Title Page
 Table of Contents
 The use of these materials
 The home and family
 Advanced elective course in home...
 Back Matter

Group Title: Florida. State dept. of education. Florida program for improvement of schools Bulletin
Title: A Wartime program in home economics education
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00096237/00001
 Material Information
Title: A Wartime program in home economics education a guide for home economics teachers in Florida high schools
Physical Description: xvi, 156 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Barclay, Marion S ( Marion Stearns )
Walters, Catherine Foy, 1907- ( joint author )
Donor: unknown ( endowment )
Publisher: Florida Department of Education
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date: September, 1943
Subject: Home economics -- Study and teaching   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: (A supplement to home economics course of study for Florida high schools) Prepared by Marion Stearns Barclay and Catherine Foy Walters. Boletha Frojen, supervisor, home economics education.
Bibliography: Includes "References."
System Details: Master and use digital copies. Technical details on the digital scanning are available at http://dds.crl.edu/technical_information.asp?tid=9051
Bibliography: Florida Department of Education Bulletin no. 45
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00096237
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 425962945
lccn - e 44000001

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
    The use of these materials
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
    The home and family
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
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    Advanced elective course in home and family living
        Page 67
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    Back Matter
        Page 157
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Full Text

A Wartime Program in

Home Economics Education

A Guide for Home Economics Teachers
in Florida High Schools

(A Supplement to Home Economics Course of Study
For Florida High Schools)


Prepared by

BOLETHA FROJEN, Supervisor, Home Economics Education
REX TODD WITHERS, Itinerant Teacher-Trainer,
Home Economics Education


Table of Contents
F O R E W O R D ....................................................................... .......................... ........... ..
IN TR OD U C T IO N ................................................................................. ............................. v ii
THE USE OF THESE MATERIALS .................. .... ...................... xi
S C H O O L ........................................................................................ ........................ x iii

S u m m ary of P problem s .................... .................................................. ................. 3
Area I. Meeting My Homemaking Needs............................................. 5
Area II. Improving Our Surroundings .................. .......... 11
Area III. Providing Food for Health and Fitness .................. 21
Area IV. Living with My Family and Others .............................. 32
Area V. Meeting My Clothing Problems in Wartime ............ 47
Area VI. Taking Stock of Our Accomplishments and
P lann in g F utu re W ork ........................................................................... 56

Introduction to Advanced Problems .............................................. 69
Summary of Problems ............................................................. 72
An Advanced Course in Child Care ..................... ...... ............. 75
An Advanced Course in Home Nursing ............................................ 93
An Advanced Course in Foods and Nutrition .................................... 97
An Advanced Course in Textiles and Clothing .............................. 109
Foundations for Modern Living: A Course in Personal
P rob lem s ................................ ............. ..................................................... .... 1 2 3
Group Feeding or Quantity Food Preparation and
S erv ice ........................... ................................................................................. 1 4 0

B ib lio g ra p h y ...................... ........................................................ ................................ 1 5 2


This bulletin has been prepared in tentative form to sup-
plement the Home Economics Course of Study for Florida
High Schools and to implement it for wartime teaching.
Preliminary plans for the bulletin were made through ques-
tionnaires sent to home economics teachers in the state. Their
replies formed the basis for the conferences and committee
work which preceded the actual writing of the curriculum ma-
The bulletin was prepared by Marion S. Barclay, Instruct-
or in Home Economics Education, P. K. Yonge Laboratory
School, University of Florida, and Catherine F. Walters, Home
Economics teacher, Sarasota High School, under the direction
of Boletha Frojen, State Supervisor of Home Economics Edu-
cation, State Department of Education.
Consultant service was given by Rex Todd Withers, State
Itinerant Teacher-Trainer, and W. T. Edwards, Acting Di-
rector of Instruction, of the State Department of Education;
Margaret R. Sandels, Dean of the School of Home Economics,
Ruth Connor, professor of Home Economics Education, Nina
Mae Williams, Assistant Professor of Home Economics Edu-
cation, Letitia Walsh, Visiting Professor of Home Economics
Education, Florida State College for Women; a group of
home economics teachers attending Florida State College for
Women for summer study; and State Extension specialists in
Home Demonstration work, Florida State College for Women.
Persons consulted in their respective special fields of educa-
tion were Muriel W. Brown, Consultant in Family Life Educa-
tion, Home Economics Education Service, United States Office
of Education; Fannie B. Shaw, Professor of Physical Education
and Hygiene, Florida State College for Women; Ruth Met-
tinger, Director, Bureau of Nursing, Cleo McLaughlin, Nurse
Consultant, Tuberculosis Control, Bureau of Maternal and Child
Health, and Louise Kincaid, Nurse Consultant, State Board
of Health; Dora S.ipll-j'er, State Director of Extended School
Services, Thelma Flanagan, State Supervisor of the School

Lunch Program, and J. Franklin Williams Jr., State Super-
visor Agricultural Education, State Department of Education.
It may be feasible to hold conferences for home economics
teachers to interpret and to discuss the use of the bulletin dur-
ing the year 1943-44. More definite announcements will be
made at a later date.

State Superintendent


War has brought about changes in many homes and com-
munities. The teacher of homemaking has a great challenge
and a great responsibility to plan and to provide learning ex-
periences for high school youth. Such learning experiences
should help youth to gain an understanding, a point of view
and some skills and abilities to meet better his problems caused
by changing social and economic conditions, and to make his
best contribution to his family and to the community. There are
certain basic and fundamental values in homemaking that do
not change. It is, therefore, also important that youth recog-
nize this fact and that he be prepared to maintain those values.
This guide has been prepared to assist the home economics
teacher to meet her responsibility a little more easily and to
guide her in planning a program that will meet the most perti-
nent needs in her community. This curriculum is for wartime
and has intentionally been made flexible to allow for freedom
of choice in the elective offerings.
Conservative figures show that 80 to 85 percent of
the women marry and become responsible for the man-
agement of homes. For this group homemaking is a
major responsibility involving the development and main-
tenance of satisfying home life. Education for home-
making should enable her to discharge her responsibility
more effectively, more skillfully, and with more ease
and poise.
Some women go into wage-earning pursuits tempo-
rarily between school and marriage; and others for
periods of time or permanently after marriage. For
these groups homemaking is a minor responsibility in
their dual vocation for which education in homemaking
should enable them to discharge their homemaking respon-
sibilities more effectively.1
Experiences in the broad areas of homemaking are pro-
vided in the basic course, The Home and Family, offered in
the first year of the high school program.
1 Florida State Plan for Vocational Education.

An increasing effort is made in the daily guidance of
the experiences of young people to help them to grow
in ways that are socially significant to them. This
means the conscious helping of young people to move
toward social maturity with regard to (1) himself,
(2) his family, (3) individual friends, (4) groups,
(5) the opposite sex, (6) society.'
Experiences that are progressively more advanced for more
mature pupils are provided in the many aspects of homemak-
ing which can be elected during the second, third, or fourth
year in high school. Individuals should elect the aspects of
homemaking in which they are most interested, which meet
their greatest need, and for which society needs their immedi-
ate services.
The home background of experiences and the varying apti-
tudes of pupils will help to determine choices for election of
advanced courses. The teacher and the parents should give
guidance in the choices made. It is conceivable that in many
schools a more comprehensive course of as many as four as-
pects or areas in more advanced experiences beyond the basic
course may be provided for a more balanced program for the
youth in that community.
In each of the aspects of homemaking which constitute ad-
vanced courses beyond the basic course, experiences in many
phases related to that area of homemaking become learning
experiences. These learning are gained concomitantly with
the managerial and manipulative skill peculiar to that aspect
of homemaking.
War has brought on a greater need for learning to "do".
Skill in management, and precision and accuracy in the manip-
ulative skills is required. Therefore, it is necessary to offer
many and progressively difficult experiences which require a
longer period of consecutive time to allow for development of
skill in each of the aspects of homemaking. However, to allow
for additional and more advanced experiences in more than one
aspect of home economics beyond the first year, it is recom-
mended that at least two of the most essential aspects of home
economics (essential for the majority of the group) be offered


in the second year of home economics that will round out the
most balanced program for the majority in the group.
In schools where the individual problem method of teach-
ing is used, and in resident cottages where all phases of home-
making are engaged in daily, the teacher needs to guide pupils
so they too conclude their in-school training with a well-rounded
program of homemaking.
The areas chosen should include sufficient experiences in
managerial and manipulative skills so that each pupil becomes
more competent in these aspects of homemaking in which he
was least capable before. Periodic testing at frequent inter-
vals would indicate the progress made.
Good personal relationship and wise choice making should
be an integral part of every area in a home and family life
education program.

The Use of These Materials

This bulletin has been developed in tentative form as a
guide for the adaptation of home economics to meet wartime
conditions. Teachers should use it as a supplement to the
Home Economics Course of Study for Florida High Schools.
Since the Course of Study is out of print and will not be re-
printed at present, teachers who are unable to secure a copy
may base their plans on this teaching guide if its limitations
are recognized. Reference also should be made to the problems
suggested in Everyday Living, a publication of the State De-
partment of Education, so that experiences will be progres-
sively advanced for those who have already gained concepts and
experiences in the 7th and 8th grades.
The areas in the bulletin into which Home Economics I,
The Home and Family, has been divided, have been chosen be-
cause of their relationship to areas already existing in the
Course of Study. They have been given new emphases in view
of the wartime needs and interests of Florida pupils.
Each area contains an overview in which suggestions for
experiences have been made. The teacher should read each
overview carefully in order to acquaint herself -with the
point of view expressed and to secure help in her own plan-
Each area then suggests many problems whose solutions
would result in pupil growth in some of the attitudes, under-
standings, appreciations, abilities, and skills desirable for suc-
cessful homemaking. The problems are those with which young
people have personal concern. Other problems may suggest
themselves to the teacher and should be substituted if they
seem better suited to the needs and interests of her pupils.
The activities which have been suggested in each area should
be studied carefully by the teacher. No attempt need be made
to use all of them or to use them in the order in which they
are placed. If activities other than those stated are better
suited to the needs of pupils in a local situation and are of
equal value in furthering the solution of pertinent problems,

the teacher should feel free to encourage their use. The ac-
tivities suggested are illustrative of the types of experiences
usually considered helpful and profitable.
References are placed at the conclusion of each area. While
the list is not exhaustive, an effort has been made to include
valuable new books and bulletins. In planning her year's work
the teacher should check up on her file of reference materials
at an early date and add such items as she needs. Her school
library will contain some reference books and will add others
at her request. Many bulletins and pamphlets are free, others
are inexpensive. Because of the rapid changes in techniques
and subject matter necessitated by adjustments to wartime liv-
ing, references in the field of home economics should be kept
Evaluation of the program should be continuous. The
teacher needs to be on the alert for evidences of changed prac-
tices and behavior in her pupils, and for evidences of the
carry-over of school experiences into their homes. If the evi-
dence does not reveal desirable changes and carry-over she
should make such adaptations and adjustments in instruction
as will produce the desired effect.
The quality of alertness is an asset valuable to a teacher of
home economics especially in a wartime program. She needs
to have up-to-the-minute knowledge of her subject and of its
implications for her community. She needs to become informed
of developments in the state and nation which affect what she
teaches and how she teaches it. The new school lunch pro-
gram and the program of extended school services for children
are examples of such developments. Current problems such
as inflation also affect home and family living, and should be
considered. Because general education has been criticized fre-
quently for failing to be practical and for failing to meet the
needs of individuals, the teacher should be alert to every oppor-
tunity for extending homemaking education in her community.
She should feel an obligation for making her knowledge and
skill available as widely as possible. The new bulletin, Home-
making Education for Adults and Out of School Youth, a pub-
lication of the Florida State Department of Education, will give
help in suggesting ways to reach other groups in the com-

The teacher needs to develop to a superlative degree her
own skills in manipulative or "doing" activities. If her pupils
are to learn to make gardens, to can, to care for young children,
to darn and mend, to refinish furniture, or to remodel gar-
ments, the teacher herself must first know how to do these
things well. If she wishes help she can secure it through care-
ful reading of reference materials and from individuals in her
community who are highly specialized in these aspects of home-
making. New short cuts, and time-saving procedures and
techniques are developing constantly. The teacher should be
aware of them and should be prepared to evaluate their use
by pupils.
For effective teaching, early planning of the year's work
is essential. Such planning facilitates the obtaining of refer-
ence materials and the establishment of contacts with faculty
and community members who may assist the program. The
teacher needs the cooperation of the other faculty members in
her school if her work is to fit into the total educational pro-
gram. By presenting her year's plans at an early faculty meet-
ing she should receive many good suggestions and much coop-
eration. Total faculty planning is necessary for progress in
the development of desirable pupil behavior and in the solution
of many individual problems.
The criticism has been made of home economics that much
of the work is a repetition of previous work. In order that
this criticism be avoided the teacher should plan her advanced
work carefully and be sure that the experiences suggested are
progressively more difficult, and require more leadership and
managerial ability than do those in the basic course. A careful
study of the previous experiences of her pupils and an analysis
of their abilities will help to accomplish her plans.

The teacher of home economics and the teacher in the ele-
mentary school have many common problems. Both are con-
cerned with equipping and training children to live in their
homes and communities. The elementary teacher, often with
little or no formal preparation in home economics, and using

only her own past experiences as a guide has provided for
home living experiences very adequately.
In a world of war, however, children at the elementary level
are in need of new and more specialized guidance than has
been supplied in many instances. The responsibilities assumed
by individuals in families and communities have been changed
greatly, and children are being called upon to perform many
new and more adult services. The older boys and girls are
caring for younger children, often under "swing shift" condi-
tions. They are buying family food, counting ration points,
and choosing substitutes for foods not available. They are
keeping house for mothers who, iA turn, are becoming wage
earners. These conditions are recognized as being far from
desirable and, where possible, community action should be
taken to alleviate them, but while they exist the school has the
responsibility for giving the children some guidance in solving
their home problems. This guidance becomes a joint respon-
sibility of the. elementary teacher and the home economics
teacher in a community.
Another responsibility which must be shared is the school
lunch program which is now administered by the State De-
partment of Education. This program will function more
completely if receptive attitudes are built up in schools, and if
pupils are given opportunities for experiences in choosing
adequate meals.
The teacher of home economics has a responsibility for giv-
ing consultant service in the elementary school when requested
to do so. She should be concerned with school projects involv-
ing food and nutrition, clothing, home care and sanitation,
child care, and consumer buying. She can give valuable guid-
ance in problems of food service, school hygiene, personal care,
recreation, and home-school relationships. Because her own
work takes her so frequently into the homes in the community
she can be helpful in interpreting the home and school to each
other. Her knowledge of textiles, design, home furnishing, and
home care make her services valuable when an elementary class
wishes to make a school room more attractive, since she can
suggest housekeeping procedures and additional inexpensive
The pupils in home economics classes can assist elementary

teachers in many ways. They can help develop desirable atti-
tudes toward the school lunchroom; they can help the young
children select and eat the food prepared for them in the school;
they can assist the first grade or kindergarten teacher in serving
the midmorning lunch; and they can serve suitable foods to
groups of elementary children in the home economics room.
Many more ways will suggest themselves in particular situa-
It is hoped that home economics teachers in the state will
take every opportunity during the coming year to work co-
operatively with the elementary schools in their communities.
A record of such cooperation should be kept because of its po-
tential value in assisting other teachers at future times.
Reference materials which are valuable in suggesting oppor-
tunities for experiences in nutrition profitable to elementary
children are books and bulletins such as the following:

Vegetables To Help Us Grow. A nutrition unit for the first,
second, and third grades of the elementary schools. Bureau
of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, N. Y.
Feeding Our Teeth. A nutrition unit for the third and fourth
grades. Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia
University, N. Y.
Our Cereals. A nutrition unit for the fourth, fifth, and sixth
grades. Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Colum-
bia University, N. Y.
Milk Makes a Difference: An Experiment With White Rats.
Curriculum Laboratory, P. K. Yonge Laboratory School,
College of Education, University of Florida, Gainesville,
Milk Makes A Difference: An Experiment With Baby Chicks.
P. K. Yonge Laboratory School, College of Education, Uni-
versity of Florida, Gainesville,. Florida.
Suggestions for Teaching Nutrition in the Elementary Grades.
Kansas Elementary School Program of Studies, State De-
partment of Education, Topeka, Kansas.

ROBERTS, LYDIA J. Nutrition Work With Children. Fourth Edi-
tion. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1940.
ROSE, M. S. Teaching Nutrition to Boys and Girls. The Mac-
Millan Company, New York, 1932.



Home Economics I-

The Home and the Family

Grade Placement: Ninth or tenth grade
Time Allowance: The equivalent of 60 minutes daily for one year
Required for all girls for graduation from Senior High School
Elective for boys

Meeting My Homemaking Problems
(Approximately one week)
1. How has the war affected the homes in this community?
2. What personal problems have arisen as a result of
wartime conditions?
3. What experiences in home economics during the coming
year would be of value in finding solutions to problems which
have arisen as a result of wartime conditions?

Improving Our Surroundings
(Approximately five weeks or, if presented concurrently with
Meeting My Homermaking Problems, approximately six weeks)
1. What activities are necessary in order to prepare the
home economics rooms for the year's work?
2. What do we need to know about the efficient and safe
operation and use of tools and equipment in the home economics
rooms and at home?
3. Our home economics department should be considered
our home in school. How can we make it more useful and
attractive ?
4. How can we use our resources to best advantage in
maintaining and improving our department?
5. How can we make and keep our homes more convenient,
attractive and comfortable?


Providing Food for Health and Fitness
(Approximately twelve weeks)
1. Why does food assume such an important place in war-
time ?
2. How can we select an adequate diet?
3. How can we plan, prepare, and serve a good school
4. How can we plan, prepare, and serve other simple meals?
5. How can we conserve surplus food?

Living With My Family and Others
(Approximately six weeks)
1. How can I become the kind of person I want to be?
2. How can I improve as a family member?
3. How can I help in the care of younger children?
4. How can I help in caring for illnesses and accidents
at home?

Solving My Clothing Problems in Wartime
(Approximately eleven weeks)
1. How can I be well-groomed in wartime?
2. How can I select clothing to suit my needs?
3. How can a simple article of clothing be constructed?
4. What care should be given to clothing?
5. How can we obtain more service through the renova-
tion of garments?

Taking Stock of Our Accomplishments and Planning
Future Work
(Approximately one week)
1. In view of the plans made at the beginning of the year
what progress has been made toward accomplishing them?
What changes have been made in the original plans?
2. To what extent has progress been made in developing
ability to solve homemaking problems?
3. What additional experiences can I choose that will be
helpful in solving future homemaking problems?
4. What activities are necessary in order to close the
home economics rooms at end of the year's work?

Area I

Meeting My Homemaking Problems

Today when we see that homes are destroyed and refugees
are homeless in countries that have a civilization of many cen-
turies behind them, it is more important than ever that the
American home become the bulwark against social insecurity.
We need to develop an, appreciation for American home life
by making the home a place which family members can enjoy
together and a place where skills and abilities are used to at-
tain a fuller and a more useful life. It is important that every
home reach a level of good standards for sound, wholesome, and
skillful living. We need to develop faith in the American way
of life and to build up values that are important and worth
struggling for even at a cost of personal sacrifice.
Present day conditions are bringing to Florida families
many problems. Families are living as combined households
and in crowded quarters; homes are broken; homemakers are
employed outside the home; young people are employed at
high wages; supplies of consumer goods are being controlled;
facilities for health protection and for recreation are inade-
quate; and strangers from many parts of the country are within
our gates.
All of these conditions result in personal problems for young
people. Homemaking education should attempt to present some
solutions to these personal problems through equipping pupils
with needed skills, abilities, and understandings. It is desir-
able that pupils view their coming homemaking experiences
in that light. Since girls are intensely interested in themselves
as individuals the most successful motivation for needed learn-
ings comes with the personal approach. The alert teacher will
use this approach in presenting problems throughout the year.
It is important that pupils and teachers plan together the
year's work, bearing in mind however, the desired scope of

experiences. Sequence is important; present work should never
seem to the pupil to be a repetition of previous work. The
teacher should guide the pupils in selecting such experiences as
will be suited both to the whole plan of instruction and to the
level of pupil maturity and interest.
Such teacher-pupil planning should begin during the first
week of school at which time the problems in Area I will be
presented. Since it is also very important that the home eco-
nomics rooms be made ready for the year's work as early as
possible it may be desirable to begin consideration of the prob-
lems involved in Area II, Improving Our Surroundings during
the first week. Under this plan, experiences in the two areas
would progress concurrently.
Home economics teaching is made more effective when pupils
take every opportunity to practice at home learning acquired
at school. When a home activity is an application of school
learning and of such a nature that it requires planning, it
develops managerial ability, and results in some definite accom-
plishment in terms of goals or leadership, it is termed a home
project or home experience. The value of such home exper-
iences cannot be overestimated.
Gardening is one such activity which is valuable especially
under conditions of restricted food supply. In most Florida
communities, gardening may be undertaken early in the fall,
with additional planting being done during the year. For
successful gardening by high school pupils certain background
information is essential. This information may be obtained
from the teacher of agriculture, county agent, home demonstra-
tion agent, and other competent individuals in the community.
Bulletins from federal and state agencies which contain valu-
able material are: The Florida Home Garden, Bulletin 119,
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida; Grow
Your Own Vegetables, Bulletin 52, Department of Agriculture,

How has the war affected the homes in this '.', u ,,tr;ilj

A. What changes have taken place in the number of people
living here?
B. What changes have taken place in the amount of space
available for family living activities?
1. To what extent are people sharing their homes ? To
what extent are families occupying smaller quarters?
2. What problems are arising as a result?
C. What new residents have come to the community? What
responsibility do older residents have in extending hospitality?
D. What problems have arisen because of the concentration
of the armed forces in Florida?
E. What changes have taken place in the personnel em-
ployed in local industries?
F. Why are more homemakers working away from home?
How is this trend affecting homes?
G. What problems have arisen in connection with domestic
H. What problems have arisen in meeting the health and
sanitary needs of the community?
I. In what ways is living in America easier and better than
living in other countries?
J. What are some advantages which are resulting from the

Suggested Activities
Study your community to determine changes made by the
war. List your findings and discuss them with the class. Plan
ways of using the information obtained.
Study your community to see what recreation facilities are
available. Make suggestions for other facilities needed.
Discuss present living conditions in other countries. De-
termine some of the privileges enjoyed by us and denied to


others. Discuss whether or not we should assume responsi-
bilities for helping our foreign neighbors.

What personal problems have arisen as a result of
wartime conditions?

A. What additional home responsibilities are we called upon
to assume?
B. What are the problems involved in choosing our food,
clothing, and other goods ?
C. What problems do we have concerning recreation?
D. What difficulties are we having in planning the wisest
use of our time and money?

Suggested Activities
Discuss with the class the effect of wartime conditions on
the young people of your community. (Teachers in Florida
schools have reported that wartime conditions have caused such
problems as:
Greater home responsibilities
Fewer family outings
Decreased recreational facilities for young people
Increased employment of young people with resulting
home and school friction
More money to spend with poor standards for money
Disrupted daily schedules
Less privacy at home
Increased juvenile delinquency
Early marriages)

What experiences in home economics during the coming year
would be of value in finding solutions to problems which
have arisen as a result of wartime conditions?

A. To what extent would our developing skills and desir-
able attitudes help our families adjust more successfully to

wartime living conditions? Consider the following in discus-
sing this problem:
Making one's surroundings more attractive
Planning, preparing, and serving adequate meals using
available food supplies
Selecting and caring for one's clothing
Constructing inexpensive new garments and making old
ones more attractive
Becoming an effective member of one's household
Caring for younger children
Helping with care of the sick in one's home
Conserving one's resources
B. Some girls have received help with such problems as
those of appearance, recreation, money management, and voca-
tional choice. What assistance would you like to receive in
solving personal problems ?
C. What experiences in homemaking at school could be con-
tinued profitably at home?

Suggested Activities
Examine books and materials relating to home economics
available in the library, the home economics department, and
at home. Use these materials as references in planning your
year's work and in solving your problems. (The teacher should
choose her own materials in developing this unit.)
Plan with your teacher for your participation in the year's
work in homemaking so that you will learn the things you feel
that you need to learn.
Make plans with your teacher and your parents for carry-
ing out at home some activities which will be valuable to you
and which will be related to your year's work. It is wise to
make such plans as early in the semester as possible.
Confer with teachers of agriculture and home economics,
the county agent, the home demonstration agent, members of
the community, and your parents, and make plans for a victory
garden or for raising poultry. Carry out these plans during
the year working cooperatively with the family.
Plant a school garden. Use products in the school lunch-
room. Can the surplus products.



Area II

Improving Our Surroundings

With the reopening of the home economics department come
many opportunities for experiences in school and home im-
provement. In fact, activities concerned with reopening form
a logical approach to the area.
While experiences in making one's surroundings more at-
tractive should not be overlooked in the teaching of school and
home *improvement under the present conditions, emphasis
now should be placed on better use, arrangement, and conserva-
tion of equipment and furnishings.
With the difficulty one has in securing new household equip-
ment and in getting repairs on old equipment, it becomes neces-
sary that the pupils understand the fundamentals involved in
the care and simple repair of equipment. Types of equipment
which will need special attention in home economics depart-
ments are stoves, refrigerators, electrical appliances, and sew-
ing machines. The safe operation of such kitchen tools as can
openers and knives, and the safe use of electric, gas, and kero-
sene stoves are important techniques. Repairing electric cords,
replacing fuses, and oiling home appliances might also be in-
Most school home economics departments need some im-
provements. each year. As is the case in a home, there is scarcely
a home economics department that does not need refreshing, re-
conditioning, and adding convenient and livable furniture.
Much has been done in the past four or five years in remodeling
obsolete laboratory departments into departments more nearly
approaching home situations. These provide work areas as well
as social areas. Worn and disfigured furniture can be refin-
ished. Storage cabinets, dressing tables, and chairs can be
made from box furniture or bought second-hand and recondi-

tioned. Slip cover making, upholstering, mattress making,
staining, waxing, painting, enameling, and varnishing are all
desirable skills to be learned and applied. Other areas in the
school that can serve as a project in reconditioning are the
school lunchroom, the girls' rest room, the teachers' rest room,
the principal's office, the infirmary, the school as a whole, and
the school yard. There is usually a great carry-over of this
learning into homes where such learning is applicable; it satis-
fies the creative and the doing desires of young people and
also has as an outcome a more convenient and attractive environ-
ment. Plans for these improvements should be made by the
teacher and pupils at this time. It is well for the teacher and
pupils to list the long-time goals and the immediate improve-
ment needs for the school department which will contribute
towards these goals.
If the immediate school needs do not warrant spending all
of the suggested time on them, it may be desirable to male im-
provement in other places such as community recreation cen-
ters, children's centers, and the like. The school has a definite
responsibility for interesting and activating the pupils for com-
munity improvement projects. The teacher should take advan-
tage of every opportunity for suggesting and guiding pupil
participation in such community projects.

What activities are necessary in order to prepare the home
economics rooms for the year's work?

(These activities vary with the department, but would usu-
ally include checking an inventory; cleaning woodwork, walls,
windows, chairs, tables, and mirrors; hanging draperies and
pictures; and unpacking and arranging books and illustrative
materials. Comparison should be made with activities of sim-
ilar nature carried on at home. Some activities would be- done
periodically; others would be done under special conditions
such as moving, returning from trips, and the like.)


Suggested Activities
Working in groups or committees make plans for activities
involved in opening the home economics rooms for the year.
After deciding on equipment and materials, perform as many
of the following tasks as are needed in the home economics de-
Wash woodwork in home economics rooms.
Clean glass surfaces such as mirrors, windows, and cup-
board doors.
Clean book shelves and replace books.
Check inventory of equipment and furnishings.
Hang pictures.
Hang curtains.
Wax and polish furniture; arrange for convenient use.
Clean stoves and refrigerators.
Clean cupboards and other storage space.
Clean utensils and small equipment; arrange for efficient
Polish silver.

What do we need to know about the efficient and safe operation
and use of tools and equipment in the home
economics rooms and at home?

Suggested Activities
Demonstrate the correct operation of equipment and appli-
ances such as electric stoves, gas stoves, kerosene stoves, me-
chanical refrigerators, electric mixers, electric irons, electric
toasters, can openers, and knives.
Demonstrate the correct way to disconnect a plug from a
Repair a worn or broken electric wire.
Rewire a plug.
Interview a fireman and find out the most common causes
of home fires in your locality. Report findings to the class.
Suggest ways of avoiding fires.
Survey the home economics room and the school for acci-
dent hazards. Take steps to correct them.
Working as a committee, arrange in the home economics
room examples of many hazards which might cause home acci-


dents. These examples might include a trailing extension cord,
scissors in dangerous position, grease or water spilled on the
floor, and many others. Arrange these beforehand, and have
the rest of the class locate these hazards.
List other accidents that frequently occur in the home and
suggest ways the accidents could have been prevented. (Acci-
dents in homes occur from mechanical causes-disorder, im-
proper working equipment, need for repairs; and from per-
sonal causes-poor judgment, carelessness, physical fraility and
disability, and getting in too big a hurry.)
Prepare a check list for surveying home accident hazards.
Survey your home for accident hazards, using your own
check list or one such as the following make any corrections
possible. Answer the following questions by placing a check
in the space after "Yes" or "No," after a careful survey at

1. Are all stairs provided with handrails?......................
2. Are stairs adequately lighted? .......-............................
3. Are there any loose rugs at foot of stairs or at
places where sharp turns are frequently made?
4. Are steps cluttered with loose materials or articles?
5. Are chairs or other substitutes used in place
of ladders? ....................... ...................................
6. Is the bathtub provided with a handhold? ...............
7. Is spilled grease mopped up "now" not "later"?
8. Is there a fire extinguisher in the home? .............
9. Are safety matches used? .......................................
10. Are matches stored in a safe place? .....................
11. Do you close a book of safety matches before
striking? .... .......... ............. .............................
12. Are all pot handles turned away from the front
and edges of the stove? .......................................
13. Are all doors of the gas oven open to ventilate it
before lighting it? .... .. .............. ........................
14. Is a stand provided for the electric iron? ............
15. Are non-combustible ash trays provided for smokers?
16. Is kerosene ever used to light fires? ........................

Yes .......No........


Yes ......No......

Yes........No ......

Yes....... No-......

Yes........No ....

1 Sample Survey of Accident Hazards in the Home from "Safety for
the Home," Bulletin No. 282, The State Board of Control for Voca-
tional Education, Lansing, Mich.


17. Is gasoline used in the home? ......................m.............
18. Are combustible materials kept away from stoves
and out of contact with stove pipes? ....................
19. Is rubbish allowed to accumulate in attic, base-
m ent or elsewhere? .................. .......................
20. Are oily rags and mops kept in a proper metal
container? ............. ..9...................... .... ....
21. Are gas pipes or fixtures used to support clothes-
lines, clothing, or utensils? ...........-------...................
22. Do you ever handle electrical fixtures with wet
hands ? ................. ..... .... .... ........ ........... ........
23. Are there over-capacity fuses in the electrical
circuits? --.. ...............................................
24. Are frayed electric cords discarded? .........................
25. Are there any pull-chains or electrical fixtures
without insulating links? ...................... ..............
26. Are all electrical connections out of reach from
the bathtub? .... .......................... ....................
27. Is a gas heater used in the bathroom for any
purpose ? ............. ..9............. ....................
28. Are sharp tools left where children may handle
them ? .................. .......... .. .... ....................
29. Is broken glass put into a box and not thrown into
the wastebasket loose? .................. ..................
'30. Are first-aid materials kept in a definite place?
31. Are poisonous drugs kept out of reach of the chil-
dren ? ................------ .............. ...........................
32. Are all bottles containing drugs properly labeled?
33. Do you put pins in your mouth? ..............................
34. Are gas cocks adjusted to turn smoothly but not
too easily ? .................... ........... .....................
35. Is the automobile engine ever run in the closed
garage? ....... .........................................
36. Is a family conference conducted from time to
time concerning safety precautions? ......................


Yes........ No......





Yes........No ......
Yes........N o........



Yes........N o........








Our home economics department should be considered our home
in school. How can we make it more useful and attractive?

A. What improvements are necessary and desirable?

B. Which improvements can we make at this time?
1. What repairs are needed?
2. What furniture needs renovating?
3. What new articles can we make?
4. What changes in arrangement would add to safety,
comfort, convenience and attractiveness?

Suggested Activities
Critically examine the home economics rooms. Discuss with
the class the improvements desired. Decide which improve-
ments are possible at this time and which ones will have to be
postponed until later. After considering materials and money
available, make plans for those which you decide to do.
Renovate a piece of furniture. Such renovation might in-
clude tightening screws or nails, removing old varnish finish,
repainting or revarnishing, making appropriate cushions, up-
holstering, or making a slip cover. Such a piece of furniture
might be an interesting addition to the homemaking department
or to your home.
Refinish the department sewing machines that need this
Learn to oil and care for the department sewing machines.
Plan convenient storage space for machine attachments,
bobbins, thread, needles, and scissors.
Make a piece of furniture needed in the home economics
rooms. Some pupils have made usable and attractive furniture
from wooden boxes, barrels, and crates.

How can we use our resources (funds, materials, time, and
abilities) to best advantage in maintaining
and improving our department?

A. How are the home economics activities financed?
B. How much will we need for operating expenses?
C. How much will planned improvements cost?
D. What plans for our year's work will help us use these
funds to best advantage?
E. How shall we keep a record of these expenditures?

Suggested Activities
Investigate the source of funds for operating the home
economics department.
Determine the amount necessary for the operation of the
department. (Refer to the previous year's record.)
Discuss wise use of the department funds considering op-
erating costs and improvement plans.
Assume some responsibility for using the department funds.
Develop a plan for keeping department accounts and assist
in keeping them during the year.

How can we make and keep our homes more convenient, com-
fortable, and attractive?

A. What changes would improve your bedroom? What
changes would improve the living or recreational area of your
house? What changes would improve the kitchen? What
changes would improve the exterior of the house and yard?
B. What care would improve these rooms? What care can
you plan to give?

Suggested Activities
List the activities which you customarily carry on at home.
List those which you would like to learn to do better. List
those which you do not now do but would like to learn to do.
Try to acquire these learning.
Make a list of repair jobs that may need to be done in
the homes in the community. Survey your home to determine
which of these jobs are needed. Consult with members of your
family most concerned and decide on which ones you can do.
Consult books or individuals for help in carrying out your
plans. Report progress to the class.
Assume responsibility for the care of some part of your
home. Try to work quickly and efficiently.
Plan with your parents some improveinents needed in a
room in your home. Assist in carrying out the plans.
Improve the appearance of your home yard by planting
grass, shrubbery, or flowers.


For activities in arrangement of furnishings and equip-
ment see Home Economics Course of Study for Florida High
Schools,1 pages 112 and 113.
For additional activities in this area see Everyday Living,
Bulletin 29, State Department of Education, pages 195-221.
Conditions in the community at the time this area is be-
ing considered may make advisable more learning in home
safety. Additional problems could be developed if circum-
stances warrant their use.

Bureau of Human Nutrition and Home Economics, Agri-
cultural Research Administration, U. S. Department of Agri-
Closets & Storage Spaces. Bulletin No. 1865 F.
Housecleaning Management & Methods. Bulletin No.
1834 F.
Make Your Equipment Last (Set of 10 picture charts
on care of household equipment). 50 cents.
Repair Your Electric Cords (Set of 6 charts) 30 cents.

Other materials of timely interest are appearing frequently.
State Department of Education:
School Plant Operation and Maintenance in Florida.
Bulletin No. 13.

AGAN, TESSIE, The House. Lippincott, 1939.
ALLEN, EDITH L. Simplified Mechanics for Girls. Manual Arts
Press, 1938.
BALDERSTON, L. R. Housekeeping Manual. J. B. Lippincott-
Company, 1935.
BAXTER, L., JUSTIN, M. M., and RUST, L. 0. Sharing Home Life.
J. B. Lippincott. Company, 1940.
BURRIS, MEYER ELIZABETH, Decorating Livable Homes. Prentice
Hall, Inc., 1938.
SOut of print; not available through State Department of Education;
may be obtained from former teachers of home economics.

CALVERT M. and SMITH, L. B. Advanced Course in Homemak-
ing. Turner E. Smith and Company, 1939.
CALVERT, M. R. and SMITH, L. B. First Course in Home Mak-
ing. Turner E. Smith and Company, 1941.
COLLINS, A. F. Keeping Your House In Repair. D. Appleton-
Century Company, 1941.
DANIEL H. The Householder's Complete Handbook. Grossett,
FIELD, D. J. The Human House. Houghton Mifflin Company,
HARRIS, F. L. and HOUSTON, H. H. The New Home Economics
Omnibus. Little, Brown and Company, 1941.
HOWE, ELEANOR, Household Hints for Homemakers. D. Apple-
ton Century Company, 1943.
KLENKE, WILLIAM W., Furniture a Girl Can Make. Gillum
Book Company, 1940.
MARBLE, P. R. Home Safety. American Book Company, 1940.
MATTHEWS, MARY L. The House and Its Care. Little, Brown
and Company, 1940.
PEET, L. J. and SLATER, L. E. Household Equipment, John
Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1940.
PICKEN, MARY B. Sewing for the Home. Harper and Brothers,
Ross, W. A. and CRITCHFIELD, A. Painting Farm Buildings and
Equipment. U. S. Office of Education, Federal Security
SHULTZ, HAZEL. Housing and the Home. D. Appleton-Century
Company, 1939.
SMITH, C. B. The New Home Owner's Handbook, 2nd. rev. ed.
Modern Age Book Company, 1938.
SPEARS, RUTH W. Home Decoration with Fabric and Thread.
M. Barrows and Company, 1940.
TRILLING, M. B., WILLIAMS, F., REEVES, G. G. Problems in Home
Economics. J. B. Lippincott Company, 1939.
TRILLING, M. B. and NICHOLAS, F. W. The Girl and Her Home.
Houghton Mifflin Company, 1937.



Area III

Providing Food for Health and Fitness

Knowledge of nutrition is always important but in war-
time it gainY in significance, for strength and energy needed
to carry on the war come from food. The food-supply situation
has been changed by the war. To meet these new conditions we
need all the help the science of nutrition can give.
Young people can make a valuable contribution to the war
effort, as well as to themselves, by becoming informed so that
they can solve their own food problems and help in solving
those of their families. In giving greater emphasis to nutri-
tion, its practical application should be stressed so that pupils
are able to make more intelligent selections and use of avail-
able foods.
A large part of the laboratory work should consist of the
preparation of simple meals which are a part of a day's ade-
quate diet. There is excellent opportunity here for a study of the
use of less commonly used foods which may serve as alternates
for foods which are less available now. It is suggested that
when possible the food prepared at school be used as all or
part of the pupils' noon lunch. Emphasis should be placed
upon skill in preparation so that all food and food values are
Because of the great need for conservation of food at the
present time some food processing should be taken up in the
basic course. This should be done at a time when there is a
surplus of food in the community, even though it may neces-
sitate interruption of other activities. At the beginning of
the school year the teacher should acquaint herself with foods
available on the local market during the year, and make plans
for food processing.
One aspect of food preparation which should not be over-
looked is that of planning for special occasions such as parties


and holidays. This may be done at any time during the year
when it seems desirable and appropriate to celebrate some spe-
cial event.
Teacher procedures and activities found in the Home Eco-
nomics Course of Study for Florida High Schools, pages 114-
125, give suggestions for work in this area. The problems and
activities set forth here are primarily to point out wartime ap-
plications to the course of study.


Why does food assume such an important place in wartime?
What is meant by the statement, "Food is a munition of war"?

Suggested Activities
Read extensively in current newspapers and magazines so
that you can discuss in class the place of food in wartime.
Consider the carefully planned food being given the personnel
in the armed forces. Discuss the probable effect of this ade-
quate diet on the food choices of military men and women when
they return to their homes after the war. Consider, also, the
responsibility faced by our country for feeding many starved
and stricken nations, and discuss our own place in this pro-
gram of international feeding.

How can we select an adequate diet?

A. What should food do for us?

B. What foods should we eat every day?
(The basic groups outlined in authoritative materials'
may be followed or a list may be developed which makes
use of foods available in the local community.)

'Lanman, F., McKay, H., and Zuill, F. The Family's Food, page 7.
United States Department of Agriculture Food and Life, page 332.
National Dairy Council. A Guide to Good Eating, a poster.
United States Government Chart of the "Basic Seven." United
States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.


C. Why are the foods in the above list recommended?
1. Why are milk and cheese important foods? In
what forms is milk on the market?
2. Why is the daily use of fruits and vegetables
recommended ?
a. Why is it important to use green and yellow
vegetables daily?
b. Why are oranges, grapefruit, tomatoes, raw
cabbage and salad greens grouped together? What
local foods might bc included in this grouping?
c. Why should additional servings of other fruits
and vegetables be included? Why are potatoes espe-
cially mentioned?
d. In what forms are fruits and vegetables on
the market?
3. Why are meat, poultry, fish, eggs, dried beans,
peas, nuts, and peanut butter grouped together? Which
ones can be obtained locally?
4. Why is it desirable to eat bread and cerals every
day? Why should we choose "whole grain", "enrich-
ed," and "restored" cereal products?
5. Why should butter or "fortified" margarine be
a part of our daily diet?

Suggested Activities
Keep a record of all food you eat for a period of from
four to seven days. (The record should be made before nu-
trition teaching begins.) Evaluate your selections with the
assistance of the list of recommended foods accepted by the
class. Suggest practical ways to improve your diet. (The
evaluation will be deferred until the class has formulated the
list as suggested in the activity below.)
Study approved publications to determine the foods needed
to furnish an adequate diet for a day. Compare the foods
used locally with the lists of recommended foods. With the
assistance of the teacher develop a list suitable to your com-
Find if there are any pupils in a school group who do not

eat breakfast and if there are any who do not eat lunch. Plan
ways in which the class can improve the practices of these
pupils to reduce the number of pupils who omit meals.
Study foods on your recommended list to determine their
content of nutrients needed by the body. Read to discover
the use the body makes of these nutrients.
Study, discuss, and list foods of similar nutritive value that
may be used to replace and supplement rationed foods com-
monly used in the diet. Use this list later in planning meals.
Investigate forms in which mill is fmnd on the local market.
Compare these forms with respect to nutritive value, cost, and
possible uses.
Determine what local foods may be included in a list of
foods rich in vitamin C. Show how vitamin C may be ob-
tained the year around in Florida.
Discuss the use of nuts, dried beans, peas, peanuts, and
peanut butter as meat alternates. Collect recipes and prepare
dishes using these alternates.
Discuss unrationed local foods from animal sources which
are high in protein value. Show how these may be used in
the family meals.

How can we plan, prepare, and serve a good school lunch?

A. Why is it important to eat a good noon-day meal? How
does the noon-day meal fit into the day's food pattern?
B. What constitutes a "complete" or "A Lunch"?
C. What might be included in an adequate lunch brought
from home?
D. What foods served at school might make the lunch
brought from home more complete?
E. What foods could we prepare and serve as a noon-day
meal at school?
F. What ways of serving and eating will make our lunch
more enjoyable?


Suggested Activities
Make a pattern for an "A Lunch". Using the pattern,
plan lunches which may be (1) packed and brought from home,
(2) brought from home with supplement at school, or (3) se-
lected in the school lunchroom. (See Course in Group Feed-
ing, page 146, for "A Lunch" pattern.)
Discuss ways to use more raw vegetables in the day's diet.
Prepare raw vegetables in the ways suitable to put in a packed
Make a day's plan for three meals such as your family
would use; plan one of these meals as a packed lunch.
Find different kinds of bread and fillings suitable for sand-
wiches and make lists suitable for this locality. Prepare some
of these.
Prepare at school or at home a packed lunch to be eaten
as a noon day meal.
Make plans for preparing and packing lunches for a period
of time for yourself or for others in your family. Carry out
these plans.
Make an exhibit of a good packed lunch and of suitable
containers. Display it at school, at P.T.A. meeting, or in a
local grocery store.
Plan and prepare an "A Lunch" consisting of foods which
might be prepared in the school lunchroom. Serve the meal
using accepted standards.

How can we plan, prepare, and serve other simple meals?

A. What considerations must govern our meal plans?
1. Why must we consider availability, government
control, cost, grades, and qualities when purchasing
2. Why should we consider time, skill, and equip-
ment when planning meals?
3. Why is it important to plan meals that appeal
to the appetite? (Consider pleasing color, flavor, shape,
and texture.)


B. What skills in preparation should we develop in order
to obtain optimum food values and enjoyment from our meals?
C. How can we serve our meals most appetizingly and at-
tractively? What knowledge of accepted eating practices do
we need?
D. In what ways can we simplify our meals to help meet
wartime conditions?

Suggested Activities
Plan meals in which foods of similar nutritive value are
used to replace rationed foods.
Bring in a list of foods new to you or your family. Try
new foods at regular intervals and report the extent of tleir
use at end of the unit.
Make a collection of everyday menus from various sources.
Suggest practical changes in light of local foods available which
would improve their nutritive values.
Plan adequate simple meals for several days, using local
food patterns. Participate in preparing and serving some of
these meals. Prepare the market orders, assist with purchas-
ing, and compute the cost of the meals. Record expenses in
the department account book.
Discuss desirable methods of vegetable cookery with respect
to the conservation of food value. Set standards for desirable
flavor, texture, and color and discuss methods of retaining them.
Prepare a variety of vegetables and judge them by the stand-
ards set up.
Additional suggestions will be found in the State Course of
Study, pages 122-124.

How can we conserve surplus food?

Processing of food should be done when the foods are
available in quantities. The type of processing attempted is
dependent upon equipment available, past experience of the
pupils, and its relative importance as a work experience. Refer
to information which may be obtained from bulletins of the
Office of Home Demonstration work of the Agricultural Exten-


sion Service. Authoritative methods and time tables given
specifically for Florida should always be used.

Suggested Activities
Investigate and report to the class the possible methods of
preventing spoilage of surplus foods; include such methods as
canning, drying, brining, pickling, and quick freezing. Observe
and assist with demonstrations of canning acid and non-acid
vegetables, fruits, and meats.
Discuss possibilities for improvising canning equipment, for
joint ownership of a pressure cooker, or for the use of com-
munity canning equipment.
Investigate and report to the classes the possibilities for
home dehydration of food.
Refer to reliable information on stornge; plan and ar-
range space at school or at home for the storage of processed

What are some ways of extending hospitality
under wartime conditions?

In view of transportation and recreation difficulties it is
important that pupils have experiences in planning home and
school entertainment. Some opportunity should be given for
practice of good manners and courtesy. Preparation of re-
freshments may be a laboratory activity with emphasis on avail-
ability, simplicity, low cost, and attractiveness.
A. What activities contribute to our enjoyment of special
occasions ?
B. What foods might appropriately be served?

Suggested Activities
Plan a tea to be given by the department. (This may be
given for mothers of the pupils.)
Plan a party keeping within a certain small sum of money.
Plan a series of inexpensive Sunday night suppers or picnic
suppers for a small group of friends.


Plan simple home decorations for holidays using materials

Bulletins and Circulars
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida:
A Food Supply Plan for Florida Families.
Can Surplus Fruits and Vegetables. 1943 Bulletin
No. 75
Gather Health From Your Own Garden. Circular
No. 53
Meat Canning. Bulletin No. 87
Meat-Wholesome, Nutritious. Circular No. 57
Preserving Florida Citrus Frdits. 1933 Bulletin
No. 75
The Florida Home Garden. Bulletin No. 107
The Good Family Cow Helps Fill the Health Cup.
Circular No. 56
The Goodly Guava. 1932 Bulletin No. 70
Your Poultry and Egg Supply. Circular No. 55

State Home Demonstration Department, Tallahassee, Flor-
A Food Supply Plan for Florida Farm Families.
Circular No. 44
Menus From the Florida Pantry.

State of Florida Department of Agriculture, Tallahassee,
Florida Fruits and Vegetables in the Family Menu.
1941 Bulletin No. 46
Poultry Raising in Florida. 1940 Bulletin No. 35

United States Department of Agriculture, Washington,
D. C.:
Drying Foods for Victory Meals. Bulletin No. 1918 F
Food for Children. Bulletin No. 1674
Good Food Habits for Children. Leaflet No. 42

Home Canning of Fruits, Vegetables and Meats. Bul-
letin No. 1762 F
Homemade Jellies, Jams and Preserves. Bulletin
No. 1800 F
School Lunches. Bulletin No. 712
Three Market Lists for Low Cost Meals.
Victory Gardens. Miscellaneous Publication No. 483
Vitamin Values of Foods, (in terms of common meas-
ures) Bulletin No. 505 MF.

School Gardens for School Lunches. Circular 210
Federal Security Agency, United States Office of Educa-
tion, Washington, D. C.:
The Road to Good Nutrition. 1942 Bulletin No. 270
The Children's Bureau, United States Department of
Labor, Washington, D. C.
Nutrition Exhibits. Nutrition Division, Office of De-
fense Health and Welfare Services, Federal Security
Agency, Washington, D. C.
Vitamingo Games. Vitamingo, Inc., 175 Varick Street,
New York City.
BAILEY, NEMADJI B., Meal Planning and Table Service in the
American Home. Manual Arts Press, 1941.
BAXTER, L. JUSTIN, M.M., RUST, L. O., Our Food. J. B. Lip-
pincott, 1943.
BAXTER, L., JUSTIN, M.M., RUST, L. 0., Sharing Home Life.
J. B. Lippincott Company, 1940.
BOWES, A. D., and CHURCH, C. F., Food Values of Portions
Commonly Used. Philadelphia Child Health Society, 1942.
BRADLEY, A. V., Tables of Food Values. Manual Arts Press,
CALVERT, M., and SMITH, L. B., Advanced Course in Home
Making. Turner E. Smith and Company, 1939.
CALVERT, M., and SMITH, L. B., First Course in Home Mak-
ing. Turner E. Smith and Company, 1941.
DOWD, M. T., and DENT, A., Elements of Food and Nutrition.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1937.


GORRELL, F. L., MCKAY, H., and ZUILL, F., Foods and Family
Living. J. B. Lippincott Company, 1942 (Revised edition
of The Family's Food)
GREER, CARLOTTA C., Your Home and You. Allyn and Bacon,
GUNN, LILIAN, Table Service and Decoration. J. B. Lippin-
cott, 1935.
HARRIS, F. L. and HENDERSON, R. A., Foods-Their Nutritive,
Economic and Social Values. Little, Brown and Company,
HARRIS, F. L. and HENDERSON, R. A., Let's Study Foods. Little,
Brown and Company, 1941.
HARRIS, F. L. and HOUSTON, H. H., The New Home Economics
Omnibus. Little, Brown and Company, 1941.
HARRIS, J. W. and SPEAR, E. L., Everyday Foods. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 1941. (Revised edition)
HOWE, ELEANOR, Household Hints for Homemakers. D. Apple-
ton-Century Company, 1943.
MADDOX, GAYNOR, Eat Well for Less Money. E. P. Dutton
& Company, Inc., 1942.
PIERCE, ANNE, Home Canning for Victory. M. Barrows & Com-
pany, 1942.
Eat Now? J. B. Lippincott Company, 1942.
ROSE, MARY S., Feeding the Family. The Macmillan Company,
SILVER, FERN, Foods and Nutrition. D. Appleton-Century Com-
pany, 1943.
SILVER, F., and RYAN, M. G., Foundations for Living. D. Apple-
ton-Century Company, 1943.
STONE, HARRIET, The Meaning of Nutrition. Little, Brown
and Company, 1943.
TAYLOR, CLARA M., Food Values in Shares and Weights. The
Macmillan Company, 1942.
TRILLING, M. B., WILLIAMS, F., REEVES, G. G., Problems in
Home Economics. J. B. Lippincott, 1939.
(Yearbook) Washington, D. C., United States Government
Printing Office, 1939.



Area IV

Living with My Family and Others

It is important that young people become contributing mem-
bers of their family groups. To this end, experiences should
be provided which will help them in developing an apprecia-
tion of the worth of the family and of themselves as individ-
uals within family groups.
It is important, also, that youth make the adjustments neces-
sary in order to become respected members of school and com-
munity groups. They should be helped to develop such stand-
ards as will assist them in using good judgment in their choices
of friends. They should realize that friendship is a matter of
being a friend, as well as of having a friend.
Within the family group many responsibilities must be
assumed by family members. Present conditions are causing
more of them to be assumed by boys and girls. It is becoming
increasingly desirable that young people have school experi-
ences to assist them in caring for children, in acting as helper
in home illnesses or accidents, in buying family goods, and in
assuming other responsibilities.
It is not intended that home care of the sick be taught in-
tensively in this basic course. Such teaching is reserved for
the advanced course in home economics. In the face of the
present emergency, however, it is urgent that girls know how
to assume such simple home nursing duties as are within their
abilities. In many communities the American Red Cross Course
in Home Nursing may be taken by the teacher. In schools
where there is a school nurse the teacher may be able to secure
her advice or services. In all other instances, before calling
on a registered nurse for assistance, the teacher first should
contact the director of the local hospital in the community, or
the district public health director or nurse, or the district visit-
ing nurse, or through Miss Ruth Mettinger, R.N., Director of

the.Bureau of Public Health Nursing, Florida State Board of
Health, Jacksonville, contact the deputy nurse for the local
county. This procedure will be a safeguard for both the teacher
and the nurse. By making contacts through the proper chan-
nels the teacher can be sure that such a nurse educator is in-
formed of the limits of responsibility that girls in home eco-
nomics can undertake in simple home care of the sick to make
the patient in the home more comfortable.
As a result of the experiences in child care the pupils will
learn to function as helpers. Even in times like these the re-
sponsibilities which they assume should be commensurate with
their abilities. Frequently they may work under the direction
of adults in children's centers or nursery schools. The custo-
mary practice of caring for a child in the home or outside of
the home for pay makes necessary some knowledge of the needs
and requirements of children.

How can I become the kind of person I want to be?

A. What kind of a person am I?
1. How do past and present surroundings and ex-
periences help to make us what we are?
a. How does the care given to little children in-
fluence their behavior?
b. How does the family to which a young per-
son belongs influence his ways of living, thinking,
and acting?
c. How does the community in which a young
person lives influence his behavior?
d. How are present surroundings and condi-
tions affecting young people in this community ? How
are they affecting us as persons ?
2. What are my personality traits?
a. What is meant by personality?
b. How can personality traits be determined?
B. How can I improve in desirable habits of behavior?


1. What are the characteristics of a likeable person?
2. How can one become a good friend?
a. What are some points to consider in choosing
friends ?
b. How can I become more understanding and
tolerant of others?
c. How can I become a recognized and respect-
ed member of my group ?

Suggested Activities
Recall some experience from your childhood which helped
you to develop a desirable trait or attitude.
From your observation of a child relate some incident which
illustrates the effect of care or treatment on the future be-
havior of the child.
Make and carry out plans to correct some undesirable habit.
Try to decide how this undesirable habit was formed so that
similar occurrences may be avoided. Some such habits might
be frequent lateness, putting things off, outburst of temper,
interrupting others, making gestures annoying to others, and
the like. Report results of this project.
Review the previously listed personal problems of young
people which have resulted from the war. Discuss the effects
of these difficulties. (This discussion may include such prob-
lems as having more money to spend, having less recreation,
having more home responsibilities, and problems of relation-
ships with newcomers in the community.) Try to interest your
friends in working with adults in your family and community
in assisting with your plans for the solution of these problems.
For several days keep a record of friendly acts done toward
you. From this record develop a list of desirable traits in
Think of a person of your acquaintance who has many
friends. Determine the qualities in this person that are re-
sponsible for these friendships. Try to develop these qualities
in yourself.
Check yourself on personal practices which influence or af-
fect personality. (Many check lists are available. For one
such list see Everyday Living, Bulletin No. 29, State Depart-


ment of Education, pages 37-46. The pupils may prefer to
formulate their own check list.)
Determine the recreational opportunities for young people
in your community. If you do not consider them adequate,
suggest what might be done to give the young people an oppor-
tunity for wholesome recreation. Make the kind of plan which
could be presented to the community authorities as a request
for adequate recreation. (In some Florida communities direct
action has been taken in developing youth centers to provide
recreational facilities for teen-age young people. One commu-
nity has remodeled a former school building and has appro-
priated funds for operating costs. In another community a
downtown store building has been improved and furnished.)

How can I improve as a family member?

A. What does it mean to be a member of a family?
1. What are the benefits?
2. What are the responsibilities?
3. What contributions should be made by each fam-
ily member?
B. How can I help family life to run smoothly?
1. How can I share family responsibilities? How
can I assist others to share these responsibilities?
2. How can I share family pleasures and recreation?
How can I help with good times at home?
3. How can I help my family to live within its in-
come ?
a. How can I use my own money resources to
best advantage? What present conditions limit or
control my use of money? Why should I plan for
saving ?
b. How can I improve my own knowledge and
buying practices to assist the family in securing great-
est value for money spent? How can I help spend
the family's money most wisely?
4. How can I help in making family plans for the
future? How can cooperative family planning assist my
vocational choice?


Suggested Activities
Discuss the needs of the family which the home should pro-
vide. Discuss the responsibility of each member of the family
for contributing to a realization of these needs.
List those responsibilities in your home which you can
Discuss with parents and bring to school a list of respon-
sibilities which you will assume. Make plans for assuming some
of them for a period of time. Report progress at intervals.
Some such responsibilities might be:
Cleaning your room before coming to school
Keeping school clothes in good condition
Preparing supper or other meals
Repairing garments for other members of the family
Packing lunches for some family member
List some of the things families usually talk over together
and add some things which could be talked over together with
benefit to the family. Discuss the advantages of such coop-
erative family planning.
List some of the regular household duties which are more
fun to do if two or more people do them together. Work with
some other member of the family on one of these jobs. Re-
port results.
Time yourself in the performance of some school or house-
hold activity, for the purpose of discovering how to plan to
work to better advantage. Attempt to shorten the time through
more efficient arrangement and choice of equipment, and
through more concentrated attention to your task.
Plan some form of recreation at home. Carry it out at
home with your family and friends participating.
List and discuss the common points of conflict in family
life. Suggest causes and ways in which these conflicts can be
avoided. Such conflicts include management of income, man-
agement of household duties, social behavior, recreation, use of
the family car, being on time for meals, use of bathroom, use
of radio, and personal possessions. In your own home, try some
of these ways of avoiding conflicts.
Make a list of the things you can do in your home or in
another's home to free the mother's time to care for a young


child or to give the mother some freedom from the care of a
young child.
Discuss the pros and cons of being paid for doing work at
Collect and keep a list of birthday dates, anniversaries, and
the like, for use in remembering them in pleasant ways.
Make a list of the way people like to be remembered. Do
some of these for someone.
Keep a record of your personal expenditures for a period of
time. Evaluate your spending. Make plans to spend more
How can I help in the care of younger children?

A. What do we need to know about young children in order
to help care for them?
1. What are good eating habits for children?
2. What are good rest habits for children?
3. What are good cleanliness habits for children?
4. What are good clothing choices for children?
5. What are suitable stories and games for children ?
B. How can we help younger children to acquire good habits
of behavior?

C. How can we help and direct children in their play to
attain their greatest all-round development?
D. What shall we do when we "stay with" children?
E. What is the community doing about the care of chil-
dren of working mothers?

Suggested Activities
Secure a check list (or formulate one) for the observation
of a child. Use this check list in making a detailed observation
of a child of your acquaintance over a period of time. (A guide
for student observation may be found in Care and Guidance
of Children, pages 129-130.)
Observe a young child for several hours and make a list of
all the things done for him by others. Evaluate the worth of

doing these things for him. Suggest other possible procedures.
Find out what foods are eaten daily by children of two to
four years among your acquaintances or in your neighborhood.
From your knowledge of nutrition and of foods recommended
by experts in child care, suggest possible practical improvement
in their diets.
Arrange to have children from the first or second grade
come to the home economics room and assist in the preparation
and serving of a lunch suitable for them.
Observe many instances of good food habits in young chil-
dren. With these instances in mind, make a plan for helping
a young child form a good food habit. Carry out your plan,
reporting progress to the class.
Collect records of the amounts of time spent in sleep by
young children of your acquaintance. As a result, and with
consideration of the recommendations from reliable sources, dis-
cuss the rest requirements of a child and the characteristics of
a good place to sleep.
Notice the ways in which some of the children of your ac-
quaintance are hampered by their clothing. As a result of this
observation, discuss the types of clothes which are best for
young children.
Make a collection of children's clothes from local stores or
from your own brother's and sister's wardrobes. Discuss the
good points of these garments, considering simplicity of cut
and design, ease of laundering, probable durability, and ease
of self-help.
Observe the equipment provided for their use in the homes
of runabout children of your acquaintance. Note the equip-
ment which would be of help in developing habits of cleanli-
ness, neatness, and independence. Some examples are steps in
the bathroom, boxes for toys, and low hooks for garments. Sug-
gest such arrangements which might be made in the home of
some young child among your friends.
Collect evidences and examples of the ways in which rights
of children are violated; collect evidences of ways in which
children violate rights of adults. After reading The Children's
Charter and other materials, make a list of the rights of chil-
dren which should be respected by older children and adults.
Suggest ways of safeguarding these rights.

Discuss the purposes of punishment of children. Observe
instances in which children receive punishment, noting the ap-
parent purpose, the means used, and the effectiveness. Form
some opinion of the place of punishment in the wise guidance
of children.
Collect records of the money given to young children among
your friends, considering the amount given, purposes of giving
it, and what was done with it. Discuss, as a result, the ques-
tion of giving money to children.
Observe the play of young children to note the kinds of
games and activities enjoyed by a two-year-old. Make lists of
games and activities which seem desirable for children of these
See what stories and books are liked best by young children
of various ages. Find what stories and books are liked best at
each age, and find what individual variations exist within age
groups. Try out some of the selected stories to see how the
children respond to them.
Consult with girls who have had experience in caring for
young children of friends and neighbors, to determine some
ways by which you can keep children happy and contented when
staying with them. Consider only such ways as will not inter-
rupt routine plans for the child or be harmful to him.
List the points in routine care you should discuss with a
mother before you assume responsibility for the care of her
child. Possibly develop a form which could be checked each
time. Ask the advice of several mothers of young children in
making this list.
Consult mothers of young children and girls who have cared
for children in homes of their friends, and summarize their
opinions as to desirable precautions and rules of conduct to be
followed when taking care of the children of friends and ac-
Discuss precautions to be observed in going to the homes
of strangers.
Investigate the arrangements being made in your commu-
nity for the care of children of working mothers. Determine
the qualifications of persons who can give specific help in such
a program, and take steps to interest competent persons in giv-
ing this help.


In a day nursery or nursery school, check over the stock of
sheets, bibs, towels, and wash cloths weekly and keep them in
Help make and care for toys and play equipment in a day
Make doll clothes for the dolls used in a day nursery.
Offer to assist at a preschool clinic by supervising the ac-
tivities of children waiting, by helping with dressing and un-
dressing, and by assisting the doctor or nurse.

How can I help in caring for illnesses and accidents at home?

A. What can we do to maintain good health and avoid
illness ?
B. What are the usual responsibilities of one who cares for
a sick person in her home? With which of a nurse's duties could
you assist? (General attentions to a patient, improvising and
caring for sick room appliances, giving general room care, keep-
ing a simple chart, serving food, simple preparation of recom-
mended food)
C. How can we help in case of accident?
1.What are common causes of home accidents? (Re-
late to home improvement area)
2. How can we help in preventing home accidents ?
3. How can we help in the care of victims of home
accidents? (It is probable that first aid has been taught
previous to this year. Some review may be desirable if
time permits.)

Suggested Activities
Review practices which safeguard health and which help
to prevent illness. Practice these points.
List indications of oncoming illnesses as a basis for know-
ing when to isolate a patient "or call the doctor.
From the State Board of Health, secure statistics on the
occurrence of diseases in Florida among teen-age girls and
boys. Interview a doctor or nurse to determine possible causes


for most common diseases and make suggestions for preventing
As a means of helping with home defense, make it your re-
sponsibility to become immunized against communicable dis-
eases. Endeavor to secure such immunizations for your family.
List desirable characteristics for the room occupied by a
sick person, emphasizing necessary equipment.
Make simple equipment to use in caring for the sick. Such
equipment might include a tray, a bed table made from a card-
board box or tray, a back rest improvised from a suitcase or
chair, a foot support, a bed cradle, and a device to raise the bed
for convenient care.
Decide how to clean and care for a sickroom and its equip-
Observe demonstrations of correct methods for some of!
the following:
Using a clinical thermometer
Assisting a patient to stand or sit
Taking a pulse rate count
Making an unoccupied bed
Making an occupied bed
Preparing a hot water bottle
Preparing an attractive tray
Bathing and caring for a bed patient
Practice correctly some of the techniques observed in the
Suggest ways of isolating a person temporarily. List pre-
cautions that must be taken by all members of the family when
a patient is isolated.
Observe films illustrating home nursing techniques.
Discuss the dangers involved in the use of so-called "patent
Check the home medicine chest. Label the materials in the
chest. Discard all unnecessary items. Give special attention
to the identifying of poisons. Carry out any other steps neces-
sary to secure a safe, convenient storage center for home med-
ical supplies.
Equip and place conveniently a simple first aid kit for
school use. Prepare a similar one for home use.
Ask a Boy Scout, Girl Scout, or Red Cross representative


to demonstrate common first aid treatments. Practice these
in class.
Present a playlet or radio broadcast in which correct tech-
niques and procedures in caring for home illnesses are por-
trayed. (The American Red Cross has available materials.)

Bulletins, Booklets and Circulars
Home Play in Wartime. National Recreation Asso-
ciation, New York City.
Homemade Play Materials. Extension Bulletin No.
260, Division of Home Economics, Cornell University,
Ithaca, N. Y.
Home Service Center Booklets. Woman's Home Com-
panion, 250 Park Avenue, New York City.
Homemade Toys and Play Equipment. Extension
Bulletin No. 216, Extension Division, Michigan State
College, East Lansing, Michigan.
Preventing Accidents in Our Homes and on Our
Farms. The American National Red Cross, Washington,
D. C.
Sub-Deb Booklet Library. Elizabeth Woodward.
Reference Library, Ladies' Home Journal, Philadelphia,

United States Department of Labor, Children's Bureau,
Washington, D. C.:
Children Bear the Promise of a Better World. (A
series of twelve booklets)
Child Management. Publication No. 143
Home Play and Play Equipment for the Preschool
Child. Publication No. 238
The Child from One to Six. Publication No. 30

Florida State Board of Health, Jacksonville, Florida:
Vital Information Concerning the Prevention and
Control of Communicable Diseases. 1943.
Other materials available upon request.


How to Feed Young Children in the Home. The
Merrill-Palmer School, 71 East Ferry Avenue, Detroit,

ALLEN, B. and BRIGGS, M. P. Behave Yourself. J. B. Lippin-
cott Company, 1937.
ALLEN, B. and BRIGGS, M. P., If You Please. J. B. Lippincott
Company, 1942.
BAXTER, L., JUSTIN, M. M., RUST, L. O., Our Home and Family.
J. B. Lippincott Company, 1943.
BAXTER, L., JUSTIN, M. M., and RUST, L. 0., Sharing Home Life.
J. B. Lippincott Company, 1940.
BELL, LOUISE P., Parties In Wartime. Fleming H. Revel Com-
pany, 1943.
BLACK, KATHLEEN, Manners for Moderns. Allyn & Bacon, 1938.
BRADBURY, D. E. and AMIDON, E. P., Learning to Care for Chil-
dren. D. Appleton-Century Company, 1943.
BREEN, MARY J., The Party Book. A. S. Barnes & Company,
R. Adventures in Growing Up. American Book Company,
BURNHAM, H. A., JONES, E. G., and REDFORD, H. D. Boys Will
Be Men. J. B. Lippincott Company, 1942 (A revision of
The Boy and His Daily Living.)
CALVERT, M., and SMITH, L. B., Advanced Course in Homemak-
ing. Turner E. Smith and Company, 1939.
CALVERT, M. R., and SMITH, L. B., First Course in Home Mak-
ing. Turner E. Smith and Company, 1941.
GARRISON, C. G., and SHEEHY, E. D. At Home with Children.
Henry Holt & Company, 1943.
GILKEY, JAMES G., How To Be Your Best. The Macmillan Com-
pany, 1942.
GOODSPEED, H. C. and JOHNSON, E., Care and Guidance of Chil-
dren. J. B. Lippincott Company, 1938.
GREER, CARLOTTA C., Your Home and You. Allyn & Bacon, 1942.
GROVES, E. R., SKINNER, E. L., and SWENSON, S. J., The Family
and Its Relationships. J. B. Lippincott Company, 1941.


HARRIS, F. L., and HOUSTON, H. H., The New Home Economics
Omnibus. Little, Brown and Company, 1941.
HOWE, ELEANOR, Household Hints for Homemakers. D. Apple-
ton-Century Company, 1943.
JORDAN, H. M., ZILLER, M. L., BROWN. J. F., Home and Family.
The Macmillan Company, 1936.
JUSTIN, M. M. and RUST, L. 0., Home and Family Living. J.
B. Lippincott Company, 1941. (A revision of Home Living).
MARRAN, RAY J., Table Games. A. S. Barnes & Company, 1939.
MONTGOMERY, ELIZABETI-I R., Bonnie's Baby Brother and How
He Grew. Frederick A. Stokes Company, Philadelphia,
NORLIN, E. E., and DONALDSON, B. M., E'',i n7,,lti Nursing for
the Everyday Home. The Macmillan Company, 1942.
O'DONAHOE, MARIE, Child Care and Development. Little,
Brown and Company, 1943.
OLSON, LYLA M., Improvised Equipment in the Home Care of
the Sick. W. B. Saunders Company, 1939.
PARTRIDGE, E. D., and MOONEY, C., Time Out for Living. Amer-
ican Book Company, 1941.
PRICE, HAZEL H., Living With the Family. Little, Brown and
Company, 1942.
SCHARMER, F. M., Boy's Guide to Living. Allyn and Bacon,
SHACTER, HELEN, Understanding Ourselves. McKnight & Mc-
Knight, 1940.
SILVER, F. and RYAN, M. G., Foundations for Living. D. Apple-
ton-Century Company, 1943.
STEPHENSON, M. B., and MILLETT, R. L., As Others Like You.
McKnight and McKnight, 1936.
STEPHENSON, M. B., and MILLETT, R. L., How Do You Do.
McKnight and McKnight, 1938.
TRILLING, M. B., and NICHOLAS, The Girl and Her Home. Hough-
ton Mifflin Company, 1937.
TRILLING, M. B., and WILLIAMS, F., REEVES, G. G., Problems in
Home Economics. J. B. Lippincott Company, 1939.
TURNER, C. E., and McHOSE, E., Effective Living. The C. V.
Mosby Company, 1941.


YOUNG, W. P., and GARDNER, H. J., The Year 'Round Party
Book. J. B. Lippincott Company, 1936.
MASON, B. S., and MITCHELL, E. D. Social Games for Recrea-
tion. A. S. Barnes and Company, 1935.



Area V

Meeting My Clothing Problems
in Wartime

Learning to choose, make, and care for one's clothes is an
important part of a home economics course. Experiences in
good grooming or personal care, in selection of clothing suited to
one's needs, and in construction and maintenance of clothing
are of value at all times. In wartime such experiences are no
less important.
At present, however, it is necessary also that pupils become
aware of the changes taking place in the field of textiles and
clothing. They need to accept and use intelligently the guides
and restrictions connected with the purchase of clothing. Some
knowledge of old and new textile fibers and fabrics is neces-
sary for such intelligent buying. The pupils should be helped
to realize that types of clothing are changing. In a world of
women at work, clothing is becoming functional. Because con-
struction methods may need to be adapted to new fabrics and
changing styles, the teacher may need new standards for eval-
uating construction skills.
It is becoming apparent that greater emphasis will need to
be placed on the development of skills, not only in clothing con-
struction, but also in the selection, purchase, and care of cloth-
ing. With the purchase of new garments and fabrics becoming
more difficult, more attention will need to be given to wise use
of the allowance, and in many cases girls will need to be able
to sew. Since greater skill is usually required in the success-
ful remodeling of an old garment, probably the pupils in this
course will do only very simple renovating. Those girls with a
background of home experience in sewing might be permitted
more difficult projects. It is advisable that all pupils be made
aware that remodeling of clothing is a thrift practice worthy
of their attention.


The problems as outlined here are to be considered as sup-
plemental rather than as complete. For effective presentation
of the experiences in this area, the teacher should use the Home
Economics Course of Study, pages 137 to 150, in which general
problems of clothing selection, construction, and care are ade-
quately discussed. The teacher also should become informed of
current developments in the field of textiles and clothing
through a variety of sources. New bulletins, magazine articles,
and discussions with well-informed persons are helpful.

How can I be well groomed in wartime?

A. What are the essentials of good grooming? How does
the military personnel regard grooming?
B. How does good health contribute to good grooming?
C. In what techniques of personal care can we improve?
D. How have the materials needed to assist in good groom-
ing been affected by the war?

Suggested Activities
Consult druggists, beauticians, or salespeople to secure in-
formation about the war's effect on the materials and services
used in personal care.
Consider carefully your present grooming practices and
make plans to improve in these practices.
For additional suggestions see State Course of Study.

How can I select clothing to suit my needs.

A. What factors influence the selection of clothing for my-
self and family?
B. Why should one make a clothing inventory and a cloth-
ing budget? Why are they of special importance in these days
of government regulations?

C. How has the war affected the kinds of clothing we select i
1. What changes in design and style have you no-
ticed? Why have they been made? (Changes have been
made in the direction of simplicity of construction and
saving of material. They include fewer trimmings, elim-
ination of extra details such as pocket flaps and collars,.
narrower skirts, shorter jackets, and the like.)
2. How is the war changing the type of clothing
worn by civilians? Why are girls and women wearing
slacks, shorts, culottes, coveralls, and jumpers to a great-
er extent ?
D. What fibers and fabrics are being used in clothing to-
1. What fabrics are in general use? What fabrics
are scarce? What new fabrics are appearing? (If
time permits and group interest warrants the pupils may
consider textiles in some detail. At any rate, some men-
tion should be made of all the familiar fibers still in
common use. New fibers and fabrics now being devel-
oped may be included. Greatest emphasis, in any case,.
should be placed on the fabrics actually being used by
the pupils in clothing construction.)
2. What fabrics shall we use to construct our gar-
ments in class?

Suggested Activities
For bulletin board or poster, make a collection of pictures
and newspaper articles which show the war's influence on
On the basis of a carefully made inventory, make a cloth-
ing budget for yourself or some other member of your family.
Consider carefully such factors as the wearable clothing on
hand, the work to be done by the wearer, the probable avail-
ability of the garments or fabrics, and the amount of money
to be spent.
Make a study of garments illustrated in magazines and dis-
played in stores to determine recent changes in design and
style Discover reasons for these changes.
Discuss the types of clothing women should wear for such


activities as gardening, industrial work, and housework. Ex-
press your opinion as to the effect of present clothing practices
on future clothing standards.
Make a study of the fabrics you are using in the construc-
tion of your garments. Report to the class such findings as
the following: price and width; weave; care required; iden-
tifying characteristics; special finish; results of tests for shrink-
age; fading, sizing, strength, and the like; information given
by the manufacturer; and suitable uses.
For additional suggestions see the State Course of Study,
pages 138-146.

How can a simple article of clothing be constructed?

A. What pre-planning is necessary to successful clothing
construction ?
B. What construction can this group successfully under-
take? (The State Course of Study, pages 137-150, has sug-
gested problems and pupil experiences useful in developing
such skills as are required for construction of a simple garment.)

Suggested Activities
Become acquainted with the operation of a sewing machine.
Establish good practices in the use and care of a sewing ma-
Become familiar with the tools used in sewing. Practice
their proper use.
Outline the steps necessary before beginning actual con-
struction of the garment.
Investigate methods for shrinking cotton fabrics before
making them into garments. If the material which you plan
to use has not been shrunk, decide how it would be wise to
shrink it. Demonstrate a satisfactory method for use in class
or at home. (Many cotton fabrics now on the market have been
found to shrink considerably.)
Plan and construct a simple garment which will meet a need
in your wardrobe, and on which you can do successful and
independent work.


Evaluate the completed garment. Assist with the evaluation
of classmates' garments.

What care should be given to clothing?

A. What care shall we give to the garments we have made
in class?
1. How should they be pressed?
2. How should they be laundered or cleaned?
3. What additional care will they need?
B. What care can we give to other clothing?
1. What daily care of our clothing will prolong its
life and improve our personal appearance?
2. What special care should we give to clothing and
accessories ?

C. How shall we mend our clothes?

Suggested Activities
Outline the daily and special care which you should give
to the garment you have constructed. Assume some part of
this care such as pressing or laundering.
Examine the clothes in your clothes closet and care for them
in a suitable way.
List the garments you have which could be improved by re-
pairs. Select a garment to which you will give this repair.
Learn to darn hosiery. Assume some responsibility for
darning hosiery at home.
Mend a torn garment. Assume responsibility for making
similar repairs in family garments.
Wash and keep in repair the underwear and hose you wear
in one week.
Improve the facilities for storing unfinished garments at
Improve the facilities for storing your garments at home.


How can we obtain more service through'the
renovation of garments?

A. To what extent is remodeling economical? To what ex-
tent is remodeling taking the place of purchase of new gar-
ments ?
B. What renovation of clothing can this group do success-
fully? (Limitations of time and ability will determine ex-
periences in renovation in the basic course.)

Suggested Activities
Determine the garments you or your family have which
would give greater service if renovated or remodeled. Select
a garment which you could improve successfully. Figure the
cost of renovating, and determine its advisability. Carry out
this project.
Discuss the reasons for the increased amount of remodeling
being done and comment on its advisability at the present time.
Investigate present governmental restrictions in the pur-
chase of clothing and household textiles and the reasons for
these restrictions. Collect for the bulletin board all restrictions
published. Plan for ways of keeping the bulletin board up to

What points are to be considered in the purchase of clothing
and household textiles in wartime?

A. What guides for purchasing clothing and household tex-
tiles are given by manufacturers and governmental agencies ?
B. What governmental restrictions exist? What shortages

C. What other factors influence our choice of ready-made
clothing ?
1. What construction details should be observed?
2. Why is it economical to buy conservative clothing?


Suggested Activities
Interview a salesperson in a local store, to learn of changes
in buying practices because of present conditions. Report to
the class.
Bring to class garments which have proved to be good or
poor buys. Set up standards for judging quality in ready-
made garments.
From a local merchant or from personal wardrobe, borrow
a variety of ready-made garments. Critically evaluate them,
considering durability as evidenced in fabric and construction,
ease and cost of upkeep, frequency of use, and cost as com-
pared with similar garments made at home.
Assume responsibility for the purchase of some articles of
clothing. Plan the purchase and evaluate results.

United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Home
Economics, Washington, D. C.:

A, B, C's of Mending. Bulletin No. 1925.
Fitting Dresses and Blouses. Bulletin No. 1530 F.
Mending Men's Suits. Bulletin No. 482 MP.
Reclaim the Family Wardrobe.
Save Your Clothes.
Work Clothes for Women. Bulletin No. 1905 F.
Stitch in Time. Spool Cotton Company, 745 Fifth
Avenue, New York.
BAXTER, L., JUSTIN, M. M., and RUST, L. O., Our Clothing. J.
B. Lippincott Company, 1943.
CALVERT, M. R. and SMITH, L. B., First Course in Home Mak-
ing. Turner E. Smith and Company, 1941.
CALVERT, M., and SMITH, L. B., Advanced Course in Home Mak-
ing. Turner E. Smith and Company, 1939.
CRAIG, H. T. and RUSH, O. D., Clothes with Character. Little
Brown, and Company, 1941.


GREER, CARLOTTA, C., Your Home and You. Allyn and Bacon,
HAWES, E., Good Grooming. Little, Brown, and Company, 1942.
MATHEWS, M. L., Clothing: Selection and Care. Little, Brown,
and Company, 1936.
PICKEN, MARY B., Modern Dressmaking Made Easy. Funk
and Wagnalls Company, 1941.
RATHBONE, L., and TARPLEY, E., Fabrics and Dress. Houghtotn
Mifflin Company, 1943. (new revised edition)
RYAN, M. G., Your Clothes and Personality. D. Appleton-Cen-
tury Company, 1939.
SILVER, F. and RYAN, M. G., Foundations for Living. D. Apple-
ton-Century Company, .1943.



Area VI

Taking Stock of Our Accomplishments

and Planning Future Work

It is very important that some class time be devoted to a
critical evaluation of the year's experiences in home economics
in relation to objectives and plans set up at the beginning of
the year. Evidences of improved practices in school and home
living should be sought. It is necessary to devise some means
of determining what the pupils are actually doing at home as a
result of the class experiences. One should not indulge in
wishful thinking in making these evaluations but should be
concerned with observed improvement in personal and home
The pupils themselves should be led to make some analysis
and judgment of their development and progress during the
year. They should make some plans for summer projects in
their homes and in the community, and for experiences desired
in home economics classes next year.
In the activities connected with closing the department at
the end of the school year, many learning of value to pupils
are found. The girls should plan for and participate in these
activities. A detailed plan for this participation will'be found
in the problems which follow.
The recent bulletin, The CarrytOver Into Homes of the
Teaching of Family Living to In-School and Out-of-School
Youth,1 is the report of the work of a committee from the home
economics section of the American Vocational Association under
the chairmanship of Miss Letitia Walsh, and is devoted to an
analysis of carry-over and methods of teaching.' The following

SWALSIH, LETITIA, The Carry-Over Into Homes of the Teaching of
Family Living to In-School and Out-of-&chool Youth. The American
Vocational Association, Inc., Washington, D. C., 1943.


excerpts will give further interpretation and will give sugges-
tions to the teacher for evaluation of the carry-over of class
experiences into the homes of pupils:

Several hundred teachers from all parts of the United
States and from Puerto Rico contributed to this study
over three thousand illustrations of what they considered
evidences of successful carry-over. The state supervis-
ors who collected these illustrations from selected teach-
ers asked for evidences of student improvement in any or
all of the seven specified types of changed behavior. No
effort was made to make this list complete. The types
of changed behavior suggested were:
1. Improved ability to understand children, such
as might be evidenced by the kind of responsibilities
assumed with children.
2. Improved ability to get along with family
members, as evidenced, for example, in everyday re-
lationships in the home.
3. Improved work habits, as evidenced by man-
agement of time and preliminary planning.
4. Improved buying practices in purchasing such
commodities as foods, clothing, and recreation.
5. Improved personal appearance, as evidenced
in care of clothing and grooming.
6. Improved food practices, such as regularity in
eating, and the consumption of protective foods.
7. Increased technical skill in homemaking act-
tivities, such as food preparation, clothing construc-
tion, first aid and home care of the sick, and furniture
The method or methods used by the teachers in collect-
ing each evidence were requested. It was -.t.'l that
any method is satisfactory which provides evidences of
definite changes in students and in homes as a result of
teaching of family living. Wherever possible, the educa-
tional level of the student-grade in public school, out-
of-school youth or adult level-was furnished by the state

* *


1. Does the evidence indicate changed behavior? As
the Committee studied the materials submitted, six cri-
teria for evaluating carry-over into homes seemed to
emerge from the mass of evidences examined. Perhaps
the most crucial test that can be applied is whether there
is evidence of an actual change in behavior or merely an
indication of the subject-matter taught. It was sur-
prising how many fine statements of teaching content
showed up as evidences, particularly in the teaching of
consumer buying and home management.
2. Is the statement of changed behavior based on
facts? Compare these two reports: "Making garments
other than those assigned as class projects is done by a
decided minority of students, but those who do sewing
on their own make very successful garments; E- made
her Easter suit in school. I feel sure she will now do
most of the sewing for the family." Most teachers would
agree that wishful thinking has no place in a wartime
program. Yet it is easy to understand how such errors
in judgment occur. In more than four hundred evi-
dences on buying practices, individual allowances were
mentioned only four times; perhaps this is one explana-
tion for the fact that actual changes in buying practices
were so limited and one reason why there were so many
assumptions that training experience in school led, of
course, to similar practices at home.
Some of the teachers who seemed to accept, without
supporting evidence, statements of enormous improve-
ments in food practices might be helped to develop a
healthy skepticism if a comparison could be made with
findings more cautiously arrived at, as in some of the
available theses on carry-over. For example, in one thesis
a request for a day's dietary, including all foods eaten be-
tween meals, was utilized before and after teaching with
what seemed to be more accurate returns than some
teachers' plan of asking students to check a list of im-
provements in food practices. Obviously, too, for a re-
liable evaluation of carry-over the evidence needs to be
checked by more than one method.
3. Is the statement of changed behavior specific?
Vague generalizations unsupported by specific data rarely
offer any concrete "leads" toward further growth to
either a student or a teacher. One teacher, for example,
reported "M- has hated school but has found herself


in homemaking and is gradually changing her attitude."
One need not be a confirmed pessimist to realize that, un-
supported by specific evidence, such a comfortable gener-
alization may be merely the result of some superior "apple
polishing" on M- 's part. Another instructor wrote:
"T- saw no use in homemaking. She was forced to
take it. During the clothing construction unit she made
a dress that was admired by her non-home economics
classmates. This spurred her on to make three more and
to make over a dress for a neighbor just, as she said,
"to try her skill". She gained the skill in homemaking
but the satisfaction of approval from her classmates
really did the encouraging." Isn't this specific analysis
far more wholesome for both the student and the teacher ?
4. Is much of the evidence from unsupervised situa-
tions? Every teacher knows that there may be a vast dif-
ference in the conduct of the same student in a supervised
and an unsupervised situation. It is fatally easy, however,
to lose sight of this unpleasant fact. One evidence states:
"After a short unit on Advanced Textiles my girls bought
just the right materials for their class projects. I think
I can confidently say that all the students in my Home-
making III class are 100 per cent buyers." On the other
hand, a student reports: "I have been buying all my own
clothes this year on a planned budget and I think I got
my money's worth with one exception. I bought a green
dress which I have not worn so much because I think it
makes me look a lot bigger than I really am. I have a
lot to learn and I think I'll keep on learning."
5. Is the changed behavior in the direction of desir-
able adolescent growth? The stress and strain of wartime
living upon sensitive adolescents seems to make this cri-
terion especially important. In one evidence a teacher
told with pride how mothers reported that, since study-
ing home economics, their daughters refused to wear
dresses that did not have the checks and plaids matched.
A teacher with a different sense of values told of "F-
who had no furniture in their living room. She made
some chairs, and a table out of barrels and boxes. When
finished, she felt more like inviting people to her home.
Her classmates went, had fun, and respected her much
more than they did before."
6. Is the evidence such as to indicate that the chang-
ed behavior has some degree of permanence? All teachers
know the beguiling enthusiasm with which a youngster


would demand, "Miss W- when are we going to
check breakfasts again? I have had breakfast every day
this week, and good ones, too!" In contrast, M- 's
long, hard pull to improve her food practices, in spite of
serious family difficulties, definitely lacks glamour! Yet,
After two years, a nervous, underweight, tearful girl who
started to get more of the "Bravery Vitamin B" has not
only achieved normal fitness but also secured such family
improvements as cod liver oil for baby brother.

Most teachers indicated that they had "checked and
double-checked" on the carry-over which they reported.
Talking with students, parents, and other adults led in
the methods of collecting evidences. Observation at
school, in the homes, and throughout the community also
ranked high. Perhaps the most revealing evidences came
from reports written by the students themselves or by
their parents. Reports on home experiences can supply
these, or students may be asked to write an honest de-
scription with no credit given and no penalty for not re-
porting. Whatever methods of collecting evidences are
employed, every teacher is likely to be intrigued by the
results. She may agree with an eleventh grade girl who
had to clerk in her parents' little home store, so went to
work to use her school learning to improve its appearance
and rearrange it to make it more convenient in the belief,
she said, "that the way to relieve the monotony of your
job is to think of ways to improve it."


In view of the plans made at the beginning of the year what
progress has been made toward accomplishing them?
What changes have been made in the original plans?

Suggested Activities
Read again the plans which you and your group made at
the beginning of the year. Review your year's activities in
the light of these plans to judge the progress you have made

toward their accomplishment. Determine the value of changes
made in the plans as the activities progressed.

To what extent has progress been made in developing ability
to solve homemaking problems?

Suggested Activities
Recall specific instances in which your work in home eco-
nomics has assisted in the solution of homemaking problems.
Discuss the extent to which your home projects have contributed.

What additional experiences can I choose that will be helpful
in solving future homemaking problems?

Suggested Activities
Make plans for summer and vacation projects which inter-
est you and which have value for you in solving homemaking,
problems. Secure help from your teacher or other competent
adults as the projects develop. Report your success to the
class at a future time.
Discuss with your teacher and your parents the advisability
of your continuing in home economics class for another term.
Make the necessary plans. When the classes begin next term
be prepared to suggest definite experiences which you would
enjoy and by which you would profit.

What activities are necessary in order to close the home
economics rooms at the end of the year's work?

Suggested Activities
Participate in the closing of the home economics depart-
The following list is suggestive of the points usually con-
sidered in closing the department:


1. Inventory-A complete inventory of the entire
department should be made. This should be checked
against the inventory the teacher found or made of the
department last Fall. The Spring inventory should show
the additions made to the department during the year
and also the needs for replacements for next year.
2. Books-All books should be inventoried. They,
as well as pamphlets and bulletins will need to be stored
where they are protected from mice and rats and from
dampness and dust. Wrap them in newspaper and store
in a cupboard or on shelves where they can be thus pro-
tected. An inventory also should be made of all period-
icals, and other printed materials used for source and
reference. Those that are the personal property of the
teacher should be so marked and listed separately.
3. Textile Furnishings-All textile furnishings will
need protection from mice, roaches, silverfish and damp-
ness; wool must be protected from moths also.
a. Curtains, draperies, wall hangings, slip cov-
ers, lounge and machine covers, ironing sheets, table
and bed linen and dish towels should be washed or
cleaned. All stains or spots should be removed; such
articles should be ironed or pressed, folded carefully
(preferably wrapped in 'paper), and stored in draw-
ers or boxes which are plainly labeled.
b. Rugs should be thoroughly cleaned, sprayed
or sprinkled with a moth preventive, covered with
newspapers and rolled and tied. Small ones may be
put into drawers or cupboards.
c. Cushions, lampshades and similar articles
should be brushed well, cleaned and wrapped in
paper and stored in cupboards or drawers, safe from
the ravages of vermin and climate.
d. Over-stuffed or upholstered furniture should
be brushed to remove dust, spots removed and the fab-
ric protected from fading and dust by covering with
heavy paper securely fastened. This and other furni-
ture should be stored where it will not be molested
during the summer. Metal furniture may need a thin
film of oil to keep it from rusting.
4. Vases, Pottery, Bookends, and Other Decorative
Objects-These need a thorough cleaning. Wrapping them
in paper before storing them in a cupboard or box may
be needed for proper protection.. Pictures should be
taken down, dusted and wrapped in paper before storing.


5. In the Clothing Laboratory.
a. Sewing machines should be thoroughly clean-
ed and oiled to prevent parts from rusting. Bobbins,
needles, and attachments should be removed and
packed in carefully labeled boxes.
Special care should be taken to see that the ma-
chines are moved from under or near the windows.
Heavy paper folded over the top and well down on
the sides and pinned to make a "boxed" cover will
afford additional protection from scratches and gen-
eral marring.
b. Ironing Board and Iron-Since a good electric
iron is not easily replaced, this should have special
care. In this damp climate a light oiling will protect
it from rust. It should be stored in some place that
can be locked. The ironing board cover should be
removed and, if not the built-in type, the board
should be covered with strong paper to keep the pad
c. Scissors, pinking shears and other small equip-
ment should be packed in carefully labeled boxes and
stored in a locked desk or cupboard.
d. Mirrors-Some teachers have had the experi-
ence of having the roaches eat the quick silver off the
mirror because the wooden back had cracked or sprung
sufficiently to allow the roaches to get into the glass.
This may be prevented by putting on a new ply-wood
back or tacking a sheet of corrugated cardboard
tightly over the back and painting it with book
6. The Foods Laboratory.
a. Foods-All perishable foods should be dis-
posed of; this includes all foods which would deteri-
orate, even if properly stored, in three or four months.
Any food left should be stored in glass or tin con-
tainers with tight covers and carefully labeled. If
these cannot be locked up one may lose both food and
container, in which case it might be better to dispose
of the food and save the container. Even an unopen-
ed cardboard or paper container is not suitable for
over-the-summer storage.
b. Matches-If left, must be in a closed tin or
cleaned and oiled to prevent rusting. Kerosene should
c. Stoves and Ovens-Should be thoroughly
glass container to prevent fire.


be emptied from the tanks and pipes of kerosene
stoves, and electric stoves should be disconnected.
Metal oven racks need to be well dried and oiled and
the tops of all types of stoves should be covered with
paper to protect the burners.
d. Desk Equipment and Cooking Utensils-All
small equipment should be cleaned and thoroughly
dried. A film of oil will prevent rust collecting on
metal ware. All heavy iron or other metal utensils
should be greased. Usually less equipment is lost if
it can be removed from desks, and all of one type
stored together in cupboards and drawers. Worn out
or badly damaged utensils should be discarded or dis-
posed of in any way approved by the principal, su-
perintendent, and the school board. This should be
noted on the inventory.
e. Dishes and Silverware-Dishes should be clean
and covered to keep off dust. Silverware should be
cleaned and polished and stored to prevent scratching
and tarnishing. If the school owns a chest lined with
material treated to prevent tarnishing this problem
is simple. Tissue paper or flannel so treated can be
purchased. If either is available, each piece should
be wrapped in the tissue, or cases may be made
the treated fabric. Colored, not white, outing flannel
makes satisfactory cases. Wrapping each piece in
newspaper is quite satisfactory. Silverware is one
of the department's most expensive possessions and
it should be stored in the school safe or locked file in
the principal's office.



Advanced Elective Courses in
Home and Family Living

Problems Suggested
for Home Economics II, III, and IV

Introduction to Advanced Problems

One of the controlling purposes of home economics educa-
tion in high school should be to prepare pupils for assuming
the responsibilities of the homemaker. These responsibilities
include provision for food for the family; selection, care, and
construction of clothing; care and guidance of children; se-
lection, furnishing, and care of the house; selection and use of
home equipment; maintenance of health; home care of the
sick; consumer-buying; management of all material and hu-
man resources available to the home; maintenance of satisfac-
tory family relationships; application of the arts and sciences
to the home.
The basic course, The Home and Family, orients the pupil
in the various aspects of homemaking. In this course the pupils
deal with a few fundamental problems in each of the above
areas. It is difficult, however, to develop appreciable degrees
of skill in all of these areas during the one year.
The war is causing young people to assume many home
responsibilities for which additional skills, information, tech-
niques, appreciations, and attitudes are needed. The family
welfare may depend on the degree to which these responsibilities
can be assumed successfully by these young people. Keeping in
mind the ways in which the war has affected Florida families,
some advanced problems are presented here, the solution of
which should help young people make a more satisfactory ad-
justment of their immediate home and family problems to meet
the impact of war. These problems are offered to the teacher
as elective courses illustrative of the type which she and the
pupils can plan cooperatively to meet best the needs of the
groups and the individuals within the homemaking groups. The
choice and emphasis in subject matter and the experiences pro-
vided will vary in accordance with the needs, maturity, and
previous experiences of the pupils enrolled.
There is no recommendation made here for any sequence
of units or courses to be followed, nor should it be implied that

these are the only units or courses which can be offered during
the second, third and fourth year of home economics in high
school. There are many other true-to-life problems which the
teacher and pupils can attempt to solve together.
It is expected however, that the experiences planned for
each year in advanced home economics will be selected from
more than one area in home economics. In the consideration
of each area, experiences should be provided which will help
pupils not only to develop judgment, skills, managerial ability,
but also to evaluate the worth of their work.



Advanced Elective Courses in

Home and Family Living

Grade Placement: Tenth, eleventh, and twelfth grades
Prerequisite: Home Economics I-The Home and Family
Time Allowance: The equivalent of sixty minutes daily

An Advanced Course in Child Care
1. What responsibilities do we have in the care of children?
2. How can I understand the physical needs of children?
3. How can older boys and girls help children to develop
desirable behavior patterns?
4. What child care service am I now able to render?

An Advanced Course in Home Nursing
An Advanced Course in Foods and Nutrition
1. What present restrictions influence our selection of food
for the family?
2. How can I help select foods and plan meals for my fam-
ily under present conditions?
3. How can I assist in the preparation and service of food
for family meals?
4. How can I assist in the preparation of food for large
groups ?
5. How can I participate in family and community con-
servation of food?

An Advanced Course in Textiles and Clothing
1. How can I select clothes successfully?
2. How can my family work together to make wiser cloth-
ing choices?
3. What assistance can I give in the selection of household
textiles ?

4. How can I construct and remodel clothing more skill-
fully for myself and the members of my family?
5. How can I give better care to my clothing and help care
for the family's clothing?

Foundations for Modern Living: A Course in Personal Problelms
1. What problems are facing young people today?
2. How can I make wise decisions concerning my social
and recreational activities?
3. How can I learn to use my money wisely?
4. What should I consider in choosing my vocation?
5. How can I prepare to meet the further responsibilities
of adulthood?

A Course in Group Feeding or Quantity Food Preparation
and Service
1. How is food prepared and served in our lunchroom?
2. How can we assist with food service?
3. How can we assist with food preparation?
4. How can the school make the best use of the lunchroom?
5. How can we assist in the management of the lunchroom ?



An Advanced Course in Child Care

Through the years the care of younger children has been
an important part of the home responsibility of 'teen-age girls.
It has been an activity that they have enjoyed so much that
for some girls it has developed into a way of earning money
outside of their homes. For others it has meant the interesting
beginning of an adult vocation. For many others it has been
training for the future responsibilities of parenthood and home-
As has been the case in other phases of home life, the war
has increased the child care responsibilities of young people.
Boys and girls are being called upon to relieve the anxiety and
to save the strength of parents engaged in war work by assist-
ing with managerial aspects of child care in their homes for
longer periods of time and often under conditions of strain and
tension. Training for these responsibilities is urgently needed.
In communities where the needs of little children of working
mothers have made necessary the establishment of day nurs-
eries, nursery schools, or children's centers young people can
render additional service. Many work opportunities exist in
connection with such community enterprises and many valuable
learning experiences result. Furthermore, child care is a recog-
nized project suggested for pupils who wish to qualify for gen-
eral membership in the Victory Corps, and for special member-
ship in its community service section.
A course such as is outlined in this bulletin should supply
the training needed for high school pupils to assist in the intel-
ligent management in home care of children as well as for a
greater degree of effective participation in community projects
in child care. It should be offered to young people who are
interested in it, ready for it, and able to profit by taking it.
A measure of its success will be the increased amount of intel-
ligent participation in home and community child care on the
part of young people.


In order to make the course profitable many opportunities
for contacts with children should be given. The pupils should
be directed in the observation of the young children of their
friends and acquaintances and of the children in nursery
schools, kindergartens, and lower elementary grades. General
conclusions as to desirable techniques for dealing with chil-
dren based on actual experiences with specific children will give
the course much meaning. In addition to providing the op-
portunity for pupils to gain experience in handling children it
affords an opportunity for pupil growth in other phases of
homemaking such as: foods, nutrition, clothing selection, con-
struction and care, and in family relationships.
Some consideration should be given to the problems involved
in caring for the children in other homes for pay. While such
service smooths out many difficulties for tired mothers and
furnishes needed funds for girls there are -some precautions to
be observed. The teacher should not allow her class to function
as an employment agency. She should caution girls, however,
to know something about the homes in which they work, and
should suggest to the girls that the children's mothers will ex-
pect careful, intelligent service from them. Some class consid-
eration and discussion of the conduct of a girl who is caring
for a child in another's home may well be given. A check list
such as the one at the conclusion of this outline might be used
for the protection of all concerned. The experiences in child
care as suggested here could be covered in eleven or twelve

What responsibilities do we have in the care of children?

A. What home responsibilities do we have in the care of
children? Has the war increased these responsibilities?
B. With what community projects involving the care of
children can we assist?
1. What conditions in our community make some proj-
ect in community care of children desirable?


2. How has the war increased the need for community
care of children both nationally and in our community?
3. What is our community doing to help with children
who need care?
4. In what ways can high school pupils render service?

Suggested Activities
Find out what provisions the government is making to care
for young children of working mothers, especially those moth-
ers employed in war industries. Investigate local conditions
to determine existing need for such care and existing means
of giving it.
Investigate the possibility of giving regular service in such
places as maternal and child health clinics, settlements, recrea-
tion centers, day nurseries, nursery schools, libraries, Sunday
schools, and children's centers. Determine the training re-
quired for the service you will give and take steps to secure
that training.
Report on the preschool clinics held in many communities
under the sponsorship of the Parent-Teacher Association or
other organizations and agencies. If your community has a
clinic, *assume responsibility for acquainting some mothers of
preschool children with the clinic.
Study your community to find the number of children of
preschool age and determine what types of care are needed
to supplement or substitute for home care.

How can I understand the physical needs of children?

A. How can a young child be given a good start in life?
1. What is meant by being well-born?
2. What is the responsibility of the family for the com-
ing baby?
3. How can the mother take best care of herself be-
fore the baby is born?
B. What are the food needs of children?
1. What foods are best for young children?

a. What is the best food for a baby? What supple-
ments should be added during the first year ?
b. What foods should be given to the runabout child?
2. What foods may be added to the diet of older chil-
3. How can good food habits be established?
C. What needs do children have for sleep and rest?
1. How much sleep is recommended for children of
various ages?
2. What home conditions are conducive to building good
habits of rest and sleep?
D. How should young children be given adequate personal
care ?
1. How should a baby be bathed and dressed?
2. How should young children be bathed? What prog-
ress in bathing himself should a young child make? What
progress in dressing himself may be expected during pre-
school years?
3. How should a young child be trained in toileting?
What adaptations of bathroom equipment will facilitate the
establishment of good toileting procedure?
E. What kind of clothing is best for children?
1. What fabrics are best suited to clothing for Florida
children ?
2. What styles of clothing are best for freedom of ac-
tivity and for self-help?
3. How should children's clothing be constructed?
4. How should children's clothing be cared for?
F. What kind of exercise and play will best contribute to
the physical development of children?
1. How does a baby exercise? How should such exer-
cise be directed and encouraged?
2. How does physical exercise contribute to a child's
posture? What other factors are involved?
3. How do the play interests of children change as
they develop?
4. What may older children and adults do to make
children's play most beneficial?

G. How can scheduling a child's activities contribute to his
development ?
1. Why should a daily schedule of activities be made
and adhered to? What routines should be included?
2. What factors may make changes in the daily sched-
ule desirable ?
H. How can children be protected from illness and accident?
1. What are the signs of health in children? What
signs of oncoming illness should one be able to recognize?
If symptoms of illness occur, what should be done?
2. Why should children be given health examinations
at regular intervals? How frequently should they be ex-
amined at various ages?
3. How should children be protected from communi-
cable diseases ?
a. Why should babies and young children be kept
away from crowds?
b. What responsibility does an older person in
charge of groups of children have in checking on signs
of communicable disease?
c. For what diseases of early childhood is immuniza-
tion desirable?
4. How can we help to provide safer living conditions
for children?
a. What are some common causes of home accidents
to children?
b. What accident hazards for children exist in our
community ?
c. What can we do to make our homes and com-
munity safer?

Suggested Activities
Using as a guide in observation, the standards outlined in
the state-adopted texts, The Girl and her Home, pages 290-291,
and Care and Guidance of Children, pages 3-4 and 129-130,
observe a child whom you see frequently. Carry on the ob-
servation over a period of time. Note any physical changes or
changes in behavior that occur.


Ask an expectant mother to tell you how the doctor has
suggested that she care for herself before her baby is born.
Investigate the milk supply in your community, and report
on its purity and the amount available for children. Determine
how the community is assured a pure milk supply.
Prepare a chart showing the minerals and vitamins needed
by a child in the first year. Indicate sources of these nutrients
in the diets, suggested by the physician, of babies whom you
Demonstrate the preparation of a formula for a bottle-fed
baby. Include sterilization of equipment, and preparation of
a bottle for actual feeding.
Using authoritative sources construct a chart showing the
foods included in the baby's diet during the first year. Indi-
cate when each food is added and the form in which it is given.
Plan and prepare a day's diet for a three-year-old child.
Be sure to include all foods necessary for an adequate diet.
If it can be arranged, assume responsibility for feeding a
young child in your family for a period of time. List the
habits which are desirable for children to learn. Report the
method which you used for helping the child, whose eating you
are supervising, learn one of these habits.
Guide a younger child in your family in learning to feed
Take or share responsibility for planning, preparing, and
serving nourishing home meals which take account of the needs
of children. See that the children have these meals at regular
hours in your home or in another's home.
Take over the packing of school lunch boxes for younger
children in your home.
Work out some plans for helping younger children select
and eat foods prepared for them in the school.
In an elementary class room, supervise an animal experi-
ment, in which the effect of poor diet is shown.
Assist the first grade or kindergarten teacher in serving
the midmorning lunch.
Study the menus used in a nursery school or children's cen-
ter in your community, and suggest the foods they should have
at other meals during the day if the diet is to be adequate.
Read to discover the plans being carried out for feeding

children in the occupied and warring countries. Report to the
class on the plans and need for additional assistance.
Make a comfortable bed for a baby out of a clothes basket.
Visit a nursery school, children's center, or the home of a
young child to note the arrangements for securing rest during
naps and night-time sleep. Report your observations to the
class. If possible, make some improvement in the sleeping room
or sleeping conditions of a child in your home.
Assemble the minimum equipment needed for a baby's bath.
Explain the use of each article. Estimate the total cost.
Plan the changes necessary in the home bathroom to encour-
age desirable toilet habits in a runabout child.
Request a nurse or mother in the neighborhood to demon-
strate the bathing of the baby. Demonstrate the necessary
techniques yourself using a doll. If desirable and possible, as-
sist in bathing a baby at home and finally assume some respon-
sibility for bathing a baby.
Guide a young child in learning to bathe and dress himself
and to care for his clothing.
Make an exhibit of clothing suitable for a young child in
your community. Display this exhibit at a P. T. A. meeting
or at the nursery school.
Prepare an exhibit of old-fashioned clothing for babies
and young children. Place in the exhibit some simple, well-
constructed clothing used for children today. Make compari-
sons as to the appropriateness of the garments, the freedom
allowed the child, and the ease of laundering.
With the assistance of a local store or a mother in the neigh-
borhood, prepare an exhibit of the articles needed for a com-
plete layette and explain the reason for the choices made. Com-
pare the cost of the articles if purchased ready-made with their
cost if made at home.
Through the local welfare office select children in families
which need help. Secure the cooperation of the mother in let-
ting girls in the home economics classes work on providing for
the clothing needs of these children.
Help elementary children to learn to mend, darn, and care
for their clothing.
Make an inventory of the clothing owned by a younger
brother or sister. List new garments needed and those which


need to be laundered or repaired. Make and carry out plans
for securing new garments and renovating others on hand.
Evaluate results.
Demonstrate the laundering of garments for a baby.
If there is a baby in your home, assume responsibility for
laundering some of the baby garments at home.
Arrange a suitable space in the home for storing children's
clothing so they can help with the care of their clothes.
Observe children at play on the streets and on the school
playground. Observe the activities carried on, noting the ones
which develop the larger muscles. Report your observations
to the class.
Make a schedule for a baby in your neighborhood after dis-
cussing the baby's daily routine with the mother.
Keep a weight and height record of your younger brother
or sister.
Study your community to determine the accident hazards
for children. Take part in a campaign to eliminate these haz-
ards and to make the community safer for children.
Inspect your home and list the things that might cause ac-
cidents to children. Decide what could be done to remove the
possible cause. Report progress in removing one or more acci-
dent hazards.
Secure a list of the signs of health in children and check a
child in your own home or neighborhood for these signs. If the
child is in your home and some of these signs are lacking, sug-
gest to its mother the possible need for a further check by a
Find out what provision has been made for immunizing chil-
dren against diphtheria in your community.

How can older boys and girls help children to
develop desirable behavior patterns?

A. Why is good physical health a factor in a child's be-
B. How does a daily schedule influence the formation of
desirable habits?

C. Why is a satisfactory home environment a factor in a
child's behavior?
1. What does heredity mean in a child's life? What
characteristics are inherited?
2. What inherited characteristics can be modified by
environment? (Consider, for example, the effect of poor
diet or poor health facilities on a person who was healthy
at birth.)
D. Why is a satisfactory community environment a factor
in a child's behavior? What behavior problems are direct or
indirect results of war conditions?
E. What behavior problems of children can older boys and
girls help solve?

Suggested Activities
Invite a nursery school supervisor or some other person
who is trained in child care to discuss in class intelligent ways
of dealing with undesirable forms of child behavior.
Observe a baby in his first year and report on his physical,
social, and emotional development as evidenced by such fac-
tors as his gain in weight, his muscular coordination, his aware-
ness of the world around him and his responses to it.
Take responsibility for helping younger children to get up
and dress on time in the morning and to go to bed on time at
Help a younger child in your home to develop the ability
and willingness to do his share in the work of the household.
List household tasks which might be expected of a two-year
old; a four-year old; a six-year old.
Observe children at play, note the things they do that you
consider profitable and note the desirable attitudes shown by
individual children. Report your observations to the class.
Organize a small play group of children in your immedi-
ate neighborhood. Secure adult cooperation in getting such
equipment as is necessary and suitable. Guide and direct the
play of the children.
Visit a nursery school or children's center to note the play
equipment provided for children of the age levels present. Ob-

serve the way the equipment is used. Plan some suitable equip-
ment for a child in your home.
Arrange an exhibit of good and bad toys for babies and
young children of various ages explaining why they are suit-
able or unsuitable.
Help a young child to assume responsibility for the adequate
care of a pet.
Arrange for the class to give a party for a group of children
of preschool or early elementary school age.
Compile lists of interesting stories you would read 'to chil-
dren of various ages. Select a story you consider good for a
child of a certain age and ask the class to evaluate your choice.
Make preparations and read the story to the child.
Collect kits of toys and play materials that can be cleaned
easily, sterilized, or renewed for loan to families living in trail-
ers or other crowded quarters.
As a group participate in salvaging and repairing toys suit-
able for use by small children. Present the toys to some agency
or organization for use in a children's center.
Make simple picture books of study materials using objects
familiar to the child.
Use the school paper as a means of creating interest in the
things boys and girls can do for small children.

What child care service am I now able to render?

A. What responsibilities in child care formerly assumed by
adults in my home can I now take?
B. What services in child care am I now able to give to.
friends and neighbors?
C. What assistance can I now give in child care programs
conducted by community organizations and agencies?

Suggested Activities
Render wartime service in your own home by helping, in
some of the following ways:
Take over the care of younger children's clothes

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