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 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Introduction
 Problems in teaching social...
 The total social studies progr...
 Back Matter
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Title: Social studies in the elementary school
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Title: Social studies in the elementary school
Physical Description: 39 p. : tables. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Department of Education
Publisher: Florida Department of Education
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date: 1942
Copyright Date: 1942
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Subject: Social sciences -- Study and teaching   ( lcsh )
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General Note: Cover title.
General Note: Florida Department of Education bulletin number 30
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
    Title Page
        Page iv
    Introduction
        Page v
    Problems in teaching social studies
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    The total social studies program
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 20a
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 26a
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
    Back Matter
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Back Cover
        Page 42
        Page 43
Full Text








Social Studies in the Elementary School
by
Florida State Department of Education















UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARY




S,-._---.-..
















SOCIAL STUDIES.

IN THE


ELEMENTARY SCHOOL







BULLETIN No. 30
SEPTEMBER, 1942.


STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA











INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT


During the 1942 summer session at the Florida State College for
Women preliminary work was done on the development of a Course
of Study for Teaching Social Studies in Elementary Grades. The
materials which were developed are included in the two chapters
contained in this tentative manuscript.

Up to the present, attention has been centered mainly upon the
basic framework for a continuous program in this field rather than
upon specific suggestions for particular grade levels. The three
charts contained in Chapter Two are sufficiently detailed, however,
to give a rather complete picture of the work contemplated for specific
grades. Faculties or individuals reading this preliminary copy
are urged to send all suggestions and criticisms in writing to the
Division of Instruction, State Department of Education.

The charts are fully explained in the running material contained
in Chapter II. Their application to specific grades will be more
definite in chapters yet to be prepared which will deal with Teaching
Social Studies in the First Grade", "Teaching Social Studies in the
Second Grade", etc.

It may be feasible to hold some meetings with elementary prin-
cipals and teachers interested in this bulletin during the school year
1942-43. More definite announcement will be made concerning these
at a later date. It is hoped that the manuscript may be completed
and ready for state-wide distribution in the fall of 1943.





Superintendent of Public Instruction.


149345













Chapter One

PROBLEMS IN TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES


In recent years, social studies have received a great deal of
emphasis in Florida elementary schools. It has been in this area
that teachers most often have attempted to extend the expereinces
of children so that a wide range of interests and needs are met. The
work in such other subjects as arithmetic, science, music and art
frequently has been used to contribute to the enrichment of the
social studies program and thereby to meet, in an adequate manner,
the needs and interests of a large number of individuals and groups.
The main difficulties faced by teachers in carrying out the program
have been: (1) lack of insight into the broad range of needs and
interests of children at the primary and intermediate levels and
(2) lack of a plan for a definite yet flexible organization of the
content and activities to be included in the social studies field.
This bulletin offers suggestions regarding the way in which the
work in social studies may be expanded to contribute in an effective
way to meeting many of the most important needs of the growing
child. An attempt has been made to describe rather carefully the
outcome, content, and important problems with which such an
expanded program must deal. The introductory chapter contains
(1) a statement of certain recent trends in the teaching of the social
studies, (2) a brief discussion regarding point of view, and (3) sug-
gestions concerning the use of the material contained in this bulletin
by individual or total faculty groups.
The chapters which follow discuss the organization of the social
studies program first as a whole and then within specific grades.
One of the chief purposes sought in developing these materials has
been that of bringing about greater continuity through giving more
definite attention to organization. It is important here, as in other
fields, to direct the work toward outcomes which are progressively









2 SOCIAL STUDIES IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

enlarged and deepened at successive levels. Important, also, is the
realization of how the content of various grades becomes an integral
part of the continuously expanding world of the child. Much atten-
tion has been given to assisting the individual teacher in organizing
the work of a particular grade in relationship to a total program
which is continuous throughout the six years of the elementary
school program.
The present bulletin is the third in a series of bulletins1 containing
specific suggestions regarding the organization and development of
experiences in the various fields of study thought appropriate for
elementary school pupils. For the general background and philosophy
underlying the material contained in this bulletin, the reader is
referred to former publications of the State Department of Edu-
cation, particularly the basic bulletins entitled Ways to Better
Instruction in Florida Schools and A Guide to Improved Practice
in Florida Elementary Schools.2

SOME RECENT TRENDS IN THE TEACHING OF SOCIAL STUDIES
In recent times there has been a considerable change in the pur-
poses underlying the planning of experiences in social studies for
the elementary school child. Many of the changes which have
occurred in this area are related to changes taking place in the
entire field of elementary education. In order to plan a good social
studies program for an entire school or for a particular grade, it is
important that teachers have in mind the most significant of these
changes or trends. The shift from the old to new procedures should
be made only after careful study. The discussion which follows is
for the purpose of helping teachers note trends and develop a proper
understanding of their application.

1. The Trend Toward Integration.
Recent textbooks and professional literature make frequent refer-
ence to the term "social studies". Teachers are expected to help
pupils relate in a functional way information formerly contained
in such separate subject fields as geography, history and civics.
'See also Bulletin 21. Physical Education in Elementary Schools, and
Bulletin 26, Arithmetic in the Elementary School, State Department of
Education (Tallahassee).
'Both bulletins may be secured for faculty study free of charge from the
State Department of Education, Tallahassee, Florida.








PROBLEMS IN TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES 3

In solving problems, the pupils of elementary school age are not
particularly concerned with subjects, as subjects. The teacher using
the integrative approach has an opportunity to guide pupil learning
so that many rich relationships will be discovered and developed.
Social studies, therefore, must involve more than a superficial putting
together of content from several subjects listed above.
Some teachers have attempted to carry on a "social studies" pro-
gram before building the necessary understanding of the reason for
this approach. Others have not thought it wise to todow the trend
toward integration and have attempted to bring out important re-
lationships while they continue to teach history, geography and
civics as separate subjects. The question concerning the desirability
of the trend toward integration can be settled only in terms of the
results achieved. The attitude and understanding of the teacher
will have much to do with the success or failure of any plan. The
suggestions made in the present bulletin are based upon the belief
that social studies and not separate subjects in this field are suitable
for study by elementary pupils.

2. The Trend Toward Unit Teaching.
For the past fifteen years most elementary schools in Florida
have been attempting some unit work. The term unit has, in the
thinking of some teachers, meant no more than the work topic. Ac-
cording to the thinking of others the term unit may be applied only
to a series of experiences which are directed by the children and
which involve content and activities far removed from textbooks or
pre-planned organization of any sort. Obviously, neither of these
extremes offers a satisfactory definition.

It should be possible for any capable teacher to carry on many
of the valuable procedures commonly associated with unit teaching
and at the same time use a general framework which can serve as a
necessary guide to planning. The various charts presented in
Chapter Two of this bulletin offer much aid to teachers wishing to
move in this direction.

The period devoted to social studies in the elementary school has
usually been the place in the daily program where teachers have
most frequently introduced unit work. In their anxiety to free








4 SOCIAL STUDIES IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

themselves of a curriculum planned-in-advance and unrelated to
child needs, teachers have sometimes permitted units to develop out
of relationship to one another or to any over-all purpose which
would give unity to the work of the entire year or sequence of years.
Proper understanding of the meaning of the grade themes and the
problems contained in Chart Three of the succeeding chapter should
go far in obviating these difficulties.

3. The Trend Toward Use of Basic Problems.
Most teachers recognize the fact that they are dealing with
children anid that at the same time these children are living in a
social world. The argument as to whether the teacher is to teach
the child or to teach subject matter (accumulated race heritage)
cannot be solved by taking either of the extreme positions. Educators
are speaking most frequently today not of the child-centered scho l
or of the society-centered school but of the child-society centered
school.
Regardless of whether the teacher follows the unit approach or
the textbook approach basic problems such as those contained in the
Problems Chart (Chapter Two of this bulletin) should ), used. It
is the work of the teacher to particularize these basic problems so
that they become true or vital problems for the immediate group.
Vital problems always arise out of the relationship existing between
the child and his environment. Sometimes the problems seem to arise
more from the environment surrounding the child; at other times
they seem to arise more from within as the individual attempts to
make necessary judgments. Teachers who begin with content or
the social heritage must guide the discussion so that it becomes
child-centered; teachers who begin with problems stated by the
children must relate the problems of the individual to those of
lasting social value. Unless the approach used is both child and
society centered all of the desirable learning outcomes will not be
achieved.

4. The Trend Toward Much Greater Use of Direct Experience.
For a number of years the social studies program has been cen-
tered almost entirely upon textbook study. It has been assumed
that children would automatically become good citizens because








PROBLEMS IN TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES


they were acquainted with certain facts. Democratic living, for
example, was anticipated as a normal outcome of experiences related
to the memorization of historical dates, persons or events. The ability
to quote passages from important documents, the ability to recognize
names of historical importance, and the ability to recite isolated
geographical facts were taken as evidences of complete learning.
No special effort was made to help the child relate living in his own
community to the living in widely different communities, sections
or regions.
Teachers of social studies should emphasize much more than they
do at the present time the application of knowledge to everyday
activities of the child. Every local, community, if viewed in the
proper perspective, contains elements which are related to the con-
tent covered in the textbook. The elementary school child learns
best through active participation. Contacts with interesting people,
old landmarks, documents, and relics will do much to enrich the
learning experience. Opportunities for pupil participation in drives,
cleanup campaigns, and in a wide variety of community functions
should not be neglected. Proper use of local means of transportation,
proper behavior in stores and other public places, proper use of
the many facilities provided through local government or private
enterprise should receive the careful study and attention of ele-
mentary pupils.

5. Trend Toward Relating Work in Social Studies to Other Fields.
Some teachers question, outright, the wisdom of trying to relate
art, music, arithmetic, science and other subjects to social studies.
They point to extreme cases where the relationships have been forced
beyond reason. Anecdotes similar to the one which tells of pupils
being forced to sing about Indians, paint Indians, do Indian
dances, and work arithmetic problems pertaining to the cost of
Indian equipment are common in professional literature. These
accounts should not, however, prejudice teachers in the direction
of handling subjects in isolation from one another. There are
many natural situations where language, art or arithmetic skills
and understandings could and should function during the period
devoted to social studies. The teacher can see that the applications
are made without going to the absurdity of using identical content








6 SOCIAL STUDIES IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

for each period during the school day. For example, the careful
reading or interpretation of graphs or charts, the discovery of the
meaning contained in tables, and the development of concepts with
regard to time demand considerable mathematical ability. If the
pupil cannot read and interpret such material in his social studies
class, motivation is present for a spirited treatment of these during
succeeding arithmetic periods.
A second illustration can be found in language arts. The ability
to conduct a meeting, to operate as a member of a cooperative group,
to lead a democratic discussion, to summarize main points, are all
considered abilities suitable for development in language classes.
The field of social studies is equally concerned with these outcomes
since it is here that participation of the individual is limited unless
he possesses the necessary techniques. Science, art and music can
be used to enrich the work in social studies in a similar manner.
As courses of study for the elementary school are developed in arith-
metic, science and other subject fields, the relationship of these to
the social studies area will be pointed out.

DEVELOPING A POINT OF VIEW IN TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES
Social Studies and Total School Objectives
Previous bulletins3 have discussed the meaning of democratic
living and the function of Florida elementary and secondary schools
with respect to promoting the democratic way of life. While the
more detailed discussion given in materials previously issued need
not be repeated here, it is important that total faculty groups and
individual teachers define rather carefully for themselves the mean-
ing of the term "democracy." The meaning can be clarified much
more readily if concrete problems involving democratic action are
discussed by the group and the proposed procedures or solutions tested
in the light of the definition previously set forth.
Following a discussion similar to that suggested in the preceding
paragraph, it will probably be agreed that social studies should
be concerned with the development of individuals and groups who
strive to accomplish the following: (1) To develop proper social

"See particularly A Guide to Improved Practice in Florida Elementary
Schools, pp. 77-84, State Department of Education (Tallahassee: 1940).








PROBLEMS IN TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES


sensitivity (2) To gain increasing control over the skills necessary
for participation in a democracy (3) To gain increasing control over
the process of reflective thinking and the scientific method (4) To
acquire increasing understanding and control over self and over
the relations of self to other people (5) To produce and enjoy the
products of creative effort (6) To perform some useful work and
to see the relationship of this work to democratic living.
The qualities listed above cannot serve as adequate objectives of
the entire school program or of experiences in the field of social
studies unless the "democratic ideal" is understood and applied to
each of the six items listed. For example, fascist Germany is
interested in building a particular kind of social sensitivity, namely,
that of pride in dying for the state and in utterly disregarding
individual liberties whenever these weaken the effectiveness of the
supreme authority. In a democracy individuals also must sacrifice
to preserve a way of life, but the approach is through an under-
standing of the necessity for cooperating in the defense of national
freedom in order that freedom for individuals may be preserved.
In fascist countries the answer to the question of where individual
liberties end and where group and governmental control begins
is quite simple; each person is a creature of the state and has no
individual sacredness, identity or liberty.
The question of the relationship of the individual and group is
ever present in elementary classrooms. Should the individual be
permitted to express himself creatively at the expense of others?
Should teacher domination or group pressure be permitted to blot
out all individual freedom? How much? Fascist control would,
as was indicated above, reach a solution to these questions largely
through suppression of the individual.
Democracies, too, must exercise some curb on unlicensed freedom.
The individual is not always free to do as he pleases, but there must
be enough freedom for him to think, plan, and suggest ways and
means of improvement. When society secures a fixed pattern and
forces it upon all persons, the growth that comes from individual
enterprise and thought is cut off. On the contrary, when individuals
think and plan out of relationship to group interests, confusion
and disaster for all may soon occur. It is obvious, therefore, that
there must be satisfaction and growth both for the individual and









8 SOCIAL STUDIES IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

society; that no action is ever wholly of concern to the individual
apart from society or to society apart from individual.
As teachers in elementary classrooms assist the group in discover-
ing its responsibility to the individual, and aid the individual in
sensing his responsiblty to the group, they will be developing social
sensitivity in the democratic sense of the term. They will also
have opportunity within the broad social studies program described
in this bulletin to develop in pupils the other qualities essential to
successful living in a democracy: control over skills, control over
process of reflective thinking, control over self, creativeness, and
beginning economic competence.

Using Experiences in Social Studies to Promote Democratic Living
The teacher of social studies today asks herself questions such
as these: "What specific values should be protected as the child
participates in the situations and activities which are provided .
What actual changes are likely to result in the behavior of the
child as he lives through this particular experience?" Of much
concern to the teacher are the values underlying any experience,
values that are in keeping with the qualities needed for participation
in a democratic society. The contribution which experiences in social
studies can make to democratic living is therefore discussed briefly in
the paragraphs that follow.
Developing Social Meaning.-Social studies do not always make
a maximum contribution to social understanding, to concern for
others, or to a genuine desire to cooperate in a democratic way
with other members of the group. Social meaning involves much
more than a cold treatment of facts about society. The child can
know many facts without appreciating their importance either for
himself or for others. If, however, through discussion and direct
observation he comes to feel with others, to put himself in their
place, and to enter sympathetically into their work, permanent
social attitudes and meanings may be developed.
In the immediate world which surrounds the child, there are
many activities which he does not understand. As he reads about
the activities of people, in other lands, he may become aware of
the fact that the activities of people in far away places are both
similar to and different from those nearer home. It is very hard







PROBLEMS IN TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES


for the young child to enter sympathetically into the lives and
feelings of primitive or far away people. So far as his social under-
standing and appreciation go, he is limited to the immediate groups
of the family or neighborhood. Units on peoples of far away lands
may prove interesting and entertaining at the primary level, but
their contributions to building social meaning or sympathetic under-
standing are at least doubtful.
In order to catch social meanings in the wider environment
the child will need to have some experience with far away people,
but this should come after he has had a chance to explore his own
environment. Many children come from extreme points on the
economic scale, and they represent the many beliefs which are held
by their parents. This makes experiences with social studies all
the more interesting. For the young child it is sufficient that he
participate in a democratic manner with the group. As he grows
older, he will probably analyze his own actions more carefully, and
he should begin to form some general concept of what constitutes
democratic action. He should enjoy reading accounts of many pat-
terns of living and be able to judge those as being in harmony with
or in opposition to democratic principles. Customs, superstitions,
beliefs, and prejudices may be viewed from a similar point of view.
In the elementary school, however, it is very important that the child
understand what has led to these beliefs; at the high school level he
may wish to analyze or criticize them and to state his own belief.
The best situations for developing social meanings with the very
young child are those connected with the classroom or playground.
Unless experiences in social studies can build up an intelligent respect
for rights of others, they will contribute little to the growth and
development of the child.
Developing Functional Skills.-At no time more than the present
has America needed persons who are skillful in using democratic
techniques. Each day, it seems to be more important for people
to do group thinking, and yet the schools have given almost no
training in this phase of democratic living. Recitation periods have
been concerned mostly with getting the facts from the book or
with a mastery of these facts from the standpoint of individual
consumption rather than with sharing facts with others, or with
questioning their accuracy. The elementary school can give the








10 SOCIAL STUDIES IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

child an opportunity to build up the skills needed in locating in-
formation quickly, in using various reference works and other
texts, in making comparisons of data, and in expressing ideas in
graphic form.

It is important not only that the child find information quickly
through the application of skill but also that he sense the meaning
of the application. For example, in the study of maps the child
is concerned with distance, space, and direction. He may be able
to use a scale of miles and to estimate distances and at the same
time have little awareness of the meaning of the term mile. When,
however, the teacher leads him to estimate distance in terms of the
hours necessary to cross a given space by fast moving plane or by
the slow horse and buggy travel of former days, he may begin to
develop some understanding concerning the meaning of these dis-
tances in terms of living. Exercises in map study make little con-
tribution to the building of meanings in the pupil unless they bear
some relation to a real problem. People do not go about estimating
and measuring distance unless they have some reason for it. If
they are planning a trip, or estimating the time of arrival of a
friend who left a distant city at a particular time, or if they are
considering the probable danger from attack, they take advantage
of their knowledge of space, time, and distance. Similarly, the
elementary school child will find many opportunities for develop-
ing these skills as he considers the ways in which man cut distances
and thereby increased the degree of interdependence among all
nations of the civilized world. Thus, it is clear that experiences
in the social studies area will require the use of many skills and
understandings which are built in connection with activities in
number, science, art, and language.

Developing the Scientific Attitude.-Because of the rapid
changes taking place in our society today, there is special need for
the ability to think carefully and accurately. With the mass of con-
flicting statements coming from newsreel, radio, newspaper, and
forum, and expressed in places wherever people meet, both the adult
and the child should develop the ability to weigh evidence care-
fully. Most teachers who have progressed from the use of textbooks
only to the use of many sources of materials are doing a splendid
work in helping the child acquire the skill of locating desired ma-








PROBLEMS IN TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES 11

trials. However important is such a skill, it .should be remembered
that using the information in thinking is of even more importance.
This can be done only if individuals are encouraged to think about
social problems in the way the scientist thinks about his problems.
He is unwilling to give up old theories or principles until the new
ones are tested. However, he is willing to go on experimenting
and does not consider old ways as sufficient to meet every emergency.
A democratic nation permits growth; it is willing to change its
customs, laws, and institutions in accordance with the changing
needs of the group. Change will not become a radical thing if it
is well planned and carefully executed. Resistance to all change
or the making of changes with too great speed are equally hazardous
to democracy.

In dealing with the life and customs of people,* the child will
come more and more to a realization of changing purposes and
needs; he may at first regard the customs and laws and modes ol!
travel exhibited by certain groups as queer or as definitely wrong.
When the child 'makes a very harsh or intolerant statement, he is
not displaying the spirit of the true scientist. Many adults praise
experimentation in science and fail to recognize the fact that Ameri-
can democracy was conceived by its founders as a glorious experi-
ment in freedom.

The elementary school child is not sufficiently mature to weigh
completely all the conflicting information which might be collected
on a given topic, such as the heated controversy concerning the
true discoverer of the new world or of the factors that led to the
war between the states. He can, however, become acquainted with
the way people act and can catch some vision of why they acted
a certain way. Sometimes teachers have emphasized only, the senti-
mental or the glorious. A good illustration of this is furnished in
connection with pioneer units in which pupils are led to praise the
Puritans for church attendance and at the same time ignore their
treatment of Roger Williams. Often the Indian has been presented
from a sentimental, distorted point of view either as a colorful figure
of a by-gone era, or as a cruel being intent only upon massacring
the innocent white population. The teacher need not arouse great
emotional stress in the child or require him to solve problems which
have baffled the great minds of the ages; she can and should en-








12 SOCIAL STUDIES IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

courage him to probe as deeply as emotional and mental maturity
permits. It should be evident that the child can obtain no real
understanding of his own country unless he has the whole picture
before him.
Developing Control Over Self.-No program of social studies
would be complete unless attention were given to personal growth and
to the use of individual ability and personality in meeting problems
of importance both to the individual and to society. In many in-
stances the welfare of a whole nation has depended upon the physical
skill, integrity or mental alertness of a single person or of a small
group.
In reading and in daily contact with other members of his group,
the child should come to realize the importance of bearing his own
share of the load. He should realize that his own health, the care
of his person, the securing of adequate rest and sleep, and proper
control over strong emotions are desirable-not only from the stand-
point of his own welfare but from that of the group as well. He
should discover, under wise teacher guidance, that the same prin-
ciples which govern the relationship of himself to the group also
must govern the relationships among states and nations. As a
member of the majority group in the class he will have an opportunity
to practice respect for the rights of the minority members who hold
an opposing point of view. If he is a member of a minority group
he should develop a feeling of cooperative responsibility for assisting
in carrying out group plans, even though his own solution to the
problem was not the one finally adopted.
The action of our national leaders during times of stress will
furnish many illustrations of compromise and cooperation. The
events of the present which demand cooperation on a world-wide
scale can also be used to point to necessity for settling differences
in a reasonable way. The strenuous demands of life both in pioneer
times and now should furnish much motivation for a more cop-
centrated attack on the development of initiative, poise, physical
strength, body coordination, and proper regard for the safety and
health of self and others. The complexities which confront the child
as he travels, communicates, and uses the variety of modern inven-
tions requires clear understanding and adequate skill. As he grows
older and participates still more actively in the operation and repair








PROBLEMS IN TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES 13

of the many instruments devised by man, definite technological
skill will be needed. Along with the necessary skill the child must
build attitudes favorable toward a proper care and use of this equip-
ment. Present-day needs for conservation of machines and materials
are too great to permit of flagrant waste. Not only the lives of
individuals, but the welfare of the whole of society is at stake.

Developing Creaitiveness.-The discussion given above indicates
the need for creative individuals in our present day society. While
the elementary school child should not be burdened with problems
which intelligent and thoughtful adult minds have failed to solve,
there are certain appreciations which he can build through his
experiences with various kinds of living. His experiences with the
explorers, the early colonists, the daring pioneers, or the builders
of huge industrial or transportation facilities, should build an ap-
preciation of the creative quality which has meant much to Ameri-
can living. Some attention must be given, however, to the risks
and criticisms which these people faced; otherwise, the child may
go away thinking that creative activity requires little work or
planning.

It is possible, too, for the elementary school child to carry on
some of the kinds of experiences which these people had although
it must be admitted that many cannot be duplicated. Units deal-
ing with food or clothing provide opportunity for the child to
experience at first hand the processes of spinning and weaving as
these were carried on in the home; the making of butter, the preser-
vation of food products, and other activities, many of which may
still be carried on in the local community. Experiences of this kind
also assist the child in becoming aware of man's ingenuity in bring-
ing about desirable changes in his everyday living, and in the en-
vironment around him. At the same time he may become aware of
the many ways that man has devised to overcome the barriers which
hindered his advancement; he should realize that modes of trans-
portation have been developed in response to the needs of people
and that these, in turn, have created in man a further desire or
need. He can see that periods of drought, destruction by wind or
rain, and death through epidemics were but challenges to the cre-
ative effort of man.








14 SOCIAL STUDIES IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

Developing Life Interests.-While it is the special function of
the junior and senior high school to deal more intensively with the
development of vocational and avocational interests, it is possible
and desirable for the social studies program in elementary grades
to contribute to both of these objectives. Indeed, a number of
illustrations may be found in which boys and girls have discovered
their life interests prior to entry into the secondary school. Teachers
at the secondary level report that motivation is usually not difficult
to secure in the cases of those pupils who have come to them from
an elementary school where a wide range of personal interests have
been developed.
As the child explores his immediate environment and later the
wider environment, he comes into contact with many kinds of work.
An awareness of the many kinds of workers of their contribution
to society can be developed even with the young child. Work ex-
periences suited to the maturity of the child should, therefore, be
regarded as an integral part of the social studies program at every
grade level. Such experiences serve two purposes, that of broaden-
ing interests and that of serving as exploratory activities which may
ultimately lead to the choice of a vocation. The growth in interests
made by each pupil during the entire six years of the elementary
school period should be carefully checked. Since the social studies
field is frequently used as the center around which the entire ele-
mentary program is built this is a good place for the teacher to
initiate the broadening of pupil interests.
The child in the primary grades is interested in the wide variety
of activities carried on in the home, school and the community.
Later this is expended to include the state, regional and world-wide
living. In order to get a clear picture of life as it was lived in
pioneer times it is desirable for the child to participate in preparing
meals over an open fire, in the actual planting and gathering of
foodstuff, in the making of candles, in the use of tools and in carrying
on other activities common to living in former times. The music,
art and science experiences which pupils enjoy in recreating the
past can easily be extended into .present and future interests.
The same type of growth with respect to participation in or
understanding of social and governmental activity may be achieved
through proper teacher guidance. Certain community needs may be








PROBLEMS IN TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES 15

discovered by the child as being common both to earlier and present-
day living. As he discovers the many ways in which children have
been helpful in the past and has an opportunity to contribute to
community improvement in the present, civic attitudes favorable
to the care of public property, and to an intelligent respect for law
and order can be built. If the teacher will guide properly the inter-
ests of pupils and help them use these in the improvement of com-
munity living, she will accomplish one of the objectives most fre-
quently neglected in social studies, that of actual pupil participation
in accomplishing socially desirable ends.

INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP USE OF THE BULLETIN
This bulletin has been designed for use by (1) county-wide
professional groups or curriculum committees, (2) total faculty
groups within particular schools, and (3) individual teachers. It
is very important that individual teachers and faculties in different
schools have some common understanding of the place of social
studies in the elementary school. Some meetings should be held
jointly with committees of high school teachers in order to insure
coordination between the social studies programs of elementary
and secondary schools.
If variations and adaptations within counties or local schools
seem wise, as probably will be the base, careful study should be given
to the problem by total faculties or by curriculum steering committees
having county-wide representation. It is a well known fact that
pupils move frequently from school to school and that within par-
ticular groups wide differences in ability are represented. Such
factors will influence considerably the degree to which variations
and adaptations within local units of the state will be thought
advisable.
Chapters One and Two (since they deal with the general point
of view and total organization of the program in social studies for
the entire elementary school) should be studied carefully by teachers
of the several elementary grades meeting in groups. This can be
done best through well planned faculty meetings. In case the teachers
are not familiar with the two preceding basic curriculum bulletins,4

4Ways to Better Instruction in Florida Schools and A Guide to Improved
Practice in Elementary Schools, State Department of Education (Tallahassee).








16 SOCIAL STUDIES IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

some additional reading will be necessary. The entire chapter on
Experiences in the Social Studies, pp. 151-172 of Bulletin 9, A Guide
to Improved Practice in Florida Elementary Schools is especially
pertinent. The bibliography given at the close of that chapter should
offer suggestions for enriching the professional libraries of local or
county school systems. Two other books of particular interest and
value should now be added to the list.5
Certain definite departures have been made from the suggestions
contained in the Florida Course of Study (1933). Principals and
teachers have been advised to disregard all portions of that docu-
ment relating to fields in which more recent courses of study have
been prepared. Bulletin 21 entitled Source Materials for Physical
Education in Elementary Schools, Bulletin 26, Arithmetic in the
Elementary School, and Bulletin 30, Social Studies in the Elementary
School, therefore have become the official courses of study so far as
these fields are concerned.
It is the function of county and local school leadership to de-
velop source units, extensive bibliographies, lists of teaching aids and
miscellaneous techniques and procedures useful in the teaching of
social studies at the elementary level. It is hoped that the present
bulletin will stimulate the production of extensive materials of
this sort within many local units. Such projects, as well as a careful
consideration of the suggestions contained in this course of study,
take time. Faculty groups and individual teachers are urged to
set aside time necessary for the professional study and for the
preparation of helpful materials.










"The Social Studies in the Elementary School, Twelfth Yearbook, National
Council for the Social Studies, National Education Association, (Washington;
1941).
WRIGHTSTONE, J. W. and CAMPBELL, DOAK S., Social Studies and the
American Way of Life (Evanston: Row, Peterson and Company, 1942).













Chapter Two

THE TOTAL SOCIAL STUDIES PROGRAM


The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the steps which should
be taken by the total faculty group in planning an adequate program
in social studies for an elementary school. Teachers of particular
grades need to be informed of the work of the grades above and
below the level at which they are teaching. Unless they plan the
work for their particular grade within a larger framework, con-
tinuity and gradual extension of basic learning throughout the
elementary school become impossible.
The steps in planning for the total program in social studies
for the first six grades will be used again in describing the develop-
ment of work at each particular grade level. Briefly, these steps
include: (1) Defining general objectives (2) Describing specific
outcomes or changes in child behavior desired at various levels (3)
Selecting content suited to various grades (4) Stating persistent
problems likely to prove of value both to the child and to society
if properly explored (5) Working out profitable ways of organizing
and developing the content so as to secure desirable outcomes (6)
Discovering a wide' range of materials and activities useful in an
expanded social studies program. Each of these points will be
considered in the order given. At appropriate points charts will
be inserted which will show continuity from grade to grade and
within grades. Much of the material presented in the detailed de-
scription for respective grades has been taken directly from these
charts. However, only in chart form can the shifting emphasis with
respect to outcomes, content and basic problems be fully compre-
hended. Complete descriptions of these charts will be given at
appropriate places in this chapter.

DEFINING GENERAL OBJECTIVES
While discussions regarding general objectives have grown ex-
ceedingly tedious to teachers, there is no reason to expect that schools








18 SOCIAL STUDIES IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

will perform their democratic social purpose unless teachers are
aware of that purpose.. To say that schools are committed to the
democratic way of life and at the same time to go on holding only
vague or contradictory ideas with regard to the meaning of democracy
will not help achieve democratic goals. The first chapter of this
bulletin has pointed to some of the ways in which democracy can
function in the typical elementary classroom. Definite suggestions
as to how experiences in social studies may be used in developing
social sensitivity, functional skills, the scientific attitude, necessary
self control, creativeness, and broad interests were also given. Through
using this material and that contained in previous bulletins, total
faculty groups can define for themselves the meaning of democracy
from both a theoretical and practical point of view.
The discussion of objectives need not be the first step in planning
the program in social studies for an entire school. However long
this may be delayed, each individual teacher and each faculty group
must eventually come to grips with the question as they make plans
regarding distribution of content, the statement of desirable outcomes,
or problems worth extended study by a class of elementary pupils.

DESCRIBING SPECIFIC OUTCOMES
For a long time teachers have felt dissatisfaction with statements
of outcomes, particularly with those listed in the social studies field.
Frequently outcomes were stated in such general terms as to be-
come almost meaningless. In other cases, the outcomes were so
detailed that even the most conscientious teacher could not hope to
check the progress of each child with respect to the hundreds of
specific items listed. Furthermore, the outcomes listed frequently
did not include many phases of child behavior which the teacher
herself considered as being quite important.
If a faculty were building an ideal program for social studies
they might wish to define first of all the kind of society for which
they were educating the child. Following this, they would probably
wish to set up rather definite changes in child behavior which would
be realized at successive levels of his growth toward the common goal
previously defined. Once these changes had been described, the
faculty would then turn its attention to selecting content (material,
experiences, and activities) which pupils might use in making prog-
ress toward the desirable goals.








THE TOTAL SOCIAL STUDIES PROGRAM 19

The outcomes listed in Chart One of this bulletin were not made
in such a Utopian fashion as that described in the preceding para-
graph. In building a chart describing desirable outcomes faculties
will find that theoretical and practical considerations must both
play a part. First of all, it is necessary to agree in what form out-
comes are to be stated. The committee preparing the present bulletin
chose to state outcomes of a social studies program in terms of: (1)
Growth in Social Behavior (2) Growth in Social Information and
Understanding (3) Growth in Techniques and Skills. Many other
arrangements or ways of stating outcomes may be found in recent
professional literature. Most of these emphasize the need for stating
outcomes in terms of desirable changes in pupils rather than in
abstract terms.
It is freely admitted that these changes depend greatly upon
the content explored and the manner in which the pupils attack
the materials at their disposal. For this reason, Chart One dealing
with outcomes was not prepared separate and apart from the charts
dealing with content and basic problems. Outcomes are to some
extent limited by the kind of content considered and the types of
problems thought to be worth exploration and study by pupils of
various grade levels. The three areas of growth listed in the pre-
ceding paragraph have been further analyzed to make easier their
study and use.
The reader should recognize, however, that the three areas of
growth selected for use in stating outcomes are not separate and
distinct from one another. As the child defines problems, participates
in experiences, explores a wide range of content and evaluates his
own progress and that of the group, growth in attitudes, adjustment,
interest, information, skills, and techniques will take place simul-
taneously. It is helpful to analyze learning outcomes as is done in
Chart One only in order that the teacher may become sensitive to
multiple learning and thereby avoid slighting any particular phase
of growth.

Explanation of Outcomes Chart
Explanation of Section I-Growth in Social Behavior
The term "social behavior" is used here to include the changes
in the personal outlook, attitudes and interests of the pupil. It also








20 SOCIAL STUDIES IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

includes care of person and the development of satisfactory relation-
ships with others. While it is recognized that all subjects in the
curriculum contribute somewhat to the total well-being of the in-
dividual, this phase of growth is particularly important to teachers
of social studies in elementary grades. The fact that the social studies
program in the elementary school has been expanded to include
"general living and well-being" justifies the including of a section
in the Outcomes Chart entitled Growth in Social Behavior.
In keeping with the definition given in the preceding paragraph,
the section of Chart One dealing with Growth in Social Behavior has
been divided for the convenience of the reader under three parts:
(A) Growth in meeting self needs; (B) Growth in attitude and in ad-
.justments to others; (C) Growth in interests. Definite suggestions
have been made with regard to each of these phases of development as
pupils move from first and second grade level to third and fourth
and finally to fifth and sixth. Growth in this important area is so
gradual that any further breakdown in terms of specific grades
seems unwarranted. It is hoped that teachers will extend greatly
the items suggested as they are not meant to be complete or all-
inclusive.
By reading across the chart horizontally a rough picture of
changes in behavior which can be anticipated at intervals of two
grades may be obtained. The items are listed for the purpose of call-
ing the attention of teachers to the need for planning further
development of the individual pupil along the lines suggested. If
a pupil is in fifth or sixth grade and does not act in such a way
as to show that he has developed some of the attitudes toward group
participation, habits in care of person, or expanding interests sug-
gested for preceding levels, the teacher should help him secure experi-
ences suited to his level of growth. This principle also holds for
all other sections of the Outcomes Chart. If the pupil has not arrived
at the level thought desirable, the factors involved in the slow
progress must be discovered and plans made for further development,
starting at his present level.
Evaluation of growth, attitudes, and adjustment has been most
difficult. Teachers frequently say that one of the important ob-
jectives of the social studies is the development of a good citizen
and then assign "marks" almost wholly in terms of scores made on




CHART UNE


OUTCOMES IN SOCIAL STUDIES FOR ELEMENTARY GRADES


GRADES I 1i


A. (Or',wth in meeting' self-needs.
Selcting food in caf'tterian-proper- haiiit', r,.titn--iuse of wash r.j..iIm t ,ilitie--pruper exercise---relaxation at intervals-re't and
steel-obtaining help in caring for needs which canu i-e met through first ,l in:uts, wounds)-pruper dress for outdoor and indoor ""fear-
.afety in school. hbume and nrlighlihrhoiod-begiuning .:i.unlrl uver strong vt-iti-ii.--proper body elimination-beginning muscular control
ilarge-i-proper seating-ctorrection of ilefet"is vision, pee-hi. hearing, t-th. others i-beginning voice control-beginning coordination of
eyes and mus Ie lsn iise of sihul)ie tools andti iat,-rial.




B. Growth in attitudes and in adjuttnient to itthers.
Dweinlupneint of n tfeelini, if ..-ie'irity it hliiri--,statlin.-iment of .,,,I c'jrking relationships with teacher-tbeginning of close work-
play rlintien. hip wlhp uiie or to ciildui.-i-uoolieri tion with grai- .a- .,,I iin planning work and in use of nlaterials tniert-I wise
te'a,-her guiidantt--mo-.uoliti.iion l trsiiii4 ft.ar- and dislikes i persun.s, ...ed -i-oeireomuing definite feelings of superiority or iit'ife-riurity
-sense of vuilue and proper v-are f r thinhg'- uo\ ned iIr used by -,elf or -",I nI materials, time, money i-comnpletiion of tasks appropriate
to idicidual interest and ability-ltegihniing of intelligent loyalty and IIi. e u home, school, neighborhood.




C. Growth in interests.
Expa iult-d acqiiiuiintaiiiu wt.h ndiitl i -.io,,l nnl neighborhood uirl intere-t in work they do-participation in simple kinds of
w1;1k tfarinliir to" itllil i tfoo)ul pIrepJn'IIlln, gotleinligi- W sits to sture-, liii111thi., or recreational centers ur iler ten,-her or parent guid-
djiice-enitel'tUltjiig lnlld IjSteislerlrig Lu Vi';i[i.'i'-- ri'Ig with others pets.l ll irthr articles of personal ownershil)-9Se ial trips to circus,
fieir-.--makiu-4 (lii. overie- thl'rilu-h li-i' it art n.[iteriuils ( l:iy. paints, ci ].- n-ulting, drawings or music singing, simple instruments)
-..i-erva-itie-h .'r tirt- of[1 ] plant .ird alnin l lhfet Loumroi t tieighborhoiJ


GRADE I

A. C'i% in-social relatilonthiis,
1. iMeining of cotepernlie in in faiiinly living.

2. Undu'r-'tiuiding of the courntileatiLiion f wvrk'er-. to school and
home i limited numntberi.
3. Uinderr-ttjudinhg of niuthie i t.v ixti-rei'e.l bey parent or teacher.

4. Beginning Uindlerstahinlg iif griimip '-.lntrnl I self-inlmposed
by pupils).

5. Rec-gnitiin iif p irsoimnil re-iiniisiility to hbirnie iand school


B. Relationship i) if s.'ienItift anitd soeianl etIinige.
1. Som, e iinwl .d''e ,.f i-e oi f ni'rltl'ri eiiqui[li enit in honle
( rinlio, muii: iis, tbiith i.

2. KimeIwIld.ge -ef sAiiiiole w ys 'i.f ling (li Iinis in liounte (plant-
ing. tfel-dilig alnillnl s, cui'kiig. buiildihgir .

3. A ucqiniritanie with n1t1e scientific ways of doing things
oin large scale cafeteria, zoo, big farm, ice cream plant).

4. Aculliainitaij-c with. use- 'of traiuisiortatioii nimid colnmuni,.n-
lion facilities Ischool bus, phone, car).

5. Knowledge of places where certain services are obtained
by the family.


C. Relationship and use of human and natural resources.
1. Recognition of simple names for colmnon plants and ani-
mals locall1.

2. Some knowledge of how these grow and should be canred
fur.
3. Beginning understanding of sources of food supply (prod-
uets common locally).

4. Beginning understanding of how the community suppliCes
other needs Irecreation, materials for clothes.
5. Relationship of growing things to soil, sunlight, anid weather.


GRADE II

A ,i'. i:-social relationships.
1. IKiuowledge of contribution of many community workers.

2' Exteniidod acquaintance with cuntributiou of workers in
-i.Liiel.
.;. HIelationship of horne and school as parts of community
living.
I. UL'uierstanding proper treatment of visitors or helpers in
hinine or school.

5. l'e,iuning understanding of the ways of doing things
Ictustloir s in school and community.

1;. lIelationship of scientific and social change.
1. Knowledge of many types of activity going on in local
'.iminmunity Ibuilding, traun-porting, harvesting, packing,
mining, manufacturingg.
2 DI)seoery of ways In which machines make work easier
ili.nue appliances, road building, excavation).

:3 Discovery of differences in home and large scale produe-
tion home garden vs. large truck garden).

4. Knowledge of common ways of transporting goods to and
fr.inru the local co.in unity (railroads, bus lines).

5. Acquaintance with ways of changing local raw products
into other useful things (juices, candy, jelly, gifts).


C. Relationship and use of human and natural resources.
1. More complete understanding of original sources of food
supply (through study of at least one common to local
community-corn, peanuts, vegetables).
2. Knowledge of how to secure and use local resources in
home and school (flowers, vegetables, shells, etc.).
3. Increased Information regarding care of plants and animals
in home, school, and neighborhood.

4. Recognition of health and safety hazards in local com-
munity.
5. Knowledge of leading local products (agricultural or in-
dustrial) and beginning understanding of reasons for this.


GRADE I II


A. Securing information.
Practice in securing information needed in locating persons or things (teacher guidance in stating questions, finding names)-
listening carefully to directions or information given by teacher ijr pupils-guided observation of some phnses of neighborhood living
(involving stating and presenting questions. remembering answers i-getting necessary information from pictures t rooms needed in
playhouse, members of family, etc.)-locating various items of information found in daily "Room News" (printed by teacher on black-
board or chart)i-locating place in book where certain pictures or ideas may be found (carefully controlled by teacher in keeping with
reading ability)-securing social Information necessary to participating in community life denominationss of stamps, sizes of cans,
number of articles desired, etc.) .



B. Organizing and interpreting information.
Following teacher questions or directions pointing toward organization (steps in the trip, series of points to be noted I-listing sug-
gestions in correct sequence-noting Important relationships (things affecting plant growth, important parts of picture)-pupil-
teacher planning for check-up and outlining of next steps in work to be accomplished i.as in making of garden or play house -selecting
from a mixed group of pictures those related to one topic or idea-arranging In order several pictures which tell a complete series
of related ideas-listing observed events according to their time order-illustrating individual ideas to group in picture form-put-
ting things in groups (kinds of food, kinds of workers)--development of vocabulary necessary to dealing with family and neighborhood
living-ability to interpret simple pictures of location (simple maps of classroom, school grounds, neighborhood i.



C. Sharing and using social information and inventions.
Much practice in carrying on informal talking In small groups (about an incident or series of events)-talking before entire group
(after sufficient readiness is built)-improving presentation through more careful selection of main points-lbeginning oral committee
reports (much teacher guidance)-sharing through teacher-made record or oral contributions-sharing work or ideas with visitors
to classroomn-assisting one another in improving individual contributions-proper use of telephone (simple skills and courtesy )-use
of bus service (safety and courtesy)-use of places of business (skills and courtesy u-sharing cooperatively through room newspaper
(dictated by children, teacher-scribe)-incidental and planned use of pictures, newspaper, radio Icooperation and courtesy in usel
-assisting teacher in filling out forms requiring personal data-beginning use of simple classifications of books in room library.


GRADE III

A. Civie-sueial relationships.
1. Discovery of the ueanuing of the term community (relation-
ships among people and things).
2. Understanding ways in which people in the earlier and
present-day u:nunaiinity have cooperated and contributed.
3. Recognition of the function of local or city government
in meeting iieedi (police, health, safety.
4. Knowledge of organization n anud contribution of civic clubs
for community betterment (local leadership in pioneer
times and present i.
5. Some apprec'tiienu and understanding of cultural products
in local collinmiiity churches. schools, buildings, folk tales;.

B. Relationship of scientific and social change.
1. Facts relutih,; to life in community before days of modern
invention ilight-., travel facilities, home appliances, hous-
ing . '
2. Discovery .l siiperstitions and beliefs of early settlers or
present (health. food i.

3. Information necessary to making comparisons of ways
of growing aid preserving food in earlier times and now
(canning t.'r',.'sen foods).
4. Knowledge of use of machines in producing, processing.
and distrilbting local products Itractors, canning plant,
trucking).
5. Beginning understanding of effect of invention in cutting
time-diltince (radio, planes, cars).


C. Relationship and use of human and natural resources.
1. Under.raudlings related to how the local community de-
veloleed ei..,nomically as it did (relationship of natural
resourc-iq and people).
2 Knowl-ed-e of factors contributing to growth or decline of
the community.
3. Undertnhiinug of the interdependence of farm and city
areas.

4. Discovery of the ways in which the local community is
connie.-ted with surrounding section or region.
5. Develiolmeit of ideas pertaining to conservation of com-
munity resuiirces.


GRADE IV

A. Chic-social relationships.
1. An understanding of the coinmiunnity idea (extended to in-
elude different types of comnnunities).
2. Knowledge of kinds of coopeiati,.n In pioneer and present
day communities (reasons fur changee.
3. Beginning ideas related to function of state and national
government (colonial times and nowl.
4. Knowledge of services provided by county and state and
national government (roads, --i.hools, health ).

5. Understanding of differences in personal freedom and re-
sponqsbility in pioneer days and nuvw.

B. Relationship of scientific and social change.
1. Discovery of reasons for diffk-rences and changes in modes
of transportation aud comniniiiici-tion In various types of
communiLIities.
2. Understanding of changes in ,.u'-toms and outlook of com-
mtunities as related to modern inventions tarts, family life.
institutions).
3. Understanding the reasons tir differences in food and
health practices in pioneer tljies and now (effect scientific
knowledge .
4. Knowledge of the effect of machines in bringing specialized
workers for producing, proivsing and distributing goods in
various communities.
5. Knowledge of methods used in the production and process-
ing of various products in various types of communities.


C. Relationship and use of human and natural resources.
1. Relationship of the untural environment (land, soil, cli-
mate) to activities of the I|eople of the community (travel,
communication, home life, arts, education, religion i.
2. Understanding of anys in which various communities have
developed differently i re 'iirces and people i.
3. Relationship of communities to each other and to the gen-
eral section or local reg'ii.

4. Ways resources affect the general type of community
development agricultural or industrial ).
5. Beginning ideas relating to '-oiiservation in state, section,
or local region.


GRADES TIT TV


A. Securing information.
Knowledge of a variety of people capable of giving different types of information (health. safety. early comLmuinity lifeti-practice
in conducting interviews (planned in advance I-understanding announcements with less teacher help tI ruonim, assembly, school news
-additional practice in obtaining information through well planned trips Isituations here may he somewhat more complex and farther
away i-definite practice under teacher guidance in securing ideas from basic texts-use of supplenivitary books of sufficiently easy
content and vocahbulary-beginning use of reference books (good encyclopedias. dictionary)-nmore extended use of tables of content
and index-discovery of other helpful mechanical features of books topic headings, stuinmarizine s0tite'fientsI-much practice in get-
ting social information through first hand manipulation and experimentation (making candles, sig-nalimg,. excavating).



B. Organizing and interpreting information.
Sensing of gross differences in time and space (long ago-now, near-fart-recognition of the relati-nuship of parts to larger wholes
ias in case of workers contributing to total community welfarei-more pupil responsibility for oiganiizing, executing and evaluating
work (setting up problems, locating sources, judging results I-practice in selecting major points of enlphasis from a series of readings,.
observations or experiments (teacher records information in outline form to build sensitivity to purp-' e of an outline)-practice in
breaking down large problem into necessary sub-problems for exploration-practice in relating small problems to large ones-ability
to get meaning from presented material-selection, interpretation, and use of maps (simple maps and map symbols)-some significant
use of charts, cartoons, graphs, tables-ability to express orally the meaning conveyed by simple tables or charts (possible construction)
-development of accurate meaningful vocabulary (teacher checks on growth in word meaning as well na range of vocabulary).


C. Sharing and using social information and inventions.
Ability to discuss and investigate problems cooperatively (as much teacher guidance as needed i-beginning practice in sharing
information through individual writing-ability to use and to help others use source materials cooperatively other texts, reference books,
etc.)-ability tn share social information and ideas through dramatization, art. music (with more Iplet and skill i-use of telephone
l including calling persons not closely associated with individual t-use of road maps. time tables, tickets skills and courtesies involved)
-use of mails. money orders, bank deposit slips-ability to fill out simple questionnaires or written ballots (class election i-beginning
use of simple card catalog and central library.


GRADE V

A. Civie-social relationships.
1. An understanding of how- communities are relatedil to fInrm
a "regional communityy.
2. Knowledge of ways In which people within regions have
cooperated in past and Ire-'ent (civic and governimnntnl).
3. Understanding of colonial giverinireuit as a beginning of
present state and national government.
4I. Knowledge of the types of human need supplied lhy type.-
of government (schools, roads, defense).

5. Beginning understanding of individual responsibility and
rights in pioneer and modern times.

B. Relationship of scientific and social change.
1. Discovery of the needs of regions which led to better
transportation nnd coninrunicntiou.

2. Understanding of the effect (f improved transportation
aiind corn ican mention upniuu prodiiLctiiii anil consiriiptlon III
legions (agriculture and industry l.
3. Knowledge of the changes in economic life tl' reglonss
through use of inventions (cotton gin, refrigeratluoi .

4. 'Concepts covering the factors affecting rise or decline of
communities and regions i leadership. peoplilt, natural re-
sources, etc.I.
5. Knowledge of the effect of science and live itton upon
human living (Ihune life, arts, iiltior).


C. Relationship and use of human aniid natural resources.
1. Beginuiig. understanding -f the relaitionislip i.tween popiU-
lation and wise use at Iipeople and untilili re.rvmrces.

2. Kuiowledge ,if kinds ,f wo.rkh in irenrilus regioi-, as related
to human need and available resources.
3. Understanding of the devel,ItMIneit a.iil iiv, rvation of
resources related to hunianh ingenuity .iinl ired I power
projects, harbors, forests).
4. Facts regarding the exploitationi of reiintii'vS lihrough pour
planning and use (waiter su lily,. fish, s-.ili.
5 Ihierdepeudeince of ilgrl'-'ultle anid linlidiil. within a
region.


SHIADE VI

A. (.'ivic--ieoial r'lationships.
1 UvTi-lr-d'iii ling how r-e'ginL.- lre rI'tlrintd I'rm n wI -rild 'l-anl-
InIlliy.
2 Iiniriilt'p-hilnc'ric, ,f i 'pI e iinil nI'.se, rii''s iI world-wide

:i. i1IlersIi lnnilin, of varihls fier']r-, o' t' nip t'roiltiil developtm l
liy nu i lln ( t'nllIly, till, I, mni leNI, w ,r'Ill 1r'l.iiuul7.ntl .,ne,-. .
4 Knitowl'nlg u i' ntir'llilini,i nil vnirl'-iis i n lions t1 1 Ihvolh p-


5i P'o-,lhilhles o, f furlhirr \\unrhi \\hb. l ,,prnll,,n h,'rluigh
.Ini rlriin iirl llirritiur'. s hi'n'ii1 1 .
ltrllt I ill l l. 'ii'riS l iIr..e Inl llll, H rlli.
51. l ,d lati,,n Ih lp if t i,'|tlilhT u ,, .nt,, iI ,'higc.

1. I K n, lh.dgt, of liIt t ltritt-h [ of illIh-nif 1lid ninl) l''
li' ]ll-' i seltlill ,i i lvunilue I. ili s, i inullll 'li ll'i i Irn. K vel.

>li' l I. I.
'hi-.irllinii'rn i uiriiliiipiini'i ir nlie i-i'l lIl llc i nro t' l nIlcnill-
cc le Iesis'l.
3. M ire It't .1ilu.1il kinllc i'tlg of tlii' r1 eliill.ihI if s.i i' ri'i
to chiingill rIu h .h I ,rt'L inuI d '1.l rsIItoLiin, I ('ii'ii, Sn per' million be-
lief s).
1. 'ilirln' .t l' ri'i'nr41 ll. u im | I w n iInev'f r iu ll, lin n'i nin n illlln
t. rn t u i1nil ilr Icimlllt' l ['.

i t. l Ic'giin nllI. irIutJlliilr lilli, itll' I 'r1 ii'.il I''i 'li'ill Ifir' |lilnl, iln.
linr rr ll'niu. liiilnin l ii'''ld i'aleitnil.ll, iin l iutilll iinIt 'o, lul
wcli li .slin .

(.. l 14hli 1i1,,-diii nI.- I |i|, ,d' hiu111im liil iiii rul rv,,,,tlrr,,q.


2. C oliiu-ilci.- ibilvl i o litI' lliiii 'in f rlilpi'- iil tli. of
Inllt elin- l let' ilI s, ]eniili.., InKl ,nim i l -rne't'1s i.
3 lii'n liln iln i iU rln'i Ne liriin ll. 1 r'l' illinieel i.i. iIIIIiing iutlimn,
I 1I s iin'in i-l Iidl l iy l uri l i-u i.iiuis I oin ulin eile i ie'il lt'. I.

-1. I P.''Jlliiiing n11111a iin ilhnll i.1 ifr lir l ii'eil f l'r 'iiisrl villl.ili on
an cwc rl' wid-v bl'nintis I |i pl' ni ll nIIirnI i 1 si'leiirt's).
3. All ilinlel i.alll gll i li ui suil' ii. if" l':n In-te i, n'. h-il. lih g In viurl l-
lim is i Sii n s i.\ Ii living u dii n il''in' ireti lini ii, iiiilN, iisnild
opleol hieili lif'., 'iillutiir l |ir'liliint'S,, g1VLI'ii1rii i lit, IC. I.


GRADES V- VI


A. Securing information.
Ability to obtain necessary inft'ornintiitiii tlrni gh interview (ionri' inilntive ii[ rm l rnirl. l ii. l i inlgl i --r-' ilu IINIe A u grl''upi laur'k Inn
investigating problems through lobi ervnatinii. liiid i'rniding, field trips-ti.nir.l' il gtiinga inltriiitnin h n lneuni tll ur l IIInes nm ml regiiums
through proper uiine 'f pictures i f'ofrmu iniagaziniv,-, ..ti'. state, and in0tlolmm0 l lpnil ul1 iohi s; ,iicwsp iai u prin til.--i Inn koueping nimri'..st of
i.irrent happenings daily newspaper, newcs vi'kl. ,indlo, newsca ne -tst -i- iiuhle lei .er' in n ii' uii' wide iiiinly ol' irldie i lnry nmid
referernu e aid.s. uOther text books, weekly r-aile'r'-.. ne.'vspapers, eneyelpie-mdilis. ill.ti'tIri.hesi-nimr', idiiieel.iirKi lisle ui if card e unlogiNe
and central library as means. of locating iinfitl'i. ilitin- -icquaintance witli n11 .is inlld \\nihl lnimiini. i witli In1 lihr' guidalhliniv --i ability ln
use a wide variett of mals (pl political Inilip.s., niu .s sleiwing variation in rl i infi ll, 'llhinul.. pr.'uil.-ts, Mi flni' rl---unilr'standliig of tee-
ni(lnes In reading naps Idirectlions on iniuiL, tlir I' iyvi of map prloj eelu ons. I1niep s1 yliih l-.. il--' o if s' llt of illc,K liiime blils, Intinlude ind
longitude)-practice in obtaining informantlun tr'ni simple table and clirrts (bur ilnl cin It' g auphlsh iiu'hsli ,inilIng of uIeIX' .

B. Organizing and interpreting intormnatioln.
Beginning practice in simpl[)]e outlining as nualuiil outgrowth of disc-ussiiii or giidel d r'-uding Isileordihating idles)-ldev.vlolmrent of
much initiative in pluning, developing and eviilimntlin work (stating and oin unlzing iliivsliir.ns for innesLtigatliun, using variety of source',
summarizing and evaluating findingsi--ability t1, ,organize material f-r iprs.enttirl n toip group lending stlitemicns. ,ietalls., smin-
rnarizingi-development of mucli pupil initiative in discovering relnthnsmlips ,ii' parts 1, whole, I ndiniig or nonkinig tope stiteniies, use
of tables of content or index in locating materials ripldly)-abillty t nsense- relitim.Isip ilof iuy piti of year's Vwork tu time \hitle with
teacher guidance I-development oif uiinre (riticiil attitude toward sourrres milling likvNhiisst uand diff'renis e's made by auithirs o.f different
texts i-ability to make some use of relation.shiilS niready discovered i iintitri'r'ile'ti new Ai intlim.ni iapilyine g general .statements tio
individual and community life i-ability to obtain or express major ideas In tublli or grniltic ifurinr-extenmions tof voe-atbuhlry and
symbols essential to getting proper meaning from printed material (deepening meaning nid acquaintnrue with new words and concepts)

C. Sharing and using social information and inventions.
Ability to carry on Informal discussion Il ...mall or large groups Ideniocrati' procedii'res with much pulpil initiativel'-ability to
present orally to the group in one's own language Ideas gleaned from refe-rence books or other sources-extented practice in putting
individual oral contributions into, acceptable written form for further reference or use-skill's in using various teehuinuesa fr nlmaking
present ions interesting itcharts. graphs. di..tley ,f articles made rn found ,y intlividuals with dellnite attention to continuity and
accuracy of content i-developincit of much p.il initiative in sharing idleus through ruis'erative use of bulletin board, classroom sup-
plies and equlipment-emphasis upon proper us.- lf telephone and radhi i inforniitiein rtgumrding -iperathni, inmintenance and use; wise
choice of programs sense of cl "t.'s invls. veil t -ability to understand, tise. ind repair ,ineiiu simple Inane applianserps ur apparatus-de-
velopment of further understandings and te-leinilliie related to mualtenance' and u.ie nelo.graph nndl ne-wspuper service (wording tele-
grams. figuring costs, making short reports exhibiting understanding of news items, experience in getting out newspaper., Information
regarding way news Is gathered, how to read with pri,,ft the daily paper i--e-xtensint of rInformnation regirdlng using news weekly-pro-
per use of a variety of recent inventions ,ailtoim,,olille, trains, plane service, modern lighting)-possible use of variety of business forms.


GRADES III IV


A. Growth in meeting self-nieeds.
Selecting food in rifeteria with less direct teacher guidance-some understanding of food value-soler- personal responsibility for
selection as well a n.jre of clothing-use of lavatories and other similar facilities (lockers, pools, public st tions i-beginning knowledge
of diseases common t, local community-personal initiative in use or first aid supplies in caring for sihnple cuts and wounds-safety
in use of various hae, school, and community facilities (instruments, tools, bicycles or other means of travel -development of auto-
matic habits in cire of person (teeth, hair, body cleanliness, body elimination)-finer muscular coordination and control (small and
large muscles)-in.prolement of quality of speech (speaking so entire group hears)-continued attack on defects nut previously rem-
edied eyes, teeth bearing, speech, etc.)-additional facility in use of simple tools and instruments---peronral responsibility for helping
plan balanced day twvrk, exercise, play, rest, recreation).


B. Growth in attitudes and in adjustment to others.
Adjustment to the general pattern of living in the home-establishing working relationship with parents and teacher on more
independent yet cu-per"ative basis-establishing close work-play relationships with a small group 'three or more children) -possible
development of cli'se personal relationship with one or more persons in cominunity- modiication of dislikes or prejudices (regarding
persons and things farther away i-assuming increased responsibility for individual and group contribiiti,.utin to school projects (plays.
ne-spapter, unit wrk i-more initiative in planning and executing work-inteiligent respect for law and order i bicycle regulations, con-
servation, rationing i-proper care and use of individual, school and community property.



C. Growth in interests.
Acquaintance wiitl ninny types of work in many conummunities-interest in people and things in nearby ,-mnimunities. the state, or
region that afficti linal iife-uctual pupil participation in doing several kinds of work (food preparation, gardening, making of simniple
garmentsi--nokin" or during things (weaving. candle-making, buildings) which are connected with earlier times or people outside
local community-puiii participation in clubs or community activities suitable to age of child (Junior eled Cross, salvage, scouts,
4-H --familiarity vntb work of local civic and religious organizations-beginning the discovery of indloduail talent or hobby (col-
lections, musical in-triiments. physical skill)-beginning refinement of use of art materials (clay, paints, euttiug, drawiingIl-extension of
interest in music itilk tuores, Indian music, patriotic) and in ability to sing or play-extended opportunity to observe or experiment in
world of nature (xpecially with growing things, soil, rocks, minerals, water i school museum, school garden, nature club, camping)-
beginning intere-.,t in niee2hanitkal science (simple tools, home appliances).


GRADES V VI


A. Growth in meeting self-needs.
Personal planning for proper diet-possible participation in getting family meals (food purclia.-e and preparation p--more under-
standing of food values and costs--developuimet of acceptnble stanilardq for table iuniiner itentiug slowly, use of impllemenrtir-much
responsibility for selection and care of clothing (colors., materials, costsi-prolper use of lIvat.iry, shower, or other similar facilities
(lockers, pools, public stations -protection of self anid others against disease common to countinuity-responsibility for safety of self
and younger children-beginning knowledge of body ftluntioning (variations in physical chamnrcei-interest In careful grooming (hair.
teeth, clothing I-well developed muscular coordination i riythins, team gauines-increased ability to speak clearly and with good tone
quality-continued attack on defects not previously retiiidied or those of recent origin (teeth, tousils, eye. ear. speech)-definite skill
Improvement in use of a variety of simple tools and instrunients-individual responsibility for developing a balanced program of living
(work, exercise, play, rest, leisure tilel.

B. Growth in attitudes and in adjustment to others
Extension of personal influence with family group I sharing of int-ome and hIme facility is)- -nintenance of independent yet cooper-
ative working relationship with parent anil teacher'-1flvelolpinga uluse reliiitnilillis within hiny or girl groups iganri)-beglnnin i adjust-
ment to individuals of oippiusite sex-selt ion of lundiviluals i%'rthy ofii ritatin--Cooil-rtitlei Il |ilrinniiing and carrying out large group
projects for grade or school (team games, assemblies, ii.\\sitp-r, unit work. lielping ymiunger clildren)-developling more objiective
attitudes toward solving personal problems feurrutional cot'ol)--iodilicrlion uf atitles toward peopI'le. evelitS. ilsltoins. goeriinrent
through understanding how these developed-feeling fur tie ineaning of lnemocracy (freedom. resiposibiilityvi-disposition to use per-
sonal and public property with enre-favorable attitudes toward work inot delmandiing too much of faiintly; wlllugness to tiarn or serve l
-nppreciation of workers and concern for their welftire--Intelligeit respect for law and order eouiirts, government regulations, guovern-
Ing bodies).
C. Growth in interests.
Acquaintance with many types of work throughout tintlnIn lind worldi-ilt'ic'St In rindllhir alinint iopilo aiini tlliings inl crier times
aud distant lands whii:li affect us inventionss, discow-rli's, resuirci'vs. plant nd iiiimul lfl -ricf- 11il eidartlciirtihn in miinking or doing
thins (fire making. cooking, boat ontrcton) wl nr related to rtiirllr hlira's n irul irtsrt'-leai- ili'rslrlhi us wetll 11s iiarthlliMtlon
in suitable clubs and commuulty enterprises (Junior Hed t'ross, sil\nIpge. ',t, 4-I1. -, li'ik drive-., cllln-il iIinlipliigis.. tiLiI) santiri)-
participation iln home and school maintenance and care l [iilding tlingit;. piinlii;g, h'iinthg-t'xriisliii cof skill in devrti-lpincirt if
individual talent or hobby (collections, musical lintruini.its, physical sikilll- i-'irtiliir rliiniimert in ust' of ail iniierlrnls with ipsisliltt
development of special ability awid interest in one typ'-extenilon of ntivrt-t- In litiii-le- I lheilnninig deih'liipiiniint f 111' 'picr il nbilityl-wi-li'
contacts with entire area of natural science--nterest and growth of som' skill ri'lni''d lii miehi liiil'l .-icilie' i rn-dli, tuls, electricity.
airplane design I.







THE TOTAL SOCIAL STUDIES PROGRAM


factual tests. The area of growth entitled Social Behavior seeks
to call attention to the fact that the ultimate test of any learning is
what happens when the child acts and particularly when he acts on
his own initiative and guidance. Because growth in this area is
hard to describe, evaluate, and record, teachers find it more con-
venient to assign grades wholly in terms of social information. If
the area of social behavior is included at all on the report card,
deportment (sometimes defined as the degree of worry the child
causes) is often the sole item listed. If teachers attempt to meet
their responsibility for evaluating growth in social behavior much
more extensive records must be kept and used in the future.
Particularly is there a need for teachers in the upper elementary
grades to become concerned about the social behavior phase of
child growth. Chart Two dealing with content shows that at the
end of the third grade the child has finished studying the immediate
environment as content. The chart calls attention, however, to the
fact that the child goes on having personal problems, making adjust
ments, and developing atttiudes and interests within the immediate
environment long after the content he studies shifts to regions or
countries farther away. Unless teachers of the fourth, fifth, and
sixth grades continue to emphasize growth, attitudes, adjustments
and interests in relationship to people, places, and things in the
immediate life of the child, his behavior may actually become poorer
while he is "taking lessons" in social studies.

Explanation of Section II-Growth in Social Information
Growth in social information includes facts, knowledge, ideas,
concepts, understandings and all other phases of learning with an
intellectual emphasis. While it is true that facts, knowledge and
understandings often color attitudes, broaden interests or assist in
meeting some self-needs of individuals, this has not been in many
cases a conscious objective sought by the teacher. Even within
the entire area referred to above as Social Information, many teachers
have stressed memory of details to the exclusion of building con-
cepts or understandings. This has frequently led to a lack of purpose
or enthusiasm on the part of the learner.
No attempt has been made in this part of the Outcome Chart
to list a large number of facts, understandings, or generalizations.








22 SOCIAL STUDIES IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

Such a task would be useless since through the use of any good
textbook a capable teacher could list thousands of smaller or larger
facts, concepts, understandings and generalizations. The list of
informational learning for each grade contains fifteen items. Al-
though a larger or smaller number might have been given, the ones
listed are fairly representative. Each elementary teacher will prob-
ably wish to make for herself a similar or more extended analysis.
In order to group these fifteen items under still larger sets of
relationships three categories were chosen: (A) The development of
social-civic relationships (B) The relationship of scientific and social
change (C) The relationship and use of human and natural resources.
These are developed at each grade level in keeping with the maturity
of the child and the general content with which he will ordinarily
deal. While the three sets of relationships used may not cover all
of the possible factors or influences which have had a part in the
development of present-day living, they do represent types of
relationships extremely important in modern life.
In many cases the phrases used in the chart do not present an
idea but rather point to a group of ideas which the pupils and
teacher can develop or state more completely for themselves. For
example, in grade three, one of the items reads: "Knowledge of
use of machines in producing, processing and distributing products".
The teacher must use the local background in supplying the exact
machines to be taken up with the pupils. In addition to- the knowl-
edge about the machines might come an understanding of the fact
that machines have made work easier. At a later level of develop-
ment pupils might develop understandings relative to the effects of
machinery on labor or to other complications brought about through
mechanized industry. The items listed should, therefore, be regarded
as important points to be kept in mind in developing the informa-
tional side of the social studies program.
If the reader will observe carefully the statements as they appear
horizontally across the page, it will become apparent that similar
ideas appear at successive grade levels in expanded form. Take for
example the meaning of community. In the first grade there is a
school and home community; when the second grade is. reached the
community has expanded to include the neighborhood; in the third
grade an attempt is made to develop a community consciousness








THE TOTAL SOCIAL STUDIES PROGRAM 23

so far as the local community is concerned. At the sixth grade level
a world-wide community is envisioned.

Explanation of Section III-Growth in Techniques and Skills
This phase of social studies outcomes has been neglected almost
as much as that of Social Behavior which is treated first in the Out-
comes Chart. This area of growth has, for convenience, been divided
into three parts: (A) Securing information, (B) Organizing and in-
terpreting information, (C) Sharing and using social information and
and inventions.

The suggestions given under securing information relate to types
or sources of information. Beginning with the securing of answers
to questions through direct contact with people, the sources of in-
formation are broadened until at the sixth grade level the child has
the ability to conduct a well-planned interview. In addition to get-
ting information through direct contact with people, the pupil will,
at this level, develop the ability to secure needed information from
the radio, newspaper, newsreel and a variety of other sources. The
sources at first involve little or no reading and are extended at the
higher levels to include tables, graphs, charts and other types of
written material, necessary in the solution of a problem. This part
of the social studies work is closely related to the programs in reading
and language now being developed in many schools.

Some suggestions as to the variety of purposes for which in-
formation must be obtained are also indicated. The development of
ability to use simple and more complex card catalogues, dictionaries,
and types of reference material is also stressed. As the child enters
the secondary school it is expected that he will be able to secure
information from a variety of sources and to locate the needed in-
formation which these sources contain without needless waste of time
and energy. Teachers at the primary levels are not always aware
that the beginnings of necessary skills in this important phase of
the work are made during the first and second grades. They should
therefore study carefully the entire sequence of skill development
with regard to locating and using the wide variety of sources of
information suggested in this part of Section III of the Outcomes
Chart.








24 SOCIAL STUDIES IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

Organizing and interpreting information is very necessary to ob-
taining meaning from the details and data supplied by the oral or
written material which has been found to be pertinent to the problem
or topic under discussion. It is at this point that teachers fail to pro-
vide enough definite and continued practice. As is indicated in Part
B of Section III of The Outcomes Chart, the teacher must provide
much of the guidance in organization during the first and second
grades. She should direct her questions in such a way that the pupils
are led to organize their thinking, to plan next steps, and to note im-
portant relationships. She should go through, this process with pupils
and not do the organization for them. Only in this way can they grow
in power to organize more complicated material for themselves at
higher levels. In the third and fourth grades the teacher may trans-
late the ideas of the group into a formal outline, again letting the
children see how this job is done. At fifth and sixth grade level,
some independence in outlining material should be expected, provided
the pupils have received the proper guidance in preceding grades.
In case this guidance has not been 'given, she must go through all
of the preceding stages with her group, using, of course, content
suited to older children.
Careful examination of Part B of Section III of the Outcomes
Chart as it is extended to successive grade levels will reveal many
other interesting and important skills connected with organization
and interpretation. Listing events in time order, illustrating ideas
in graphic or dramatic form, practice in relating small problems to
larger ones or in breaking large problems into subproblems for
attack and solution, interpretation of simple and (later) of more
complex types of maps, word meaning and extension of vocabulary
-these and many others are introduced in the primary grades and
extended to the upper grade levels of the elementary school. Teach-
ers cannot sense fully the importance of the development of these
skills at their own grade levels unless they trace these developments
from early beginnings to the further extensions normally expected
during the first six years of school. The necessity for definite prac-
tice in developing the necessary reading skills related to social studies
material will become rather obvious to the teacher as she notes the
similarity between proper organization and interpretation of written
material and the reading process as it is understood today.








THE TOTAL SOCIAL STUDIES PROGRAM 25

Part C of Section III of The Outcomes Chart is entitled "Sharing
and Using Social Information and Inventions". Under this heading
are included many of the abilities, skills, and techniques essential to
participating in democratic living today. The ability to stand before a
group and explain a topic, the ability to carry on a group discussion
regarding an important problem, the ability to translate ideas into an
interesting form for presentation to others, the ability to carry on an
informal conversation with others regarding a point of current
interest-these and many other techniques must be at the command
of every citizen in a democracy.
In addition to the techniques related to sharing of information
there must be developed in all pupils the ability to use instruments
and inventions, particularly those involving communication, trans-
portation, travel, or modern conveniences. Not all children come
from homes ,where the newspaper, the radio, the telegraph, plane
service, or modern lighting are common parts of the daily living of
the child. Most pupils, however, may at some time in the future need
to know how to use these things and do so intelligently. Pupils who
are accustomed to these conveniences and inventions either at home,
at school, or in the community often do not have sufficient in-
formation and practice to use them wisely and courteously.
Beginning with the first and second grade level the chart indi-
cates the approximate development which teachers should encourage
with respect to the use of an increasing variety of social instruments.
For example, during the first two years it is anticipated that
children will be visiting stores with the family or will enter them in
order to purchase an item for the parent. At the third and fourth
grade levels they may become observant enough to be interested in
what money orders are used for or the meaning of bank deposit
slips. At the fifth and sixth grade level they may have need to use
a variety of business forms and may wish to establish a cooperative
school bank through which stamp sales, red cross money, or other
types of monetary transactions within the entire elementary school
may be cleared.
Another illustration which shows this progressive development is
that connected with the ability to use instruments of communication.
Beginning with the simple telephoning to parents in first grade, this
type of experience is broadened until at fifth or sixth grade level








26 SOCIAL STUDIES IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

the pupil should have experiences with the use of telephones in
placing a variety of calls; in observing or actually participating in
broadcasts; in selecting motion pictures or radio programs suited
to his needs.

SELECTING CONTENT SUITED TO VARIOUS GRADES
Another task which is faced by the total faculty in planning a
social studies program is that of selecting content. Desirable out-
comes such as those described in the preceding section of this chapter
do not occur unless pupils actively explore some valuable content.
Indeed, the statement of outcomes pertaining to growth in social in-
formation (Section II of Outcomes Chart) was related directly to
probable grade content.
If there is duplication of content or if the content is too ad-
vanced for true understanding on the part of an individual or group,
educational waste occurs. While it is difficult to defend one sequence
of topics as being better than another, most teachers would agree
that some flexible framework for distributing emphasis with respect
to content is necessary. Some follow rather closely the sequence of
topics found in the textbook; others prefer to follow the general
suggestions given in a course of study; still others make their own
outlines with the help of the children. Regardless of the plan used,
there must be a persistent following through in order to insure
continuous growth and development.

Explanation of Content Chart
In distributing the content of the social studies program to the
various grade levels of the elementary school, it is necessary to keep
in mind the expanding world of the child. Beginning with a study
of his immediate home, school and neighborhood, the child will, ax
the intermediate grade levels come to deal with persons, places, and
things more distant in space and time. The grade themes listed
across the-top of the Content Chart just below the grade headings
indicate a shift in emphasis as the child deals first with the im-
mediate environment and later with the expanding environment.
At the same time that a shift in emphasis is noted, attention is
also called to the -fact that the child from the very first years of
his school experience is somewhat concerned with the total environ-







CHART TWO-CONTENT SOCIAL STUDIES PROGRAM


SOCIAL STUDIES PRIMARY GRADES SOCIAL STUDIES INTERMEDIATE G


0


PC,
rw


0





















0
0

P.4
z


GRADE I
Theme: Living in Home and School

People in the home (self, family, relatives, friends).


People in the school (classmates, principal, janitors, lunchoom
helpers, visitors).
Individuals serving child needs (bus driver, doctor, nurse, maid
-limited number).
Facilities in home and school (rooms, furniture, equipment, yard,
garden, tools, books).
Food and meals (securing from store, simple preparation, serving,
eating).
Articles of individual ownership (pets, toys, clothing).
Animals and plants (care and use of those common in school
or home).
Weather (as it affects individual, school, and family living).
Experiences with practical and fine arts (making gifts, building,
art work, music).

Persons frequently rendering service to home and school-inci-
dental acquaintance (milkman, groceryman, mailman).
Places visited by family or school group (neighborhood stores.
places of recreation, places of worship).
l':.. iliti,- used by child, family, or school group in traveling or
., iliuc messages (family car, school bus, letters, telephone).


Direct experience in visiting places or people in neighboring
Possible incidental experience with county or state office
SVicarioui experience with persons and things related to ea

Occasional trips to places of special interest (county or s


Possible direct experience with places and people outside s
I ng or serving in far-away places).
Incidental acquaintance with people from far-away places
SInci-dental infiormniti.,n regarding utifamnilluir lln.-es. people


Participation in holiday- ur celebrations of national or world-

04 T


- d


(GRADE II
i'hcir : Hclpng Eaih Other in the Comimunitu

People in child's home and in neighboring homers (self, family,
relatives, friends, visitors).
People in the school (other children, several teachers, types of
school workers).
Workers serving child needs (variety of workers, including bus
driver, doctor, nurse, janitor, cafeteria workers, servants,
safety officer).
Facilities common to many homes and schoolrooms types of
rooms, kinds of furniture and equipment, yard, garden.
library).
Food and meals (nearby source, simple preparation, serving,
eating).
Experiences with practical and fine arts (creative products of
individual and group).




.\nmi.l and plant life in the neighborhood (common name, care.

i'3,. of buildings in neighborhood Iuse, style, construction).
WL.itli,.r ins it ntfcects home, schiluol, neighborhood life).
. ji, 11 if workers contributing tu home, school, and neighbor-
itud living I(postman, repair man, fireman, policeman, patrol-
iitin ro,:eryman, dairyman, farmer, truck driver).
PI'l.--, visited by child with or without family or school group
<,,ries, recreation places, places of worship).
I':i ilita comimouly used inu the neighborhood for transporting,
triitiling, or communicating bus, car, truck. plane. bicycle,
tiler.lin, e. telegraph, mail I.


GRADE III
I'herne: Dcrfeluofiitg and Improcing the Community

Work of individuals in maintaining home and school (child,
parents, workers.
Facilities common in home. school, and community living (houns-
ing, equipment, nodes of travel. tools, utilities).
Food and clothing (inrdimidul,. family, and group planning: pre-
paration and UseI.
Weather (as it affects individual and group living in home.
school, cominjunity. i.
Experiences in individual or group projects for improvement of
home, school or community life construct ion, music, beauti-
fication, gardens., eillectiousi.


Types of work done locally (building, farming, packing, store-
keeping, government service, etc.).
Types of building, iu -omnmmunity (residential-business; rural.
city).
Things secured from or sent to other communities (newspapers.
vegetables, electricity. bread, etc.).
Sources of local foild supply in earlier times and present isoil.
types of farms, kinds of crops, adjustment to weather, ways
of harvesting).
Provisions for shelter and clothingg in earlier times and now
(materials, costs, construction).
Services provided by local government in earlier times and now
(health, police, tire, roads, schools).
Machines essential to community living in earlier times and
now.
Persons, places, things, events of importance in commuulty de-
velopment (relics. landmarks, people).


ng coniniimnities (trips with family or school groups to farms, packing plants, trading centers, county seats, large towns).
als (rod i lutrolmen. workers at county health unit or clinic, county or slate school visitors, political rallies, game wardens).
vrlter tihn.- or to nearby communities or sections of the state (songs, folk tales, stories. pictures, elderly persons, dramatic play).
tate fairs, historic spots, recreation centers, beaches, parks).


state (trips with parents, friends, or relatives; possible experience in living in another state; letters or messages from relatives or friends; work-

(visitors, relatives, refugees, missionaries, occasional speakers, circus workers. performers).
, animal and plant life, events (questions may arise through contact with pictures, motion pictures, maps, radio, newspaper, stories, songs, talks).


wide importance (Christmas, Thanksgiving. etc.).


M1
0



la-








ha



















Lz.

0





C.4



z


GRADE IV
Thept :Liuinp Iin Uariou, Tjip.'8 of Commnitaaie~s


GRADE V
Theme: Improving Life in Differunt Regions of f. .."


Individual and group activitie- r-lated to growth in meeting self needs (food production, purchase. preparation, serving, entiii:; ipt'
against disease; safety hahit-. Iii:rensed physical control; remedy of defects, etc.-(See Part A, Section I, Outcomes Uhlin I
Individual and group activities r-lited to growth in attitudes and adjustment Isharing and contributing to family living anii lime r
boy-girl groups; cooperatinL iii larme group projr-cts in school or community : greater understanding of and partlclpatlibn n II a~
Outcomes Chart).
Individual and group activities r.litpid rto growth in interests (development of taste for broad reading, wider use of newsapeis, malii).
local cuommuity ; vider part ipation in civic life of community ; responsibility for participating in clubs and In religious mtin thiiit
use of instrument andi equii-mnt common tio coilimunlity.-.(See Part C. Section I. anid also Section III, Outcomea OChrti.


Living in the local communits-now and formerly (discovery I.iviag in the local community and state as related to) living
of type as to geographic, hist..i ienl. and economic background i. the Southeast and Atlantic seanunrd region (ni.lilr Hinm'
and now),
Living in nearby communities 4f similar or different type-now
and formerly.
Living in Florida communities v.iril-d in type-now and formerly.
Comrmunities dependent on .i.rirulture.
Communities dependent on ...tler natural resources.
Communities with rapid itnlustrial growth.
Communities of special hi-torical interest.
Communities closely related ti living in other Americas.
Communities rendering sla-cial governmental or personal
service.


Living in typical sections in the Southeast and along the At-
lantic seaboard.
Community living in early colonies mainly dependent on
agriculture.
Community living in early colonies dependent on trade and
commerce In addition to agriculture.
Communities related hist,-rically to pioneer living in Floridu.




Some information related to living in other types of com-
munities or regions (to show similarities or differences
In comparison with living In Florida and Eastern sea-
board).
Communities having similar or different types of natural and
human resources (people, soil, climate, etc.).
Communities in varying stages of economic and cultural de-
velopment (primitive-modern; rural-urban).


Meeting group and national needs through organized living
U. S. regions.
Living In the Atlantic Seaboard region (colonial times ni
present).
I.iving in tlhe Cientral IReglii tperild if i.xpan-lon u
present ).
Living in the Old and New South.
Living in the Far Wetst urlier time, naii irni-ent).


Meeting group and national needs thri.uglh c.',peratton w
nearby regions and possess.i'ns.
Our relationships with the pos.el,,nn.s uinl iprotectorates
the U. S.
Our relationships with Cnnada.
Our relationships with the other Amrknas
Information relating to present-day events of world-wide
portance (news, radio, motion pliturei


I I I









THE TOTAL SOCIAL STUDIES PROGRAM


ment-with events in the state, the nation or world. Primary
teachers should place the most of their emphasis upon the immediate
environment but many incidental happenings can be used to ad-
vantage during first, second, or third grades in building necessary
readiness for dealing with the expanding environment in the inter-
mediate grades. Furthermore, the young child has certain very
eal and perplexing problems concerned with the world beyond his
ahoolroom or home and his questions concerning these things should
.ot be ignored.
On the other hand, teachers in the fourth, fifth and sixth grades
frequently fail to realize that the child is still living in the immediate
environment at the very time he is studying about places and things
more remote. The school, home, neighborhood, and community have
ceased to be, in a sense, the content of the social studies program.
However, as is indicated in the Content Chart, the activities and
other types of experiences which the child continues to have in
immediate environment are of great importance to him and to his
training for democratic citizenship. Therefore, teachers in these
grades should study very carefully the references made to the Out-
comes Chart which describes in full the growth thought desirable
for pupils of the upper elementary grades with respect to meeting
self-needs, to the development of attitudes and to the expansion of
interests.
The continuity and gradual broadening of content from grade
to grade can be noted through a careful examination of Chart Two.
Teachers in the first three grades often have been confused as to
the placement and use of content. For example, each of the first
three grades has, in the past, dealt with some phase of work and
workers common to the home, school, neighborhood and community.
A careful reading of the content chart will show that some attempt
has been made to point to a shift in emphasis as work and workers
are discussed at successive grade levels. The phrase used in first
grade is "Persons frequently rendering service to home and school
-incidental acquaintance (milkman, groceryman, mailman)". In
the second grade the following description is given: "Variety of
workers contributing to home, school, and neighborhood living (post-
man, repairman, fireman, policeman, patrolman, groceryman, dairy-
man, farmer, truck driver) ". At the third grade level is found








28 SOCIAL STUDIES IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

the expression "Types of work done locally (building, farming,
storekeeping, etc.) "
It can be seen that the groceryman may play an incidental part
in first grade as the children dramatize a playhouse scene in which
the grocer appears bringing supplies. At the second grade level the
children go more extensively into the work of the grocer as they
set up a play store of their own and operate it. At the third grade
level the children see the groceryman as a type of worker conducting
a special sort of business and come to understand that storekeeping
is only one of the ways of making a living in the local community
today or in earlier times.
Primary teachers should discuss together other distinctions they
wish to make in dealing with the content of the first three grades
so that needless repetition will not occur and so that desirable con-
tinuity may be insured. One of the most difficult problems for
teachers in these grades is that of selecting wisely the titles for units.
Transportation is a title frequently used. In many cases the children
are expected to cover the entire field of transportation in their first
experience. As a result, teachers of succeeding grades find pupils
uninterested or with a feeling that they have covered the work
before. The Content Chart shows plainly that transportation is a
phase of living at every level.

The trouble is the topic has not been sufficiently delimited. In
the first grade the pupils may deal with the topic "How we go places''.
This would include traveling in the family car, riding the school
bus, or taking occasional trips using other facilities. In the second
grade, the topic might be broadened to include "Facilities used in
the neighborhood for Transporting, Traveling or Communicating".
Some attention might be given here not only to the school bus or
family car but also to trucks, trains, bicycles, planes, and a variety
of other instruments of transportation. At the third grade level
the pupils might consider not only instruments of transportation,
travel, and communication, but also such machines as tractors, plows,
road building apparatus, and the like. Transportation in Florida,
in typical regions of U. S. and in world regions would receive
ample treatment during the intermediate grades. If teachers will
refer to Section II of the Outcomes Chart they will receive much








THE TOTAL SOCIAL STUDIES PROGRAM


help in making distinctions regarding use of material for different
purposes.
The way in which the content of one grade leads into the content
of the next can be seen by referring to the chart. For example, the
third grade deals definitely with the building of the "community
idea" on a local basis. The first topic listed for fourth grade makes
provision for review-" Living in the local community-now and
then". It should be noted, however, that this is not merely review
in the narrow sense of the term. The material in the parenthesis
following the topic states clearly that the teacher is to review the
former material with the purpose of bringing out the idea of type.
This is necessary because the pupil is about to enter upon a study
of typical communities or sections of Florida classified as to geo-
graphical, historical, or economic background.
Comparisons with typical communities outside Florida will also
be made with a view to broadening the pupil's information and under-
standing of type. A similar connection is made between the fourth
and fifth grade work where a review of living in the local community
and state, as related to life in the Southeast and along the Atlantic
seaboard sets the stage for a study of large regions within the United
States. At the sixth grade level provision is made for orientating
the pupil to the relationship existing between his own state, region,
and nation, and world-wide living. Previously, at fifth grade level the
content chart recommends some attention to world wide events and
problems as regional living in the United States is explored. Unless
the sixth grade pupil does have opportunity for orientation of the
kind described, his study of group living on. a world-wide basis
will lose much of its value and meaning.

STATING PERSISTENT PROBLEMS
It is important that teachers have in mind problems which are
of significance both to the further development of the child and to
the welfare of society. Among the many characteristics of skillful
teaching may be listed the ability to handle questions and problems
in a skillful way whether these arise through teacher initiative, pupil
initiative, or both. Good teaching always involves problem solving.
To assist teachers in selecting major problems of importance and in
extending the major problems into minor problems or sub-problems,








30 SOCIAL STUDIES IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

Chart Three has been prepared. It is recognized that in their written
form these problems are, as yet, not problems ror an individual child
or for a particular group. The teacher should use them only as a
general guide and feel responsibility for rewording and rearranging
them in terms of the local situation. The best questions of all come
from the children themselves, but unless the teacher is skillful in
relating the seemingly unimportant child-question to a larger and
more significant one, little progress will result.

Explanation of Problems Chart
By reading across the chart horizontally and noting the major
problems, it is clear that certain basic relationships are stressed at
every grade level. Some of the basic ideas which the questions
seek to develop are these: (1) Ways in which man has worked with
others in meeting individual or group needs (2) Ways in which dif-
ferent communities, regions, or nations have developed through the
interaction of human and natural resources (3) Changes in living
brought about through the relationship of machines and human
and natural resources (4) Ways in which people living in different
places have developed various ways of earning a living and various
ways of expressing themselves through their cultural products (5)
Factors which make necessary democratic cooperation on a broader
scale.
A careful reading of the minor problems will likewise reveal a
persistent attack on certain basic problems faced by the individual
and society. For example, the matter of individual and group needs
is stressed throughout every grade. In the first and second grades
the child is interested in meeting his own personal needs, in finding
out where he can get certain services or information that he desires.
In the third and fourth grades there is much stress upon the needs
of other people who are living in the community or state at present
and those who have lived in these places during earlier days.
Food, shelter, and clothing for the individual and for the family
are touched upon again at fifth and sixth grade levels. The question
suggested as a minor problem under the first major problem listed
for Grade V illustrates the point: "What individual or group needs
do we have today that cannot be met entirely by our own local
community? the state?" While the teacher would not use the









THE TOTAL SOCIAL STUDIES PROGRAM


question directly as stated with a particular class, she can profit
from the suggestion that a good way to begin the study of regions
in the United States is to sensitize the pupils to lacks or needs which
local effort cannot supply. At the sixth grade level the question
is broadened somewhat and is given in a slightly different form:
"What basic needs do all people have?" As the child considers
present day necessities such as food, shelter, clothing, heating, light,
modes of travel, or medical care, he can be guided toward a com-
parison of life "necessities" as we interpret the word today with
hare "necessities" available to early man and to the common
peo, living within many nations of modern Europe.

It is not intended that teachers use the problems exactly as given
as an organization for the year's work. The order of listing has no
particular importance. For example, in dealing with regional living
in the United States at the fifth grade level it is necessary to use
the major and minor questions again and again as living in different
regions is explored by the pupils. The questions, therefore, serve
as a means of analyzing the content so that the important learning
outcomes may be achieved. The questions listed in Chart Three
differ greatly from the type of question which calls for specific
knowledge regarding names of men, dates, places, and isolated events.
Such questions as these will illustrate the point: "'' How has machinery
and better means of travel changed the chances of making a living
in some communities? Why was local government needed in each
new region? How has man improved his cultivation and use of
soil? How have the complexities of modern times increased the
need for cooperative living?'

By reviewing hastily the problem suggested for -the preceding
grade a teacher can get some general impression of how far the
group should have come in its understanding or thinking. Of course
individual pupils will exhibit a wide range of ability to deal with such
problems. If the group as a whole, however, does not exhibit a fair
understanding with regard to these or similar questions the teacher
must discover the approximate level of their development and begin
at that point. The problems may be used, therefore, as a means of
evaluating the growth in social information which has taken place
or is taking place during any given period of time. Test questions
prepared by the teacher should give opportunity for the pupil to








32 SOCIAL STUDIES IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

express himself in such a way as to show his sense of relationships as
well as his ability to deal with a wide range of isolated facts.

ORGANIZING AND DEVELOPING THE CONTENT
WITHIN GRADES
An understanding of the three charts presented in this chapter
is essential to adequate planning of the work in social studies within
any particular grade. Each elementary teacher must assume respon-
sibility for taking the general suggestions contained in the charts
dealing with outcomes, content and problems and revising them in
accordance with the needs of the specific group with which she
must deal. Certain steps are necessary in making proper adaptations
in terms of community background and pupil need which are com-
mon to all grade levels. The paragraphs which follow will, there-
fore, describe in a general way the steps which the teacher should
follow in organizing the work for a particular grade.

STEP ONE-Preliminary Planning
The first step in planning work for a particular grade is that
of checking on outcomes formerly achieved by the group and by
individuals within the group. The outcomes chart will prove very
helpful at this point. It should be emphasized, however, that growth
is irregular and that different groups and individuals will exhibit
a wide range of ability with respect to social behavior, social in-
formation and necessary techniques and skill. At the beginning of
each year of work it is well to take at least two or three weeks to
summarize former learning, to bring out interests and needs of
the group and to plan with the pupils a general overview of the
work for the present year. The major and minor problems suggested
in Chart Three reveal something of the probable understandings
stressed in the preceding grade and also give suggestions as to leads
which might be developed during the current year.

A great deal of valuable information and a number of interesting
problems may evolve in the course of the period devoted to informal
discussion and planning. If the teacher does not feel that the in-
formal discussion is leading toward important outcomes or toward
the discovery of significant leads, 't is her obligation to make definite
proposals or guide the group through pointed questions toward









THE TOTAL SOCIAL STUDIES PROGRAM 33

the discovery of suitable topics or problems suited to the age and
maturity of the group.
Recent events and the local environment will supply many inter-
esting leads. A new defense center, a new airfield, oil appearing
along the beach, news reports, the rationing programs, changes in the
type of summer vacation, relatives leaving for war service, shortage
of farm help, inability to purchase certain items in stores, refugee
children in the neighborhood-these and many other current hap-
penings may be used as points of departure, particularly in the inter-
mediate grades. With younger children certain problems connected
with home, school and community living will be appropriate. Again,
the problems chart will provide many suggestions to the teacher. The
order in which the group attacks the many problems suggested will,
however, depend upon pupil interest and local community needs.

STEP TWO-Securing a Plan of Organization
After the teacher has explored the general outcomes, content
and problems for her grade and has secured the necessary informa-
tion concerning the local community background, pupil interest and
need she is ready to make a rough plan of the work for the year.
She may wish to follow the general sequence suggested in the text-
book or the general outline of content suggested in the Content Chart
provided in this chapter. If she and the pupils are accustomed to
planning in terms of units, topics, or large problems a flexible
framework for the year may be evolved through group discussion.
Two extremes are to be avoided: first, having a set outline from
which the teacher is unwilling to vary regardless of current happen-
ings or the needs of the group; second, planning only in terms of
short three to six week units which are totally unrelated to one
another. The important thing is to establish in the mind of the
pupils an over-all purpose for the work of the entire year, to
determine upon the first major topic, problem or unit for exploration
and to proceed with its development. As the pupils move from the
study of one sub-topic or problem to the next, continuity should be
preserved.
Some teachers prefer to begin with organized content (subject
matter topics) and develop this content through carefully selected
questions or problems. Others prefer to begin with a pupil problem








34 SOCIAL STUDIES IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

(large or small) and work toward a solution of the problem through
use of proper content. Unit teaching has usually followed the latter
plan, at least in theory. In practice, however, most of the so-called
units developed by teachers have been more closely related to the
former approach.

Regardless of the approach, pupils must use content of some
sort. Thinking does not take place in a vacuum. The content, how-
ever, should always be related to vital problems, problems of im-
portance to society as well as to the individual. Unless this is done,
many learning outcomes such as those suggested in Chart One will
not be achieved. Pupil questions are always important, but under
wise teacher guidance they become deepened and made far more
significant than they were in the form originally stated.

In selecting an organization for use with a particular group the
teacher should choose a plan best suited to her own ability and that
of the pupils. In any case, there will be little excuse for using the
page-by-page type of assignment. Good teaching and learning is
always related to good problem solving. If the teacher can improve
problem-solving and secure a greater degree of pupil purpose through
rearrangement of plans at any time during the year, a considerable
amount of change can be justified.

An extended discussion on unit teaching has been given in Cur-
riculum Bulletin Number Two, a copy of which has been made avail-
able to the elementary teachers of the state without cost. Teachers
of the upper elementary grades will receive much help with respect
to the procedures for developing a unit based on social studies by
referring to Chapter XI of another basic curriculum bulletin entitled
A Guide to Improved Practice in Florida Elementary Schools.
While it is desirable that teachers use the unit organization, two
points should be carefully guarded: first, duplication of content;
second, lack of continuity in units. If the teacher will use the grade
theme as the over-all statement of purpose so far as content is con-
cerned and will arrange sub-units and topics in keeping with the local
background and interests of pupils, both the blind following of text-
books and unplanned disconnected units may be avoided. In
schools where considerable deviation from previous planning is per-
mitted or encouraged, it is important that careful curriculum records








THE TOTAL SOCIAL STUDIES PROGRAM


be kept and that teachers acquaint themselves thoroughly with the
previous work carried out by individuals and by the group.

STEP THREE-Putting the Organization Into Effect
In the preceding step, the teacher has made a general yet flexible
plan of organization for the entire year. She has also determined
with varying degrees of pupil participation, the first large point
or topic to be emphasized within the scope of the work for the entire
year. It is at this point that she faces the responsibility for or-
ganizing the group to carry out the work decided upon. It will be
wise for her to spend a considerable amount of time in assisting
the pupils define and state clearly what they wish to find out about
the topic or problem taken for study. Definite responsibilities should
be agreed upon; definite activities should be planned; definite sources
of information should be located. Indeed, the teacher has a respon-
sibility for checking upon the availability of materials and for de-
termining the suitability of the topic for a given age group before
proceeding too far in the exploratory stage.
Regardless of the form of organization, the teacher and pupils
will need a wide variety of sources of information. Content and sub-
ject matter must be thought of as involving much more than the
basic textbook material. Direct observation, field trips, conversation
with people, exhibits, local articles of historical interest, specimens,
construction work, other state texts, and similar types of activity and
material should be used. It is important that the pupils receive
guidance in locating additional material and in selecting activities
directly related to the solution of a problem. Teachers should exer-
cise care, particularly at first, in seeing to it that pupils contact
materials suitable to their age and maturity. Indiscriminate use of
a wide variety of sources of information will not achieve desired
outcomes. The guidance which the pupils will need in locating and
using materials will vary greatly from one group to another or from
one individual to another. Teacher guidance should, therefore, be
flexible both as to extent and degree.
It is well near the close of each period and at the close of each
larger phase of the work to provide for summarizing activities. This
applies both to topics or units explored during the year and to work
of the year taken as a whole. The activities involved in each case








36 SOCIAL STUDIES IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

should be planned definitely in the light of individual and group
needs as the teacher discovers these in the course of organization and
development.

STEP FOUR-Planning for Evaluation and Re-Teaching
During the time when the pupils are working out the solution
to the major problem and to the many minor problems connected
with it, the teacher should take time at appropriate points for
evaluation and re-teaching. Each day the pupils should be given
the opportunity to check on their findings and to relate the work
they have done to the larger goals which they are seeking. In these
periods the teacher can discover weaknesses in the plan originally
formulated by herself and the group. Interesting new leads will
probably develop. Certain definite lacks with regard to information
or skills may become evident.

It is at this point that direct teaching may prove extremely val-
uable. The pupils may exhibit a need for practice in some of the
skills necessary for proper organization and interpretation of the
material they have found. In addition, they may show that they do
not fully understand some of the main ideas or concepts which the
material seeks to bring out. They may even express a desire to
study certain content more thoroughly under teacher guidance, or the
teacher may discover this need through giving check-up tests designed
to discover the extent to which pupils have a grasp on the facts
involved in a proper solution of the problem being explored. Again,
the general outcomes suggested for the particular grade may be
helpful in making an adequate evaluation -of progress. These out-
comes will be of even greater importance if the teacher and pupils
have, together, stated clearly the outcomes they seek. This means
that the general outcomes suggested in Chart Three should be par-
ticularized for the special topic, unit or problem under discussion
at the time.

It is important to check on individual growth as well as on total
group progress. The former is helpful in meeting individual needs
while the latter will give assistance to both the teacher and the pupils
in planning next steps in the work to be done. Neither should be
neglected. Group thinking and group action as well as individual








THE TOTAL SOCIAL STUDIES PROGRAM 37

thinking and action are essential to the preservation of a true
democracy.

DISCOVERING .GENERAL SOURCE MATERIALS AND ACTIVITIES
APPROPRIATE FOR VARIOUS GRADES
This problem is one in which most teachers are vitally interested.
It is not the purpose of this bulletin to list a large number of activities,
but such lists are available in recent professional literature and in
specific courses of study developed by city and county school
systems, copies of which may be obtained by a local faculty or county
school systems at small cost. The teacher needs to choose her activities
in terms of local background and pupil interest; it is therefore of
doubtful value to list a large number of these which can be used
in a manner similar to that in which articles are taken from a grab
bag.
Activities should always be subordinated to a' central purpose;
teachers should not use activities merely for their own sake. A good
description of the many types of activities involved in the develop-
ment of a large unit of social studies which extended over an entire
school year is given on pages 282-283 of Bulletin Nine, A Guide To
Improved Practice in Florida Elementary Schools. A full discus-
sion of activities as they are related to unit teaching may be found in
Chapter IX of Bulletin Two, Ways to Better Instruction in Florida
Schools.
There are certain general sources to which teachers can go in
locating materials for use with particular grades. The most common
source is that found in the state adopted textbooks. Teachers should
secure a copy of the bulletin entitled "Free State Adopted Textbooks
for Florida Schools".6 This bulletin of very recent issue contains
a complete list of all textbooks available for use in elementary grades,
those in current adoption and those out of adoption but still available
in local schools. The field of social studies has been particularly
well provided for in recent adoptions. In some grades it is possible
to use one book on the adopted list as the major source of material
and to use other books listed as supplementary aids. The textbook
bulletin explains in detail how this may be achieved.

6Forida School Bulletin, Volume IV, No. 9, State Department of Edu-
cation, (Tallahassee: May, 1942).








38 SOCIAL STUDIES IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

Another source available to all teachers is the State Adopted
Library Book list for Florida Schools.7 This list contains about
fifteen hundred titles of books which should be made items of first
purchase when funds become available either through the state text-
book appropriations or through local initiative. This bulletin con-
tains an index which is very helpful in locating books dealing with
a particular topic.
In addition to the free textbook list and library list, teachers
should investigate other titles which are frequently given in the
bibliographies for pupil use at the ends of chapters in the state
adopted books. Frequently there are several other textbooks dealing
with a particular field or topic which contain valuable information.
Textbooks vary with respect to the space which they give to certain
topics and also in the method of treatment of material. At least
three or four additional textbooks could be made available in each
of the intermediate grades without involving great costs.
Recently there has been prepared a topical index to all materials
supplied on the Free State Adopted List. Many stories or articles
contained in supplementary readers, in science books, in safety
education readers and in other fields can be used to good advantage
in the teaching of social studies. Each elementary faculty in Florida
should have at its disposed at least one copy of this index which may
be secured for a nominal sum.8
To keep abreast of modern events it would be highly desirable
to have available in every elementary classroom a daily newspaper.
In schools located where broadcasts are easily heard a small inex-
pensive radio set should be provided. Pupils should be encouraged
to subscribe regularly to some current news weekly written especially
for children of their own age level. Suggestions have been made else-
where in this bulletin regarding the way in which materials of cur-
rent interest may be related to basic understandings developed in
the total social studies program.



7State Adopted Library Books for Florida Schools, Bulletin No. 27, State
Department of Education (Tallahassee: 1942).
SA Topical Index of Literature available in State Adopted Texts for
Grades 2 through 6, Mimeographed and furnished to Schools at cost by the
Curriculum Laboratory, Gainesville, Florida.









PROPOSED OUTLINE FOR DEVELOPMENT OF
CHAPTERS FOR TEACHING SPECIFIC GRADES

In the concluding portion of this bulletin it is proposed that
from ten to fiteen pages of material be prepared on the teaching
of Social Studies at each grade level. The outline proposed for
developing these additional chapters is given below:

OUTLINE
I. Relating the Work of the grade to General Objectives
II. Using the Major Outcomes given in Chart One for the grade.
III. Using the Content suggested in Chart Two for the grade
IV. Using the Persistent Problems suggested in Chart Three for
the grade
(Note: The above sections would be rather brief and di-
rected toward helping the teacher at the grade level)
V. Organizing and developing the work for the grade
1. Preliminary planning
Checking on former outcomes
Noting present needs and interests of the group
Checking local environment and recent events for
"'leads "
Thinking of general plans as related to particular
individual or group
2. Securing a plan of organization
Suggestions for planning units with aid of text-
book
Suggestions for planning flexible units
3. Plans for putting the organization into effect (pro-
cedures)
Setting up problems and goals
Determining suitable activities and experiences
Discovering, securing and using varied sources of
information bearing on the problem, topic, or
unit
4. Plans for evaluation and re-teaching
5. Working out problems requiring use of learning
obtained in other subjects
VI. Source materials for teachers and pupils







IJNIVER3iT OF FLORIDA


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