLANNING INSTRUCTION AND ACTIVITIES
(z) effort to conserve rather than waste water. It should be
noted here that the teacher and pupils can work out some of
these objectives together. This does not mean that pupils assist
generally in the preparation of a source unit. It does mean,
however, that the teacher places before the pupils a number
of objectives and that they help in the selection of those which
they may be able to accomplish. It should be emphasized that
behavior outcomes are the real ends toward which we must
work, and that the mere intellectual understandings, such as
amount of rainfall, are only means toward these more signifi-
3. Make a list of all the questions and problems which seem to
be within the range of the pupil understanding. Examples:
Which Florida cities have recently expanded their city water
systems to include a larger number of homes serviced by the
municipal plant? Which Florida cities have improved their
sewage disposal? Which have water treatment plants? When,
where, and why does water become scarce? What effect does
lowering of the water table have upon Florida's citrus and
vegetable crops? Good questions will aid the pupil and stimu-
late his interest.
4. Make a list of all the activities which might lead to the at-
tainment of desired objectives. Here are a few possibilities:
a. Introductory activities: (i) Bulletin boards may be decorated
with newspaper pictures of water works. (2) Arrange library
or reading table with magazines opened to articles relating
to the subject. (3) Show one or more films (if possible to
obtain). (4) The teacher might start a group discussion with
one question: What would happen if we did not have any
water for twenty-four hours?
b. Developmental activities: (i) Make photographs of the
city's water works. (2) Interview the city engineer to find
out the extent of the city's water mains, storm sewers, sani-
tary sewers. (3) Dramatize the local situation if enough in-
formation can be obtained. (4) Write up reports on interviews
and surveys. (5) Report orally to the class.
c. Final activities: (i) Debates before student body on a pro-
gram for improvement of the system. (2.) Interview of the
water works superintendent or city manager by pupils who
are most interested in that activity.
82 TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
The activities suggested above are merely suggestions. They
may or may not fit the needs and purposes of a particular
5. Evaluation: The evaluation of a functional learning unit in
social studies should be related to (i) concepts and (2.) be-
havior. The objective type tests should furnish a fairly satis-
factory guide for measuring the pupils acquisition of con-
cepts. The evaluation of behavior is more difficult. Situations
must provide where pupils can exhibit the behavior to be
evaluated and some method used to record the results. Examples
of questions which may help to evaluate behavior: What has
the pupil read in his attack upon the questions and problems?
Does he use several sources of information, or is he content
with only one source? Does he take a real interest in a survey
or interview? Has he investigated conditions above and be-
yond mere assignments? These are a few questions which
would help in the evaluation of behavior. The usual tech-
niques of teacher observation, records of pupil behavior, pupil
self-appraisal, pupil diaries and reading records, all may be
used to provide as objective a method as possible in arriving
at answers to the above and similar evaluation questions.
The teacher who has only a textbook often overlooks the many
values for the pupil which can be derived by exploring the many
fine qualities of a good textbook. Because of this, he fails to use
the textbook to the best advantage. The following suggestions are
included to point out possibilities for the very beginning of an
integrative experience. The following questions for getting ac-
quainted are applicable to any book and are only suggestive, not
i. Note the attractive binding. What is the significance of the
2. What is the title of the book? Who wrote it? Can you find out
anything about the author?
3. Who are the publishers? What are publishers? Name several
great publishing companies.
4. When was the book copyrighted? What is a copyright?
5. Where can you find the author's purpose in writing the book?
What is the purpose? What is the preface?
PLANNING INSTRUCTION AND ACTIVITIES
6. Examine the table of contents. How many units does the book
have? How many chapters? Do you like this arrangement?
7. What illustrations are used to make the book helpful and
8. Note helps at end of the chapter. Can you use these? Would you
like to try some of them?
9. Examine the index. Why is it arranged like a dictionary? Of
what help is this to you?
o10. What features of the book do you like best in the book? Why?
Which ones do you dislike? Why?
ii. Are there any maps in the classroom similar to those in the
text? Can we get some? Where? How?
No teacher need rely on the textbook alone, however. Many
worth-while teaching materials may be secured free, or at a very
nominal cost, or on loan, from the curriculum laboratories of the
University of Florida at Gainesville and the Florida State Uni-
versity at Tallahassee, and from commercial firms. Some material
is available in the local community. The pupils can be helpful in
collecting materials and arranging them on the bulletin board or
.in permanent files. Teachers may wish to write to the P. K. Yonge
Laboratory School, Gainesville, Florida, for an Educator's Index of
Free Materials; to the Superintendent of Documents, Washington,
D.C., for free lists of materials; and to such state agencies as The
Florida State Departments of Agriculture and Forestry, and the
State Game Commission, Tallahassee. The local county newspaper,
local daily paper, and a good metropolitan paper can be obtained.
Classroom papers are excellent, and students should subscribe to a
good one. Often, magazines of value may be collected in the com-
munity. Indeed, there is always excellent material available to the
THE CORE CURRICULUM
Any school, before attempting to use the core curriculum, will
need to take such steps as the following:
i. Formulate a philosophy for the school
z. Discover needs, interests, and problems of pupils
3. Decide upon the use, the value, and the scope of the curriculum
4. Plan for organization, time allotment, and the problem areas
84 TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
The most common core center is a fusion of social studies and Eng-
lish. On the seventh and eighth grade level the basic idea of the core
is that the program should be concerned with problems which exist
in the lives of adolescents as members of a democratic society.
The lengthened period, usually a two-hour block, will be neces-
sary for the core course. The core serves as a guidance center, deals
with personal problems, social activities, the development of
work-study habits, and adjustment to the school environment as
well as with major problems of social life.
For suggested areas in the core curriculum organization the
teacher is referred to Part I of this bulletin.
LIVING IN OUR SCHOOL
A Suggested Unit for the Opening of School
An understanding of the aims and purposes of education and
acceptance of the responsibility for the realization of these aims
by oneself, in oneself, and through oneself
i. To begin to have some insight into the possibilities for the
z. To understand the purpose of the school
3. To understand one's responsibility in conservation of school
property and one's obligation as a good citizen
The realization of the foregoing objectives implies, in part, the
realization of the following specific objectives:
i. Habit of cleanliness, care of building and equipment
z. Habit of moving about the classrooms, halls, lunchrooms, etc.,
in an orderly manner.
3. Habits of schedule of work-promptness, attendance
i. Relation of school to the community, state, society
z. Purposes and uses of playground
3. Cost of school (Taxes)
PLANNING INSTRUCTION AND ACTIVITIES
Ability to Solve Problems
i. How may I live in this building and school so that all may
enjoy a congenial and happy atmosphere?
2_. How may I care for the building so as to keep it beautiful and
make it more beautiful?
3. My personal care
4. My relation to my teachers
5. How to use the playground
Attitudes (Appreciation, interest, ideals)
i. Pride in preserving the building
z. Desire to beautify it
3. Attitude to others and other schools
i. Organize student control (Student Council, if one is needed)
2. Invite someone qualified to speak to group
3. Elect class officers and class organizations
4. Plan to welcome new students, faculty, and patrons
5. Use socio-drama to foster desirable attitudes toward new
6. Intervisitation of groups
7. Write a history of the school
8. Informal visits to library, gym, health unit, etc.
9. Draw floor plans of the building
io. Develop handbook
ii. Develop enriched activity program
iz. Plan social activities
13. Plan one's program of study
i. How were the learning experiences approached?
2. What activities proved most profitable?
3. What materials proved to be of most value?
4. Did all the pupils participate?
5. Summaries by pupils
86 TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
II. PLANNING EXPERIENCES AT THE VARIOUS
In the following pages suggestions are made for planning experi-
ences at the various grade levels. As the suggestions for each grade
were made by a committee especially selected for that level, no
attempt has been made to unify the form of presentation. For each
grade, however, there may be found (i) the major emphasis, as
suggested by the scope and sequence chart on page 64 of this bul-
letin; (z) a statement of the major significance of the particular
grade in the social studies program; and (3) specific suggestions
GRADES SEVEN AND EIGHT
Practical Suggestions in Areas for Planning Experiences
on the Seventh and Eighth Grade Levels
Social studies in the seventh and eighth grades is now generally
considered as a two-year block and is planned as a continuous de-
velopment of American living. Emphasis in the seventh grade is
geographical and relates to factors affecting ways of living on both
continents. In the eighth grade the content is mainly historical,
emphasizing how our way of living has developed in the Western
Hemisphere. These emphases do not mean that geography is taught
as mere geography, history as mere history, but rather that the
two are interrelated as adequate descriptions of emerging patterns
of living are sought.
The general aims of the social studies program in the seventh
and eighth grades are threefold: they are related to the personal
and social development of the boys and girls themselves; to the
understanding of the interrelationships of man's progress with the
actual facts and forces of the natural environment; and to a deep-
ening grasp of certain skills, concepts, and understandings neces-
sary to progress in the social studies. The social studies teacher
must not forget his responsibility for engaging in a program that
will result in improved social living and in the breaking down of
prejudices and other undesirable attitudes.
Some of the specific aims suggested for emphasis on this level
PLANNING INSTRUCTION AND ACTIVITIES
i. Use of the library
a. Using card catalog
b. Using dictionary
c. Using encyclopedia
d. Using library manners and courtesies
z. Use of newspaper
a. Finding subjects of individual interest (Example: finding and
reading material on the sports page such as batting averages,
team standings, comments of sports editors, etc.)
b. Reading headlines
c. Seeing human interest elements in the comics
d. Using the schedule of radio programs
e. Reading weather reports
3. Use of periodicals
a. Locating information on current problems
b. Locating pictures on topics of current interest for the bulletin
c. Finding and reading interesting articles
4. Use of movies
a. Selecting worthwhile movies
b. Enjoying movies intelligently
5. Use of radio
a. Selecting worthwhile programs
b. Listening intelligently to radio programs
c. Listening to news and sports broadcasts
d. Listening to outstanding speakers
6. Use of graphical materials
a. Reading and interpreting simple graphs
7. Use of maps and globes
a. Becoming able to tell directions on the different types of
88 TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
b. Becoming familiar with the different types of projections
c. Using legends and symbols on maps and globes
d. Using the different kinds of maps, such as political, physical,
relief, products, population, rainfall, temperature, time
In order to read social studies materials intelligently the pupils
need to develop concepts of such terms as:
i. Latitude, longitude, parallel, meridian, international date
2.. Geographical regions
3. Terms or concepts related to land and water forms, such as
tributary, isthmus, basin
4. Such terms as marginal and sub-marginal lands, replaceable
and exhaustible resources
The foregoing concepts are only a few of the many the pupils
The teacher should be careful that these understandings are not
taught as facts but are developed by the children as a result of the
work in social studies.
i. A grasp of the advancing frontier and the exploitation of
z. An understanding that past experiences can contribute to pres-
ent day problems
3. An understanding that specialization of work leads to inter-
dependence between the people of different regions
4. A realization that the scale of development and the levels of
living attained by a people depend to a large extent upon the
resources of the region and how they are used.
The teacher's responsibilities include the following:
i. He should help the children to get started.
z. He should help them to improve their study habits through
skill in the use of various materials.
PLANNING INSTRUCTION AND ACTIVITIES
3. He should guide them in respect to their personal-social ad-
4. He should keep a balanced program by seeing that they learn
social studies materials in order to improve in social behavior.
At the beginning of the school year the teacher should make an
exploration of the range of pupil interests. The following sugges-
tions may be of help in doing this:
i. Pupil autobiography
2_. Pupil interests questionnaire
3. Discussion of pupil interests either written, oral, or both
By using the foregoing procedures the teacher will find himself
with a long list of pupil interests. These should be grouped into
related fields, such as science and invention, sports, agriculture,
health, safety, industry, housing, natural resources, history, and
others. The program for the year can be built around these interests,
should present a challenge to pupil and teacher, and should stimu-
late the exploratory type of study which contributes to the de-
velopment of alert, intelligent individuals.
The following is only a partial list of suggested problems for
use in grades seven and eight:
i. My school-What educational opportunities does it offer its
z. My own community-Its history, its people, its resources, its
needs, and its potentialities.
3. Why and how did the early settlers come to the Atlantic Coast
of North America?
4. What environmental factors did the early settlers on the At-
lantic Coast face and how did they solve them?
5. How was the United States established?
6. How was our democratic nation developed?
7. How has the progress of the people of the United States been
conditioned by their environment?
8. How has the frontier advanced and affected ways of living?
9. How do environmental factors affect ways of living today?
10. How does regional production of goods develop interdependence
and make cooperation between regions necessary?
90 TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
ii. How do environmental factors affect ways of living in Latin
I1-. Why should we appreciate our Latin American neighbors?
Orientation to the Economic, Social, and Political Order
When I asked my little friend Joe the other day how he was get-
ting along in school, he replied: "The third grade's too hard. I
think I'll skip it and go into the fourth."
To him this may appear to be a simple solution, for this young-
ster is too close to his immediate problem to see the educational
plan as a whole. We would say that he lacks perspective!
In your class today there may be other Joes who are bewildered;
perhaps you are yourself! You and I do know that we want Joe to
develop fully as an individual and to become a good citizen, but
how can we contribute to those ends?
First let's examine the social studies program for help in our
understanding. For us to see the overall social studies program we
must visualize a beautifully woven pattern with intricate designs
representing the various grade levels from one to twelve, which
has as its objective individual and social competence. (See scope
and sequence chart, page 64 of this bulletin.) Each of these grade
levels has a specific and essential contribution to make in the total
program if the sequence has meaning and if our goal is to be realized.
In the junior high school block, let's consider these objectives.
On the seventh and eighth grade levels, Joe is taught something of
the world in which he lives and of the people who have helped to
make the world in which he finds himself what it is today, with
emphasis being placed on appreciation for contributors of the past
and the individual's responsibility to the future.
But, you ask, "How does Joe fit into such a plan?"
The orientation of this pupil into the economic, social, and
political order, offered in the ninth grade, is a study of his human
relationships of a highly personal nature in which he seeks to eval-
uate his individual worth and to find his place in group living.
The concept being that a good citizen is a useful one, both to
himself and to society, an exploratory course in occupations may
PLANNING INSTRUCTION AND ACTIVITIES
be presented first, in which the pupil is introduced into the voca-
tional world about him. This includes a survey of representative
occupational fields, through which he becomes better acquainted
with various typqs of workers and more appreciative of their
many services to mankind.
Before tentative vocational choices are made, personal analysis
studies are designed to assist Joe in discovering, not only his inter-
ests, but his abilities as well. Following this self-appraisal, he
then explores the field of his chosen vocation through extensive
reading, 1 visits, interviews, and sometimes work experiences in
the school shops, or at part-time jobs. When the pupil then makes
a vocational analysis and compares it with his personal analysis, he
has a clearer picture of his specific shortcomings.
In mapping his own vocational future he then makes an in-
tensive study of the courses and subjects offered in the high school,
making his own schedule in terms of his educational needs.
To be useful, a citizen must be skilled not only in the perform-
ance of his task, but also in his ability to get along and work with
other people. So Joe's study of his personal relationships with his
family, school, church, and neighborhood communities is an ex-
cellent medium for self-appraisal, and a splendid opportunity to
study himself in terms of his own social competence.
Through unity, strength develops to accomplish our common
goals. Living and practicing democracy, our political goal, as we
study the units of city, county, state, and national government
may be a rich experience for Joe in the last phase of this orienta-
tion program, for he learns by doing. Holding class office, selecting
officers of the class, serving as school monitor or patrol leader-
these are opportunities for democratic experiences in school life at
the ninth grade level. Committee work, field trips to such places
as the City Council, visits of students in the social studies class
arranged by Joe and his peers, afford rich opportunities in the
development of leadership and increasing individual worth through
the use of the community's human resources.
This course, then, is one in citizenship, its purpose being to de-
velop better citizens. But Joe, or any other good citizen, to fulfill
his obligations as a participating member must have mastered
essential information so that his judgments may be based on facts,
not fallacies, so he will need to learn essential content or subject
matter; developed wholesome attitudes that spring from con-
Institute for Research Vocational Monographs may be used here.
92 TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
cepts of social responsibility; acquired certain basic skills, to put
knowing into doing.
Now let's consider some activities which will assist Joe in this
orientation experience of
i. Examine textbook content carefully. Joe may be flattered
when he examines his book to find it may have been dedicated
2. Let class decide why a vocational guidance course is offered
in this particular grade.
3. Have pupils list five occupational fields of their major interest.
4. Develop plans for making an occupational survey, indicating
ways in which essential information may be obtained.
5. Ask class to determine what essential information he and his
classmates need to know about each of these occupations.
6. Plan an intensive study of representative occupations, includ-
ing a study of the essential information about each.
7. Ask for volunteers to bring to class copies of industrial sur-
veys or like information from Chamber of Commerce, or United
States Census report, for study of occupational trends.
8. Plan a demonstration day in which Joe and his companions
can demonstrate to the class some particular skill. Let them bring
specimens of their work and arrange for it to be displayed attrac-
tively about the room. (Joe might want to bring a miniature car,
motor driven. Perhaps Mary has a play suit she would like to
9. Plan with class officers for them to make arrangements for the
school counselor, or other specialist, to discuss with the class the
total program of the senior high school, with emphasis on courses,
subject, and activities offered as they attempt to meet the individual
10. Arrange for visits to other schools and places of employ-
ment to determine opportunities for further study and training in
the community beyond the ninth grade.
ii. Use a socio-drama to illustrate techniques in applying for