TEACHING MORAL AND
IN FLORIDA SCHOOL
BULLETIN 14 >
STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
THOMAS D. BAILEY, Superintendent
3 1S. 0o9 15
F<' 3o b
TEACHING MORAL AND
IN FLORIDA SCHOOL
BULLETIN 14 /
7/c' r/, STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION *
THOMAS D. BAILEY, Superintendent
375. cc 77757
STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION
HON. FARRIS BRYANT, Governor; President, State Board of
HON. TOM ADAMS, Secretary of State
HON. RICHARD W. ERVIN, Attorney General
HON. J. EDWIN LARSON, State Treasurer
HON. THOMAS D. BAILEY, State Superintendent of Public Instruc-
tion; Secretary, State Board of Education
The publication of this guide was unanimously approved
by the State Board of Education on October 24, 1961. This bul-
letin is approved for use on a voluntary basis in the public
schools of Florida.
A PRIMARY PURPOSE of education in our country is to
maintain, perpetuate, and improve our American Way of
If this is to be done, education must help to develop in our
children and youth the fundamentals necessary for their social,
political, economic, and spiritual well-being. State Departments of
Education have through the years provided extensive guidance
for teachers in teaching about the social, political, and economic
areas of life, but I feel that too often we have failed to give
sufficient guidance and encouragement in the area of spiritual
and moral values.
There seems to be general agreement among American leaders
in education that our schools have a responsibility to help
children to develop those moral principles which are necessary
for their sound growth and development. There is abundant evi-
dence that our founding fathers believed that these moral prin-
ciples-and the liberties which grow out of these principles-
have their origin in God. This belief is eloquently summarized in
the quotation from Thomas Jefferson which is inscribed on the
S Jefferson Memorial in our nation's Capital: "God who gave life
gave us liberty. Can the liberties of a nation be secure when we
have removed a conviction that these liberties are the gift of
I am in hearty accord with Jefferson's historic statement, and
S it is my hope that the public schools of Florida will not only place
Emphasis on the moral principles which undergird our nation's
_ liberties but that these schools will also develop in our young
people an appreciation and understanding of the significant part
that faith in God has played in the development of our great
To be silent about religion and the contributions of God-
centered religious thought to the growth and development of our
nation may be, in effect, to make the public schools an anti-
P religious factor in the community.
Silence creates the impression in the minds of the young that
religion is unimportant and has nothing to contribute to the solu-
tion of the perennial and ultimate problems of human life. The
negative consequences are all the more important when society
is asking the public schools to assume more and more re-
sponsibility for dealing with the cultural problems of growth and
Most confusion on this issue results from a lack of clear dif-
ferentiation between the function of the church and the home
on the one hand and the school on the other.
The basic difference appears to be in the meaning of "teach
to believe" and "study to understand." The church and the home
must teach "to believe." The school must never supplant the
church and the home in their responsibility of teaching chil-
dren "to believe." The school can, however, reinforce the church
and the home by cultivating in the children an appreciation
and understanding of the moral and spiritual foundations which
undergird our American Way of Life.
This Guide has been developed to assist teachers in the public
schools to carry out more effectively this responsibility)
It is not my intention to inaugurate a program for sectarian
religious instruction in the public schools, and I do not contem-
plate any abrogation of the traditional separation of church and
state. The purpose of this Guide is to assist teachers to develop
in students appreciation and understanding of the moral and
spiritual values in American democracy and to present more
effectively the contributions of religion to our American Way
The chief recommendations I gave to the committee which
developed this Guide were:
1. No new course or courses should be developed, but rather
those values which permeate all of American culture should
be emphasized as they emerge logically and naturally in
the context of the already existing curriculum.
2. The committee should proceed slowly. They should develop
a tentative guide which would be used by a number of
schools on a volunteer basis.
3. The committee should then use the experience gained
through pilot studies to develop a more permanent guide
which would be published. Even after publication the Guide
should be used only by those schools which voluntarily
decide, with the approval of local school authorities and the
community in general, that it would help to enrich their
This Guide is offered to the public schools in Florida as an
instrument for helping school faculties develop and improve
their own programs of teaching moral and spiritual values.
The suggestions in the Guide are intended to motivate and stim-
ulate ideas in the development of individual programs; they are
not a prescribed program for teaching moral and spiritual values.
I wish to express my deep and sincere appreciation to the
members of the committee who developed this material and to
those schools which tried out the material and contributed to the
improvement and further development of this program.
THOMAS D. BAILEY
State Superintendent of Public Instruction
R ECOGNIZING the need for a guide for Florida teachers in
the area of moral and spiritual values, State Superintendent
Thomas D. Bailey on October 11, 1955, sought the approval of the
State Board of Education in initiating procedures to develop such
a guide. Following approval of the State Board of Education,
State Superintendent Bailey requested county superintendents
and other educational leaders throughout the state to recommend
persons for membership on a state committee which would be
charged with responsibility for developing a teachers' guide in
The following persons accepted an invitation from the State
Superintendent to become members of this committee:
Dr. Eugene Boyce, Associate Dean, School of Education, Florida
State University, Chairman.
Dr. Samuel R. Neel, President, Manatee Junior College, Bradenton,
Consultant for Committee
Rev. William M. Belk, Director of Christian Education for Florida
Synod, Presbyterian Church, U. S.
Dr. B. Frank Brown, Principal, Melbourne High School, Melbourne
Dr. Joan Carey, Former Professor of Education, College of Education
University of Florida
Miss Helen E. Deans, Associate Professor of Education, The Uni-
versity School, Florida State University
Mr. Charles R. Fee, Teacher, Thomas Jefferson High School, Tampa
Dr. Robert D. Gates, Coordinator of National Defense Education
Act, State Department of Education
Mrs. Mary Hardy, Teacher, Boca Ciega High School, St. Petersburg
Mrs. William Z. Harmon, Kindergarten Teacher, Sarasota
Dr. Julia M. Haven, Professor, School of Education, University of
Mrs. Terry Kirton, Dean of Girls, Adams Junior High School, Tampa
Miss Amy E. Lawson, Teacher, Grand Avenue Elementary School,
Dr. Otis McBride, Director, Audio-Visual Education, Florida State
Mrs. Margaret M. McGill, Coordinator of Curriculum, Duval
Miss Nanetta Majoros, Educational TV Teacher, Dade County,
Mrs. Selma B. Mirman, Principal, Coral Park Elementary School,
Dr. Sam H. Moorer, Director, Division of Instructional Services,
State Department of Education
Dr. Ray V. Sowers, Chairman, Division of Education, Stetson
Mrs. Myron Taylor, Elementary Supervisor, Lake County, Mt. Dora
Mr. David L. Wilmot, Consultant, Music Education, State Depart-
ment of Education
Twelve Florida schools were selected to participate as pilot
schools to study the 1956 work draft and use it as a guide to
improvement of their own programs in the development of moral
and spiritual values. These schools were:
Santa Rosa County:
Micanopy Junior High School, Micanopy
Jennings High School, Jennings
Orange Grove School, Tampa
Roosevelt School, Tampa
Thomas Jefferson High School, Tampa
Lincoln High School, Tallahassee
Chiefland High School, Chiefland
Williston High School, Williston
Southside Elementary School, Crestview
Bartow Junior High School, Bartow
Floral Avenue Elementary School, Bartow
Canal Street School, Milton
Acknowledgment is due the following members of the State
Department of Education who assisted with this publication:
J. K. Chapman, Joseph W. Crenshaw, Howard Jay Friedman,
John P. McIntyre, and William H. Pierce.
There is a sense in which our crisis in education may be said
to have a spiritual dimension in that it relates to the uncertain-
ties and anxieties that now so frequently characterize our people
in their quest for meaningful and purposeful endeavor. Educa-
tion is an important bearer of the spiritual life as this is broadly
conceived as a life for purpose and value. It is a creator, pro-
tector, critic, and continuator of those values that mark our
culture in its higher reaches, that impart to it its distinguishing
character and determine in large measure what will be precious
to the individual and worth the price of his commitment and
pursuit. It is inevitable, therefore, that any radical disturbance
or confusion in our educational life reflects the condition of our
society and culture at their very center and that the resolution
of major educational difficulties will affect with titmost impor-
tance the spiritual foundations of our Nation.
-STERLING M. MCMURRIN,
United States Commissioner of Education
Table of Contents
Foreword ............................................. i
Acknowledgments ...................................... iv
Our American Heritage ................................. 1
Need for the Program ........................... 1
Purposes of the Guide ........................ 5
Basic American Beliefs ................................. 6
C oncepts ....................................... 6
Safeguards ..................................... 7
Developing Moral and Spiritual Values ................... 9
Definition of Terms ............................ 11
How Values are Developed ...................... 12
Education's Responsibility .............................. 15
Emerging Role of the School .................... 15
Classroom Climate ............................. 15
Role of the Administrator ....................... 16
Role of the Teacher ............................. 17
Role of Teacher Education ...................... 19
Suggested Classroom Practices With Selected Examples ... 20
Language A rts .................................. 21
Social Studies .................................. 39
Science and Mathematics ....................... 54
Music ......................................... 59
Film Bibliography .............................. 71
References to Religion in State-Adopted
Social Studies Textbooks ...................... 74
Bibliography ................................... 85
Our American Heritage
THE PURPOSE of this chapter is twofold: (1) to indicate the
need for a program emphasizing the development of moral
and spiritual values and (2) to clarify the purposes which
the guide has been designed to implement.
Need For The Program
It is generally assumed that one of the purposes of education
is to transmit the culture of a particular civilization by familiariz-
ing the learner with the culture in which he is being educated.
It is logical, then, that the school has a responsibility to
reflect and help preserve the foundations upon which its culture
Our culture, like that of other civilizations, is built upon a
certain set of values. Although the values of our culture may
vary from individual to individual, there are certain basic com-
monalities underlying all these values. One of the most critical
factors in the survival of any society has always been its ability
to transmit effectively its values and its principles to the succeed-
ing generation. Therefore, it becomes a responsibility of our
American schools to develop moral and spiritual values-an obli-
gation which is shared with the home, church, synagogue, the
community, and its various agencies. The teaching of the doc-
trines of any sectarian religion, however, is not the respon-
sibility of our public schools. This responsibility is one assumed
by the home, the church, and the synagogue. These two
responsibilities-that of developing moral and spiritual values and
that of teaching the doctrines of a sectarian religion-must be
kept separate. They must not become confused in the minds of
By and large, Americans believe in a Supreme Being. Our
nation had its beginnings in the need for worshiping God in
freedom. Our government in the First Amendment to the Con-
stitution is specifically prohibited from making any laws "respect-
ing an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise
thereof." The Declaration of Independence, our pledge of alle-
giance to the flag, and our national anthem acknowledge our
belief in a Supreme Being, but the teaching of the doctrines of
any specific religion must be the responsibility of the home,
church, and synagogue.
That we Americans are a free people is one of our proudest
boasts. Whatever else we have or do not have, we are determined
to be and to remain free. It may be in order, then, to examine
the nature of freedom and the conditions necessary for its
achievement. The integrity and sanctity of selfhood had de-
veloped as a basic principle of the American colonists even before
the Revolution. The Declaration of Independence confirmed this
principle in its proclamation that men were endowed by their
Creator with certain inalienable rights of which they could not
be dispossessed. This respect for the supreme worth and dignity
of the human being has remained a cornerstone of the American
way of life.
To maintain his dignity and prove his worth, man must be-
come and remain free, free from anarchy within and free from
tyranny without, free to find fulfillment for his life. Although
life is a gift, freedom is an achievement based upon man's
loyalty to those truths which alone can make him free. Liberty
and loyalty are two sides of the same coin; you cannot have one
without the other. If we demand loyalty without freedom, we
get tyranny; but if we demand freedom without loyalty, we have
only anarchy. It is only as we are free to discover the truth and
have the will to follow it that we may realize our full stature
as worthy heirs of the great American heritage. The basic ethi-
cal principle which underlies this ideal of freedom is an under-
standing of and a concern for the needs and feelings of others
and the disciplining of our energies in a constructive, never
If we are successfully to meet and turn back the force of
atheistic materialism, whether it be in the form of Fascism, Com-
munism, or any other ism, we must meet it with a force of
greater vitality and dynamic appeal. We must develop in our
citizens deep convictions about our democratic ideals.
The need to emphasize instruction regarding basic American
values in public schools is well established. Instruction in these
values has been included as one of the aims of education in our
nation's schools. Faith in the American tradition comes with
knowledge and understanding. It is the result of the feelings, atti-
tudes, and values acquired through daily living in both the cul-
tural and the physical environments.
The following examples have been selected to illustrate how
this need for instruction in moral and spiritual values has
become recognized throughout the nation. In its Twenty-
sixth Yearbook, the Department of Elementary School Principals
dealt with the problem of building spiritual values through
school experiences in good living:
In choosing Spiritual Values in the Elementary School as the
topic of the 1947 Yearbook, the Editorial Committee seems to have
foreseen the moral crisis that faces us today .... we sense
with deep conviction the need for built-in values in human
lives that will lead to individual self-realization at high levels, and
to a creative society of brotherhood, peace, and security.'
In 1951, the Educational Policies Commission of the National
Education Association and the American Association of School
Administrators published its report, Moral and Spiritual Values in
the Public Schools, in the hope that a nationwide renaissance
of interest in education for moral and spiritual values would be
encouraged in homes, churches, and schools:
In summary, whether we consider the social effects of recent
wars, the remoteness of workers from the satisfactions of personal
achievement, the mounting complexity of government, the increas-
ing amount of aimless leisure, the changing patterns of home
and family life, or current international tensions, the necessity
for attention to moral and spiritual values emerges again and
again. Moral decisions of unprecedented variety and complexity
must be made by the American people. An unremitting concern
for moral and spiritual values continues to be a top priority for
The public schools must increase their efforts to equip each child
and youth in their care with a sense of values which will lend
dignity and direction to whatever else he may learn.'
On November 30, 1951, the New York State Board of Regents
adopted a "Statement of Moral and Spiritual Training in the
'Spiritual Values in the Elementary School, Twenty-Sixth Yearbook of the Depart-
ment of Elementary School Principals, The National Elementary Principal, XXVII, No. 1
(Sept., 1947), p. 6.
'The Educational Policies Commission, Moral and Spiritual Values in the Public
Schools (Washington: National Education Association, 1951), pp. 12-13.
Schools," recommending that at the beginning of every school
day the pledge of allegiance to the flag be joined with an act of
reverence to God. The New York City Board of Education took
action on this recommendation at a meeting held on January
In its introduction to the two resolutions which were adopted, the
Board of Education stated that it "desires to fulfill the objectives
of the Regents in seeking to nurture the moral and spiritual fiber
of our children, stimulating thereby that love of God and coun-
try which springs from a wholesome home environment."8
In the Foreword of the Cincinnati Public Schools' Foundation
Values of American Life is this statement:
The struggle between democracy and totalitarianism is funda-
mentally a struggle between two diametrically opposed philoso-
phies. The issue is clear-which of these philosophies will outlast
the other, which will survive. Today the survival of democracy in
the world is in effect a critical test of strength of the loyalties of
free men everywhere for the values which they cherish. If America
is to realize the full potential of its strength, the youth of our na-
tion must be furnished with a clear understanding of and strong
loyalties to the fundamental values of our way of life. The de-
velopment of these loyalties to the fullest possible extent is a
major responsibility of the schools. The Cincinnati Public Schools
accept this responsibility and are pledged to exert their best efforts
toward the fulfillment of this important charge.'
In one of its reports, Moral and Spiritual Values in Education,
the Los Angeles Board of Education emphasizes:
The development of strong moral and spiritual ideals and beliefs
in the minds and hearts of the pupils of the Los Angeles Public
Schools has been, is, and will continue to be an integral part of
our educational program.
The Superintendent, staff, and personnel of all our schools recognize
the development of moral and spiritual values as a basic purpose
of education. These values are inherent in our American heritage
with its religious background.5
The following statements deal more specifically with the role
which public school education plays in relation to religious in-
struction-only one phase of the entire area of developing
moral and spiritual values.
In April, 1947, the Committee on Religion and Education of
the American Council on Education published its first report,
8Board of Education of the City of New York, The Development of Moral and
Spiritual Ideals in the Public Schools, (October, 1956), p. 2.
'Foundation Values of American Life: For Major Emphasis in the Cincinnati Public
Schools (Cincinnati: Department of Instruction, Cincinnati Public Schools, May, 1954),
WMoral and Spiritual Values in Education: A Practical Approach to Everyday Living
(Los Angeles: Los Angeles City Schools, Publication No. 580, Tentative Edition, 1954), p. 2.
"The Relation of Religion to Public Education." It took a firm
position against religious instruction in tax-supported schools, in
the sense of indoctrination, but contended vigorously for including
in the public school program objective study of religious subject
matter wherever intrinsically related to a given school discipline.
The kind of study for which the committee has contended is
definitely characterized by personal involvement since it is in
essence reverent inquiry, not mere curious inspection. The word
reverent here denotes an attitude implicit in democracy, since
a reverence for individual persons surely implies reverence for
what men have immemorially held to be holy.
Purposes Of The Guide
This Guide is designed to serve as an aid to school faculties
working together with members of the community and other
school personnel in studying and implementing their own pro-
grams for developing moral and spiritual values. The sugges-
tions and materials which it contains have been prepared to
assist teachers in Florida's public schools to carry out more effec-
tively their responsibility for cultivating in children an appre-
ciation and understanding of the moral and spiritual foundations
which undergird our nation and the contributions which relig-
ions have made to our American way of life. This Guide
attempts to define the appropriate and acceptable role and func-
tion of public schools in relation to those of the home and the
church or synagogue in the development of moral and spiritual
It becomes necessary in the development of such a program in
schools for faculties to appraise the entire curriculum in order to
examine the values which pupils may be developing. This Guide
may be used in planning, evaluating, and strengthening the
various areas of the instructional program which contribute to
the development of the moral and spiritual values of our culture.
The personal involvement of teachers, administrators, and chil-
dren affected by the program is necessary. Supplementary sug-
gestions for the development of such a program may be sought
from parents and other interested members of the school com-
munity. While working together to define the purposes for the
individual school program, the group will identify the moral and
spiritual concepts which they believe to be important.
Basic American Beliefs
THIS CHAPTER is particularly concerned with concepts which
the Committee believes are basic in developing moral and
spiritual values. These concepts have been derived from many
sources-our national documents, our governmental institutions
and arrangements, and our cultural experiences.
America's legal and constitutional heritage makes it clear that
it is not the prerogative of the public schools to teach religion.
Pupils in the public schools are not to be indoctrinated with the
dogmas or doctrines of any religion, of any sect, or of secularism.
At the same time, it is the public schools' responsibility to seek
truth, to examine the heritage of the past, and to understand
that a truly free society consists of free individuals aware of their
After considerable study of reports, bulletins, pamphlets,
periodicals, and books dealing with the teaching of moral and
spiritual values in the public schools, Committee members de-
cided that they would attempt to identify a few basic values,
using only American documents as sources.
The following central concepts in our nation's moral and spir-
itual heritage were identified as those held by most Americans:
1. Man is a spiritual being of ultimate dignity and worth by vir-
tue of the fact that he has his origin and destiny in God, his
2. As a spiritual being of dignity and worth, man is to be treated
as an end in himself. As a person of dignity and worth, man
should recognize and respect these same qualities in his fel-
3. As a person of dignity and worth, man should develop self-
respect and should endeavor to develop those capacities which
are unique to him as an individual. He should be encouraged
to preserve his unique individuality and not to become a slave
4. All men are created equal in that they have equal worth in the
sight of God, and, therefore, they have equal rights before
the law and deserve equal opportunities to develop to the maxi-
mum their innate capacities.
These central concepts are those identified by the Committee.
Local groups in working with the problem of developing moral
and spiritual values in their schools should decide if they accept
these as the central concepts around which they would organize
their own program.
In its analysis of the role of public schools in developing
moral and spiritual values, The Educational Policies Commission
based its structure of values of the American people on this funda-
mental value-the supreme importance of the individual person-
ality. Upon this value all others that follow are basic moral and
spiritual values which relate to the four tenets upon which this
Guide is based.
Since The Individual Personality Is,Supreme:
-each person should feel responsible for the consequences of
his own conduct
-institutional arrangements are the servants of mankind
-mutual consent is better than violence
-the human mind should be liberated by access to information
-excellence in mind, character, and creative ability should be
-the concept of brotherhood should take precedence over selfish
-each person should have the greatest possible opportunity for
the pursuit of happiness, provided only that such activities do
not substantially interfere with the similar opportunities of
The classroom teacher has the final responsibility for struc-
turing a school environment which takes into consideration both
the needs of children and the needs of our society. Such an
environment (1) creates a climate which encourages demo-
cratic action and processes, (2) enables children to build good
feelings about themselves and others, (3) encourages children
'The Educational Policies Commission, op. cit., pp. 18-28.
to identify themselves with compatible ideals, and (4) provides
for individual selection.
No matter what a teacher is teaching he should be scrupu-
lously careful to show respect for the worth and dignity of each
individual pupil in his classroom. In order that Florida teachers
may achieve this objective and create such a school environment
as that previously described, these safeguards should be ob-
1. No teacher should use the classroom as a means of proselyt-
ing students for any particular faith.
2. In helping children develop moral and spiritual values,
teachers should follow sound educational principles. Only
the types of learning experiences appropriate to the devel-
opmental level of pupils in each class should be included.
3. The atmosphere of the classroom should be such that no
student feels rejected because of his religious beliefs or
4. If a student asks questions which require theological inter-
pretations, the teacher should refer him to his parents who
may send him to a priest, rabbi, or minister of the student's
5. Teachers shall deal with moral and spiritual subjects as
they arise as integral parts of classroom instruction and
experiences, and in dealing with these subjects they should
avoid giving any sectarian slant to the instruction.
6. Extreme care must be exercised by teachers so that atti-
tudes, tone of voice, jokes, and other actions do not reflect
a bias which would cause a child to be uncomfortable,
thereby denying him that respect so often emphasized and
reemphasized as basic in our schools.
Developing Moral and Spiritual Values
T HE WAYS in which our children and youth grow, learn,
and develop are vitally dependent upon their environment.
That environment includes natural, human, and cultural factors,
but it is the human environment which pertains particularly to a
child's growth and learning. Dr. Edna Ambrose and Dr. Alice Miel
stress the significance of this environment:
Of all the environing conditions, the human environment com-
prises the most pervasive and most decisive factors. It is through
people-what they do to, for, and with him-that a child learns who
and what he is, what he can do, what he should strive for.1
Even more emphatic are Rasey and Menge when they contend
that the most crucial aspect of the human environment is "the
philosophies people operate upon, the constellation of values that
trigger their actions."2 No effort is made here to discount the
effect of heredity; but simply a recognition that heredity is a
fixed factor, and environment is dynamic.
From such significant studies, then, it is easier to understand
that self-realization is dependent upon an understanding of the
inherent worth of every human being. This understanding is
basic to our way of life. "It implies also that self-realization
cannot be fully achieved without social relationships based on
moral and spiritual values."3
In 1951, The Educational Policies Commission identified a se-
ries of values basic to our society. Its fundamental premise was
that the basic moral and spiritual value in American life is the
supreme importance of the individual personality. That the
development of moral and spiritual values is basic to all other
educational objectives needs also to be accepted as a fundament-
1Edna Ambrose and Alice Miel, Children's Social Learning (Washington, D. C.: Asso-
ciation for Supervision and Curriculum Development, NEA, 1958), p. 28.
2Marie I. Rasey and J. W. Menge, What We Learn From Children (New York:
Harper'and Brothers, 1956), p. 23.
sThe Educational Policies Commission, op. cit., p. 19.
al objective. "Education uninspired by moral and spiritual values
is directionless. Values unapplied in human behavior are empty."4
Individual values represent unique standards, reflect one's
attitudes toward behavior, and determine what one prizes in life.
Because values are individualized, they are expressions of one's
self. Every facet of human behavior is pervaded by value judg-
ments and acts of valuing. Value judgments were being made
by the first-grade group of children who called Mary, one of
their new classmates, a "cry baby" and "mama's baby" because
she felt lonely, frightened, and strange in her new surroundings.
When the teacher and the children reached a point of under-
standing about the causes of Mary's problems, the change in the
children's value judgments was reflected in changes in their be-
havior toward Mary.
People, either as individuals or as members of a particular
social group or society, are not always aware of the values which
guide them in their actions. This lack of awareness does not
minimize the important role of values as directives in experience.
"If one is to understand himself and his responsibility toward
his fellow man, one must comprehend the nature of his values."5
Values are acquired, learned, or imposed upon individuals as
they live from day to day in the human environment. The values
by which human beings guide their behavior have their roots
in cultural experiences. Values grow out of experiences, and those
experiences determine what it is that persons value. It is for this
reason that we must help children and youth become aware of
values and their influence upon people's behavior in their daily
Because of the influences of values upon behavior and because
of increased knowledge of the ways in which children learn,
schools have been encouraged to feel a responsibility for the de-
velopment of moral and spiritual values. These learning have
been considered concomitants of the 3 R's and an integral part
of the learning process. Dr. George H. Reavis in a statement of
educational policy for public schools sets forth these policies con-
cerning moral and spiritual values:
4Ibid. pp. 6-7.
SHelping Teenagers Explore Values: A Resource Unit for High-School Teachers
(Columbus, Ohio: The Ohio State University Press, 1956), p. 4.
These [moral and spiritual] values are not usually treated
separately, but are integrated throughout all instructional
The social studies deal continuously with our basic values.
Literature emphasizes human values and character delineation....
Science and mathematics exalt truth and intellectual honesty.
Music and art express the aspirations of the ages. Industrial arts
challenge creative abilities. Home economics is considered with
better living. Health and physical education promote good sports-
manship and better human relations. Children learn to live the
good life by living it and then continue to live what they have
Definition Of Terms
In order to communicate more effectively, the members of
the Committee developing the Guide have felt it essential to
define carefully key words used within the Guide. The follow-
ing definitions of value, moral values, and spiritual values, it
was felt, would be helpful:
... a motivating force, a selecting factor, an appraising concept
which enables us to make choices among alternative paths of ac-
tion. Values are decisive agents in formulating hypotheses and
A value is the comparative weight, esteem, or price attached by the
individual to a given idea, person, or object.8
Values are defined as standards of judgment in human behavior
and intimately related to what the individual has come to accept
as guiding principles for living.9
Moral values may be defined as the traits and attitudes which
bring about socially accepted behavior.10
Moral values have consequences chiefly in social relationships."
Spiritual values ... take effect mainly in terms of inner emotions
An NEA discussion group reporting in 1948 stated that spiritual
values include (a) unification of society, (b) worth of the indi-
'George H. Reavis, An Educational Platform For the Public Schools (Gary, Indiana:
Board of Education, 1957), pp. 17-18.
'Helping Teenagers Explore Values: A Resource Unit for High-School Teachers
(Columbus, Ohio: The Ohio State University Press, 1956), p. 4.
sAssociation for Supervision and Curriculum Development of the National Education
Association, Toward Better Teaching, (Washington, D. C.: The Association, 1949), p. 154.
9Helping Teenagers Explore Values, op. cit., p. 12.
"1Research Division of the National Education Association, "Ten Criticisms of Public
Education," National Education Association Research Bulletin, Vol. XXXV, No. 4 (De-
cember, 1957), p. 168.
"The Educational Policies Commission, op. cit., p. 29.
vidual, (c) personality and ethical character, (d) cooperative spir-
it, (e) community life, (f) truth, (g) reverence and awe, (h) love
for the beautiful, (i) hatred for wrong, and (j) recognition of the
greatest force in life-the power of God.1"
Spiritual values arise from many sources. They include "apprecia-
tion of the place of religion in human life, and the ethical, esthe-
tic, and emotional experiences that help to elevate and liberate
the human spirit. This is the realm in which the public schools
How Values Are Developed
No learning experience is the same for all children. Children
come to first grade or kindergarten with varying weights, heights,
vision, and cultural and experiential backgrounds. They may
range in age from about 5 years and 9 months to 7 years of
age. A few years ago, all children were expected to learn to read
at a given age. Research in individual differences has proved that
each of us learns only that for which we have developed a readi-
ness and that what we learn and how we learn is determined by
previous experiences. Teaching in relationship to developing
values, therefore, must be considered in the same frame of refer-
ence as any other learning experience. Basic values grow out
of life experiences and become ultimately the foundations upon
which judgments are made and reasoned actions are planned.
How essential it becomes in teaching, then, that the funda-
mental concepts of our heritage become the cornerstone of our
educational objectives. This cornerstone reaffirms the basic value
in American culture-the supreme importance of the individual
Values grow and change; they are not static. As individuals
mature, our values become a component of our total personality.
As they assess their ways of living, they sometimes reach the
conclusion that it is necessary for them to effect a positive change
concerning their value system. Many authorities have agreed
that changes may be effected in people's values and value sys-
tems through one or more of the following processes:
1. Reflective thinking
2. Cultural conditioning
3. Association of something with love and approval
"Research Division of the NEA, op. cit., p. 168.
4. Emotional experiences
5. Satisfaction or thwarting of physiological drives
6. Reward and punishment
7. Inculcation by authority
Certainly we can say with complete assurance that the day-to-day
living of a child is built into his physical organism, that the
quality of his experience is the crucial factor in determining the
quality of his developing personality, that society must provide
the kind of experience which we wish to build into personality."1
Research has indicated that almost from birth the child is
educated in values of the home and the social status into which
he is born. Children must develop these values by observing and
sharing in the conduct of other children and adults; by associat-
ing with people, things, ideas, and institutions; by having exper-
iences in clarifying values. "Each child will seek continuous
interaction between self and environment and will respond to
self-environment interaction with feelings, concepts, and
The Committee has discussed the question of whether indi-
viduals actively or passively participate in making life choices.
Members have agreed that it is possible for individuals to work
out their own destiny by virtue of the choices they make in
everyday living. Education plays an important role in this decision
making, for as individuals make choices with increased knowl-
edge of alternatives, they go beyond heredity and environ-
ment and can make more intelligent choices, choices that reflect
the knowledge of possible ultimate consequences. In this respect,
the individual does have the power of choice to direct his own
behavior and choose his own course of action to a certain extent.
Teachers must also face the problem of dealing with individuals
as worthy of respect, in spite of the fact that their values may
J. Mansir Tydings, Director, Division of Moral and Spiritual
Education, Kentucky State Department of Education, a pioneer
in this area, has stated that more and more clearly we see that
the emphasis upon moral and spiritual values should become
l"Howard Lane and Mary Beauchamp, Human Relations in Teaching (New York:
Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1955), pp. 67-68.
loEdna Ambrose and Alice Miel, op. cit., p. 27.
an integral part of every aspect of the school program and that
every educator bears part of this responsibility. At the same
time, he is equally certain that the public school should in no
sense infringe upon the educative responsibilities of the church
or synagogue and home by introducing sectarian religion into the
17J. Mansir Tydings, "Kentucky Pioneers," Religious Education, Volume LI, No. 4
(July-August, 1956), p. 249.
APRIMARY ROLE of the school has been the transmission
of knowledge and skills. In the twentieth century, changes
in socio-economic and cultural patterns have broadened the
concept of education and transformed the role of the school.
Gradual changes have become apparent in curriculum planning.
Not only is emphasis being placed upon teaching all the skills
and knowledge traditionally taught in schools, but the application
of these skills and this knowledge in the framework of the daily
living of children is also being emphasized. The importance of
this emerging role of education is that it includes the necessity
for sensitizing today's children to their responsibility as tomor-
Emerging Role Of The School
To accomplish these broader objectives, teachers need to un-
derstand child growth and development. "A child needs teachers
who expect his growth to be gradual, wavering, regressive, un-
even, and who expect behavior to be accordingly inconsistent."'
A good teacher also has an understanding of himself as well as
an understanding of individual differences; he respects the
uniqueness of those around him. "People must learn to live with
and respect differences, know which differences can and cannot
be tolerated, understand themselves and know the values upon
which they base their actions."2 An understanding of the ways
in which attitudes and values are developed and of the quality
of moral and spiritual values is just as necessary.
The good teacher knows that before his group of children can
1Barbara Biber, "Schooling as an Influence in Developing Healthy Personality,"
Community Program for Mental Health, edited by Ruth Kotinsky and Helen Witner
(Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1955), p. 160.
'Edna Ambrose and Alice Miel, op. cit., p. 12.
begin the learning essential for the academic year he must pro-
vide a classroom climate abundant with opportunities.
Such an atmosphere starts with the actual physical arrange-
ments of seats, centers of interest, accessibility of materials to
children, and variety of materials to meet the individual interests
as well as to challenge abilities of children. Such arrangements
provided by the alert teacher indicate his concern and respect for
the welfare of every individual in his class. It is essential for the
teacher to assume his role of responsible leadership in the class-
room and through this leadership provide the guidance neces-
sary to ensure varying degrees of success to each child.
Evaluation at the end of each school day encourages each
student to assess his progress and to gain new insights into the
worth and dignity of his particular contribution for the day as
well as that of his peers. The importance of examining the goals
one sets and the intrinsic relationship of those goals to one's po-
tential as well as performance give strength and direction toward
realistically attaining one's desired outcomes.
Finally, the success of the teaching-learning process must be
charged, in large measure, to the teacher. With this responsibil-
ity in mind, the teacher needs to re-examine his moral values
and spiritual integrity, his awareness of the uniqueness of each
individual, and his attitude toward American ideals; and then
he endeavors to match his performance with his full potential.
Role Of The Administrator
In an address delivered to the members of the National Asso-
ciation of Secondary School Principals, during its forty-second
annual convention, J. T. Wallace reminded administrators of
their important responsibilities in teacher selection and retention:
It is time to re-examine ourselves and our schools, because we
know that a school can be only as good as the administrator of
the school wants it. An administrator has the full responsibility
of selecting teachers. Good teachers mean a good school.
Weak teachers mean a poor school. The administrator should have
the intestinal fortitude to replace such teachers as do not add to
the moral and spiritual welfare of the school. You can not expect
students to rise above the quality of those who make up the
8J. T. Wallace, "How Can Spiritual and Moral Values Be Included in the Secondary-
School Program," The Bulletin of the National Association of Secondary-School Princi-
pals, Vol. 42, No. 237 (April, 1958), p. 235.
Since growth and change are constants with adults as well as
with pupils, it is also the administrator's responsibility to create
many opportunities for reappraisal and restatement of teachers'
own values through cooperative faculty studies and individual or
small group conferences. The security afforded teachers who ex-
perience the strength and unfailing support of an administrator
who believes in and is deeply concerned with the development of
moral and spiritual values in the total school program adds im-
measurably to the stature, skill, creativity, and initiative of each
teacher and to the spirit of the school.
Role Of The Teacher
The key person in every school is the classroom teacher. He is
charged with the responsibility of transmitting the skills and
values of our cultural heritage and of guiding pupils toward a
realization of their role as effective citizens.
Because of the influence and effect which a teacher has upon
the lives of the children and youth with whom he works, we
need to examine the facets of teacher growth, attitudes, and
values. Although, on the basis of research presently completed,
no single set of criteria for measuring teacher competence has
yet been discovered or developed, leaders in education have com-
piled lists of desirable personal characteristics which they con-
sider important for teachers in their task of helping children
and youth develop moral and spiritual values. "Personal char-
acter of an acceptable quality to serve as an example to Ameri-
can youth often determines the success or failure of a teacher in
teaching subject matter as well as in contributing to moral
As a person, the teacher needs:
1. To maintain a steadfast and informed loyalty to the values
and processes of the American heritage.
2. To have developed a set of values to serve as guideposts
to a philosophy of life.
3. To incorporate these values in all his human relationships
with others, both in and outside school.
'The Educational Policies Commission, op. cit., p. 55.
4. To evaluate at regular intervals these values, critically and
reflectively, as they serve him in his daily life.
Only as values increase the teacher's capacity to make mature
personal adjustments to society can he begin to help his stu-
dents develop their own values.
As a member of the profession, the teacher needs:
1. To have a positive attitude toward the worth, importance,
and values of his profession.
2. To have a knowledge of child development and its applica-
cation to intellectual, emotional, social, spiritual, and phys-
3. To create with his pupils a classroom climate free from
tension and anxiety by establishing a relationship of mutual
respect through affection, acceptance, and security. In such
an atmosphere creative thinking, originality, initiative,
and independence are most likely to flourish.
4. To develop skills in communication in order to interpret
the curriculum to parents and to the community as it affects
the life of children.
5. To participate actively in shaping educational policies.
6. To execute loyally those policies which have been approved
by the school system.
7. To achieve and sustain a high level of professional
As a member of the community, the teacher needs:
1. To provide educational leadership for the community.
2. To establish a condition of mutual trust, understanding,
and sympathy with people within the community.
3. To establish himself as a person whose moral and spiritual
values are reflected in his personal way of life.
4. To participate in community activities to an appropriate
degree, keeping in mind that his primary responsibility is
to the classroom.
Every teacher, every day, in every class is dealing in values. The
standards he sets, the actions he approves, the way he handles his
subject, his personal relations with his students, his stimulation of
consistent thought and right conduct-all have their influence."
Role Of Teacher Education
The increasingly higher standards of excellence demanded by
our schools today focus responsibility upon our institutions of
higher education for even more careful and conscientious screen-
ing of student applicants preparing for teaching in our schools.
Because teachers exercise great personal and academic influ-
ence upon school and society, it is essential that persons enter-
ing teaching be selected with the greatest care, using the most
valid criteria available. A deep sense of moral and spiritual
values, academic excellence, good mental health, competence in
communication, good character, and social sensitivity are essen-
tial factors in the final selection of persons for preparation as
teachers. It then becomes necessary that efforts be concentrated
upon providing teachers-in-training with every opportunity
for creating and experimenting with specific ways of uniting the
development of moral and spiritual values with the teaching
of all subjects in the curriculum.
sThe Educational Policies Commission, op. cit., p. 65.
Some Suggested Classroom Practices
With Selected Examples
LONG BEFORE a child enters school, patterns for living
have been established. From his parents and others in his
home and about him, it is hoped that the child has learned to
feel secure and to have faith in himself. Values in relation to self-
reliance, respect for excellence and achievement, respect for the
rights of others, cooperation, cleanliness, fair play, and honesty
are established during his pre-school years.
The school program parallels the influence of the home. Friend-
liness, understanding of self and others, sharing of ideas, team-
work, taking turns, self-discipline and self restraint, responsibil-
ity for others, recognition of truth, respect for the beliefs of others,
understanding and acceptance of rules and laws, love of country
and of freedom, and reverence for life are some of the values
which should be integral parts of the school curriculum.
There are moral and spiritual values to be commonly devel-
oped in all classrooms. These values cannot be isolated or concen-
trated in specific lessons but are part of the ongoing total human
and social developmental pattern.
No school subject for any one activity can be singled out as
the most likely to promote moral and spiritual values. Neither
is there a particular age level at which such teaching is most effec-
tive. There is opportunity to teach the basic moral and spiritual
values in all school subjects and activities as well as at all ages.
The most important factor in good teaching of all kinds is the alert
The teacher understands that children, influenced by heredity
as well as environment, enter school with varied backgrounds of
values. These backgrounds exert an influence which continues
throughout their lives. Because of children's differing back-
grounds of values, the primary teacher builds upon the under-
standings of young children. Each teacher continues emphasis of
the values fundamental to our way of life as they relate to the
maturity of the pupils.
The schools share responsibility for this complex but import-
ant task with the home, the church or the synagogue, and the
community. The success of this shared task can be measured
only through the effective behavior changes which can be ob-
served in the quality of daily living at school.
Many teachers of Florida are earnestly endeavoring to com-
bine enriching experiences and subject matter in such a way as
to promote student development and understanding in the area
of moral and spiritual values. The sections of the Guide that
follow contain suggestions for developing moral and spiritual
values in relation to language arts, social studies, science, mathe-
matics, and music. These suggestions do not spell out what is to
be done but describe practices which have been used success-
fully in some Florida classrooms. Individual teachers are encour-
aged to work out ways in which moral and spiritual values might
be strengthened in their classes.
Moral and Spiritual Values in Language Arts
The field of language arts lends itself to emphasis on moral
and spiritual values. Through reading, writing, speaking, and lis-
tening students both actually and vicariously experience situa-
tions that enable them to gain a better knowledge of themselves,
of the world in which they live, and of the ideals and standards
The following examples which were used in schools within
our State are only a few of the ways in which moral and spiritual
values may be stressed.
Suggested Language Arts Activities
1. Read stories and poems for holidays that are related to
our American heritage, such as Thanksgiving Day, Washington's
Birthday, Lincoln's Birthday, Fourth of July, Veteran's Day, Me-
morial Day, and New Year's Day.
2. Read stories about the lives of the early colonists and dis-
cuss their qualities of courage, faith, and trust in God.
3. Read poetry and develop an understanding of the concept
4. Read stories that stress ideals, such as courage, reverence,
5. Read biographies of outstanding Americans whose lives
exemplify the worth and dignity of mankind.
6. Write class or individual thank-you notes, get-well mes-
sages, birthday cards, and letters or poems for special occasions.
7. Write creative stories and poems inspired by a develop-
ing awareness of the beauties of nature.
8. Write poems, stories, skits, plays, or pageants emphasizing
moral and spiritual values and present them for all-school or class
9. Write one's own personal thoughts on an idea in the area
of moral and spiritual values.
10. Compose rules or standards for the class.
11. Discuss the significance of special holidays and commu-
nity activities, such as the Junior Red Cross, Arbor Day, and the
12. Learn the meaning of the words in America, America
the Beautiful, The Star Spangled Banner, and the pledge to the
13. Do choral reading of selected poems that stress the cen-
tral concepts of morality and spirituality.
14. Arrange bulletin board displays of pictures, drawings,
poems, compositions, and other illustrative materials.
15. Study the lives of some of the authors whose works the
students have read to see if they exemplify the moral and spir-
itual values found in their writings.
Some Successful Units
What Would You Have Done?
Using the book What Would You Have Done? (Vernon Jones,
Ginn and Co.), the class read stories of problems common to the
junior high age level. The reading was followed by discussion
of the various solutions proposed by the children. Provocative
discussions helped the children focus on the ethics of the situa-
tions and the importance of developing a strong sense of moral
and spiritual values. The topics included were stealing, lying,
evading responsibilities, dating, gang attitudes, and others.
In connection with this study, films can be used to advantage.
Suggested films are Are You Popular?, Cheating, Good Sports-
manship, and Developing Responsibility.
Seeing Ourselves and Others
In the unit, Seeing Ourselves and Others, moral and spiritual
values of the individual are emphasized. This unit has been used
in the eighth grade but could very easily be used in the seventh.
It is a good unit to use at the beginning of the year so that boys
and girls have an opportunity to become acquainted. However,
since Brotherhood Week comes in February, it might also be
used effectively at this time. Problems facing teen-agers, when
discussed in class, many times will give the teacher a chance to
stress those values which he wishes to bring out in the unit.
1. Knowledge of how to make friends and get along with
2. Understanding of the importance in human life of love and
3. Ability to understand one's self through the experiences of
4. Appreciation of family relationships.
5. Realization that character training can be gained by ex-
periencing the incidents of fiction.
6. Sensitivity to situations such as sympathy, love, etc.
7. Recognition of the value of living by the "golden rule."
Teen-Age Problems for Indentification:
1. Holding fast to one's ideals.
2. Appreciating and serving one's country.
3. Playing the game at all costs.
4. Learning how to make friends and keep them.
5. Setting an example for younger brothers and sisters.
6. Deepening the appreciation of family relationships.
7. (Other problems may be raised after reading certain stories
or in discussions with the class.)
Activities to Engage In:
1. Write a skit portraying correct introductions, telephone
2. Write a friendly letter to someone visited during the
3. Read and report from Readers Digest on "My Most
4. Plan greeting cards for friends who are sick, going away,
or having a birthday.
5. In small discussion groups discuss teen-age problems each
one has experienced.
6. Interview a classmate, finding out about his home and fam-
ily, hobbies, favorite sports, foods, TV programs, etc.
7. Discuss in small groups what makes people likable and
8. In buzz groups discuss the teen-age problems found in the
stories read in class.
9. Read poems and stories of people and their friends.
10. Select and write to a pen-pal in another country.
11. Discuss how spontaneous courtesy and consideration of
others enrich a personality.
12. Raise questions about how words and deeds show what a
13. Arrange a bulletin board of pictures of friends, poems of
friends, picturization of one of the stories, picturization
of the golden rule, etc.
14. Conduct a panel discussion.
Paragraph Ideas for Composition:
1. "The Person I Admire Most"
2. "Ways I Can Help New Students"
3. "How I Can Improve Myself"
Suggested Stories for Reading and Study:
1. "Florida Cracker" by Mildred Lawrence
2. "First Prize" by Roselee Rockman
3. "Homework" by Helen Louise Miller
4. "Most Valuable Player" by W. L. Heath
5. "Mama and the Graduation Present" by Katheryn Forbes
6. "Little Genius" by Ernie Rydberg
7. "The Man Without a Country" by Edward Everett Hale
8. "The Great Stone Face" by Nathaniel Hawthorne
9. "Old Ranger" by Mark Hager
10. "A Mother in Manville" by Marjorie Rawlings
11. "The Night of the Storm" by Zona Gale
12. "The Three Wishes" by Constance Mackay
13. "Abou Ben Adhem" by Leigh Hunt
Suggested Audio-Visual Aids:
"You and Your Friends"
"Family Team Work"
"You and Your Family"
"How Do You Do?"
"The House I Live In"
"The Man Without a Country"
"The Man Without a Country"
"The Great Stone Face"
"Your Job as Brother or Sister"
"The Man Without a Country"
After discussing the thirteen virtues Benjamin Franklin in-
cluded in his "Project on Arriving at Moral Perfection," each stu-
dent wrote a short essay on the virtues which he thought he
needed to work on for himself.
Many of the essays showed that the students had given serious
thought and practical application to the moral virtues dis-
cussed by Franklin. A number of students selected "Order." Quite
a few selected "Silence," which they stated would certainly im-
prove their schoolwork as well as their relationships at home. One
girl chose "Sincerity" and pointed out that she had been lacking
in this virtue in the past but intended to make a great effort to
develop this characteristic. Another student selected "Cleanli-
ness" and brought out that this includes not only the physical but
also the spiritual and moral types of cleanliness.
Once a year we have a "memory passage day." Each student
reviews from previous memorization or learns for the first time
any lines of poetry which he considers particularly well expressed
and uplifting in meaning. Verses selected are often those con-
taining moral and spiritual value.
It has been my experience that words beautifully arranged into
verse seem more meaningful to students than do words of the
same meaning expressed less poetically. For example, that beau-
tiful stanza from "The Battlefield," quoted as though a person
really believed its meaning, instantly catches the ear of all.
"Truth, crushed to earth, shall rise again;
The eternal years of God are hers;
But Error, wounded, writhes in pain,
And dies among his worshipers."
This verse usually leads into a discussion of the relative per-
manence of good and bad.
Students often quote verse that shows the individual's need to
grow and expand mentally and morally. Verses such as the
following are often quoted.
From "The Chambered Nautilus"
"Build thee more stately mansions, O my soul,
As the swift seasons roll!"
"So live, that when the summons comes to join
The innumerable caravan, which moves
To that mysterious realm ............"
"The Rime of the Ancient Mariner," with its many stirring
phrases, is a favorite of many. Various parts are often given, but
"He prayeth best, who loveth best
All things both great and small;
For the dear God who loveth us,
He made and loveth all."
Always I am humbled by the quality of the material which is
quoted. I have had more than six hundred lines quoted by indi-
vidual students on several occasions.
The American Spirit in American Literature
In the eleventh grade we emphasize moral and spiritual foun-
dations in our unit called "The American Spirit in American Lit-
erature." As we strive to develop values through literature, the
selections are used as a starting point and supplemented by other
activities in writing, speaking, and listening. Questions listed
under each sub-unit are illustrative of those most closely related
to the guide. Discussion flows freely beyond these few examples.
1. Awareness of the changing panorama of American life
and the continuity of the American love of freedom, faith
in God, and belief in the worth of the individual.
2. Appreciation of the "pioneer qualities" still needed to face
the hardships of the world today.
3. Discrimination in choice of books and magazine articles
which purport to interpret the American spirit.
1. Discuss impressions of America and the American spirit
gleaned from literature previously read.
2. Discuss regional character types in photoplays and pictor-
ial arts, e.g., the cowboy, the mountaineer, the miner, the
3. Discuss the natural wonders in America that give rise to
poetry and to literary legends.
4. Read for the central idea selections dealing with love of
freedom, faith in God, and belief in the worth of the
5. Listen to radio and television speeches and programs which
reveal the American spirit.
6. Visit art museums to view American artists' interpretations
of the spirit of America.
7. Listen to music and to recordings of characteristic Ameri-
8. Conduct a panel discussion of the American spirit in liter-
ature, music, or art.
9. Utilize students' musical talents by having musical pro-
grams including folklore, ballads, etc.
10. Correlate essays for history with English assignments.
11. Show films, slides, and filmstrips which concern authors
prominent in developing the American spirit.
12. Write an original story or poem dealing with the Ameri-
13. Prepare a class book entitled "The American Spirit."
14. Write one's own personal thoughts on "The American
15. Write bulletin board notices of incidents showing the
American spirit in the present day world.
Love of Freedom In America's Past
Because the spirit of freedom is so deeply rooted in us, expres-
sions of various conceptions of freedom are found throughout our
own national hymn, "America."
A profitable discussion might center around questions such as
1. Why is "America" called our national hymn?
2. Why is the following stanza of "America" sometimes sung
"Our fathers' God, to Thee,
Author of liberty,
To Thee we sing!
Long may our land be bright,
With freedom's holy light,
Protect us by Thy might,
Great God our King."
3. How does this stanza differ from the other three?
Another suitable example is "The Star-Spangled Banner," in
which we find these stirring phrases.
"Then conquer we must, when our cause it is just,
And this be our motto-'In God is our trust.'
And the star-spangled banner in triumph shall wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave."
Along with discussing the following questions, time might be
taken to learn the words to "The Star-Spangled Banner."
1. This song was written for a war fought long ago. Is it still
appropriate for a national anthem?
2. Does the United States have many reasons to "praise the
Power that has made and preserved us a nation"?
3. What is the motto of the United States?
Other selections to reinforce and strengthen these concepts
are as follows:
Adventures in American
Literature, Olympic Edition
Lincoln Speaks at
The Landing at
From His Autobi-
Letter to His Wife
Speech in the Virginia
From The Crisis
The Declaration of
From The First
442 Inaugural Address
Liberty and Union
462 The Gettysburg Address
474 Letter to Mrs. Bixby
473 Letter to His Son
Discussion might include questions similar to these:
1. Why was the "Declaration" made? Why is it called "The
noblest document ever penned?"
2. In his "Second Inaugural Address" which lines show
that Lincoln was intimately acquainted with the Bible?
1. "The Gettysburg Address" (Harcourt, Brace, Many Voices,
2. "The Declaration of Independence" (Enrichment Records)
"Lincoln's Gettysburg Address"
3. "Gettysburg Address" (National Council of Teachers of
English) "Our American Heritage"
4. "Gettysburg Address" (Don Honz Tape)
5. "The First Inaugural" (Columbia)
Love of Freedom In America's Future
A prayer for the future is found in "America the Beautiful."
God shed His grace on thee,
And crown thy good with brotherhood
From sea to shining sea."
Discuss specific prayers found throughout this national song
and their suitability today.
Ex-president Herbert Hoover expresses his feelings for Amer-
ica in the following words.
Within the soul of America is the freedom of mind and spirit
in man. Here alone are the open windows through which pours the
sunlight of the human spirit. Here alone human dignity is not a
dream but a major accomplishment.
Are there other great men of today who have expressed their
conceptions of love of freedom and of faith in America's future?
Other selections are as follows:
Literature and Life in Ameri- Adventures in American Lit-
ca (Scott, Foresman) erature Olympic Edition
For You, O Democracy 300 The Ship of State 603
Unmanifest Destiny 693 I Hear America
The Western Sky 694 Singing 746
"I Hear America Singing" (Harcourt, Brace, Many Voices,
Discussion might be along the following lines of thought:
1. What ideals and future hopes for our country have we
found expressed? What prayers?
2. Are these hopes and prayers as fitting today as when
they were written?
Belief In The Worth Of The Individual
Lincoln showed his belief in the worth of each person by
statements such as, "With malice toward none; with charity for
all." Was the idea that all men are created equal original with
Selections to reinforce belief in the worth of the individual
are as follows:
Adventures in American Lit-
erature, Olympic Edition
An Open Letter to
America's Students 196 From Self-Reliance 588
The Death of the
Hired Man 263 An Old Story 766
Our Town 362 The Man With the Hoe 772
Letter on the Limits of
"The Death of the Hired Man" (Harcourt,
Brace, Many Voices, Record 5)
"Young Mr. Lincoln" (Don Honz Tapes)
Some possible discussion questions might be as follows:
1. What are some of the difficulties of our age which reduce
our opportunity for practicing individuality?
2. The idea of the importance of every individual is con-
stantly emphasized in literature. Can you recall stories
that show the American spirit of deep and sincere love,
faith, and brotherhood?
Faith in God
Literature, poems especially, is filled with the author's belief
in God as shown in the few samples given.
"I never spoke with God
Nor visited in heaven;
Yet certain am I of the spot
As if the chart were given."
"As the marsh hen secretly builds on the watery sod
Behold, I will build me a nest on the greatness of God."
Without the assistance of that Divine Being who ever attended
him, I cannot succeed. With that assistance, I cannot fail. Trusting
in Him who can go with me, and remain with you, and be every-
where for good, let us confidently hope that all will yet be well. To
His care commending you, as I hope in your prayers you will
commend me, I bid you an affectionate farewell.
These excerpts are found within the following selections used
to strengthen faith in God:
Adventures in American
Literature, Olympic Edition
General William Booth
Enters into Heaven 276
I Have a Rendezvous
with Death 295
The Creation 297
God's World 309
Bay Psalm Book 445
Meditation Six 449
To a Waterfowl 516
Divina Commedia 607
From the Vision of
Sir Launfal 613
The Eternal Goodness 623
Nobody Knows de
Trouble I See 670
Deep River 671
Let My People Go 672
A Ballad of Trees and
the Master 755
The Marshes of Glynn 756
I Never Saw a Moor 760
Some Keep the Sabbath 762
"The Marshes of Glynn"
(Harcourt, Brace, Many Voices, Record 5)
The discussion might include such questions as the following:
1. In "Thanatopsis" what lines are reminiscent of the Bible?
2. In "The Marshes of Glynn" what inspires Lanier with
3. What is the chief emotion expressed in "Farewell Ad-
dress of Springfield?"
4. What lines from this address show that Lincoln was hum-
ble, that he trusted God?
5. What evidence is there of the deep religious faith of the
people who composed and developed spirituals as a con-
tribution to music?
Letter writing can be a necessary task that must be endured,
or it can be a worthwhile writing experience involving letters
necessary for actual situations in a pupil's life.
All students, regardless of age, are thrilled to receive letters
from someone of importance, especially if they are answers to
letters that they themselves wrote. Realizing this, one teacher
motivated her class to write to famous men to learn about the
code of conduct that helped guide them in their youth and helped
lead them to their success in life.
This group began by writing a class letter to one person.
Their letter was sent to J. Edgar Hoover who replied with a
lengthy epistle, a part of which is given below:
Conduct yourself in accordance with the high moral and spiritual
traditions laid down by our forebearers. Those concepts, based on
the eternal truth of God are the only way to the fulfillment of
men's ultimate destiny.
In doing this with a class, the teacher might begin by sug-
gesting one or two names, but the group will probably have in
mind many people to whom they would like to write and may
suggest some of the following:
Members of the State Legisla-
Members of Congress
Members of the President's
Members of the Governor's
Justices of the United States
Outstanding people of each
After listing various names and groups on the board, students
can decide whether they want to write to all of one classification,
such as to members of Congress, or to individuals from various
groupings. If they decide on one group, a committee can be
formed to find the names of members of the group. Some means
should be worked out so that one person does not receive a
flood of letters.
Before writing, it might be helpful for the student to read
about the person to whom he has decided to write and report
about him to the class. This could be done by presenting inter-
esting facts about the person, letting the class guess who he is.
One seventh grade class wrote to the governors and received
forty-four enthusiastic replies. The letters were personal and
helped the students form their own rules of good conduct to
In such a situation students receive actual experience in letter
writing and help in forming their own philosophy of life.
Although this unit was originally set up for the second semes-
ter of the twelfth grade when world literature is studied, it is
adaptable to other grades, especially the eleventh. For this rea-
son specific selections are not given. This is left up to the teacher
and the class.
Desirable outcomes of this resource unit are:
1. Acquaintance of American youth with the literary achieve-
ments of the people of other nations.
2. Feeling of international understanding and friendship
through a deeper appreciation of the peoples who make up
3. Greater respect for minority groups.
4. Ability to overcome prejudices against people of foreign
ancestry within our country.
5. Recognition and respect for the qualities of dignity and
worth in fellowmen and responsibility for promoting their
I. Introductory Discussion
A. How many nationalities are represented in our class? In
B. What are the national origins of the people in our city?
C. What is the proportion of each nationality?
D. What brought people of various nationalities to this
E. Are there any differences in the beliefs and customs of
F. Are there similarities?
G. How many religions do we find in our community?
H. Do people usually belong to a particular church through
personal choice or because of family affiliations?
I. Do other people have a right to their own beliefs?
J. Do we really understand or try to understand each other?
K. What can we do in our community to overcome prejudices
and to promote a better understanding?
A. Write a letter to a person in the community asking him to
speak before the class or in assembly. Select an outstanding
citizen representing a different nationality, e.g., a refugee,
an exchange student, or an exchange teacher.
B. Interview an important or interesting person in the com-
munity to obtain information on the cultural background
of the people. Report to the class on ideas obtained from
C. Report to the class concerning feelings, ideas, and preju-
dices obtained from informal interviews with less promi-
nent citizens, such as neighbors and casual acquaintances.
D. Write a report of a personal interview with a person of a
different religion or nationality.
E. Hold a panel discussion on how to promote better under-
standing in the community.
F. Have a panel discuss the various religions of the
G. Write an original story, skit, play, poem, or song on friend-
ship or on understanding the worth and dignity of the
H. Present the original work to the class.
I. Write a skit for an assembly program or P.T.A. meeting
based on understanding and good will among classmates
or people in the community.
I. Introductory Discussion
A. How many different nationalities do we find in the United
States? What proportion of each? Look in the World
Almanac for this information.
B. How many different religions do we find in the United
States? What proportion of each?
C. Discuss the work that is being done by outstanding organ-
izations in many parts of our country in the attempt to
promote understanding among cultural groups.
D. Discuss the way in which other nations view us.
A. Write a letter to the National Conference of Christians and
Jews, 381 Fourth Avenue, New York 16, New York, re-
questing a list of current books that contribute to an un-
derstanding necessary for lasting peace.
B. Write an original poem, story, skit, play, or pageant based
on ideas discussed in this section of the unit.
C. Hold a panel or round table discussion on the contribu-
tions of the various culture groups to American culture.
D. Report on interesting biographies of outstanding people of
other races, religions, or nationalities in our own nation.
E. Arrange a conversational book hour or group reviews
of books read in connection with this unit.
F. Perform plays or dramatize selections read.
G. Arrange bulletin board displays of pictures, drawings,
poems, cartoons, and other materials illustrating ideas dis-
cussed in this section of the unit.
H. View such films as One God.
I. Listen to such records as the following:
1. "My Own, My Native Land" by Sir Walter Scott and
"America" by Sidney Lanier, read by Basil Rathbone.
2. Excerpt from The Promised Land by Mary Antin.
3. Excerpt from Woodrow Wilson's speech, "Americans of
4. "The Ballad for Americans," recorded by Bing Crosby.
5. "The People, Yes" by Carl Sandburg.
6. "Americans All-Immigrants All," showing that the Jews,
the Hispanic nations, and the English have contributed
to America (Linguaphone Institute, Radio City, New
York, New York).
I. Introductory Discussion
A. How do self interests influence the attitudes of people? Do
we always look for motives behind beliefs, opinions, and
actions of other peoples?
B. Do you feel that art, literature, music, religion, science, and
invention play any part in helping peoples of the world
to understand one another?
C. What are some factors that contribute to world friendship?
To world conflicts?
D. What factors inhibit world understanding?
A. Correspond with young people in other countries.
B. Write to organizations or travel agencies asking for infor-
mation or materials for classroom use.
C. Write a composition comparing or contrasting Americans
and the people of other nations as portrayed in selections
D. Write a play, radio skit, song, or poem showing the worth
and dignity of all mankind.
E. Write a composition on one of the religions of the world.
F. Present a quiz program to test present knowledge of stu-
dents in regard to other nations, questions to be made by
the students and the program conducted by them.
G. Have an informal exchange of information that students
have obtained on foreign countries from previous reading,
newsreels, travelogues, and travel, or from parents and
grandparents born abroad.
H. Read a biography of a great man whose life exemplifies
the worth and dignity of mankind. Tell the class of the
qualities of the man but do not give his name. Let them
I. Have a panel discussion on one of the following:
1. The significant contributions of various nations to
2. Means of promoting better understanding of the worth
and dignity of men of other nations.
3. The great religions of the world.
J. Present an assembly program planned by all the students
and based on the ideas gained in this unit.
K. Listen to records of songs and music of foreign lands.
L. View travel films.
Historically, social studies classes have been charged with
responsibilities far beyond the pages of the textbook. Some of the
accepted purposes of the social studies have been to develop the
responsible American citizen, the clear thinker, the individual
as a person of individual worth and dignity. Moral and spiritual
qualities, such as honesty, loyalty, good will, responsibility, kind-
ness, and reverence can be developed through practical experi-
ences in social studies classes as well as in other classes. In the
teaching of social studies, we try to promote the development of
the foregoing qualities in students because they are fundamental
to the preservation and extension of our democracy.
Suggested Emphases in American History
Let us look at some topics selected from the field of American
history, which is a required subject in all Florida high schools.
The following suggestions do not constitute a study plan. It is
hoped, rather, that they will stimulate and guide teachers into
discovering for themselves points where moral and spiritual values
can be emphasized.
Many of the early settlers of our nation were members of
groups which came to America to escape religious persecu-
tion and to enjoy religious freedom. In spite of these beginnings,
most of the early colonies did not extend religious freedom to
citizens who disagreed with them. Even such liberal groups as
Rhode Island, Maryland, and Pennsylvania enforced civil restric-
tions against minority religious groups. It was not until late in
the 18th century that the leaders of the colonies began to realize
that political and civil freedom are impossible unless citizens also
enjoy religious freedom. This religious freedom has become one
of the foundation stones of our democracy, and it must be zeal-
Our forefathers had profound insights into the future needs
of a new land. Several of America's basic documents are consid-
ered among the best in human history. The Declaration of Inde-
pendence stresses the dignity of man and testifies to his ability
and God-given right to rule his own life. The Constitution begins
with a Preamble of six lofty purposes which concern universal
welfare and protection. The Bill of Rights insures freedom from a
leader who would turn dictator. It also brings the promise of free-
dom to believe in God, or even to disbelieve if one so desires. Our
forefathers insisted on this priceless heritage for us so that all
human differences could be cherished and so that we could also
appreciate the common humanity which underlies all creeds and
racial groups. The pledge of allegiance to the flag recognizes the
existence of the Creator as fundamental in our American heritage.
A Nation Divided
Trouble may come to the most carefully laid plans when ideas
differ over loyalties and liberty. It was not easy to develop a
sympathetic understanding of beliefs which were different from
one's own cherished beliefs. A country so large was bound to be
divided by sectionalism and misunderstanding. A bloody inter-
sectional conflict erupted and Abraham Lincoln challenged
Americans to reconcile their differences: "With malice toward
none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives
us to see the right ..." In this spirit our nation ended a tragic
war and, guided by the ideals of Lincoln, began to rebuild a
national life based on faith in God and respect for one's fellowmen
as children of God.
Science and Power
With the advent of improved scientific methods and research,
our national life was radically changed. By harnessing and utiliz-
ing the vast store of material resources with which the United
States is blessed, our nation entered a period of unprecedented
prosperity and power. In many other nations, the power released
by science was used to establish totalitarian states in which many
people were exploited to serve the selfish interests of those in
In our own country there are some individuals and groups
who used the fruits of science to try to exploit other human
beings and other groups. These efforts, however, failed because
a vast majority of our citizens have continued to live for and if
need be to die for the principle: "That all men are endowed by
their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are
life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness."
In accepting the Declaration of Independence as a basic Ameri-
can document, we promised to show equality to all. We did not
achieve world leadership without continuing this thought pro-
cess from individual neighbor to group neighbor. So, we grew in
stature as we recognized the rights, beliefs, customs, and creeds
of the countries beyond our borders.
How the Foregoing Themes Could Be Taught
in an American History Class
The themes previously recorded are in no way meant to
exhaust the possibilities for moral and spiritual emphasis in
American history. They represent a few ideas and experiences
that could be stressed as an integral part of American history
courses to awaken students to the significant role that moral and
spiritual foundations have played in the history of our democracy.
The following ways of. representation have proved interesting,
varied, and successful:
Bulletin board displays
Original stories, plays, poems,
choral readings, etc.
An Experience in Which All
Social Studies Students Participate
Students in the social studies classes participate simultane-
ously in a week's study around the theme, One God, using both
the book and picture of the same name.
The material in the book is used in every class in order to
prepare the students for the viewing of the picture. Teachers
use the library copies from which to prepare a resume of the
book. Volunteers within the classes talk on ways of worship fol-
lowed in their own religious faiths. These talks are informational
only, with no attempts being made to impose any religion on
the group. The teachers feel the students should know and un-
derstand the different religions, just as they should know the
different types of government so that they may respect the merits
of our democratic way of life.
On the day scheduled, students from world history, American
history, and senior social studies classes go together to the audi-
torium for viewing the film. This means that there are usually
three or four classes seeing the picture at a time. By showing it
once during each of the six periods of the day, all social studies
students see it.
The next day, during the social studies period, all classes
go back for a discussion of the film. During this period, students
explain further or clarify points in the film concerning the
faiths. The pupil whose faith had not been included in the pic-
ture may offer information concerning his particular church or
beliefs. The following questions represent the kinds of topics
How has the picture helped you to see the relation of religion
to your daily lives?
In what way has this study helped you understand and respect
religions different from your own?
Has the study helped you get a better understanding and
appreciation of your own religious faith?
Would you like to see the picture again next year if you are
enrolled in a social studies class? Why?
A short objective test is given on the information included
in the picture. Since the class talks and discussions may be stated
opinions rather than facts, information gathered during these
periods is not covered in the test.
There have been no complaints from parents about the study.
Students themselves say they have become more fully aware
of the value of their own religion. They state that their better
understanding of all religious beliefs has helped them to do away
with much bigotry and prejudice. They ask for a continuation
of the program from year to year.
A Seventh Grade Social Studies Unit
This social studies unit was developed with seventh grade stu-
dents in a core class. Except for music and physical education
classes, the classroom was self-contained. The unit, including the
planning, research, field trips, reporting, writing and produc-
ing the play, and evaluation, with their integrated skills, lasted
eight weeks. Not all skills learned nor activities participated in
were related to the study, however. Much arithmetic was taught,
library books were read, current events were discussed, and room
meetings were held apart from the study of religions. Also, after
the needed skills had been introduced and used in the unit,
periods were scheduled for additional practice in other settings.
Books, pamphlets, songs and audio-visual materials used by teach-
er and students in this unit are included in the bibliography.
The play, "Shane Learns the American Way," written and
produced by students as a part of this unit, was awarded the
George Washington Honor Medal from the Freedoms Founda-
tion at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, 1956.
The Unit: How Do the Religions of Our
Community Influence Our Lives?
"There were 23 votes for a unit on religion and 6 for one on
wildlife," announced the president of my seventh grade class.
By wildlife, I hasten to add, was meant fish, birds, and other
animals found in our immediate environs. The voting culminated
three periods of general planning. The discussion was carried on
by the class as a whole as well as in small groups. Previously
we had eliminated all but these two topics from the eight which
the students had suggested as community factors bearing a direct
influence on their everyday life.
As a step in planning, I felt many things needed to be done
as we attempted to make an intelligent decision. Consequently
I challenged the students to consider significant questions we
needed to answer before our final decision could be one with
which we would be satisfied.
The class secretary recorded on the board the questions raised
by her classmates. What do we want to find out about each topic?
Does the topic contain enough direct relationship to our every-
day life to justify studying it? What resources, including reading
materials, audio-visual aids, places, and people, are available to
us? What values do we expect to get from such a study? Is
there something we can do as a part of our study, or shall we just
study about the topic? If we studied the religions of our com-
munity, how would our parents feel?
At this point the class was almost equally divided between
the topics religion and wildlife, so students were grouped accord-
ing to their first choice. For two periods both committees
explored many possible answers, knowing these would influ-
ence the decision of their classmates. The two groups were asked
to explore the above questions and give some tentative answers.
The third day was spent in presenting to each other and the
teacher the answers they had been able to formulate in the
brief time allotted. A record was made of the reports so that
each group felt its choice was being justly represented and con-
sidered. It was upon these reports that the students based their
choices, resulting in the vote counted by the class officers and
announced by their president. We had decided to study religion.
Once again, the class as a whole began planning because we
had yet to agree on our exact problem and what its limits would
be. Many students suggested possible problems, all of which the
secretary recorded. We could not, however, decide on any one
problem until we had agreed upon which religions were to be
studied. At this point, I asked them what we set out to do almost
a week before. The secretary reminded us it was to realize how
a particular phase of our community influenced our lives and
how we in turn influenced it. The students knew that many dif-
ferent faiths were represented in our city, but they felt they
should limit their study to Catholicism, Judaism, and Protestant-
ism. The problem agreed upon was "How do the Religions of Our
Community Influence Our Lives?"
We agreed upon several objectives which we felt would jus-
tify our study. These as worded by the students were: (1) to
discover what our churches do for our community, (2) to de-
velop an understanding and respect for other religions, (3) to
become more interested in the church of our choice, and (4) to
become a better boy or girl.
I then asked the students what they meant by becoming a bet-
ter boy or girl. Their comments included these: "Not to make fun
of other people," "To do things my parents expect me to do with-
out a fuss," "Not to be so selfish," "To try to make new friends,"
and "Not to be jealous of my brothers and sisters, after all I can
do some things they can't."
Continuing our group discussion, we decided that prejudice
was often caused by ignorance and fear; so to be understanding
we would have to learn more about the faiths represented in
our city. That, we felt, could be done best by visiting the
churches of the various faiths and by listening to an explanation
by the minister, priest, or rabbi. The students expressed the
opinion that they would respect other religions more if they
understood not only the similarity but also the differences
among the three faiths.
As we were considering the third objective, we discovered,
to the surprise of a few students, that some of their class-
mates had no church which they called their own. This led to a
brief discussion about freedom of religion and to the need for
detailed study later in the unit. I directed the discussion by
saying these classmates, as millions of others, were of im-
portance and value as individuals. They were exercising the
same freedom of choice that church members were enjoying.
Students with a church home suggested they would talk to their
parents about the beliefs of their faiths. As a further way to
realize this objective, others said they would attend meetings at
their church more regularly and participate more actively in the
Becoming more involved in their own church or synagogue,
they thought, would help them begin to see some of the func-
tions and influence of the church in the community. They felt
they could build upon this knowledge as they visited the syna-
gogue and other churches and listened to religious leaders. One
student had brought a clipping from the newspaper describing
a religious census which was to be conducted in the near future.
He felt this project might offer something some of them could
actively participate in. The room secretary added this possibil-
ity to the many previous suggestions offered by the students.
Having completed our values and some general activities for
implementing them, I suggested we begin a list of questions.
As students would read books, examine representative lit-
erature, and think about church ceremonies, music and symbol-
ism, questions might present themselves. Some we could ask.
while on our field trip to the churches, while others might better
be answered by the religious leader of the student raising them.
This they agreed to do.
By now, I felt confident that all students were ready to
discuss this unit with their parents. They could identify
their problems, could justify the value of the unit, had sug-
gested some general activities, and realized they were dealing
with a controversial issue. Because we had planned together, we
all knew what we wanted to do. I feel that the favorable reac-
tion we received from parents was due in part to the mature way
in which the students presented our study to them.
The parents gave their consent. If their decision had been
to the contrary, we would have changed our problem. Had this
developed, I feel that thinking through the values anticipated
by the study would still have helped the students realize that
the rights of any individual shall not interfere with the equal
rights of other individuals, that each has the right to worship
God in his own way, and that all students have a spiritual quality
that the school is willing to acknowledge.
The next step in our problem was to identify and obtain ma-
terial for reading and study. Several students went to our school
library for books, vertical file material, and catalogues of
audio-visual aids. Others made phone calls to the secretary of
their respective synagogues and churches and to librarians in
our city to arrange to borrow materials they felt should be ex-
amined by the entire class. When we reassembled we concluded
much of our information would have to be gathered first hand
because available printed material was scarce. We did use Flor-
ence Mary Fitch's One God as our point of departure. Students
brought in copies of The Missal, The Union Prayer Book, Book
of Common Prayer, various versions of The Bible, and assorted
hymn-books. These were examined carefully by all students
and furnished a basis for many questions on the field trips. Vol-
untarily pupils brought in orders of service, magazines, church
school literature, and clippings from the newspapers on
church activities. A bulletin board was prepared by a committee
and later examined for evidence of purposes and functions among
the faiths represented.
I asked the students what we could do to provide evidence
of attaining our objectives. Tabulating class attendance to vari-
ous church services was suggested by a student. This stimulated
much discussion around these questions: Will we embarrass any-
one by this count? Is it any of our business whether or not a
person goes to church? Can a person be a better person without
going to church? Would we all be truthful? The suggestion was
accepted by the class but they felt the count should be
anonymous and by secret ballot. This was done each Monday
morning. A student recorded our results on the class chart. For
comparison we recorded church attendance for the Sunday pre-
ceding our study. The report of that Sunday was six, meaning six
students out of twenty-nine had attended a church service on that
day. As our study progressed attendance increased rather quickly,
with twenty-one being the largest attendance on a given Sunday
Another method of furnishing evidence of attaining our values
was agreed upon. "Let's just tell what we have said or done
because of our study," they said. Again after we discussed the
influence such a technique might have on an individual, we
agreed to set aside a time for such if any student cared to tell us.
I tried to prevent the student from relating incidents merely
for my commendation and that of his classmates by asking each
one at the conclusion of the incident, "How did you feel about
A common list of questions was prepared by the class as a
whole, both as a means of presenting me with evidence that we
were ready for our field trips and as a learning guide for the
students during our visits. The following sample questions will
show how many phases of the faiths were included: What are
some of the sacraments and ceremonies of your faith? Explain
the meanings of the furnishings in the churches and of the cloth-
ing worn by church leaders. Do all faiths have different de-
nominations? How does each church try to make Tallahassee a
better community? Does each church have missionaries? How
do the congregations get their leaders? What do the names of
our churches mean?
Naturally students were not limited to these class-prepared
questions. Pupils prepared an individual list and asked numer-
ous questions initiated by a remark made by the speaker or by
an appointment seen in a church or synagogue.
A follow-up of each visit was conducted in the classroom
before we went on the next trip.
The students themselves determined which denomination
would represent the Protestant churches. They preferred one
with small representation in the room, saying they probably
knew more about the others. While on our last trip we stopped
for visits in several other Protestant churches to examine the
furnishings and architecture for religious symbolism.
After we had finished our field trips and our integrated studies
in language arts, mathematics, social studies, art, and music, I
asked the students where we were in our study. I expected
them to say, "We're practically finished with our unit. Let's
evaluate and go to something else." They did not feel that way
at all. They expressed the desire to share with others the experi-
ences they had had. They still wanted to "do something" related
to their study. So we agreed on writing a play and producing it
for an assembly program.
During general planning by the entire class we agreed upon
the ideas to be included and their relationship to acts and
scenes. We decided also that the narration would be woven
around a family. We concluded, after much discussion, that
every student would participate in the writing. A clearing com-
mittee, composed of six students elected by their classmates, was
to edit the manuscript.
Thus our daily period became one of further research, indi-
vidual writing, and small group conferences. By the time we had
finished writing the play we had used our English book and dic-
tionary for much needed help on sentence and paragraph struc-
ture, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling.
When the play, "Shane Learns the American Way," was fin-
ished, it was composed of three acts. The first portrayed vari-
ous parts of rituals and symbolism of the different faiths. The
purpose was to show that although the specific acts and be-
liefs differ, each was sacred and meaningful to the believers.
Every person was entitled to his choice and that choice should
be respected by others.
The second act endeavored to trace briefly the development
of man's worshipping God. Two scenes depicted the influence
of Abram and Moses on church history. Other scenes showed the
rise of the Christian church after the Resurrection of Christ
and the influence of Paul's missionary journeys. A scene typi-
fying the Reformation showed its influence on the founding of
various Protestant churches. Finally, recognition was made of the
effects some local churches had in the development of our city.
The last act portrayed the material ways in which churches
help our community. Ways included were combatting delinquen-
cy, sponsoring church schools and colleges, and helping people
with their problems.
While one committee of students was editing the manu-
script, other student groups were listing the properties, deciding
on the best lighting effects, and selecting and timing the music
Adults representing each faith read the play before we pre-
sented it. We incorporated the suggestions they made, both as to
content and to action, in our performance.
The production continued to be a situation for learning for
both the performers and the audience. Portrayal of roles offered
another opportunity to recall and interpret what the students
had read, seen, and heard during their study. I believe every
performer discovered a personal meaning of the historical events,
religious ceremonies, and moral and spiritual foundations con-
tained in the play. The dignity and solemnity of the student ac-
tors commanded the respect and interest of the audience.
All phases of the language arts were used. These communica-
tive skills were an integral part of our entire study. Time was set
aside daily to practice and drill on the new skills we were using.
We had the fundamentals of grammar, reading, arithmetic, spell-
ing, and writing at the same time we were developing under-
standings, skills, and attitudes toward religion in our commu-
Word study, involving spelling and vocabulary building, was
included in our unit. A few of the vocabulary words were:
Tolerance, Sacrament, Torah, synagogue, genuflect, Trinity,
mass, Catholic, Reformation, and parochial. Many new words
were introduced in their reading and were later used in their
written and oral reports. These may have become spelling words;
although every student did not need the same list of words. On
the other hand, some words were not new in meaning but
could not be spelled by some of the students. The following spell-
ing words will illustrate the wide span in the needs of a class of
29 students: priest, baptism, denomination, privilege, fundamen-
tal, catechism, churches, and ceremonies.
The problem offered further opportunities for learning more
history. Reports were prepared on the struggle for religious
freedom in the United States, biographies of outstanding religious
leaders were read, papers were written on the influence selected
churches had on the development and history of our city, and
reports were given on the functions of the Tallahassee Minis-
We all studied arithmetic. Charts and graphs of various types
were prepared showing church membership of all faiths in the
United States as well as that in our city. Some students used
percentage to determine numerical increase and/or decrease in
various faiths. To make the quantitative data easier to inter-
pret we had to develop and use new skills. These skills helped
us, in turn, communicate with others certain facts and relation-
ships pertaining to religion. When I felt we had accomplished this,
we returned to our arithmetic book for more practice in these
new skills within other areas of living. At this time, our arith-
metic ceased being integrated with our problem on religion.
Art and music played a prominent role in our study. A new
appreciation of the place of music in the worship of God and a
better understanding of representative music of each faith helped
us realize in a broader sense the influence of religion on our
everyday lives. We listened to good recordings of typical music to
try to detect certain characteristics of rhythm, melody, and story.
We learned some of the more familiar selections typifying
each faith. The junior high school chorus, to which my entire
class belonged, learned and tape-recorded One God by Ervin
Drake and James Shirl (Hansen Publications). We used a stanza
from this to introduce and to conclude our play.
Investigating paintings, sculpture, architecture, embossing,
embroidery, and mosaics contributed to the students' concepts
of the various faiths and enhanced their appreciation of art it-
self. Art was used extensively in the production of the play.
Murals were drawn and painted to be used as backdrops of several
scenes; properties were constructed; and costumes were designed
and made to lend realism to ideas. This use of art as a means of
communication necessitated further research as well as learning
and using specific skills.
We evaluated our study continuously from the standpoints of
our anticipated values and of our day to day way of work. We
scheduled a short evaluation period each day to discuss our
progress, problems, and procedure. I feel our daily evaluation re-
sulted in our avoiding some criticism often encountered during
the study of any controversial topic.
Some techniques used for appraising learning were no differ-
ent from those applicable to other units. We had achievement
tests covering the skills we developed, used, and practiced dur-
ing our study. The tests on spelling, arithmetic, grammar, and
written composition consisted of subject matter related to our
study of religions.
We also used more informal ways of evaluation. As I described
previously, we did set aside a few minutes daily for students
who desired to tell any incidents or repeat any comments they
felt were significant to illustrate change in their attitudes or
understandings. As we continued our study, I noticed a ten-
dency for more and different students to participate in this pro-
cedure. Evidences of change varied greatly in nature but indicated
a consciousness on the part of the students that their experi-
ences were having a profound effect on their lives. One girl said
she had planned to miss church on the previous Sunday. As the
time drew near, however, she had a desire to go to church so
she dressed hurriedly and arrived at the appointed time. A
boy related that for the first time in his life he had looked forward
to a sermon. The minister had announced a topic that had been
discussed on our field trips. When neither parent would go with
him, he told us he went by himself to hear the sermon.
We felt our play was a success. Our audience of junior and
senior high school students responded in keeping with our
topic and purposes. Some said they had never thought very
much about religion, but the play had made them see its
importance. Students who were members of the three faiths de-
picted complimented us on the understanding, spirit, and clar-
ity with which we portrayed the faith of their choice. We re-
ceived letters from adults in the fields of education and religion
commending our efforts.
I asked the students to consider the techniques we should use
in our final evaluation. We agreed an achievement test would
not give the best tangible evidence of our changed understand-
ings, attitudes, and skills. They desired to continue our plan of
telling how they had changed because of our study. Discussion
centered around each anticipated value.
We began by relating evidence of our becoming better indi-
viduals. One girl said she had been resentful of keeping her
sister's three children each afternoon while her sister worked.
Now she said she was willing to do so for she realized she had
been selfish. Her sister, separated from her husband, had to work
to support herself and children. Another student said he had
stopped teasing his teen-age sister. Even his mother had noticed
it and had congratulated him. Still another boy told of a fuss he
had had in the gym with a schoolmate. He said he was positive
that before our study he would have jumped on the other boy.
Instead he suggested they forget it and be friends.
Many comments showed the study had helped the students
understand and respect other religions. They agreed that many
ideas on which they had based prejudices toward a particular
church were fallacies. They also realized the tremendous influ-
ence that interpretation has on one's beliefs. A student stated she
now realized the modes of baptism were the result of each faith's
interpretation of the Bible.
Only a few members of the class had previously entered a
church or synagogue other than that of their own faith. The
synagogue itself had been somewhat of a enigma to many stu-
dents. Many said since they couldn't identify the building they
had classified it as "different" and consequently "odd." Some said
they hoped they would never be guilty of such rash reasoning
One student said she would never again think lightly of
unfamiliar religious acts, music, symbols, and vestments. She
now recognizes them as symbolical of beliefs held and respected
The majority of those students having a church home indi-
cated they had become more interested in the church of their
choice. They were attending services more regularly, under-
standing the forms and procedures in their own church better,
and practically all discussed their religious beliefs with their par-
ents. A few attended classes preparatory to joining the church
and said they were better able to ask questions because of their
study. It is probable those who subsequently affiliated with a
church would have done so anyway. However, they did state
that the service was more meaningful because of our experiences.
A boy, identifying himself as one who had gone to church all his
life, said the title of a magazine in his home caught his atten-
tion. As he looked at it he discovered it was published by his
church. His mother said they had subscribed to it for years. He
added, "Funny, wasn't it? I never knew such a thing existed."
The most obvious value during our planning, that of dis-
covering what the churches do for our community, actually be-
came the least challenging to us. We were able to determine
and appreciate the material ways our local churches influenced
our city and county. Many students said they did not realize their
own church sponsored as many different types of community
projects and provided as many organizations for people of all ages.
Some were familiar with the Scouts, camps, schools, and or-
ganizations affiliated with churches; but many said their ideas
of churches went no farther than "Sunday School and Church."
One student stated he knew churches supported charitable organ-
izations and helped people solve their everyday problems, but he
knew very little about the actual beliefs of any church.
Many parents expressed their appreciation of our study. They
provided the transportation for our visits to the synagogues and
churches. One mother said she had been reluctant to discuss
religious beliefs with her daughter. As a result of our study,
the daughter had taken the initiative. All students said religion
had been a frequent topic of conversation within their families
since we had begun our study.
Moral and Spiritual Values in Science and Mathematics
Science teaching results in learning and using information
about the universe, about our earth in the solar system, about
living things on our earth, about substances and energy, as we
attempt to modify our environment-and the learning is perhaps
easier than the using.
Children are naturally curious and eager to learn. But after
they have learned-what then? Are we teaching them the
shapes of letters, the tricks of numbers, the laws of nature and
then leaving them to turn their arithmetic to roguery, their liter-
ature to lust, and their science to destruction?
In order to avoid a "yes" answer to this question, we must
teach moral and spiritual values to our children along with the
other learnings and usings"
Perhaps the battle is half won already and we have not recog-
nized it, for we must accept the fact that every religious sect
from the early sun worshipers to those of the present day pre-
supposed or presupposes a Supreme Being.
Children are as aware or even more aware of a divine hand
than adults, shown by the fact that they ask: "Where does the
sun come from each morning? What makes the leaves grow?
Why did my dog have puppies? Why don't the stars fall?" We
answer with our scientific knowledge of such things and still they
say Why? Why? Why? They seem to sense we have given them
a partial answer. They know that man cannot make a plant or
animal in a laboratory, and that if the stars began to fall he
could do nothing about it. Something greater is there.
Presupposing a Supreme Being now, how may we preserve
this integrity of childhood? Children must learn that knowledge
is to be shared. Nature is all mankind's possession, and any
of her uncovered secrets should be used to benefit all. We must
consciously realize that our present scientific knowledge is an
accumulation of thousands of years of research. The Chaldeans
were studying the stars long before Mt. Palomar was even con-
ceived. The pyramids and Parthenon involved mathematical
construction problems equal to and just as complex as the build-
ing of the Empire State Building or Hoover Dam.
These values can be developed with continuity-leading us
to observe this passing on of knowledge from the beginning of
time to the present, and that this makes man superior to other
animals because he is able to preserve past knowledge and build
upon it. Each animal of a kind is born with the same instincts and
learns the same things as its kind of thousands of years ago. No
dog has written a book on how to improve a dog's life, but
man, it is hoped, has profited from the past. No one man could
build a complete rocket of the Cape Canaveral variety by him-
self. He must use knowledge of many men. The early Chinese
first invented crude rockets, and we are still improving upon
them. This being true, we should then place great value on hu-
man life and human experiences. Man lives for the benefit
or detriment of his fellow men.
True, we have developed a vast arsenal of knowledge about
missiles and rockets through pooled knowledge, but have we been
able to create a mechanism that lives and breathes? A rocket may
come to life on the launching pad and soar into space, but it
becomes lifeless and dead and falls to destruction without fuel or
man's control. An animal with heart, eyes, lungs is a much more
wonderful creation than a missile. It sees; it has emotions; it can-
not be duplicated by man; only the Supreme Being is able to
supervise this production. Even a plant without a heart but with
breathing pores, chlorophyll, flowers, seeds or spores, is more
wonderful than any manmade mechanism. Children can learn
a great deal through caring for plants and animals, even the in-
adequacy of man's inventiveness.
If children have the opportunity to learn about and care for
plants and animals, they learn the interrelationships of living
things, the dependence of living things upon environment. Ani-
mals breathe oxygen, plants breathe carbon dioxide, and each
"supplies" the other. Plants and animals depend upon one an-
other, and life is a cycle. We are governed by this cycle, the
Supreme Being, and our fellow men. Children must be made
aware of this interdependence and taught to accept their respon-
sibility in the pattern of things.
Plants and animals have adapted themselves to environment
or have been created with specific aids to help them survive. A
cactus has a stem to store water and a root to penetrate the earth
to secure water from the arid land. A hawk has claws to seize
and hold its prey. A chameleon changes color when it has need
to do so. These are devices to survive. Man, too, has been
equipped for survival. We should not destroy ourselves and
become as cannibalistic animals, gobbling each other up in a
battle of survival of the fittest.
Science is a potent weapon in any struggle. It has transformed
our way of life and our standard of living. It is the responsi-
bility of every teacher to teach moral and spiritual values which
will assure us of developing scientists who care.
Developing Moral and Spiritual Values
Through Science and Mathematics
The science teacher occupies a key position in the teaching of
moral and spiritual values. Recognition of opportunities in this
area together with a recognition of the many problems involved
(many of which are beyond the control of the teacher) cause
the thoughtful science teacher to proceed with caution into this
most critical area of instruction.
Most students are endowed with a spark of moral and spiritual
emotion; and when an attempt is made to broaden their thinking
on certain scientific theories, this emotion is aroused and
they demand an explanation. It should never be the intention of
any teacher to try to discourage the student in his spiritual and
moral beliefs. In support of this judgment we might quote one
of the foremost writers of the Seventeeth Century, Jonathan
Swift, who said, "That the universe was formed by a fortuitous
concourse of atoms, I will no more believe than that of the acci-
dental jumbling of the alphabet would fall into a most ingeni-
ous treatise of a philosophy."
The student often comes to the science class wondering if he
will find some conflict between science and spiritual concepts
held by the student's parents or church. The student may be a
person who is beginning to develop deep religious feelings but
who has picked up a vague idea that in science he may make
discoveries that will prove incompatible with newly-found reli-
gious experience. On the other hand, the student may be develop-
ing a resentment against the controls of authority represented by
his parents and the church. In such a case he may be anxious
to attach himself to any idea in science that can be interpreted as
authority to break with the traditions held by parents. These
ideas and attitudes brought to the class cause the student to over
emphasize any position, implied or stated, taken by the teacher.
Hardly any teacher is so blessed by interest on the part of stu-
dents or so hampered by preconceived notions as is the science
teacher trying to deal with the topics relative to God's part in
the creation and development of man and the universe. These
problems are inherent in the teaching of science and are not con-
fined to the teacher who is trying to teach moral and spiritual
values through science.
Whether spiritual values are supported or weakened through
the process of teaching science depends largely on the attitude of
the teacher. A teacher, directing a study of the natural universe,
can, by a chance remark, a well-chosen word here or there,
imply either that the wonders of nature have a relationship to
the existence of a Supreme Being or that they have no such
"Was Adam a cave man?" What teacher of science or history
has not been confronted with this question in one form or another?
The teacher should develop a real sensitiveness to the mean-
ing of such questions. The question may have been asked only
to confuse the teacher, or it may be the result of a deep philo-
sophical question existing in the student's mind. In either case
the question should not be dealt with lightly or flippantly.
When questions arise concerning conflict between ideas developed
in the study of science and statements made in sacred writings,
the teacher should remember that he stands a chance of losing
the respect of either the student or his parents if the answer tends
to break down a belief held sacred by the family for generations.
The teacher is always in error if he fails to show genuine respect
for the sacred writing and symbols that make up a part of the
home life of the student.
Most of the difficulties resulting from discussion of conflict
between the Bible and science come about through the willing-
ness of some teachers to discuss a topic about which they know
little or nothing. The same teacher who feels that years of study
are required to make a good science teacher will gladly discuss
Biblical criticism, a subject to which he has given no serious
study, at the drop of a hat.
While the areas of social studies and English lend themselves
beautifully to the development of topics or units dealing directly
with moral and spiritual values, it is believed that foundations
for the moral and spiritual can best be laid in the science
class through an attitude of the teacher friendly to the idea that
in America moral and spiritual values have their roots in God.
When mathematics is treated as a tool of other sciences, all
that is said about the teaching of moral and spiritual values
through science can be said of mathematics. In the area of pure
mathematics there exists the possibility of developing spiritual
concepts hardly possible in any other study. Pure mathematics
is man-made, each area having its basic assumptions which may
be in error, and on which calculations and manipulations are
made which may be perfect in their execution. Euclidean geom-
etry, as well as all other branches of mathematics, has in it those
fallacies that are inherent in man-made assumptions. In contrast to
this, many other sciences are concerned with the man's effort to
observe and discover facts concerning a God-made universe. Such
sciences have in them the types of error inherent in imperfect
systems and instruments of observation constructed by man.
Through this contrast the able mathematics teacher can de-
velop superior understandings in some students relative to
scientific method and its limitations in giving us all answers to
Moral and Spiritual Values in Music
The essence of the spiritual in man can be found in musical
creation and recreation. Feeling and value are reflected in the
inter-relationship of his mind, body, and the spirit communicat-
ing a thought, ideal or deep emotion in aesthetic form. The great
musical expressions, folk and composed, are those which re-
late man to his God.
Although the initial contact point between man and music
is "feeling," music experiences without a growing intellectual
involvement remain static and repetitive. With personal ma-
turation in understanding and in the techniques and skills of
music-making come increased appreciation and more intelligent
Experiences in music can
1. help students know music literature that is part of their
American social, cultural, and spiritual heritage.
2. help students know more intimately people of other na-
tional groups, cultures, and ages.
3. provide aesthetic satisfaction and sensitivity to human emo-
4. result in the development of interests and competencies
which can sustain the- individual in use of leisure time
during school and adult years.
Music is many-sided and therefore lends itself readily to a
variety of teaching situations.
1. In the general music class in the elementary and secon-
2. In the performance classes, particularly in the secondary
3. In reinforcing the development of conceptual understand-
ing in other areas of general education.
A fifth grade class became involved in the meaning of
freedom of worship in America and decided to culminate
their study with a visit to the churches and synagogues of
the community. As part of their project they felt it appro-
priate to learn about music representative of each church
visited. During the visit to the synagogue they listened to
Hatikvah; in the Catholic Church, Panis Angelicus (Franck);
and O God, Our Help in Ages Past (Croft), at the Protes-
In the development of the unit, "How do the Religions
of Our Community Influence Our Lives?", the music special-
ist served in two ways. As a resource person working with
a student committee, he suggested informational and musi-
cal material, both song and recorded, that furthered an
understanding of the place of music in the worship of God
and contributed toward a better appreciation of the repre-
sentative music of each faith. As a teacher he was responsi-
ble for the preparation and presentation of the music used
in the play. Examples of the types of music employed were:
A Mighty Fortress Is Our God (Luther), God So Loved the
World (Stainer), Ave Maria (Bach-Gounod), Sanctus (St.
Cecilia Mass), Eli, Eli and Kol Nidrei (traditional Jewish),
One God (Drake and Shirl).
4. Highlighting classroom living, particularly in the elemen-
tary school, through use in:
a. the opening exercise, devotion, grace, grade and school-
b. providing change of pace as needed for more effective
learning and good classroom management.
Junior High School General Music
A Unit: Freedom From Bondage
This unit represents one of a number of approaches to the de-
velopment of understanding for human dignity and worth. The
music selected is a direct expression of man's struggle for individ-
ual and collective freedom. It is suggestive and by no means taps
the vast field of available music literature.
The institution of slavery, be it ownership of one human
being by another or the consequences of a political philosophy,
has fostered music expressive of hope, faith, and freedom from
oppression. It grew out of a need to find some kind of beauty,
to pour out emotions, and to create a symbol of a spirit that
refused to be conquered. The following selections are represent-
ative of several different historical eras and several different
Lilliburiero Music Around the World
This song is credited with playing an important part in the Revolu-
tion of 1688, in which James lost his throne, and led to the Bill
of Rights in 1689.
On, On Oh My Soul Sing Out
The melody is a Serbian folk song and the text expresses the hope
and longing of all oppressed people. Tschaikovsky used the melo-
dy in March Slav (RCA LM-9027).
Chester New Music Horizons V
William Billings, a tanner by vocation, was one of America's first
composers. This hymn-like march was the unofficial war song of
the American Revolution.
Marsellaise New Music Horizons VI
Music in Our Times
This song, born in a time of an intense desire for freedom, equality,
and brotherhood, inspired the French revolutionary forces during
the French Revolution.
Hatikvah (Song of Hope) Music in Our Country
New Music Horizons V
Music in Our Life
The text is from a poem by Imber and translated by Rabbi Jacob
Freedman. It symbolizes the deep and lasting faith that Jerusalem
will be rebuilt and that a new nation will be founded.
Go Down, Moses Singing Teenagers
Music Around the World
This spiritual is the parallel that the American Negro, while in
bondage, used to symbolize his situation. He knew from Bible
stories that Moses led his people out of slavery and that his day
of liberation would come.
Dayenu Music in Our Times
A traditional song of thanks sung during Passover (Festival of
Freedom) which recalls the time the Jews began their life as a
free people after enslavement in Egypt.
Finlandia Let Music Ring
New Music Horizons V
Several texts have been set to this chorale theme from Sibelius'
tone poem by the same name. It is included for two reasons: (1)
an excellent example of God, expressed in nature, (2) during the
Russian occupation of Finland, its performance was prohibited be-
cause it aroused the Finish people to heights of revolt.
Loudly Proclaiming Music in Our Times
This national song of Wales indicates the condition of freemen. The
power of the bards to arouse intense feelings of patriotism and
courage was considered to be so great that in 1282, King Edward I
ordered the execution of all musicians.
State-adopted textbooks, supplementary textbooks, and cata-
logues of recording companies provide abundant resources and
suggestions of appropriate music literature for this purpose. In
many instances, there are brief notes in the teacher's guide
which provide additional helpful information concerning each
selection. The indices are extensive, and the material is usually
classified and cross referenced.
For concrete illustration, three possible emphases have been
selected for inclusion here. In each instance, an attempt has been
made to choose the most unusual examples.
Primitive Cultures-Past and Present
Song Literature Related Listening
Peace Pipe-Music Now and Long Music of American Indians of the
Ago Southwest-Folk Ways 4420
Song of False-Face Society- African Music-Col KL 205
Music Near and Far
Desert Fruit-Music in Our Indian Album-RCA El Library
Zuni Sunset Song-Music in Our World of Man, Vol 2 (Religions)
Country Folkway FC 7432
To Erzulie-Music Near and Far
Affirmation of Freedom Under God
Song Literature Related Listening
God of Our Fathers-New Music
America the Beautiful-Many
Four Freedoms-Let Music Ring
American Hymn-Singing Juniors
America (Bloch)-Twice SS
Once to Every Man and Nation-..
Stars and Stripes Forever-Music
Near and Far
Sir Donkey (13th Century Miracle
Play)--Music Around the
Waits Carol (Middle Ages)-
Music Around the World
Las Posadas Songs (Mexican)--
Music in Our Town-Music Now
and Long Ago
Pinata-Music Near and Far
Rocking Carol-Music Near and
Bom, Bom, Bom-Music Near and
My Dreydel-Music in Our Town
Eight Nights of Hanukkah-
Music Now and Long Ago
Hanukkah Song-Music Makers
Torah Orah-Music Makers
Songs of the Revolution-Ency-
Who Built America-Folkway
Lincoln Portrait (Copeland) RCA
The Plow That Broke the Plain
(Copeland) Decca 7527
Song of Democracy (Hanson) Mer
I Hear America Singing (Klein-
singer) RCA Camden 367
Testament of Freedom (Hanson)
Folk Songs of New World-Cap
Christmas Hymns and Carols-
Vol. 12 & 2, RCA LM 2134
Amahl and the Night Visitors-
RCA LM 1701
Christmas with Arais and Mi-
Treasury of Easter Songs-RCA
Russian Easter Music-Concert
Easter in Jerusalem-Folkways
Pierce Sings Hebrew Melodies-
RCA LM 7003
Songs of Israel-RCA LPM 31097
Kol Nidrei-RCA LCT 10228
Likras Shabos-RCA-LPM 3242
My Candles-Music Near and Far Cantorials for High Holidays-
Purim Song-Music in Our Jewish Children's Songs and
Feast of Lights-Music Around Call of the Shofar-Folkways
the World FR 8922
Rock of Ages-Let Music Ring
O Hanukkah-Music Around the
God of Abraham-Music in Our
Through Musical Performance
Concert presentation at the school and in the community
during special occasions by performing classes of the secondary
school and by varied groups from the elementary school pro-
vides another opportunity for deepening understanding of this
program. Often a part of an entire program is devoted to music
born of impulses inspired by moral and spiritual values.
Senior High School Performance Class
The following program was produced in a Florida high school.
Continuity was written by a creative writing class, and the
music was selected and performed by members of the chorus,
band, and orchestra. Choreography was created by the creative
dance class, and the sets were designed and constructed by the
art and industrial arts department.
Here are several selected teacher observations which support
the belief that attitudinal changes and character development
result from this type of activity.
"I know that my specific interest has been in developing the theme
of the understanding of two universal truths that are part of my
own philosophy: the Fatherhood of God and the Brotherhood of
"Most of these programs, as indicated by their title, were developed
by the students as a result of interest they expressed in solving
a particular problem in their own thinking. Many were contrary
to some of their home training, but we always made sure that the
parents were informed, step by step, of our work."
"I really believe that the only solution, when you find yourself
involved in concerns expressed by other groups as the result of
types of school programs, is to involve yourself with these groups,
try to understand their point of view. Among thinking people,
an exchange of viewpoint cannot help leading to better mutual
understandings. It is the tensions among youth we want to allevi-
ate, isn't it?"
"I worked with the Community Council, the Teachers' Intergroup
Education Committee, and the American Jewish Committee. They
look upon my successes with favor and my failures with under-
standing. They knew that no matter how inept the results, the
efforts had been made in good faith."
"Some of the most exciting things have been watching the growth
of respect between Christian and Jew, Catholic and Protestant,
Have and Have-nots, Country Club and Newsboy, Tailor-made
Pants and Jeans."
THIS IS AMERICA1
Symphony Miniature George McKay
March for Tomorrow Orchestra Summy-Birchard
Narration In the beginning God created the heaven and the
earth. And the earth was waste and void; and dark-
ness was upon the face of the deep. And the spirit of
God moved upon the face of the waters. And God
said, "Let there be light." And there was light.
The Creation Chorus Willy Richter
Narration And God created Man; and He created man in His
own image. Man was fruitful and multiplied over the
face of the earth. He remembered God and wor-
shipped Him and sang praises to His name. There
were many ways to worship God and man differed
and there were wars. Man scattered over many lands
in search of a place to worship God each according
to his personal belief. Then God unveiled His gift,
"America." And America opened her arms and await-
ed all, all who yearned to be free!
Iphigenia in Aulis Christoph von Gluck
1Miami Senior High School-Teachers: Mrs. Betty Borin Newell and Al G. Wright,
Homeland, Dear Homeland Chorus Samuel Gaines
Narration America welcomed the coming of the White Man,
yet the Red Man had already claimed this bountiful
land to be his home. The Red Man, too, realized the
presence of an Omniscient Power and worshipped
the Great God Spirit. The faith in the supernatural
was one of the powerful, motivating forces of the
Indian. His love for nature and his idea of unity with
nature were so strong that this feeling permeated the
entire culture. The Indians believed that the soul
was not limited to the human being, but all things
were thought to possess a spirit that was destined to
acquire immortality. Their religious ceremonies
were celebrated by fasting, chanting, and dancing.
The use of the dance form as a means of spiritual
communication between God and man is the most
distinctive feature in Indian worship. Each step is a
prayer, a symbol, a deeply satisfying expression of
worship which transcends words through rhythmic
Song of America
This Is the Forest Primeval Roy Ringwald
By the Shores of Gitchee Gumee Shawnee
Chorus, Instrumental Ensemble, Ballet
Seekers After Religious Freedom
Narration The first of the many colonists to enter the New
World were Protestants. The Great Protestant Move-
ment began during the 16th Century in England, un-
der the leadership of Martin Luther, who with his
followers advocated that each person had the right
to interpret the Bible as an individual. Many sects
make up the Protestant religion; but regardless of
sectarian differences, all of these sects follow the sim-
ple teachings of Christ in His Sermon on the Mount.
And so the white man came to this New World,
bringing with him his varied ideas and beliefs. Here
was a land that stretched out, mysterious and invit-
ing; a land where seekers for God could worship in
their own way. Here was America, a land that they
could claim as their own; and they knelt, bowing their
heads in reverence and gratitude to God.
From Three 17th Century Dutch Tunes, Adrianus Valerius
III Wilt Heden Nu Treden Orchestra C.F.
God of Our Fathers Chorus, Trumpets Warren-Gearhardt
and Percussion Shawnee
Narration The Hebrew faith is one of the oldest in the world.
Its history began with the patriarch, Abraham, who
rebelled against idol worship and founded the belief in
one God. Driven from their homeland in Judea, scat-
tered over Europe, these people too sought a home
and an altar of worship in America. Here they taught
their children the historical significance of their
religious beliefs. The Hebrew people celebrate their
Sabbath on Saturday rather than on Sunday. The
Torah, a holy scroll containing the 5 books of Moses,
is the basis of their religion, for it contains the laws
and principles which are to be followed. The univer-
sal language of this religion is Hebrew, and the knowl-
edge of this language is an essential part of a Jewish
child's religious education. During the service the
Cantor chants the prayers in Hebrew. These are not
prayers of gaiety and happiness, but are rather the
prayers of a faithful people who have endured much
and who sing devotion and reverence to God.
Kol Nidrei Orchestra Ernst Bloch
Hebrew Chants Chorus S. G. Bravlavsky
Narration The Catholics settled in America along with the early
explorers, the first settlements being in Maryland,
Florida, and Mississippi, where they began a cam-
paign for religious rights, understanding, and brother-
hood. The central service of the Roman Catholic
Church is the Holy Mass, which the Church cele-
brates to honor and glorify God, to give thanks for
all the graces bestowed on the whole world, to ex-
press satisfaction of God's justice for the sins of men,
and to obtain all of God's graces and blessings. Bene-
diction is one of the most beautiful of the Catholic
ceremonies. On the altar, Christ, in the form of bread
and wine, awaits to bestow His Blessings upon His
loved ones. When the priest raises the Host and
makes the sign of the cross above the heads of the
people, the little bells announce the glorious moment,
and the choir sings "Hail, Oh Hail, True Body."
Panis Angelicus Orchestra Cesar Franck
Ave Verum Corpus Chorus William Byrd
Narration A more spirited service of both Negro and White is
that of the "revival." This type of worship originated
on the frontiers of our nation. Now, as then, a trav-
eling preacher pitches his tent, sets up chairs, and
spreads the word. So begins a revival meeting. The
people congregate from near and far, socially and
religiously to seek relief in the Lord. The forceful
words of the preacher lead the listeners in extem-
Deep River Suite Frank Erickson
Joshua Fit De Battle ob Jericho Bourne
Roll, Chariot Chorus Noble Cain
There Is a Balm in Gilead
Chorus and Soloists
Many Others Come
Narration In 1619 twenty Negro slaves, African natives, were
landed in Virginia. Slavery flourished and soon we
had hundreds of these people from out of whose slav-
ery came the haunting blues and spirituals that we
know today, the mournful harmonies reaching up out
of their bondage to their God, Our God!
My Child Is Gone Chorus Mae Nightingale
Pantomine CM 6473-C.F.
Narration America, land of promise, land of opportunity. From
the East, the West, the North, and the South, from
all corners of the globe streamed these seekers after
freedom, to blend their heritage into America's har-
mony: the folk songs of Israel, the lilting melodies of
Spanish and French peasants, the country dances of
England and Ireland-all these and many others
blending and strengthening America's harmony.
From New World Symphony Anton Dvorak
First Movement (episode) C.F.
Give Me Your Tired, Your Poor Berlin-Ringwald
Chorus and Brass Sextet
This is America
Narration "America, land of God and land of song." Her great
heart welcomes all men of different faiths, races,
tongues and nationalities; masses of people living to-
gether by the lyrics of God's song, the words of the
Holy Scriptures ringing from churches and syna-
gogues of individual choice. America's song of free-
dom is heard all through the routine of daily life.
The hearts of her people beating to the rhythm of the
challenge of self-fulfillment; rhythms of large cities
with their hum of industry, rhythms of the daily rou-
tine of farm life. And, as America's song continues
to grow, the melody rings high above the rest, the
quiet peace of understanding and loving one another
in the voices of the people. We sing the melody, for
we make up the world, we the people ... you and I,
and all the rest, eacn doing his job that America
may remain strong and free.
Ode to a Hero Orchestra Nino Marcelli
A Jubilant Song Chorus Norman Dello Joio
Yea! Any Man's Thine!
Thine from the jungle of Africa's chant;
From the nautch and the veld and the moor and the
The fairest and the rarest that man ever trod,
The sweetest and dearest twixtt the sky and the sod,
Free is, for you and me!
Live in it! Love in it! Work in it! Die in it!
For it's free, and for me and for thee
Ballad for Americans Chorus John Latouche-
Orchestra Earl Robinson
Ballet and Cast Robbins
THE FILMS listed below represent only a few of the many
that are available in the area of moral and spiritual values.
All major film producers have brought out films of this type.
The films below were carefully selected, but they should serve
only to indicate the kinds and types of films available. There
are many more.
It is recommended that one use the catalogs of the film librar-
ies in the state universities of Florida:
The Film Library, Extension The Film Library
Division Audio-Visual Center
Seagle Building Florida State University
University of Florida Tallahassee, Florida
There are film libraries in many of the other large state uni-
versities such as:
Indiana University Michigan State University
Bloomington, Indiana Lansing, Michigan
The University of Illinois
Film catalogs can be found in the library or materials center.
Look in the Topical Index under such headings as
Ethics Social Ethics
Home and Family Living Social Problems
There are many titles in addition to the ones listed in this
1953 (and before)
Other Fellow's Feelings. Young America. 8 min., el-jh.
Produced by Centron Corp.
Focuses on the problem of teasing or ridicule that is prolonged
to the point where it really hurts. No conclusions are drawn, and the
audience is challenged to discover its own answers to the problem.
Cheating. Young America. 11 min, el-jh.
Produced by the Centron Corp.
Traces the development of cheating habits in a young boy; pre-
sents the reactions of teacher, classmates, and the boy himself to the
problems of cheating.
Golden Rule: A Lesson For Beginners. Coronet. 10 min, el.
Educational collaborator: A. M. Johnston
The "golden rule" as a standard for behavior is visually inter-
preted so it will be understood by young children. Everyday situations
to which this rule applies are dramatized to encourage children to
apply the rule to their own actions.
How To Say No (Moral Maturity). Coronet. 10 min, sh-c-ad.
Educational consultant: Evelyn M. Duvall
The central theme is: "How to say 'no' and keep friends." Begin-
ning with situations in which saying 'no' is relatively easy, the dis-
cussion moves to "how to say 'no' when asked to become involved
in undesirable activities."
Developing Your Character. Coronet. 10 min, jh-sh-c-ad.
Educational collaborator: Herbert Sorenson
Illustrates what good character is and how it can be achieved
in order to live more happily and more successfully. Influences from
the home, church, school, and friends which mold an individual's
character are described and a guide to developing character is pre-
The Honest Truth. McGraw-Hill. 5 min, jh-sh.
Produced by the National Film Board of Canada.
Poses the question of whether an honest judgment is better than
tactful evasion of criticism in situations where an individual's feel-
ings may be hurt. Following a high school play in which a popu-
lar but untalented student has had the leading role, the editor of the
school paper defends his right to print an objective critical review of
her performance, while other students feel that she should be treat-
ed more gently. The audience is invited to take over the discussion
of the issue.
Major Religions Of The World. EBF. 20 min, sh-c-ad.
Surveys of the origin, rituals, and symbols of Hinduism, Buddhism,
Judaism, Christianity, and Mohammedanism.
Neighbors, IntFlmBureau. 9 min, jh-sh-c-ad.
Produced by the National Film Board of Canada. A film by Norman
McLaren in which live actors are "animated."
A parable about two people who, after living side by side with
mutual friendliness and respect, come to blows over the possession
of a flower that one day grows on the line where their properties
"Designed for general interest audiences or for specialized use by
any group concerned with ethics of citizenship, or with the art of
techniques of film, or with psychology, mental health, and related
Haven Of Hope. Evangelical & Reformed Church. 30 min, jh-sh-c-ad.
Produced by Alan Shilin.
The story of a young man of India. While homeless and stricken
with a dread disease, leprosy, he finds friends, health, and a new
way of life in a mission hospital.
The Gossip. Young America. 121/2 min, jh-sh.
Produced by Centron Corporation,
A high school girl's experience illustrates that gossip is not based
on facts, is incomplete, leads to misinterpretation, and that the
guilty person is usually an accepted member of the group who
causes trouble in an underhanded way. The film presents the prob-
lem, leaving solution to audience discussion.
Having Your Say. McGraw-Hill. 6 min, sh-c.
Produced by the National Film Board of Canada.
Are there circumstances in which one group may justifiably deny
another a chance to have its say at a public meeting when a ques-
tion concerning both is at issue? This problem comes to the fore in
a clash between the teen-age group and a community center com-
mittee. The young people are accused of destructive behavior and
are, without a hearing, denied the use of the center. In retaliation,
they hire a hall to voice their protest publicly. The committee feels
it too should have a hearing at the meeting. The question is left
to the audience.
Kindness To Others. Coronet. 11 min, p.
When Sam becomes ill and is absent from school, everyone in the
class remembers Sam's kindness to his family, playmates, and animals.
In discovering a special way to be kind to him, Sam's classmates find
the pleasures that come from practicing kindness.
Sharing Is Fun. Family Films. 15 min, el-jh-ad.
Jimmy meets the new boy next door who teaches him how to make
trout flies so that Jimmy can earn more money to buy a dog. They
become close friends and share their mutual interests, hobbies, and
Beginnings Of Conscience. McGraw-Hill. 16 min, sh-c-ad.
Traces the social conscience of an adult back to his socialization
as a child and his experiencing of the social forces of exclusion,
force and ridicule.
Relevance Of The Religions Of Man. NET. 30 min, c-ad.
Produced by KETC. Kinescope.
Surveys some of the religions of the world-Buddhism, Judaism,
Hinduism, Confucianism, and Christianity-through typical works
of art from each. Stresses that we should be interested primarily in
the force behind this religious art.
David And Jonathan. Nat. Acad. Jewish. 30 min, el-jh-sh-c-ad.
Produced by National Broadcasting Co. for Jewish Theological
Seminary of America.
A dramatization of the Biblical story about a remarkable friend-
ship, and how the son of a king defied his father and renounced
ambition to save a friend.
Samson. Moody Bible Inst. 13 min, el-jh.
Several boys show Mr. Fixit the ribbon that one of the boys has
won because of his strength. Mr. Fixit tells them about Samson, the
strong man of Israel, who failed God and lost his strength.
References to Religion
in State-Adopted Social Studies Textbooks
THE HISTORY of our country cannot be properly understood
nor commitment to its basic values developed without an
adequate understanding of the role which religion and religious
movements have played in the development of our nation and
One of the ways by which we may insure that our children
achieve an adequate understanding of our nation's religious
heritage is to make sure that textbooks selected for use in our
schools give adequate attention to religion, religious leaders, and
A major textbook adoption in the field of social studies was
held in 1961. What follows is a listing of references to religion
in currently adopted texts.
At Home (Social Studies), by Hanna et al. 1956, Scott, Foresman.
Page 69, the family goes to church
Homes Around the World (Social Studies), by Jackson. 1957, Silver
Page 57, boy saying prayers
Page 135, Japanese family saying prayer
In The Neighborhood (Social Studies) by Hanna et al. 1958, Scott, Fores-
Pages 39-41, churches in pictures
Pages 63-67, church social
Page 68, places to worship
Page 69, pictures of churches
Pages 103, 105, pictures of churches
Page 143, pictures of churches
Page 183, places of worship
In City, Town and Country (Social Studies), by Hanna et al. 1959, Scott,
Cover, church included in picture
Page 27, building new places of worship
Page 65, map key includes church
Page 190, places of worship
History of Early Peoples, Cordier-Roberts. 1961, Rand McNally
Page 54, Egyptian religion described
Page 59, Egyptian temples pictured and described
Page 76, building Babylonian temple
Pages 79-81, story of the Hebrews
Pages 92-93, religion of the Greeks described
Pages 102-103, picture of procession to Greek temple
Pages 111-112, Roman gods and goddesses described
Pages 128-129, describes how Christianity came to the Roman Empire
Pages 145-146, ritual of knighthood in name of God, St. Michael, and
St. George described
Page 149, description of tithing
Pages 150-151, how the church made life better
Pages 173-174, rise of Moslem religion
Pages 176-179, Crusades to the Holy Land described
Page 203, similarity of Confucius saying to the Golden Rule
Living Together Around the World (Social Studies), by Cutright, et al.
Pages 134-135, description of Moslem religion
Pages 92 and 100, religion of the Eskimos
Page 162, religion of the Indians of Peru
Our Journey Through Florida (Social Studies), by Rainwater & Hanna.
Pages 34-35, Spanish Missions
Page 55, priests accompanying Narvaez
Page 57, Father Cancer killed by Indians
Page 61, Menendez builds missions
Page 91, Spanish give up mission in Tampa
Page 131, mission in New Smyrna
Page 165, Methodist college
Pages 219-220, religion of the Seminoles
Page 278, Greek Orthodox Church in Tarpon Springs
Story of Florida (History), by Patrick et al. Steck, 1957.
Page 28, Franciscan priests accompany Narvaez
Pages 65-66, French Huguenots come to Florida
Page 79, religious beliefs of Seminoles
Pages 91-94, Menendez kills French Christians
Pages 97-103, Spanish missions
Page 106, Chapel in Fort San Marcos
Page 122, Church of England established in Florida
Page 133, religious freedom in Florida
Page 195, church services in early Florida
Page 257, Florida Christian College
New Ways In The New World (History), by Todd-Cooper. 1954, Silver
The Bible is mentioned on pages 161, 196, 231, and 303. A description
of the churches of the frontier, in the New England Colonies, in New
France, in New Spain and in the Ohio Valley are included in approxi-
mately 6 pages devoted to this topic.
Our Country's Story, (History), by Eibling et al. 1961, Laidlaw
Pages 25-26, Christianity comes to Greenland
Pages 29-31, story of the Crusades
Page 42, taking Christianity to new lands is proposed to Queen Isabella
Page 46, Columbus takes Christian religion to the Indians
Pages 66-67, the French bring Roman Catholic faith to the Indians
Page 83, Puritans and Separatists and the Church of England
Pages 88-92, Puritans come to New England
Pages 90-91, Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson seek religious free-
Pages 98-99, religious freedom in Maryland and Pennsylvania
Page 106, the church in New England
Page 154, the new Constitution guarantees freedom of religion
Pages 189-190, Spanish missions in California
Page 193, the Mormons settle Utah
The American Continents (geography), by Barrows et al. Silver Bur-
Pages 184-185, Spanish missions in California
Geography of the New World, by Borchert and McGuigan. Rand McNally,
Page 237, Spanish mission in San Antonio
Page 343, French missionaries in Canada
Page 366, Missionaries in Canada
Page 381, Cathedral in Havana
Page 410, reference to cathedral in Lima
Our Beginnings in the Old World (history), by Eibling et al. 1961,
Page 21, religion in the Stone Age
Page 34, religion of the Egyptians
Page 47, religion of the Babylonians
Pages 48-50, story of the Hebrews and their religion
Pages 62-63, religion of the Greeks
Page 111, Roman religion
Pages 141-145, rise of Christianity
Pages 147-148, Christianity recognized by Roman law
Page 163, Christianity and the Franks
Pages 164-167, rise of Moslem religion
Pages 171-172, the Christian Church and the Frankish Kings
Pages 174-175, Charlemagne and the Church
Pages 202-203, the Christian Church in the Middle Ages
Pages 204-209, growth of monastaries
Page 216, the Celtic religion
Page 217, Christianity comes to Britain
Page 220, Christianity comes again
Page 233, changes in the Church
Page 260, Moslems take Spain
Pages 262-263, the Moors and Christians
Page 265, Spanish rulers require Christianity
Page 275, Christianity comes to Russia
Pages 281-289, the religious wars
Page 318, effects of the Crusades
Page 325, building medieval cathedrals
Pages 329-330, the Gutenberg Bible
Pages 334-344, changes in religion
Page 359, the Spanish missions in the New World
Page 360, the French bring Christianity to the Indians
Pages 363-365, the search for religious freedom
World Ways (history), Todd and Cooper. Silver Burdett, 1954
Page 7, early man prayed for good crops
Pages 21-23, priest-rulers of the Sumerians
Page 28, Babylonian religion
Pages 44-46, Egyptian religion
Pages 64-65, Greek temples
Pages 77-79, the Jews and their beliefs
Pages 96-98, Jesus founds Christianity
Pages 102-110, peoples and faiths of Ancient India
Pages 112-114, Buddhist teachers of India
Page 117, religions of India today
Pages 122-123, teaching of Confucius
Page 134, religion in the East
Pages 140-143, the medieval church
Pages 147-148, medieval cathedrals
Pages 150-157, rise of the Moslem religion
Pages 162-164, Moslem Missionaries
Page 174, Buddhists in China
Page 177, Mayan Religion
Page 179, learning of Mayan priests
Pages 188-189, church art in Italy
Pages 200-201, Christianity in early Russia
Pages 203-204, Christians of Europe disagree
Pages 211-212, Moslems and Hindus in India
Pages 212-214, Akbar, the Mogul emperor, studies religions
Pages 224-227, Father Ricci attempts to convert the Chinese to Chris-
Page 232, missionaries to Japan
Page 253, Bantee religion
Pages 256-257, Spanish bring Christianity to South America
Page 261, Las Casas establishes mission in Honduras
Pages 265-267, Jesuit mission for the Indians
Page 273, Protestant ministers start schools in New England Colonies
Page 275, English did not seriously disturb French churches in Canada
Page 319, missionaries in the Congo
Page 343, Communists close churches and persecute priests in Russia
Page 365, Moslems and Hindus separate in India
Old World Lands (geography), by Barrows et al. Silver Burdett, 1961
Page 131, religion in Russia
Page 168, Jerusalem sacred to Jews, Christians, and Moslems
Page 172, Mecca the religious capital of Moslems
Pages 176-177, Hindu-Moslem friction in India
Page 217, religious ideas move from India to China
Page 299, mosques in Casablanca
Page 303, religions in Africa
Geography of the Old World, by Borchert and McGuigan. Rand Mc-
Page 8, religious beliefs in the Old World
Page 20, early settlers brought religion from Europe
Pages 107-108, Islam in Portugal
Pages 116-117, Rome and the Catholic Church
Page 127, religious ideas from Israel to Rome
Page 131, Romans help spread Christianity
Page 150, different religions come to the Middle Danube
Page 240, belief in one God came from Jews
Page 254, the city of Moslems
Pages 255-256, the spread of Islam
Page 270, Jewish people return to Israel
Page 274, extent of Roman Empire at time of Jesus
Page 276, Hebrew, Christian, and Moslem teachings spread into Arabia
Pages 283, 315, spread of Moslem religion in Africa
Page 323, missionaries in Africa
Page 368, Hindu religion forbids meat eating
Pages 369, 370, 379, 400, religions in Moslem Asia
A World View (geography), by Sorenson. Silver Burdett, 1961
Pages 224-225, religion around the world
Page 303, religious leaders in southern and eastern Asia
Our United States in a World of Neighbors (geography), by Carls et al.
Page 6, religion and food
Page 20, source of our religion
Our United States (history), by Eibling et al. Laidlaw, 1961
Page 11, settlers at Plymouth seeking religious freedom
Pages 22-23, Anne Hutchinson tried for heresy
Page 24, church government of the Puritans
Page 45, Pilgrims seek religious freedom
Page 63, Spanish priests seek to convert Indians
Page 71, French missionaries
Page 78, religious motivations of explorers
Page 79, no religious freedom in New France
Page 80, Puritans, Separatists, and Quakers seek religious freedom
Page 85, Pilgrims seek religious freedom
Pages 87-88, Puritans come to America
Page 90, New Jersey offers religious freedom
Page 91, Maryland offers religious freedom
Page 92, Rev. Hooker leads in establishing Connecticut
Pages 92-93, Roger Williams in Rhode Island advocates separation of
church and state
Page 95, French Huguenots come to Charleston, Quakers come to
Page 102, religion and education in the Southern Colonies
Page 104, church in the New England town
Pages 107-108, religious revival in the Colonies
Page 110, religion and education in the middle Colonies
Page 165, Declaration of Independence proclaims equality under God
Page 192, Bill of Rights guarantees religious freedom
Page 282, more about Huguenots in Charleston
Page 294, first music published in America, Bay Psalm Book
Page 323, Spanish missions
Page 325, Austin promises settlers in Texas will become Mexicans and
Page 327, Spanish government in Texas demands obedience to State
Page 341, missionaries come to Oregon
Pages 353-355, Mormons settle in Utah
Page 381, Battle Hymn of the Republic
Page 475, Jews move to America to escape religious persecution in
Russia, Poland, and Rumania
Page 529, religious freedom in Canada
Pages 533-534, Spanish bring Christianity to Mexico
Page 566, Jews persecuted by Hitler
Pages 589-590, Communism opposes religion
Story Of Our Country, by West-Gardner. Allyn and Bacon, 1960
Page 3, time measured from birth of Christ
Page 10, religion of the Aztecs
Page 17, priests and monks work for peace
Page 26, Queen Isabella sold on idea of converting distant peoples to
Page 28, Columbus men return thanks to God
Page 29, the Pope settles claims of Spain-Portugal
Pages 34-35, Religious differences arise in Europe
Page 48, Spanish-French seek to convert Indians
Pages 49-50, Spanish missions in California
Page 52, French seek to convert Indians
Page 55, French Huguenots come to the Colonies
Page 60, Quakers, Baptists, and Presbyterians come to America to
seek religious freedom
Page 65, most Virginians members of Church of England
Pages 66-68, Pilgrims seek religious freedom
Page 69, the first Thanksgiving
Pages 70-71, Puritans come to America
Page 72, Roger Williams preaches religious freedom, trial of Anne
Hutchinson in Massachusetts, Thomas Hooker preaches for more
democratic government in Connecticut
Page 73, church members settle together in New England
Page 75, Catholics founded Maryland and grant religious freedom
Pages 77-79, Quakers settle Pennsylvania
Pages 84-85, Puritans passed "blue laws" in New England
Page 86, Governor Berkeley thanks God for lack of free schools and
Page 163, Declaration of Independence proclaims equality under God
Page 175, Bill of Rights guarantees religious freedom
Page 262, the Mormons settle Utah
Page 367, Mormons give up polygamy
Page 383, immigrants still seek religious freedom
Citizenship in Action, by Painter and Bixler. Scribners, 1961
Page 6, Roger Williams works for religious freedom
Pages 37-38, our churches teach democracy
Pages 59-62, New England settled by religious groups
Page 63, churches built in early communities
Page 64, Mormons settle Utah
Civics For Americans, by Clark et al. Macmillan, 1959
Page 16, religious freedom in the Colonies
Page 20, freedom of religion guaranteed by the Constitution
Page 40, influence of the churches
Pages 125-136, entire chapter on "our churches and citizenship"
Page 374, welfare services by churches
Page 426, recreational activities of the churches
Pages 507-508, the importance of church activities
La Florida, by Copeland-Dovell. Steck, 1957
Page 16, statue honoring early friars
Page 17, Dominican friars accompany Ayllon
Page 19, Franciscan friars accompany Narvaez
Page 27, De Soto commanded to take Catholic religion to the natives
Page 31, Indian religious festival
Page 50, scene on Palm Sunday
Page 51, religious wars and the Inquisition
Pages 51-53, Ribaut brings French Huguenots to Florida
Page 55, refuge for religious freedom sought in Charlesfort
Page 56, more about religious wars
Pages 59-65, religious wars spread to the New World
Pages 73-77, the first Spanish missions
Page 78, first mass at St. Augustine
Pages 83-85, the Franciscan missions
Page 86, religious difficulty in St. Augustine
Page 92, Franciscan missions destroyed
Pages 92-93, decline of the Franciscan missions
Page 104, treaty permits Catholic worship
Page 119, churches in Mobile and Pensacola
Page 126, Sacred Heart Church in Tampa
Pages 196-198, churches in early Florida
Page 207, Seminole Indian religious ceremony
Page 247, school teachers seek to Christianize former slaves
The Wide World (geography), by James-Davis. Macmillan, 1959
Page 38, Christianity in the Middle Ages
Pages 39-40, early Christian geography
Pages 40-41, Moslem geographers
Pages 44-45, Christian travelers and scholars
Pages 47-48, Christian scholars
Page 229, religions in Switzerland
Page 237, the Vatican state
Page 303, Moslems in countries of the Persian Gulf
Page 307, Moslems in Iran
Page 309, Moslems in Saudi Arabia
Page 310, Moslems in Jordan
Page 313, Moslems in the countries of the Eastern Mediterranean and
Page 320, religions in Israel
Page 321, Christians and Moslems in Palestine
Pages 332-33, religions in Turkey
Page 335, Moslems in Pakistan
Pages 348-349, religions in India
Page 355, religions in Burma
Pages 402-403, Oriental religious philosophies
Page 408, Christian missionaries to Slavic peoples in 10th Century
Page 411, religions in Soviet Union
World Geography Today, by Israel et al. Holt-Rinehart-Winston, 1960
Page 55, Roman Catholics in Ireland
Page 64, churches in rural France
Page 100, Cathedral in Toledo
Page 125, Russians accept Christianity in 10th Century
Page 159, language, customs and religions vary in Soviet Union
Page 167, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam begin in Middle East
Page 171, reference to Old Testament
Page 186, pilgrimages to Mecca
Page 191, Moslems and beggars
Page 193, civilization in Middle East dates from Biblical times
Pages 194-196, Israel from Biblical times
Page 198, religions in Lebanon
Page 231, Negroes under Moslem influence in Sudan
Page 246, education by missionaries in Tanganyika
Page 249, Dr. Livingston, Scottish missionary, goes to Congo
Page 275, Buddhist monks
Page 277, Temples in Bangkok
Page 283, Moslems in Pakistan
Pages 287-288, Hindu religion
Page 298, Buddhism in Tibet
Page 320, religion in Southeast Asia
Page 434, Old North Church in Boston
History Of Our World, by Boak et al. Houghton-Mifflin, 1961
Page 10, religious influence in world
Page 11, spread of religious ideas
Page 23, Birth of Christ and time lines
Pages 35-36, prehistoric religions
Page 42, religious beliefs gain in importance
Pages 54-55, religion of the Egyptians
Pages 56-57, Egyptian temples
Pages 65-66, religions in Mesopotamia
Page 68, religious poems of the Sumerian priests
Pages 75-79, history and religion of the Israelites
Page 80, religion of the Hittites
Page 83, religion of the Persians
Page 85, religion of the Cretans
Pages 106-108, religion of the Greeks
Pages 135-136, Roman religions
Pages 147-151, Christianity spreads in the Roman Empire
Pages 154-155, Byzantine art and religion
Pages 160-161, Hindu religion
Pages 162-163, Buddha tries to reform Hindu religion
Page 167, religious influence on culture of India
Page 169, temples in India
Pages 178-179, religions in China
Pages 185-187, rise of Moslem religion
Pages 229-231, the Crusades
Pages 231-235, medieval cathedrals
Pages 238-239, medieval scholars and churchmen
Page 247, medieval church music
Pages 249-277, entire chapter on "Kings compete for power with nobles
and the church"
Page 286, religions of Mayans, Aztecs, and Incas
Pages 289-290, churchmen play important part in settling New World
Page 295, only French Catholics welcome in New France
Pages 305-306, Charles V secured temporary religious peace within
Pages 306-307, Dutch Protestants rebel against Spain
Pages 309-313, the Thirty Years' War
Pages 323-324, France suffered from religious and civil wars
Pages 325-326, Cardinals Richelieu and Mazarin gain power in France
Pages 329, religious intolerance injured French prosperity
Pages 340-341, Europeans seek religious freedom in America
Page 344, religious freedom in the Colonies
Page 358, Christianity expanded in Russia under Tartar rule
Page 361, religious faith gives comfort to Russian serfs
Page 362, Peter the Great places Russian church under government
Pages 374-375, James I quarrels with Puritans
Page 378, Oliver Cromwell extends religious freedom
Pages 380-381, James II tried to extend religious freedom
Page 383, Frederick the Great tolerated all religions
Page 386, people flock to Holland to escape religious persecution
Page 389, the King James Bible
Page 411, French Canadians kept their religion
Page 419, National Assembly tries to regulate Catholic Church
Pages 513-514, religious liberty but not religious equality prevailed in
Page 586, Japanese religion
Page 587, missionaries blamed for revolt in Japan
Page 589, Christian missionaries again permitted in Japan
Page 613, Ireland divided by religion
Page 618, Hindu leaders, Gandhi and Nehru
Pages 643-644, religious differences in Ottoman Empire
Page 700, Russian Communists seek to destroy religion
Page 760, deep religious differences still exist within the Moslem world.
Men and Nations, by Mazour and Peoples. Harcourt, Brace and World,
Page 5, importance of religion to history
Page 13, primitive religion
Page 15, primitive religion
Page 26, Egyptian religion
Page 29, Egyptian religion
Pages 34-35, more about Egyptian religion
Page 36, Sumerian religion
Pages 40-41, Sumerian religion
Pages 45-46, Persian religion
Page 49, Phoenicians worship Baal
Page 51, Moses receives the Ten Commandments
Pages 53-54, Hebrew religion
Pages 66-67, Greek religion
Page 83, Socrates believes in one God
Page 85, Greek plays often had religious theme
Page 92, Stoic faith
Page 99, Christian church stands through Dark Ages
Pages 106-107, Roman religion
Page 111, Romans adopt much Greek religion and mythology
Page 125, Roman state religion declines
Page 126, Christian martyrs die in the arena
Pages 130-142, chapter on rise of Christianity and fall of Western
Pages 146-147, the Crusades
Pages 152-154, rise of Islam
Page 157, influence of Islam on Western Europe
Pages 181-185, results of the Crusades
Page 211, the church in later Middle Ages
Pages 212-214, opposition to the church
Page 216, St. Thomas Aquinas
Page 218, Middle Ages the age of faith
Pages 228-230, rise of humanism
Pages 241-252, chapter on the Reformation
Page 256, Portuguese set up Inquisition in India
Pages 262 A-G, religious paintings and photographs
Pages 263-264, Charles V defends Christian religion
Page 266, religious differences in Holland
Page 268, Edict of Nantes
Page 269, Cardinal Richelieu gains power
Page 273, Edict of Nantes canceled by Louis XIV
Pages 278, Peter the Great takes control of the Church
Page 284, Frederick II extends religious toleration
Pages 300-301, Calvinism, Puritans, Separatists, and Presbyterians in
Pages 301-302, King James Bible
Pages 302-303, the Puritan Revolution
Pages 303-304, religious problems in England
Page 418, religious division a problem to German unity
Page 436, religious differences in the Ottoman Empire
Page 444, conflict with Darwin's theories
Page 465, religious music
Pages 467-469, religions in India
Page 479, missionary motives
Pages 482-487, religions in India
Page 489, British treat Hindu and Moslem alike in India
Page 490, Moslems not enthusiastic about driving British out of India
Pages 512-514, Ancient Chinese religions
Page 585, religious hostility in India
Page 621, churches put under state control by Nazis
Page 705, Jews establish state of Israel
Page 706, religious difficulties in Kashmir
Pages 748-749, religious riots and massacres in India and Pakistan
Pages 755-756, Moslems revolt in the Arab world
The Making of Modern America, by Canfield and Wilder. Houghton-
Page 22, the Crusades
Page 39, religious conflict in England
Pages 44-45, Pilgrims and Puritans settle New England
Page 46, religious freedom in Rhode Island
Page 48, religious freedom in Massachusetts
Page 49, religious freedom in Maryland
Page 50, Anglican Church established as the official church in the
Page 51, Quakers settle in Pennsylvania
Page 52, Presbyterians and German Protestants settle in Pennsylvania
Page 71-73, religious freedom grows in Colonial times
Page 129, Northwest Ordinance guarantees religious freedom
Page 140, Bill of Rights guarantees religious freedom
Page 249, interest in religion increases in mid-19th century
Page 634, Roman Catholics predominant in Latin America
The Adventure of the American People, by Graff and Krout. Rand Mc-
Page 8, the Crusades
Page 10, legendary Christian kingdom of Prester John
Page 23, non-Catholics excluded from New France
Page 27, Richard Hakluyt's pamphlet proposes religious freedom in the
Page 36, religious conflicts in Maryland
Pages 37-42, religious dissenters settle New England
Pages 43-45, religious freedom in Rhode Island and Connecticut
Pages 63-64, Quakers settle in Pennsylvania
Page 67, Lutherans and Moravians settle in Georgia
Pages 93-94, Quebec Act recognizes Roman Catholic religion
Pages 105-106, separation of church and government
Page 131, Northwest Ordinance guarantees religious freedom
Page 159, Washington stresses importance of religion
Page 241, spread of evangelical religion
Page 247, Quakers, Baptists, and Methodists championed abolition
Page 252, religious restrictions placed on slaves
Page 253, slavery defended on Biblical grounds
Pages 266-267, religious zeal inspires settlement of Utah
Page 549, modern religion vs. traditional religion
Page 561, religion an issue in presidential campaign of 1928
Government In Our Republic, by Brown-Peltier. Macmillan, 1960
Pages 6-7, our different religions
Page 62, first amendment guarantees religious freedom
Page 75, constitutional guarantees of religious freedom
Pages 372, 385, 387, more about religious freedom
Page 489, church property tax-exempt
Our Living Government, by Haefner et al. Scott, Foresman, 1960.
Page 31, totalitarian states control religion
Page 40, religious freedom in Connecticut
Pages 41-42, religious toleration in the Colonies
Page 65, Bill of Rights guarantees religious freedom
Page 85, no religious test for suffrage
Page 142, religious and political equality
Pages 149-151, discussion of freedom of religion
Page 161, religion and fair employment practices
Page 331, state constitutions guarantee religious freedom
Edna Ambrose and Alice Miel, Children's Social Learning (Wash-
ington, D. C.: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development,
American Council on Education, The Function of the Public Schools
in Dealing with Religion, 1953. A report on the appropriate relation of
religion to public education in the U. S.
American Council on Education, The Study of Religion in the Public
Schools, 1958. Deals primarily with references to religion in the teach-
ing of American history and the proper relationship of religion to pub-
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development of the
National Education Association, Toward Better Teaching, (Washington,
D.C.: The Association, 1949).
Barbara Biber, "Schooling as an Influence in Developing Healthy
Personality," Community Program for Mental Health, edited by Ruth
Kotinsky and Helen Witner (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University
Board of Education of the City of New York, The Development of
Moral and Spiritual Ideals in the Public Schools (mimeographed), July,
John L. Childs, Education and Morals. Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc.,
1950. Presents the experimentalist view of morals and moral education.
Commission on Law and Social Action, Digest and Analysis of State
Attorney General Opinions Relating to Freedom of Religion and Separa-
tion of Church and State, American Jewish Congress, 1959.
Committee on Religion and Public Education of the National Council
of Churches, "Public Education and Religion," a report of the National
Conference on Religion and Public Education sponsored by the Com-
mittee on Religion and Public Education of the NCC, St. Louis, Mo.,
November 6-8, 1955. International Journal of Religious Education, March
William K. Dunn, What Happened to Religious Education?, John
Hopkins Press, 1958. Deals with the decline of religious teaching in the
public elementary schools, 1776-1861.
Educational Policies Commission, Moral and Spiritual Values in the
Public Schools (Washington: National Education Association, 1951).
Foundation Values of American Life: For Major Emphasis in the
Cincinnati Public Schools (Cincinnati: Department of Instruction,
Cincinnati Public Schools, May, 1954).
Robert Gordis, et al., Religion and the Schools, The Fund for the
Republic, 1959. Discusses the proper role of the parochial school in our
society and the place of religion in the public schools.
Ellis Ford Hartford, Moral Values in Public Education, lessons
from the Kentucky experience. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1958.
Helping Teenagers Explore Values: A Resource Unit for High-
School Teachers (Columbus, Ohio: The Ohio State University Press,
International Journal of Religious Education, May, 1948. "The
Church and Public Schools," special issue. 504 per copy.
Philip Jacobson, Religion in Public Education. American Jewish
Committee, 1960. A guide for discussion. Contains brief concise state-
ments of pros and cons on eight crucial issues along with suggested
Howard Lane and Mary Beauchamp, Human Relations in Teaching
(New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1955).
Ernest M. Ligon, Dimensions of Character. New York: Macmillan
Blaine E. Mercer and Edwin R. Carr, Education and the Social Order.
Rinehart and Co., 1957. A volume of selected readings on social aspects
of educational process. See Ch. XII "The School and Moral and Spirit-
Moral and Spiritual Values in Education: A Practical Approach to
Everyday Living (Los Angeles: Los Angeles City Schools, Publication No.
580, Tentative Edition, 1954).
Joe Park (editor), The Philosophy of Education. Macmillan Co.,
1950. A volume of selected readings. See Ch. 26 "Church-State Separation
and Religion in the Schools of Our Democracy."
Philip H. Phenix, Philosophy of Education. Henry Holt and Co.,
1950. An introductory text on educational philosophy. See Ch. 5, "Re-
ligion and the School," Ch. 16 "Moral Values," Ch. 25 "Philosophy and
Marie I. Rasey and J. W. Menge, What We Learn From Children
(New York: Harper & Brothers, 1956).
George H. Reavis, An Educational Platform for the Public Schools
(Gary, Indiana: Alden H. Blankenship, Board of Education, 1957).
"The Regents Statement on Moral and Spiritual Training in the
Schools," State Education Department, Albany, New York.
Research Division of the National Education Association, "Ten Criti-
cisms of Public Education," National Education Association Research
Bulletin, Vol. XXXV, No. 4 (December, 1957).
Spiritual Values in the Elementary School, Twenty-sixth Yearbook
of the Department of Elementary School Principals, The National Ele-
mentary Principal, XXVII, No. 1 (Sept., 1947).
J. Mansir Tydings, "Kentucky Pioneers," Religious Education, Vol.
LI, No. 4 (July-August, 1956).
J. T. Wallace, "How Can Spiritual and Moral Values Be Included
in the Secondary-School Program," The Bulletin of the National As-
sociation of Secondary-School Principals, Vol. 42, No. 237 (April, 1958).
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