• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Foreword
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 What is an insect?
 Insect classification
 Making and insect collection, equiptment...
 Where, when, and how to collec...
 Preserving your insects
 Identifying your insects
 Rearing insects
 Careers in entomology
 Insects in the future
 Sources of supplies for insect...
 Glossary
 Bibliography
 Other useful references
 Insects and other arthropods of...
 Appendix






Group Title: Extension handbook
Title: Island insects
CITATION PDF VIEWER THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00096203/00001
 Material Information
Title: Island insects handbook for insect study
Alternate Title: Extension handbook - University of the Virgin Islands Cooperative Extension Service ; 1
Physical Description: iv, 49 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Terry-Purdy, Marti
College of the Virgin Islands -- Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Cooperative Extension Service, College of the Virgin Islands
Place of Publication: St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands
Publication Date: 1986
Copyright Date: 1986
 Subjects
Subject: Insects -- Collection and preservation -- Handbooks, manuals, etc -- Virgin Islands of the United States   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States Virgin Islands
 Notes
General Note: "This is a handbook for young people and educators..."--Foreword.
Statement of Responsibility: compiled by Marti Terry-Purdy ; editor, Liz Wilson
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00096203
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: UUniversity of the Virgin Islands
Holding Location: University of the Virgin Islands
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 20307952

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:

PDF ( 4 MBs ) ( PDF )


Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Foreword
        Foreword 1
        Foreword 2
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
    Introduction
        Page 1
    What is an insect?
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Insect classification
        Page 7
    Making and insect collection, equiptment for collecting and pinning
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Where, when, and how to collect
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Preserving your insects
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Identifying your insects
        Page 20
    Rearing insects
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Careers in entomology
        Page 24
    Insects in the future
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Sources of supplies for insect study
        Page 27
    Glossary
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Bibliography
        Page 30
    Other useful references
        Page 31
    Insects and other arthropods of the West Indies
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Appendix
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
Full Text
CAR PAM FILE


Extension Handbook No. 1


SPEC COL
QL
479
.V63
T47
1986


ISLAND D

INSECTS


Handbook for Insect Study


CoUllge of the Virgin Island Cooperative Exrmton Service D&rnuha S. Padda. irectmc Sr, Crol, U.S. Virgin Islands


4








Foreword

"If yo' put yo' evr d marngl nxut, yr' will hear crab cough.
VIrgin Islands Prn.ovrh."


This is a handbook for young people and educators interested in the living world
and its natural resources. It is dedicated to the powerful idea expressed by the proverb
above, which is that if you can take the time to pay close attention, you are bound to
hear, see and learn unexpected things-Important things-about life and yourself.
Anyone who puts his ear on a mangrove ("mangle") root-literally or figuratively-is
bound to gain in his understanding of the Interrelationships that exist between different
animals, plants and their environment. The theme on the cover symbolizes this
thought.
The focus of this booklet. though. is not on just one environment. Rather, it is on a
group of animals which spans practically all living spaces on earth. Insects occupy many
more environments than any other form of life visible to the naked eye. Of every ten
known kinds of animals, at least eight are insects. Well over half of all lving things on
this planet are insects.
Insects have Intrigued, benefited-and Irritated- humankind for a very long time-
They play a highly significant role In the world of nature. Thus, insects provide an ex-
cellent subject with which to build environmental awareness and introduce the scientific
approach to learning.
This handbook is an adaptation and blend, with some original material, of several
national and state 4-H entomology project guides, but also draws on other sources (see
the bibliography). It is intended to fulfill the following objectives:
1. To Introduce youth, teachers, parents and other leaders of young people to the
principles and practices of insect science.
2. To provide a non-technical "how-to" guide on projects relating to insects.
3. To provide introductory learning experiences for youths in areas such as col-
lecting, mounting, preserving, labeling and displaying insects; identification and
classification; insect rearing, studying insect behavior; and career opportunities.
4. To provide a source for educational aids and resource materials, such as
books, supplies and visual aids.
The idea for this handbook originated with an insect club started at the Virgin
Islands Cooperative Extension Service by the pest management staff, with the
assistance of the 4-H Youth Development program of the same agency. Because of the
strong response. this special interest activity has broadened con-siderably to include all
types of schools and youth-education programs. Environmental studies programs are
enthusiastically received by teachers and students in the Virgin Islands. but few locally-
developed resources have been available. The Extension pesi management and natural
resources programs at the College of the Virgin Islands offers this insect natural history
learning resource for students, teachers and volunteer leaders. We hope that as a result
of this publication, more people will stop, look. listen and learn aRboul he fascinating
world of insects.

Walter 1. Knausenberger. Entomologist
Program Leader, Natural Resources
* Fri in1 GII'o A. ',annamn's Nor So Coa Walk; The Phiiosophy tf a Paopt
and An Em Expmurw by fro1uerbs. St Cmix. 64 pp. 1975
LIBRARY
UNIVERSITY OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS
ST. CROtX









Table of Contents

INTRO DUCTION ..................... .... .......... I
INSECTS AIRE IMPORTANT ......... 1
WHAT 15 AN INSECT?..... ........... ........... ... 2
Joseci Characteristics ................................ 3
Insect U e Cycles . . 3 .
Insect Development . . . . . . . . 3
Inset DeM elopnIPri ....... .......................
InsectLeast.ou h Parib .* ..... ... .. ..... .6
InectL eWings .,. .............6
TTmc Wing- -----------------------------.......
INSECT CLASSIFICATION .............................. 7
MAKING AN INSECT COLLECTION 8
EQUIPMENT FOR COLLECTING AND PINNING ..... ....... .8
C collecting N et ........ .. .... .
Aspirator . . 9
K lIiinlg Jar ................................. ... 10
Insect Pins 10
Pinn[ng B lock .......... ................... ....... 10
Forceps and ScLssors . .. .. ........... 10
Spreading Roard . . ............. 11
It iscl Labcls .................... ................ 11
WHERE. WHEN, AND HOW TO COLLECT ....... .. 11
In th A ir . ........ 12
In the Water .......... .. .. ...... ... ... -. 12
On Land 13
In T ree .. ........ . . .. .. .. ..... .... ... .13
A t NIght - ... ... . .. .... .... ...... . 13
PRESERVING YOUR INSECTS ........... 16
Sprmoding Liplduptlera .............................. 16
Keeping Records . 17
Relaxing Dry Insects ........ .... .. ...... .. ... ,17
Preserving Small and F'ragIle Insects .................... 18
Presetving Immature or Soft-bodied Insects . . . .... 18
Lab dIng Sptciniri ................... ........... 19
Storing and Displa ng Your CoUection ......... .. ... .19
IDENTIFYING YOUR INSECTS .............. .............. 20
Keying to Order ...................................20
Key to W inged Insects ................. ...... .20
Key tu W ingles Insects .............................. 21
DetemO in Lg the Common Name ...... .. ........ .21
REAR NG INSECTS ..... .......... .. ...... .......... 21
Butterflies . ..................... ... ...., 22
M oths .......... ........ -. ...... .. ...... 23
CAREERS.IN ENTOMOLOGY ........................... 24
INSECTS IN THE FUTURE .. ................ .... 25
SOURCES OF SUPPLIES FOR INSECT STUDY . . 27
GLOSSARY .......................................... 28
BIBLIOGRAPHY . ...............30
OTHER USEFUL REFERENCES ....... ........... ...... 31
OTHER ARTI IROPODS OF THFI WEST INDIES ................ 32
PUBLISHERS' ADDRESSES ..... 35
APPENDIX
Diagrams . . . . 30
Crossword PurzA1e -.. ........ .. .. ...... 47
Insect Collection Data bheet .......................... .48
Lab ls .......... ................ .. ..----------. 49
[11








Introduction

In 1980, the Virgin Islands' first program devoted to learning
aboul insects and where they live was started by the CVI Cooperative
Extension pest managemenii prograTn. The first members chowe to call
themselves by the excLitin namrv of "Stinjers." and by now thousands
of children from 6-20 years old have parricipated. We welcome you
to the wonderful world of in ects and heir relatives. Not only will you
find out how much fun insects can be, but you also wili leam how im-
portant they are in the lives of everyone. You may even make a
career of working with insects.
This manual will show you where insects can be found, how to
catch them, and how to create your own collection, as well as many
projects you can do on your own to learn more about the six-legged "
world-
The word entomology (en-toe-mor'-o-gee) is from the Greek
word entomon, meaning insect and the word "insect" itself s from
Latin. Both words mean "cut into ," based on the fact that Insects are
"cut Into" three body sections. Entomology is the science dealing with
the study of Insects. The scientist who specializes in studying insect life
is called an entomoo.gist.
As you use this handbook, watch for words written in italics.
Look in the glossary in the back for an explanation of these words.





Insects are Important

Insects are very successful organLsrns. 'They were on earth long
before man and most other living creatures hai are alive today From
fossi] studies we learn that insects were plentiful 350 million years ago.
Cockroaches were among the first air-breathing animals on the earth.
Did you know there were dragonflies with three-foot wing spans flying .
at the time of the dInosaurs?
There are more insects In the world than all other animals cornm-
bined: 75% of all animal species are insects. Over 1 million diffe.rnl-
kinds of insect species have been identified and given names. In one L
square mile of land the number of Insects exceeds the human popula-
tion of the earth. In the Virgin Islands alone there are at least 2,000
species-enough to occupy your interest for a long time,
Insect are found throughout the world, with the exception of the
ocean depths. Some, like our "no-see-ums" (or "mampCes") are so
small they can hardly be seen with the naked eye, while others such
as the long-homed wood borer are several inches long. They are so
widespread that they can be studied practically everywhere-in our
towns or on our farms, in our backyards ror gardens, in our homes or
at the seaside. And insects are so varied that you can begin to study
them almost anytime of the year, regardless of where you live, 1.






Can you imagine our islands without insects? The environ-
ment would be very different from the place we know today. It is
estimated that 95% of all insects are beneficial in one way or
another. Bees, wasps, flies, butterflies and other insects pollinate
many flowering plants and without then our landscape would not
have coconuts, genips. limes or the beautiful pink coralita. Since
many island birds eat insects, fewer birds would exist. Frogs, toads,
lish, lizards (anotes and geckoes) as well as bats would be less
abundant because they feed on insects.
Many insects help nature with housecleaning. For example.
woodboring beetles, termites, and ants help speed up the decay of
plants, returning material to the soil for support of new plant growth.
Some insects truly can be regarded as man's major competitors
for food, fiber, and shelter, Insects destroy 30% of all food growni n
the world today, In the Virgin Istands, the bainan root borer
destroys thousands of dollars worth of bananas, scale insects suck
the sap From our citrus trees, and aphids suck the juices from our
vegetables. Terrmites destroy furniture and houses- Stored product
insects such as the confused flour beetle get into dry foxds and
livestock feed, making them unusable. Insects also help spread in-
fection in plants by carrying such diseases as papaya mosaic or
cucumber will irom one host plant to another,
Some insects are harmful or dangerous to man, livestock arid
wildlife Fleas, lice and mnisquitoes annoy you and your pets In 1he
Virgin Islands, the yellow fever mosquito has been known to spread
sickness such as dengue fever in humans and heartworm in dogs.
Insects attack livestock, weakening them,. For example, a horse that
would eat just one blister beetle could become sick and perhaps die
Yet is it possible to measure In dollars the enjoyment or value of
watching beautiful butterflies flittering over fields of flowers, or the
buzzing of bees as they pollinate our plants? Is it possible to calculate
the benefits derived from insects?


What is an Insect?


If you are going la sludy insects, one of the first requirfmenls
is that you are able to distingulsh insects from similar animals. No
one will mistake a bird for a mammal or a fish for an insect-but
how about a tick or a centipede or a spider?
The Animal Kingdmnn, is divided into many large group.is called
Phyla (Fl-la), The Phylum (singular) to which Insects belong is call-
ed the Arthropoda. All arthropods have jointed legs, segmented
body parts and an external skeleton or exoskeleton somewhatl like
a suit of armor). Nol only Insects, but also spiders, mites, ticks,
scorpions, centipedes, millipedes ("gongolos"). crabs, shrimp, and
sowbugs belong to this plAylum.
The phylum Arthropnda is further divided into smaller cate-
gories called classes. Thm class Arachnida includes spiders, ticks,
-mites and scorpions: the class Chilopoda includes centipedes; and


0





















0







millipedes make up ihe class Diplopoda, Insects belong to the CIaw
Insects (or Hexopoda, which means "six feet," because all insects
* have six legs or feet). To distinguish insects from all other ar-
thropoda, use the following Insect characteristics described below
and illustrated in Figure 1.
Insect Characteristics
1. Three pairs of logs In the adult Insect. All other arthropods
have four or more pairs.
2. Three body regions- head, thorox and abdomen. The head
ILold6s tII eyes, mouthparts and antennae. The Ihorax is the
middle part with ihe legs and wines allached. One palr of legs
is allacted Ino ach segment of IiIe ihmrax. The abdomen,
behind the thorax, contains the organs of digestion and
reproduction- Other arihropods have onae, two or more than
three body regions.
3 On e pair of anteInTiae (sometimes called "feelers"), Located
OT I he front of th w head, they serve as organs of touch, and
somehim s tasle, smell and hearing.
4 Two compound eyes (in most adult insects) and 2-3 single
eyes.
5 Wings (usually present) when in the adult stage. Most winged
insects have two pairs; some such as lice, fleas and worker
ants, are wingless as adults, No other arthropods have wings
in any stage.
Insect Life Cycles
Insects vary in their growth pallrnis, bul all begin as eggs and
end up as adults. One life cycle consists of tie period from egg to
adult. Between the egg and the adult stage there ia an intermediate
growth form called the irnrmriture stage. It is during this stage, which
varies in different groups of insects, that growth takes place. Insect
growth is a'ccfimparnied by a series of mofts (periodic shedding of the
enxAk6leion), Molting is necessary because the exoskeleton can not
expand. The number uf molls vanes in different groups of insects-
Usually the number s between four and eight, but there are excep-
ri ns. The stages of the insect between molts are called instars.
Thus, I\he immature stage consists of several (usually four to eight)
insatrs. Once the adult stage is reached, no more molting occurs.
It is the adult insect that reproduces so that the species can con-
rinue I live from generation to generation and from year to year.
Sometimes, there is only one adult stage per year, but in the tropics
rmost insects have several adult stages (and hence several genera-
tions) per year-for example, fruit flies, cockroaches and fleas.
Insect Development
The Insect starts out as an egg which is laid by the adult, The
eggs of different Insects vary greatly in appearance: some are round.
some are barrel-shaped, some are laid on the undersides of leaves
and others are laid under water. But they all hatch into the immature
S stage where most of the growing takes place. The immature stages
or growth stages of different insects take many different forms, such
as maggots, grubs, nymphs. naiads, wrigglers, "worms." caterpillars


Figa I. Some of the chrnctVrlkaca of In-
Socta that make ithb different frq9nm U other
kinds ol animalam {A be ., (B) hnwiybw.
and (C) caterpUlax.






and crawlers. There are only four different basic types of immature
Insects, each ditiniguishtd according to the degree of similarity to
the adult fnrTm. They are as Follows:
1. Young-an immature stage that is identical to the adull in
h shape and form. II Is only smTaller tn sZe (and lacks mature
reproducHtive rgans) Only a few, primitive wingless insect
groups (orders) have this type of immature stage.

2. Nymph-an Immature stage that looks like the adult (which
is usually winged), but is smaller and has no wings. It has the
same food habits and lives In the same habitat as the adult.

3. Naiad-an Immature stage which is always aquatic (lives tn
the water), yet the adult is terrestrial (lives on land), and it on-
ly slightly resembles the adult form. However, like young and
nymphs, the last Instar naiad transforms directly Into an adult,
without passing Into a resting (pupa) stage.
4. Laroa-an immature slage which may be of many forms
(maggot, grub, wriggler, caterpillar, etc ), but usually
worrnllke and never similar to the adult. Also, the lasr Inpslar
larva always IranlsfoiTrrTI iTlI a1 pupa (resting) staQge before
becoming Aiiu adiull The last in star larva can spin a silken
structure arouTRI itself called a cocoon or develop a chrysatis
which is ai hardc-ned ouier shell created from the inttar skin.
Both of these structures serve to protect the pupal stage while
it is dOvet.lo)pinh inh) an adult

Considering the above discussion of egg, Immature, and adult
stages in insect development, we TioIice ihat most insects change to
some degree in forin dJuring development, The change is called
metamorphosis- Thbere are four basic types of metamorphosis, each
associated with mne of 111P Four immature stages discussed above.
They are:
Types of Metamorphosis Active Immature Stage
Without Metamorphosis Young
Gradual Metamorphosis Nymph
Incomplete Metamorphosis Naiad
Complete Metamorphosis Larva

Proceeding from the first to the last, the Immature is less and
less like the adult. Refer to Figure 2 for tilustrated examples and ma-
Jor insect groups which exhibit each type.
Knowing the type of metamorphosis for each group (order) of
insects is very important for the entomologist or pest control
operator. Through this knowledge he is able to find the weakesti
link" In the insect's Itfe cycle and proceed to destroy the injurious
pests through biological, physical, or chemical means,
It is generally true that during the insect life cycle, It is the Im-
mature stage that consumes the most food. So, many of our worst
pests are most destructive in the immature stage.










Examples Orders
silverfish Thysanura
springtalis Collernmbola
biting Lice Millophaga
sucking lice Anoplura





grasshoppers Orthoptera
termites Isoptera
booklice Psocoptera
thrips Thysanoptera
true bugs lemniptera
aphids Homoptera
earwigs Dermaptera



mayflies Ephemerptera
dragaontlle Odonata
sione(Ilies PLecoptera






Lacewing Neuroptera
beetles Coleoptera
scorpionflies Mecoptera
caddlsflles Trichopierta
moths, Lapldoptera
butterflies
flies Diptera
fleas Siphonapterm
wasps, bees Hymenoptera


GRADUAL METAMORPHOSIS
..


^-------v-------


EGG NYMPHS ADULT


INCOMPLETE METAMORPHOSIS


L
'----- v---- -d


EGG NAIADS ADULT


COMPLETE METAMORPHOSIS





--EGG LARVAE -A ADULT
EGG LARVAE PUPA ADULT


Figur 2 Mflamnaphnela of Vaduan Inects


Insect Mouthparts
Insects feed on plants and on other anfmals, living and dead.
* Because insects as a group have such diverse food requirements,
different insects have different kinds of mouthparts. Basically, the
food Is taken into their bodies in either liquid or solid form.










































flgurt 3 TypeM of Insect ImotwhprtsT (.
chewing mouthparte showing nmndIbllbe,
BI) sponging moutthpbpf ol tertatn kinds of
Ilism, (CI plwrcipWrucuins moturhpartf, bad
(DI plphmring mouth tube on buhilrl"ie (wa.
rpmw point Io Xtended and retlactt d pro-
bosrl.).


S


Although there is a tremendous variety of Insect mouthparts
designed to take in liquid or. solid food or both, for the purposes of
beginning entomology we can place all insects into one of two baskc
mouthpart lypes: chewing or sucking.
The type of mouthparts is an Important characteristic used in
identifying the major group (order) to which a particular insect
belongs. Mocwthparts are referred to in the Key to Insect Orders
found later in this manual. The more common types are also il-
lustrated in Figure 3.
In addition, the entomrlogkt must recoguiie the. two major
types of mouthparts in prescribing control maSsures. It helps him
determine the kind of insect that caused the damage ag well as the
type of insecticide that w4i be necessary to control the Insect. If a pvst
has chewing mouthparts, It could pick up. a surface layer of insec-
ticide by "chewing" the leaf and swallowing some of the poison.
However, if the insect pest has pierdrig-tuschnmouthparts, an ap-
plication of insecticide to the leaf surface would be worthless unless
the insecticide had contact action and killed the Insect jUst by coming
in contact with its body. Another alternative would be to use a
systemic insecticide which circulates within the vascular system of
the stems and leaves and is sucked up ablng with the piant juices by
the insect.
Insect Legs
The legs of adult insects are usually easy to distinguish. One
pair of legs is attached to each segmenl of the thorax, and each leg
has five movable parts.
Though locomotion is their primary function, insect legs have
actually evolved for many different types of activity, such as walking,
running, jumping, swimming, gr-rspiTlg, and digging. In addition to
the true legs attached to the thorax, valerpillars and sawfly larvae
have fleshy, non-jointed prolegs cn lhe abdomen. Prolegs have
primarily a clinging function Some immature insects, such as the
larvae of fiLes and certain beetles, lack legs altoreher,
Insect Wings
Some insects are wingless, They may be either primitive insects
-groups which never had wings-or more advanced groups which
actually evolved from winged ancrstprs. Included in the primitive
groups are sprlngtails and silverflsh. In the second category are lice
and fleas.
Those insects with wings have either one or two pairs, usually
two. In most wings there are thickened lines called ueins that run in a
network from the base to Ihe tip- The pattern formed by the veins,
called uenatfon. is distinctive for many groups of Insects.
There are many types of wings, several of which are
characteristic of major insect groups. The mosi common type is the
membranous wing, clear and cellophane-ike, which is found on
flies, bees and wasps as well as many smaller groups orderr) of in
sects such as dragonflies and mayflies. Beetles have a pair of mern
branous hind wings, but they also have a pair of hard, leathery front
wirgs calledd wing covers or elytra). The wings of true bugs, such as
stink bugs, have membranous tips and hard, leathery bases (and







are called hememltra}. Moths and butterfles have scaly or hair wings.
Thrips have feathery wings. Members of the Orthoptera (grasshop-
pers, crickets, and mantids, and their relatves) have parchment-
textured wings. Many of these wing types are Illustrated In Figure 4.


Insect Classification


Insects must be classified or divided into groups to allow infor-
mation about the. tremendous numbers of Insects to be corn-
inunklated effectively, Classlficatkon is done according to similarities
and differences, and starts with orders, which are the largest Insect
groups. A little later In this manual, you will learn to identify insect
specimens of the correct order with the aid of a so-called "key,"
once you have determined it is an Insect.
C]assificafion Is an aid to identification. In our society individual
people are classified in numerous ways. A good example is the use
of a person's mailing address in order to identify him and separate
him from olher Indlividuals. Determlning where Insecl. fit. Into the
animal kingdom is much Like your postman determining who you
are from a well-addressed letter. Let's compare the two. A complete
address would include your name (which really has two parts-a
surname an'ld a. giuen-i narhie), post office boX, city and Island. Rut
when tl'h psitlnan sorts mail, he reads the address. from bottom to
lop, looking flrst for the island, then the post office or city and so on.
ending with delivery lo a single -idividual.
Similarly, an enlrmologist classifies insects by rhe process of
ellmInatIkm, ending with the Identity of one species. In classifying an
insect, he gets clues from its structure and thus assigns it an "ad-
dtresa." "t ategorie oft the scientific address are phyium, dca,
order. fmrnlly. genus and species, Lel's compare postal classificaijon
with irnct c~asification, iaing iwo examples:
Postal CLeasflfcation
Territory ............. .. .S. Virgin Islands
Island ..... ......... ....... St. Croix
City or Post Office ........... Chrstlansted
Post Office Box ,...... P1O. B0ox BUZZ
Surname ...................... Fly
Given Name ........ . . . . . .Felpe
Insect Classification
Phylum ...................Arthropoda
C lass ............ .........., ..Insecta
Order --.....---------------------... Iipiera
Family .... . . .... . Muscidae
G enus ................ .... M U
Species . ., ... dome.scu
In both postal and insect Identification, the last iwo categtories
give us the name of the indivkiualo-Fellpe Fly anti Musrca
domesico, In the case of the insect, we used the scientific name.
The common name in this case is house fly.


Figure 4 Type of Insect uwng~: (A) parch-
ment wings af gpamhoppra, C() leather
wings of thrips, (C l..IthUqy elytronn) and
.nmentibno u wing oi bteUli, (D) matn -
bunPau wing of n IV. () hael-luathwy
netvnibyunw.i winl I hemnelytrn) aftrlu bugg.
(F) acaiV wings uf miotiw nd buttflfiqL.








Making an Insect Collection

Insect collecting can be an in wresting and educational experi-
ence. By studying live Insects you can learn an insect's life stages and
habits, but you will not realize the vast number of species that live all
around you until you start your own collection with well-preserved
and lbeled specimens. The starting point of project work in en-
lumolkogy is usually the collection and identification of insects. Many
peopt have made this a fascinating hobby, or even a life's work.
Your first collection should include all the Insects you can find,
wherever you may be, By making such a collection, you get to know
and rewog*ne many different kinds of insects. However. keep in mind
that when you make such a general collection, you will end up with
more of certain kinds of insects than others because some are hard to
find, or hard to catch, or may be difficult to pin and mount properly.
For example, some people might not like collecting butterflies or
moths because they take more work and practice to pin nicely.
After you have assembled a good general collection, there are
other lypes of collections to consider. For ex ample, you may wish to
specialiAle by collecting only one order of insects, such as only but-
terflies or only beetles.
Another type of collection would be one consisting of insects
from a single habitat, such as ponds, or fields or fallen logs. Or
perhaps you would like to make one from a single locality, such as
your backyard or garden,
A very Interesting type of collection is a life- history collection. In
this type, you collect all life stages of particular insert and examples
of what they Feed on or what damage they do,
Finally, alcohol collections are important, The nymphs, naiads,
and larvae of inTISes, are often difficult to preserve other ihan In bot.
ties or vials of alcohol. Alcohol collections are quite important for
immature stages and small, soft-bodied insects such as aphids,. as
well as for related animals such as spiders. See page 18 for informa.
*. tion on what kind of alcohol to use.



Equipment for Collecting and Pinning

The equipment needed to start collecting and mounting insects
is fairly simple and costs very little. Much of the basic equipment can
s.w suitably Improvised. Essential equipment is: collecting net, killing
jar, insect pins, pinning block, forceps or tweezers, scissors,
spreading board, insect labels (locality and Identification), specimen
boxes and a fine-pointed pen or pernlt. The following will tell you
how to make some of these things and how to use them properly.
The Collecting Net
The collecting net consists basically of a handle, a metal ring (or
hoop) and a cloth bag, The handle may be made from a 3/4-inch







piece of dowel rod which Is 3 to 4 feet long. A discarded broom or
dust mop handle will also do nicely. There are two ways to drill the
* holes in the handle of the net. The first is pictured in Figure 5A,
where the holes are drilled at an angle. The second way pictured in
Figure 5B has a groove drilled OTI both sides of the rod. The groove
should be 2 inches long on one side and 3 inches long on the
other, and deep enough to permit I he hoop of wire to fit snugly In
place. Each groove should end In a hole large enough to receive
the end of the wire.
The hoop is made from a 4-fool piece of heavy wire, about 1/8
Inch in diameter (No. 8 gauge) and bent as shown in Figure 5A or
5B. Make sure that the bent ends fil exactly Into the holes in the
handles. This will prevent the hoop from twisting on the completed
net. To hold the hoop in place, you can bind the handle with tape,
wire or cord, or you can use a metal or plastic sleeve (made from
PVC pipe) which just fits over the handle (melhod 1 only). A small
hole should be drilled below the sleeve and a cotter pin placed In the
rod to keep the sleeve from dropping off,
The bag of the net may be made from a variety of doth
materials, if you are making an aerial net for collecting flying Insects
such as butterflies and dragonflies. nylon net is the best material, It is
light, durable, and will withstand a lot of hard use. The mesh should
be coarse enough to allow air to pass through easily, Still, the mesh
needs to be fine enough to prevent the escape of sma[l. captured in-
sects. Look for material with 15 to 30 holes per inch.
To collect insects out of shrubs and grasses, use a sweep net.
This should be made of a heavier material, such as unbleached
muslin or sheeting material, to prevent ripping. The best net has
muslin sides and has the bottom made from a see-through material,
so that insects can easily be seen to be put into the killing jar.
The bag for both nets should be cone-shaped with a rounded
tip, and twice as long as the diameter of the metal hoop. For exam-
ple, if the diameter of the hoop is 15 inches, then the dimensions
of ihe cloth would be as in Figure 6. Cut the cloth to shape and pin
the cui edges together to hold them while you sew. Fasten the
rpen end of the bag to the wire loop by folding It over the wire and
sewing with heavy thread. Most of the stress of movement will be
where dlie ret covers the wire loop, so reinforce this area with an
exira layer of cloth,


Aspirator or Suction Bottle
The aspirator (see Figure 7 on page 10) Is a convenient device
for collecting small insects. either from the collecting net or from
under stones, bark or other debris and can be purchased from sup.
ply houses listed in the back of this manual.
The aspirator is used by placing the end of the rubber tubing in
the mouth, aiming the longer tube at a small insect and sucking
sharply. The air current will pull the insect Into the vial. With prac.
twice this method makes it possible to collect small Insects more
S quickly and in better condition than many other ways.


fgurie 5 Ntf hag caOnihructionl: twQ wlter-
nrfim wa*v of aliichLng hoop tu handle.


FTrurr 6 Consuucton of cloth nul bogi (1A
shows how to lyout and cut wide cloth and
(BI shows how to mike not with 1 niTrwOI
plee of dotb.


A




nwrow Cloth

P 7-7



































POISO


4-- Sc ew Cap






"- Platalr ui ParlE


Figure 8 Killing jK-


Figure 9 Pinning block.


Killing Jar
A killing )ar (see Figure 8) Is one of your most essential items.
Start with a wide-mouthed jar .such as an 8 oz. peanut butter jar
with a twist-off lid. Mix plaster cf Paris and water to a consistency
suitable for pouring. Pour theIt mixture to a depth of 's" to 1" in the
jar and let it stand overnight Do not replace the lid until the plaster
is dry. (Caution: do not dispose tf leflover plaster of Paris by rins-
ing down a drain-it will clog he pipes. If possible, mix your
plaster batch in a disposable container.)
When ready to collect, place a teaspoon of killing agent In the
jar. The best and safest killing ageni is ethly acetate, also called
acetic ether, which can be purchased from biological supply stores.
It is safe to use, kills insects quickly and keeps the insects flexible
until they are removed from the jar to be pinned. Carbon
tetrachloride [s not recommended because it makes the Insects dry
and brittle and can be absorbed through the skin. Sodium cyanide
should not be used because it is too dangerous.
It is best to keep your supply of ethyl acetale it a dropper bot
tie. Then, the jar can be recharged as needed by adding a few
drops to the plaster of paris and waiting until il is soaked up.
Always keep the jar tightly covered except when placing insects in
it, as the killing agent evaporates very rapidly. Also, place a
crumpled piece of tissue paper or paper toweling in the jar. This
provides something for the Insects to crawl an until they dLe, in-
stead of becoming tangled up with each allr. hInsects can also be
killed by putting them in a jar and placing the jar In the freezer
compartment of your refrigerator for 1/2 hour.
Insect Pins
Pins may be obtained locally, (see your pe.st management ex-
tension agent) as well as from a biological supply house listed In the
p back of ihis manual, It is necessary to buy insect pins (not common
pins) made of stainless steel. so they will not runt tn your collection
box and ruin your specmrnens. Pins come in several .izes; the larger
the number, the thicker and stronger the pin. Numbers 2, 3 and 4
are most useful.
The Pinning Block
Medium and larger size insecis should be pinned vertically
through the body, using a pinning block to set the height on the
pin. The specimens should be pinned with about one-fifth if the
pin above Ihe upper surface of the insect. This is important, both
for neatness and ease in handling. A wooden pinning block, con-
structed with the dimensions given in F.gure 9, will permit unifor-
mity In pinning height. See the section on preserving insects, page
16, for more an pinning and the preparation of specimens.

Forceps and Scissors
A small pair of scissors is handy (or cutting out insect labels
and stiff pieces of smooth paper, These strips are used for
spreading moths and butterflies on spreading boards, A pair of fair-
ly large, fine-pointed forceps and a pair of flat-pointed forceps are
very useful for handling smaller insects, moths and butterflies.


FJgure 7 Aspirnatr oa suctiln bottle,







The Spreading Board
* Every insect collector needs at least one spreading board for
moths, butterflies and other insects that should have their wings
spread when pinned. You may purchase a spreading board from a
biological supply house, such as the professional one shown In
Figure 10, or you may make one. To make one. obtain a piece of
plastic packing foam with at least one smooth surface. Office supply
houses are usually a good free source of this material. Make a /Cork
longitudinal groove in it large enough to handle the bodies of the
butterflies and morhs you wish to pin. Two boards would be even
hetter-one for butterflies and small moths, and another, with a
larger groove, for larger moths. Some professional spreading boards 2'
are made up so the gap between the two wooden sta~ Is adjustable. .

Insect Labels
Labels on pinned insects are essential. Without a label, an In- r Iuro 20 Praf.sion.I wprrading baxd.
sect in a collection is just a pretty {or ugly) dead thing. With a label It
becomes something important- it is a piece of scientific information.
Whenever you catch and kill an Insect and add It to your collection,
he sure you have labeled it properly so that it will have some value.
T11it firsI and most important label is the locality label. It tells
where the insect was caught, when it was caught, and who caught it,
It goes on the pin directly beneath the specimen.
The second label is the identification label. It contains the family
to which the insect belongs, the scientific name (or at least the com-
* moan name). and the name of the person who identified it. It goes on
the pin beneath the locality label.
Labels are available through your extension agent or from
biological .supply stores listed in the back of this manual. There Is a
sample to be cut and used on the last page of this handbook. You
will need a fine-point pen or pencil to complete the labels. See page
19 for more details on the labeling process.



Where, When, and How to Collect

Insects, in terms of kinds or species, are. he most numerous
group of animals on earth. They live all around us and can be found
quite easily. However, a few hints on where and how to collect may
make your hunting more rewarding.
Insect food is a key to where they will be found, Their food is
almost as diversified as the kinds of insects themselves. To make a
large and varied collection of Insects you must know something of
their food habits and where and how they live. Try to seekk out in-
sects in their natural habitats in as many varied places as you can-a
meadow, a pasture in beach sand, in the soil, in the rain Forests,
along the sea shore, in ponds, gut pools, on animals, in houses and
* in your garden.
Listed on the following page are areas where you will find cer-
tain types of insects. 11.























Firwe J J Aquatic .crmn


Figure 12 Water not.


Figure 13 PIdAJL (tumblpe-n) trap.


1. Under boards and rocks-ants, crickets, beetles.
2. In or around streams, ponds, lakes-dragonfles (locally
called pinch nannees or matti mamsets), damselflies, aquatic
beetles, mosquitoes.
3. Under loose bark. In logs and stumps-termites (or wood
tice). ants, bark beetles, tiger beetles, wood borers.
4. On crops-grasshoppers, butterflies, beetles, flies, aphids,
leafhoppers, plant bugs, caterpillars.
5. In the abr- butterflies, moths, flies, bees, wasps (locally called
Jack Spaniards), beetles, leafhoppers, grasshoppers.
6. Crawl-space (under the house)-crickets, beetles, ants.
silverfish.
7. On livestock, pets and poultry-fleas, sucking lice, biting lice.
flies.
8. In clothes, furniture and store foods-clothes moths, carpet
beetles, flour beetles, bean weevils.
9. Around lights- moths, beetles, true bugs, preying mantjds
(locally called Jumbee horses or god horses).
10. Around dumps or piles of refuse- cockroaches, earwigs,
beetles, flies.
11. Manure piles-flies, beetles.
12. In, around, or on flowers and ornamental plants- thrips,
plant bugs, beetles, bees, wasps, ants, aphids, scale insects,
walking sticks, Insect galls, butterflies, moths.
13. In houses- crickets, beetles, ants, files, mosquitoes, moths,
cockroaches, termites, silverfish.
The following paragraphs will discuss collecting devices used in
particular insect habitats.
In the Air
The net is an especially handy tool, so learn to use it to Its fullest
advantage. You may use it for collecting a single specimen in flight
by sweeping the nel through the air. or quickly clamping it over an
Insect restIng on the around. Another melhoid of using the net (9
made from muslin rather than a mesh) is known as "Ilweepingl'" This
is done by sweeping the nel back and forth through vegetation and
accumulating the insects in the bottom of the ntt bag. You may pick
out the insects singly by hand, by running the bottle Inside the net
and forcing the insects into it or by dumping the entire contents (in-
cluding leaves and debris) inlo the killing jar. If the latter is done, the
Insects can be sorted from the debris alter they are dead. Insects col-
lected by sweeping frequently Include bee- and other stinging In-
sects, so play it safe and handle the bag with caution. One good
technique is to insert the end of the bag along with the captured In-
sect in the killing jar. Place the lid over the mouth of the jar as tightly
as possible for a minute or so until the insect becomes motionless.
Then remove the end of the net from the jar and put the stunred in-
sect back into the killing jar.
In the Water
All too often beginning entomologists use only an aerial Insect
net and thus miss collecting many Important ard even common
kinds of insects, For example, many insects are aquatic and spend








all or at least a portion of their lives in water-some in stagnant
ponds and others in moving streams. An aquatic screen, like that
in Figure 11, is easy to construct. It works best when used by two
people who walk upstream against the current, dislodging rocks in
front of It.
You can make your own water n out OL oI wire mesh or buy a
net from a pet supply store or a metal or pbatic dipper can be at-
tached to the end of a pole to dip insects out of the water, Figure
12 shows a model available from a biological supply store,
On Land
Many Insects, both large and small, are common on the soil
surface. Some are very active: others live under leaves and other
debris and wander very little. A good tool for collecting the more ac-
tive forms Is a pitfall (or tumble-in) trap (see Figure 13). The trap
should be buried into the soil so that the top edge is just below the
surface, It sometimes helps to provide a cover, such as a board sup-
ported by stones. The trap can be left empty or baited with sliced
fruit or vegetables or chicken bones. It should be checked frequently
as some trapped Insects consume others and some also may fly aut.
A variation is to add an Inch or so of 70% ethylene glycol (coolant)
to the bottom. This fluid kills and temporarily preserves any Insects
which fall into It, and you need check the trap only .about once a
week (unless heavy rains add a lot of water to the trap).
Less active and smaller forms can be collected In another way.
Rake up samples of forest litter and place them In plastic bags, Upon
returning to your home, place Ilie litter in the tray of a "hidden insect
trap" which you can construct ifler slu dying Figure 14. Within
20-30 minutes after the light is lured un, insects will begin to fall
through the equipment. Larger ones may be caught in the 1/16"
mesh. Smaller ones wil fall into thw jar which may be filled with
alcohol so that it will immedialely kill and preserve the specimens.
In Trees
Many insects sit perched rather securely on the branches of
trees and shrubs. A good technique for collecting many of them is
to use a beating sheet- The beating sheet somewhat resembles a
kite, constructed from canvas jor bed sheeting) and wooden sticks
(see Figure 15). Grasp the wooden sticks where they cross, hold
the sheet out under a branch, and beat sharply on the branch with
a strong stick such as a wooden axe handle. The beating will
dislodge large numbers of insects which will drop onto the canvas
and can be easily seen. They can then be picked up and trans-
ferred to vials or a killing jar.
At Night
Sixty percent of all insects are nocturnal (active only at night).
Curiously, while they shun the light of day, they are attracted to a
light placed in your yard or on your porch. While the yardtight will
suffice to attract some types, other lighting setups are more effi-
* cient. A light trap like that in Figure 16 Is easy to construct. Use an
extension cord with a light socket. A coat hanger may be used as a
support for the light. Cut the end from an old funnel and set it in a


FPfurt 14 Hidden lnsKct tmp (homemade
Brald finest).


Fluirr 15 Beating seeL.


Flture 16 Hamcimade light trap.





















flriae 17 BWl i~ibtng sheel.


Fisnw IS How dI fOld .a papr xtranik.


wide-mouth jar or metal can, Place a small jar containing cotton
salurated with a killing agent (such as ethyl acetate) In the bottom
if the trap. The light will attract the insects, The fumes of ethyl
acetate rising from the.bottom will cause them to drop onto the
funnel, fall into the can, and die,
Insects are best attracted to light at the near-ultraviolet end of
the spectrum. A blacklight (near ultraviolet) fluorescent tube Is
much more efficient than an Incandescent bulb In attracting night-
flytig; inects: An applaatu constructed like that in Figure 17 is
very succ;asful. The blackllghtrequires the seme type of fixture on
a palm with a white sheet as a refective surface. Collect the Insects
as soon as they land on the sheet and place them in a killing jar.
This technique Is very efficient for moths and night-flying beetles.
You should avoid looking directly at the blacklight and itmtt the
time you spend at the light because of danger to your eyes;
Another method of collecting night-flying moths and beetles is
called baiting or sugaring. A standard batt mixture consists of 6
fluid ounces of stale beer :and 8 ounces of dark molasses. Some
collectors add to this mixture a small amount of mashed, over-ripe
fruit, such as bananas or mangoes. However the pulpy material
should be held to a minimum to avoid making the mixture too
thick. This bait can be mixed in the morning and left out in the sun
to ferment, adding to its effectiveness. This mixture is painted on a
selected row of trees at a convenient height before It gets dark. At
this time, any dried twigs should be cleared away so that your ap-
proach to the insects at the bait is as noiseless as possible. If the bait
is left on the trees. for 20 to 30 minutes after dark, the feeding
specimens are. less cautious and more easily collected. Patrol the
batted trees. cautiously with a dim flashlight and a killing Jar.
Desirable specimens are collected by placing the opened killing jar
over the feeding Insect and holding it in place until movement
stops. The jar is then quickly removed and capped. Many but-
terflies are attracted to the bait mixture during the daytime.

Additional Suggestions
Once a specimen has been netted. It is wise to "pinch" it. This
is done by firmly applying pressure to the thorax between your
thumb and forefinger. This technique immobilizes the specimen so
you can put it into the killing jar without it damaging Its Wings
before it dies. After the specimen is dead, it can be pinned and
spread, If you are not going to mount it immediatd-ve, store the
specimen in a paper triangle (Figure 18) or place it ifl thefrter, If
stored for very long.in the triangle, it will have to be relaxed before
mounting. To avoid breaking legs and antennae, specimens In
paper triangles should not even be removed until they have been
relaxed for at least 12 hours. See page 17 for more about relaxing
insects,







Preserving Your Insects


Fiurw -19 Confctly pinad Lnsect,.


Frgumre SU Cmwt plan. to pp i evftn
irden a of insctU. Thu mail. tend dot in
the tum ind fitv t WdpWfi tMn uf th pln.
(A) Cld*, Iotsiptto B bovtety. D(1
tst0 (CI stink bMN. H einrlo toP Sona
horned botie. Collrat (0) bactf.l
lp nlr

Once insects have dried, they are very fragile obrittled For thiN
reason, they should be mounted when fnesh, If you find a dead in-
snct or yaer spedmen has become dry before you can pin it, you
can relax It by following the procedures on page 17.
Insects are often pinned through the thorax (the middle section
of the body), A ood rule of thumb Is to pin the insect slightly to the
right- atHe rtaline, fi the region where the second pair of legs are
attched. Flguie 19 flltwaefs.a completed mount.
Some wriafion occua iln the many groups of ftsects as to
wherethey should be pinned. F% example, beetle e b st pinned-
through the right wing cover, Refer to Figure 20 for the cpraect place
to pin representatives of each of the ma)or order of Insects.
The height at which specimens are pinned should be uniform,
with about one-flfth of the pin exposed above the upper surface of
the insect (Figure 21). Also, the insect should be horizontal on the
pin when viewed from the front and side. This is important both for
neatness and ease in handling. The pinning block, described erler
(Figure 9), will permit uniformity in pinning heights. Slide the
specimen upwards on the pin using the deepest hole In the pinning
block.
All butterflies and moths should have their wings spread. Or-
thoptera, such as grasshoppers and mantids, should have only their
left wings spread. Dragonflies and darnselflies can be pinned through
their side.with the wings folded up over their back or through the back
of the thorax with their wings spread (preferred way),
Spreading Lepidoptera
One of the most difficult tasks for young collectors to learnm Is the
proper mounting of moths, butterflies, and skippers, in this group of
Insects, small overlapping scales on the wings produce a variety of
colored patterns, many of which are very beautiful. Color patterns
are used in identifying species and. to ee thsae. patterns, the wings
must be spread correctly, Use either a homenmade.spreading board
or one purchased at a bioloical supply house. Starting with a
freshly killed specimen, or relaxed specmen, oranoetha has been in
the freezer and thawed, follow these step":
1. Pin the specimen through t6thre th in the uua man ner- Put
insect in pinning block to adjust height on pin.
2. Push the pin through the center Asot of the spreading board
until. the wings are even with the side pieces (Figure 22A).
3. Move the. front win0 forward with the aid of an insect pin or a
pair of blunt-end tweezers (don't handle the specimen with
your fingers bhfauc e thedelicate scales& rub off very easyy.
a-. Place th. pin behind the heavily veined portion on
the front martgin of tha. wing. (Figure 228),
b, Pul the front wns forward until the hind margin is
prpen diuWlar (forms a right angle) to the length of the
body (Fitgure ZZC).
4. The pin holding the front wing may then be temporarily an-


9t


Wr


BI g;






chored into the wood or foam.
5- Pull each bind wing forward in a similar manner until the
hind wing is partially hidden beneath the front Wing and a
small notch or "v" remains between the two wings at. the
outer margin (Figure 22D).
6. Hind wings can also be temporarily anchored with insect
pins.
7. Strips of smooth finish paper (waxed paper or pieces of In-
dex cards) may then be placed over the wings and anchored
securely with common pins. Since a common pin will leave
a considerable hole if punched through th<, wings, the paper
strips should be pinned ust off the wing margins. The insect
pins used for. temporarily anchoring the wings In position
may then be removed by gently rotating and withdrawing
(Figure 22E). If pulled straight out, the wing is often torn.
8. Antennae should be positioned as in Figure 22E. Pins may
be used to hold them In place until dry.
If several specimens are spread on the same spreading board
and the collection data Is not the same for all of them, you should
pin a locality label to the board alongside each specimen, The
spreading board is then ready to set aside for the Insects to dry (out
of reach of younger brothers, sisters and pets). Put your board in
an air-tight box so that tiny moths or cockroaches will not be able to
eat your spedcmens. If you have no such box, place the pinning
board in an oven at very low heat (1400 or less) for several hours,
or put the specimens under a light bulb for several hours to dry, Do
* not set the pinning board in the sun as some specimens will fade.
The drying period lasts several days but varies to some extent with
the size of the insect. It may take as long as a week for certain large
moths to dry properly.
After the specimen has thoroughly dried, remove it carefully
from the spreading board, label, and place in your collection.

Keeping Records
Keep records of the Insects found, the development stages,
the nests they make, and feeding damage they do, This informa-
tion will become valuable as your collection expands, Forms are
provided in fhe back of the manual for such information.

Relaxing Dry Specimens
Some insects cannot be spread the same day that they are
caught and will have ta be stored temporarily. Frpshly killed.
specimens can be adequately stored three to four weeks by placing
trem in the freetin corn part me nl of your refrigerator in an airlighl
ronlainer, They cailn t mounted lmmediat$ly when thawed out.
Howev-r. speclrtWirs sometimes wecon dry and brittle
before they can be frozen or if frozen too tong. If you try to pin or
spread an insect that is dry it will crumble or the legs will fall off. To
overcome Ihis, the insect should be relaxed.
To relax an insect, place it in a very damp atmosphere for a
* few days, Most relaxing containers are made of tin (cookie tins are
excellent) with a tight-fitting lid. Large jars will also work. Damp


Figured 21
pinmd.


Example A end D oM corctly


FBure Z StiP itn the ptfapr sp(eading af
thm winMg l moth. ad butterfln.


A B C 0 E F



































FiLgure 2S Pointing mn tntwk (A) Sflfl
height of point on pin. ({) Tip of point bent
down, an4 (C lact Loretlsi mount un
point.


paper towels or. about one inch of damp white sand in the bottom of
the container will provide the humid atmosphere. The water used to
dampen the paper towels or sand should contain a few drops of .cr-
bolic acid (phenol) to prevent the growth of mold. This chemical
should be used with care, A small amount of mothball flakes will also
discourage mold formation. The insect speclmenr should be laid on
metal screen or a piece of.cardboard cut to fit the container, rather
than directly in.contact with the wet paper toweling oTr sand. Check
the specimens daily until they ame flexible enough to mount. Do not
leave them In the relaxer any longer than necessary.

Preemtrin Small and Fagile bisects
Spe means mall to be ptmned, such aflies, beetles and
wasps, sKould" be.munted on thng'ur paper points- The paper
points should be cut or punched frtrn heavy paper, such as filing
cards. Make them no more than 3/8-Inch long and 1/-ifMch wide
at the base. Paper point punches ari vailabke from biological supply
houses but they are quite expensive. You may obtain these points
from your CVI-CES Pest Management program or a quantity of
potnts can be purchased from a biological supply house
Push a pin through the base of the card point and push the
point up on the pii, by u&tng a pinning block, )ust as you do with a
pinned Insect (see Figure 23A). With a pair of tweezers or forceps,
band down the tip of the point (as in Figure 23S). Put a tiny drop of
fingernail polish or white glue on the bent-down part of the point
and press it gently to the right side of Ihe Insect (Figure 23C).
Generally, you should point any Insect you fiel would be damaged
by trying to pin it.

Preserving Immature or Soft-Bodied Insects
Soft-bodied insects such as aphids5 caterpillars, silverfish Fnd
some immature insects should not be pinned at all but can be
preserved In small vials of alcohol- These srrmall bottles or vials may
be purchased from biological supply houses or, sometimes, from
local drugstores: Ucv and fleas, as well as.very fragile insects such as
Craneflies and mosquitoes, are best preserved in alcohol. Profes-
sional entomologists use 70% In 80% ethyl (grain) alcohol.
However, rubbing alcohol, available from any drugstore, will do
nicely. Use a 70% concentration. The same Information that Is writ-
ten on the two labels which go on a pin Is then written on smnal
pieces of paper with a pencil or waterproof ink such as India Ink (not
ball poirant These labels are placed findde the bottle or vial with the
specirefns.
Nymphal insects can be placed dkectiv Into 70% alcohol for
storage, but insect larvae may shrivel up or lose their color in alcohol
unless they are "ftred" first. There are special ftfatie solutions you
can order from biological supply houses, but you Can easily fix insect
larvae wIth hot water Ireatment. To fix Insect larvae.with hot water,
bring a cup of water to boll in a sauce pan- Remove the pan from the
heat and wait a h lf minute. Then pour the hot water onto the larvae
you hayV waiting in a coffee can. The larvae will be killd instantly,
but thfy should be left in the hot water for several minu is until they







are slightly corkwd. If the water Is too hot when you pomu it on the
larvae, they nmay hurst open like an overdone wiener. If the water Is
fnoi hot enough, il tmay not kill the larvae Instantly and they will also
be unrdefied.l,

Labeling Specimens
Printed labIls are furnished In the back of this manual. The
necessary Information should be filled in with Ink using a fine-
poinied pen. Two labels, a locality label (Figure 24A) and an iden-
tlfication label (Figure 24B). should accompany each insect
specimen. The locality label should contain the following informa-
ion- location (island and estate), date of collection and name of col-
lcioar. it may also contain the host or specific habitat from which the
spe rcmkn was collected. This label goes on the pin immediately
twneath the specimen (Figure 24C). The middle hole in the pinning
block is used to set the locality label height in the pin (Figure 23A}.
Th Idnrtifiication label should contain the following informa-
tion: family. common name (professional entomologists use scien-
!i[ic name), name of person who Identified the specimen (this may
h1e d(rftifrLt from the collector),and the year In which it was iden-
iffied The- identificalLon label goes on the pin beneath the locality
lalbl (Figure 24l)). Use the shallow hole in the pinning block to set
rElh labll height on the pn. Also notice In Figure 24D thai the
piiTIA-Id ijeihiL-t1n faces left as you read the labeLs.

For pointed Insects, the two labels are placed on the pin in the
* same manner. Again. notice the orientation of the pointed
specimen, with the point directed to the left (Figure 24E). Also
notice that the pin passes through the right half of the label in
pointed specimens, whereas it passes through the center of the
label in pinned specimens.

Storing and Displaying Your Collection
A collection of pinned insects must be properly stored in order
to protect it from dust, damage, and infestation of carpet beetles or
other museum pests. The beginner who wishes to use the collection
for study purposes only may find that cigar bodies are satisfactory. If
a cigar box is used, a piece of corrugated cardboard, soft fiberboard.
halsa or cork should be glued to the bottom to provide a pinning sur-
face. I however. If you wish to display your Insects or maintain the
collection for a number of years, a more elaborate, tight-fitting box Is
highly desirable.
A standard display case, or Cornell drawer, measuring 18 x
24 x 3'/b inches, may be constructed from white pine, a masonite
bottom, a pinning cushion, and a glass top. Measurements and
details of construction are Included in Figure 25. The pinning
cLishion can be celotex, cork or balsa wood. If a plastic foam is used,
make sure that Li does not react to mothballs or some moth crystals.
To lesl i ls, seal up a moihball or some moth crystals with a piece of
* Ihe foar in an airtight container for several days and check for any
chemical reaction, such as curling.
Regardless of he type of box you use, your dried Insect


figLur. 24 Labtllnin inserits- WA Iptclity
label, IB) Id'1nificMflon label. (C) conrect
poilttlin of locali y oln pin, [0D) CotrrcI posai
tian of Identiflrlartn I lwI 4d (E) litoper
orientation of labels for a iolnted ins elt





Mu- IOTtOM II
I[$" M uusithOs n'
Ji4" p rt[i
4. J ..J% W 111"
-A is
.ne +=n


Figure 25 [nsect dtplay bx and miatridw
no4ded for it conntru lon. 19.







specimens are perfect food for certain dermrnstid beetles, common-
ly called carpet beetles. Precautions must be taken to prevent their
entrance. Most moth crystals, such as napthalene or ParadichloTo-
benzene (PDB), are good for preventing infestations. They may be
placed In a small box in im.e iixrner of the collection box and
replenished when necessary.
An ordinary mothball also works well. The head of a common
pin heated with a lighted match (by holding the point of the pin with
a pair of pliers) can be applied directly to the mothball. The mothball
will melt around the pinhead and then harden again, It may then be
pinned into the corner of your collection box.
Place only pinned and labeled specimens in the box. Insects
should be placed In neat rows beneath their corresponding Order
labeL Neatness in pinning and displaying Insects Is important when
collections are judged at insect field days or science fairs. Printed
Order labels are available in the back of this manual.


Identifying Your Insects

Keying to Order
From structural anrd other chardctertstlc-s, the biologist sorts out
common features and prepares an identification tool called a key.
Each step in the key requires you to make a choice between con-
trasting characteristics. In the key that follows, your first choice is:
Doea it have wings (Figure 26) or is the Insect Wingless (Figure 27)?
_-----mR--....-i


No Bs


Chewing moWultI part
I


I
Front wjrJng par J~ m ni llJ-IJK
surnm wilh Lumping a rrnt w tierd frotie wfn


Odhl no plncers
Gr.aenLappare

iLp of tomen ColpIoler
oDmnuplr Ill
Earwl as

Wlngs lay flai Uovr tiodr wtlen ial t Wnj
I
Wings of aml size Mind wing mu


Brown wIiwSt Q L
Terml1L H" or less Ey
Mlnoas held rootllKe ovtar lkady


igs rmmbranQun

Certain orders do n
Ippfqr on thelme kit
because the V$rgln Iilj
Ilck 1he pmrpir habt
for thuir dweveopat


1I I
;s101 on wing WinQR cwerecd
| wil ~hIcal4


SuckIn M rniuh pais
Ltpldoterri

ot
I'B
mnds
tat
it.

1Wn'gs lonR ind narrow
Iigs not inaryow o. wahil iTlrtaed hales
ringed with haFra


. ____________T h r p


PIuMapi te dna, s ti." LAeathqppoeie
Barklicoe Drgoui!lln N5 PtaAphidi

0, FIgure 2. A key to winged IfEc. irdPe.


.1


2
2 wJiDn


DII~er, tlles









Mouth pArtu for sue kltn
II
LivU On iLtia I n-rramnpl L 0wlt 1intsl

lody vrttilhy Body horlintaIly
thln tlat



5fpthwnuplora AmhGnt to rnuni
FSiBt uu' B ',, I


uub Fjlrlw A1 e.


I
W on Vr f141 i ody
Ow body


Mo.li pvlu fil oe ITwna
I---%


1.i4&rft &U !Jri2tnlmjd


MlnVpb Lui
utw In* LI(
W round.


Ian le I and arinnra

& M4lIds


I
I ,ifll 11 wilild
Setween thorax ind
4t~j~lr30jj


11i ymnoiptera
lJ h crl


SWn In mets Uke lormilla and anil will
d*NmDap wingJ ta locate a new colon.y.


Lt e i l0Ians! or
froe Tiving


oLrf for Jurpi4g


tlof jumpnii

Thyn
ShhOrrBlS~~ga~


OrOmA Wdalt,

imaptwru
Termnias


-1
A1ppsI-dages
rT a~bdo} en


I
Wait nol easly
Ueittmtud, Ions
anltnnae


Orthoptera
rdOrn hoi' ar.>-, Crl-tlc i
Waiting Stices


Figture 27. A key Io wlnaglr fitr ci onlers.

Follow the key as you would a road map. In most instances
you will come to a correct identification. However, no key is
perfect, for there are always specimens that don't seem to fit the
* generalizations that make up the key. And note that these keys ap.
ply only to adult insects.

Detennining the Common Name
Many useful reference books exist which will allow you to
determine the common names of your insects and learn something
about them.- The lists of reference books starting on page 30 con-
tain books which have been found useful in identifying Insects as
well I as some books which professional entomologists feel would be
suitable for beginning entomologists.



Rearing Insects

Collecting and observing insects as they change from one
stage to another can be a most Interesting project. Not only is it the
best way to really understand the life cycle of any Insect but it ts a
means, of providing you with perfect adult. specimens for your col
election. Grasshoppers, crickets, mosquitoes, some beetes, bugs
and flies, and various moths and butterflies can be studied in this
way. The important thing is to try to duplicate the natural condi-
tions for the Insect you are rearing, including its preferred food (the
plant you find it feeding on) and the proper light. temperature, and
humidity conditions.
In order to easily rear insect species,, some type of rearing. cage
or jar is needed. A rearing cage must be constantly tended. For 21


_________________1


I






















































FRsle 28 Tachniqir s In rea.dg Ltphloap-
eral JAI bouquet of pdthaeed.plant food set
Ina bottle oa wrntard ELmMVr with a nylon
iwt, (B) screen cae wflh padmred food
Swwins in t, (CJ pi~uic ba whi picked
lNen In It; (D) tyln *Mack fmd aow a
br2nci at plant foad.
22.


example. dried leaves are not eaten by insects, and without a con-
stant fresh food source the Insects will die quickly.
Insects that feed on living plants may be caged over potted
plants or fed with frequently replenished fresh material from their
host plant, With a little ingenuity, a suitable cage can be prepared.
The important thing is to keep it tight enough to restrain the insect
and yet provide for sufficient ventilation so that Ihe container will
not "sweat." Some loose, slightly moist soil and ground Ultter
should be provided in case the insect is one that pupalte in, or on,
the ground. Provide slightly moist soil or sand for insects that feed
on decaying animal matter.
Insects that Infest seeds and those that cause plant galls may
be reared merely by enclosing the seeds or galls in a tight container
with a fine mesh cover- Such material should not be permitted to
become too moist, or else the material and the specimens will
mold,
A dark container with the open end of a glass vial inserted into
it works well. Then, as the specimens emerge from the dark con-
tainer, they are attracted to the light, enter the vial, and can easily
be removed and killed- Tiny parasitic wasps may be reared from
their insect host in this manner. A cylindrical, cardboard ice cream
container Is excellent for this type of rearing.
It Is Interesting to dig lrvuae and pupae out of rotten logs in Ihe
woods and rear them to their adult form. It is not necessary to
"feed" these larvae, but you should take along a quantity of rotten
wood with the specimena and keep it in a closed Jar or metal con-
tainer to retain the moisture. In this way you can collect some of
the largest and least observed beetles,
Another interesting practice is that of collecting cocoons of
moths and chrysalises of burterflies. Often you may also find full-
grown moth and butterfly larvae (caterpllLars) that are just about to
transform to the pupae, These can be collected and observed until
they pupate and the adults subsequently emerge.
Probably most young people who develop an interest in rear-
ing insects have a desire to raLse Lepidoptera (moths and but-
terfles) through their whole Ifte cycle, This interest justifies
devoting some space to the subject here, Knowledge of trees and
plants is a big aid in rearing butterflies and moths, and. recognition
of plants,ls essential. Adult Lepidoplera are very selective and will
lay their eggs only on the plant on which the larvae will feed.

Butterflies
Start by trying to catch a female butterfly (with practice and
the use of resource books, the female of the species can be iden-
tified by the coloring and, size). Place her (1) on a bouquet of
preferred plant food t in a bottle of water (Figure 28A), or (2) In a
screen case with preferred plant food growing in tt (Figure 28B), or
(3) in a pastic box with picted.leaves in it (Figure 28CJ, or (4) in a
nylon saik over a branch of the plant food she prefers and tie the
bottom (Figure 28D). You will obtain from a few to perhaps a hun-
dred eggs or. so, The female may be released after three days.
There are several ways to rear larvae. It is best to leave them in






the sack or cage, changing the foliage if needed, If there are only a
few eggs, remove. the leaf with the eggs on it to a small plastic box.
Most butterfly eggs take between five and sven days to hatch
(monarchs take seven). The larvae must have a constant supply of
food and must be kept clean, After the first week, cheesecloth over
the top of the plastic box is better. It takes .about two to three weeks
for the larvae to become fut aize then they will form chrysalises on
the netting,
Put the chrysalises into a cage where the expected butterflies
will have room to expand their wings. With butterflies that have two
or morg broods a year, the butterfly will come out after a period of
hibernation; in those having a single brood only, the butterfly will not
emerge until the next wet season. Let the butterfly fully expand, Put
it in the killing )ar just before it flies, In this way you will have a
perfect specimen for your collection,
Moths
Rearing moths is qutte different. One can start anywhere in the
life cycle, Some start by finding a larva; you should plan on raising
those for which you have the plant or tree on which the larvae feed.
If a female is caught outside it is assumed that she has already been
bred. Ordinariy, the female moth does not fly until she is ready to
lay eggs, If a female moth emerges In the house, a male must be put
in with her or she can be tied outside. The moth should be tied out
the evening after she emerges from the cocoon and left all night or
put in a cage of Vz-Inch hardware cloth. Tie the moth with strong
thread, around the thorax, crossing and around the abdomen. The
thread should be loose enough not to hurt the moth and tight
enough so she won't escape. Tie the thread ends through a piece of
screen and hang the moth on the screen outside (Figure 29A).
Around sunset male moths will mate with her,
It is easy to get eggs. The simplest way is to put the female in a
large paper sack, close the top by folding it over, and hold it shut
with a paper clip (Figure 29B., Keep her In the sack from one to
three days. Some moths such as the Sphinx moths, glue their eggs
to the sack; the Tiger moth's eggs, on the other hand. may resemble
sugar in the bottom of the sack, If the eggs are glued to the sack, cut
around them and put them In a plastic container with proper food
and cover. If the eggs are loose, empty them out gently Into a court
trainer,
The larvae must be kept clean and without too much moisture,
If a glass jar Is used, only two or three larvae should be put in it.
More satisfactory is a netting sack (such as nylon curtain material)
over a branch of a tree with twenty or more larvae on it. This will
have to be changed from time to time. Cut off the whole branch, put
the sack over a fresh branch and put the larvae in it. As they grow
larger, they need more space and food.
Sphinx moths pupate in the ground, so after the last molt,
place them in a box or large can with two inches or so of slightly
damp sand In the bottom. The larvae will crawl down into the sand,
*k They can be left in the sand until they emerge. Most of the other
large moths spin cocoons on the branches. The cocoons are


Figure 29 Techniqu Ln hearing mafoth: (A)
ealbU SaMi tOwd to a acmne (B1 wppr "adi
a agse-raWye elbanuj (C) auemusnc com.







gathered and put in a cool place until time for emergence. Brtng tlvi
moth cocoons into the house. A screened cage, I foot by 18 Inches
by 1 foot. Is ideal (Figure 29C), The moth can crawl up and hang
from the top to stretch its wings. If you have missed the big event,
the moth will still be perfect. Watch the cocoons closely: some get
wet on one end an hour or more before the moth comes out.
If a screened cage isn't available, glue cheesecloth or netting on
the inside of a cardboard box, stand it on end, and cover the front
with plastic. The box must be bigger than the expanded moth will
be. The netting gives the moth a foothold, If a moth has no place
fiam which to hang to expand, he will not develop fully. Allow the
moth to hang several hours before killing it so the wings wilt be hard
enough to epairat.t astly.


Careers in Entomology


To choose a career In entomology is to pursue a way of life that
is essential, exciting and rewarding, How well insect populations are
managed determines how well man can sustain life by providing the
basic necessities of survival. Entomology Is a profession, not just a
"job." It requires Intelligence, ambition, skill and dedication. It offers
the satisfaction .vf contrIbuting to the well being of all mankind.
Many opportunities exist for students of entomology who
graduate from college. Graduates find jobs teaching in high schools
0 and universities. They are employed as researchers by state and
federal government agencies, such as state experiment stations.
U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Public Health Service. En-
tomnalogists are employed by both public and privately supported
museums. The chemical pesticide industry needs research fen-
tomnologlsts to develop new products, salesmen to sell ihcm and
technical representatives to qive specialized assistance- Major food
processing comnparnis hire entomologists. The commercial pest con-
trol Industry uses many trained entomologists. Jobs as an entomolo-
gy consultant are on the increase. These require a trained entomolo-
gist, self-employed in a communIty, who can provide a professional
service mur.h like a veterLnarlan, medical doctor. lawyer or engineer.
The student who expects to be an entomologist should have
broad traiinng in the sciences. I ]e needs the breadth of training given
in basic zt(loyy and botany, chemnistiv. physics and mathematics.
Thliee subjects are Integral parts of both bas t and applied ento.

The following is a brief description of the- major special atlon
darTi.e of entomology.
Insect taxonomy deals with insect idenltficdti n, it m[ght be
lik*ie d to genealogy. Traditionally, a taxonomist i4s interested In
the feaiures of a species that make it different from all other
specie-s. tuiset ecology gives special attention to the insect's
habitat, total environment, Interrelationship with other insects,







other animals, plants and climate. Insect physiology and
biochemistry involve the study of the internal processes of living
* Insects. The physiologist and biochemist contribute to the under-
standing of how Insects see, the function of their glands in metamor-
phosis, and how an insect becomes resistant to insecticides. Inmect
toxicology is the study of the action of lnsectLcides-that Is, how
the chemical interferes wtth the vital life processes. Insect
pathology is the study of disease organisms that affect insects The
pathologist perfects methods of insect control using pathogens,
bacteria, fungi, virus and others, instead of insecticides. Economic
entomology is concerned with the insect problems of an
agricultural commodity such as a fruit, vegetable or other crop This
specialist takes basic information supplied by the physiologLst, toxi-
cologist. ecologist and others and carries out research to improve
both the quality and quantity of a commodity through insect
management. Medical entomology is the study of the insects that
cause sickness in man and domestic animals. Some insects carry
diseases such as malaria and dysentery: others cause disease by liv-
ing in or on other animals. Still others cause disease and dLscomfort
by injecting venom and other poisonous or irritating substances.
Sources of information about entomology careers are available
In various brochures and pamphlets. For further information about
entomology you can write to the Entomological Society of America,
4603 Calvert Road, College Park, MD 20740, or your local Coop-
erative Extension Service Pest Management Program.
In any event, both boys and girls should be encouraged to In-
*k vestigate entomology as a career.




Insects in the Future

Insects preceded us on earth by 300 million years and because
of their adaptability will no doubt survive us. So it is not only our
responsibility, but In our own best interest to live in harmony with all
of earth's creatures, even though a few may make ]ife next to
unbearable at times.
It is Important to remember in our haste to control an Insect
pest, that nature is In very fine balance, We must be very careful
about "knocking" a pest Insect out of the food chain, because the
repercussions may be more serious than che damage done by the
pest. We have now recognized the possible damage that can be
done to our environment by the tons of chemical pesticides used by
farmers and others. Scientists are working to develop natural or
organic ways of controlling pests that will help restore a healthy en
vironment.
Si[tead of abhortng, we should be more adoring of Insects. Try
to recognize the many benefits Insects provide to mankind, several
eof which have been mentioned in this handbook, including products
produced by insects: honey, beeswax, silk and shellac. The role that 25.
insects ply n agriculture by polinating flowers is very Important.
Also, they play a large role fn building soil. Butterflies, moths and







rohet insects are also a Source of such beauty they can be exhibited
in displays or as wall decorations in our homes.
One thing we have not mentioned is the enormous possibility
of insects as a major food source at our fingertips. In the past, dif- V
fervent cultures have used insects in religious ceremonies and many
peoples have used Insects as a primary food souTce. We turn up
our noses at the Idea of eating insects but as the world's population
increases, there may come a day when we will supplement our
diets with insect protein, Almost all insects produce far more pro-
tein per pound of food than do cattle or pigs. It Is only our cultural
background that makes us cringe at caterpillar cupcakes or beetle
bread. So perhaps in our lifetime or our children's, our attitudes
will change and we will learn to appreciate Insects for the valuable
creatures they are,











4*At.^ r1 I a f: 0










Sources of Supplies for Insect Study


Equipment Specimen6
Pve- Herb-
sened Live artump
Company Field Lab. IfmActs Inuects Suppflea


Insect Audio-
Rerling Visual
Booaku Suppimss Mat'ls.


American BitrloGical Supply Compani (AMBI)
1330 Dlllon Heigh'i Avenue
Baltimoro. MD i2228
Ben Meaduws Comipatly
35ti9 Bruad Strel
Atiinta,. GA 30366


J Y f


Blo-Serv. Inc.
P.O. Box 100-B
Fretnchtowri. NJ OM825
rilnQulp Products
P.O. Box 61
Sanra Monikc. CA 90406
?Rurkard ielrntlir, Lid.
Wnnrnc-li H111 Indusulal Estate
lckm-.'isiwmrnth, Herts. Englant WD3 IPJ

Carollna Blojoggcal Supply Cu
BurEingtdn, NC 27215

EdmunTd Scieniifiil. Ci.
7877 Edwurp Buidiing
B;mniytun. NJ 08007


Fnr-strV Supphers. Inc.
P.O. Box 8397
Jackson, MS 39204
Makson Sctence-. Inc
Rlox 767
[OeI Mar. CA 92014


P, W, P


pF #e -* -o &0 il Jr '


F.-


V V*


Nasco
901 Janesutie Ave
Fort AIkirnsln, WI 5:.38


Nova Schentific Corp.
111 Tucker Seet, P.O. x 50
Burlirngon, NC 27215


Yo V


Pe W, 0 ;1


PO 0 W e Pw re O


Parco ScLntific Cromiwy
P.O. Buy. 595
Vienna, OH 44473


Sr ntlflIc Etnmnlogfcal Equlpmenr
Survival Security Corp.
Lakawood Ave. Lake City, MN 55041
Waid's Naiural SrIl o If aFbilshmernt, Inc.
P.O. SBo 1712
Rocheesr, NY 14603
Watkn & Dvncaster The NaturaIsts
Four Throws, Hawkhurst
Keni. Engknd __ -
Wirlco lIrtrumfentb & Aqucatc Sampling Supplres
301 Can Stri l
Saginaw. MI .4602


pr Ve


V0 4 I


F W P P p


V- V


SA-0 PO


4- s


27.


M, W,


*e W,


Wf A


V V*








Glossary


Abdomen The posterior setluin of dLi budy behind
the thorax In the arthropod-
Anoplurm (From the Greek anioi.-= unarmed +
ourq= tall) The insect order which contains true
lice or sucking lice.
Aphid An insect of the Order Hornmoptera also known
as plant louse.
Aquatic Living in water, such as mosquito wriaigrs.
Arthrnpoda One of the main groups of animal which
has a segmented body and legs.
Asptrator Device to collect small insects by sucking
them into a bottle.

Caterpillar The larvae of a butterfly, moth. sawfly or
scorplonfly.
Centipede A worm-llke relative of Insects with two
legs per segment.
ChrysWlls The pupa of a butterfly. (pl. chrysaides)
Cla" A subdivision of a phylum, containing a group
of related orders-
Cocoon A silken case inside which the pupa is formed.
Coleopterm (From the Greek coleos= sheath +
pwera = wings) The beetle order of Insects.
Collembola (From rhe Greek colla -glue + erabo-
lon=wedge or peg) The insect order which
conLains springtafIli.
Dernnapterm (From the Greek dermern= kin + pteru
= wings) The insect order which contains earwigs
Diptemra (From the Greek dj= two + ptera = wings)
The Insert order which contains true flies, gnats.
midges and n'osquitoes-

Elytran The hard. leatherv modified front wing of
beetles. {pl. elytra)
Entamuloglst A person who studies JisecLs.
Entomology The study of insects.
Ephemeroptera (From the Greek ephemeroas- [iv-
ing but one day) The insect order which contains
mayflies and dayflies.
Ethyl acetate A chemical also called acetic ether used
in insect killing jart. It is a poisan and must be used
with care.
Exaskeletan A skeleton or supporting structure on
the outside of the body.

Family A subdivision of an order, containing a group
of r.tate.d gpnera.


B


Genum A .roup of closely related species; the first
name in a binornomial r nnomial scientific name. It
should be capitalized and when printed is italicized.
(pl. genera)
Hemelytra The front winr, of Hemiptera (true bugs)
which Is half leathery and half membranous.
HemnpteTn The insect order which contains true bugs.
Hexapod Having sik legs, such as insects.
Humoptera (From the Greek homo= same +
ptera =wings) The insect order which contains
aphids, scales, leafhoppers and cicadas.
Hymenoptera (From ihe Greek hymen = mem-
brane + ptero= wings) The insect irder which cun-
lains bees, wasps, ants and hornets.
Immature stage The intermediate growth stage be-
tween the egg and the adult insect,
[necta The claii of animals that is the insects.
Instae The stage of insects between moks.
Isoptera (From the Greek faos= equal + piera-
wings) The insect order which contains termites.
Key An Identification tonl u.ed hy entomologLsts to
classify insects Into different orders or families
Larmv A wingless early staHe of certain Insects. (pI.
larvae)
Lepidoptema (From the Greek fepido= scale -
pteroa -wngs) The Insert order which contains tle
nolt is anid butterflies.
Maggot A legle-ss larva stage of Diptera (fly order)
without a well developed head capsule
Mallophaga (From the Greek nmaolfo -wool +
phaghio =-to eat) The insect order which contains
bird hce or chewing bcc-
Mandibles The chewing mouthparts of the insect.
Mecoptera (From the Greek mecoa-s= ong + ptera=
wings) The Insect order which contains scorpionf lies.
Metamorphoats The change during insect develop-
ment from egg to adult,
Millipede A worm-like relative of insects with four
leaS per segment.
Molts The periodic shedding of the exoaskeleton.
Nalad The aquatic in mature stage, prtmarily of drag-
onflies and damselfles
Nenroptera (From the Greek nteura nerves + pterv
= wings) The insect order which contains laciewings
anid ant bons.






Nocturnal ALtive at night.
Nymph Y he immature stage, same. as adult only
small er rid wllthoul wings. found In I nre.ts wtth sirn-
pie me-tamnpihon-is.-
Odonata (From the Greek odonlos ;- tooth} The In-
sect order which containR dragonnfliE and damselflies;
Order A subdLvLioni of a c ass. containing a group of
related families.
Orthoptera (From ihe Greek orthos -- straight + perm
= wings) The Insect order which contains grasshop-
pers. crickets, mantids. walking sticks and roaches.
PDB Pardichloobenmzne is a chemical toi be: ued ill
collectLon drawers to prevent infestation hy
dermestid beetles or o th peLs.
Phylum Any one of the main groups into which ani-
mals are divled. (pl. phyla)
Plmcoptara (from the Greek plekos = plalfed + ptera
= wing) The inaecl order which contains stoneflles
Proboscis The siphonr-g mouth tube of hbuttrflieS.
Prolegs The Beshy abdominal legs of certabli InCet
LarviaE
Pronotum The top part of the Rrst seaeqment of the
thorax.
Pscoptera (from the Greek psncho = lo iub some
thin snl]] or fIrie + prera = wings) Thp- Iniect murder
which contain boukice or barklice.
Pupa An early stage of some Insects that occurs between
the LarvSa and the adult stages- (pl pupaa)
Scorpion A rnminber of the Class Arachnida thai
has a ong stinging tall.


Scutelium A triangular area on the thorax.
Siphoomptemra (From the Greek siphon tulw 4- ap-
tero without wings) The insect order whkih contains

Species A group of Individuals that are sLmilar in strLLc
ture and physiology and are capable of interbreeding
and producing fertie nffspnng.
Specimen Any individual insect,
Spiracle A small breathing hole In the side of Insects
Terrestrial One who liv-es on land.
Thornr. The n-mrct body rekiun which bear the leas
and wings.
Thyannopier (From the Greek thysarros tassel +
ptera = wins) The insect order which contains thrips.
Thymanura (From the Greeik ATiunw= tasetl uumr
= tail) The insect order which contains sliverfith,
bristletails and slickers,
Trichoptera (From the Greek brihos = hair + ptera
- wings) The insect order which contains caddsflies.
Tympanum A hearing organ on either the abdomen or
legs of certain grasshoppers.
Young An immature stage of tnsects that is id.ntcial tn
the adult in shape and form. It is only smaller in stze
and lacks nature repruduLlive urgatis.
Vensi The thickened lines that start at the base of the
insect' mmrnambmnous wing and qo to (the tip.
Venatlon The pattern formed by the veins which can be
Loled to Identify spedies or inrcts,


Nlb


'M /







Bibliography

Aduisor Guide. EXpl 'rirrg Our !nr.ect Worrd Cnr peratlve Ex-
*'rvlon Servlce. Ohio Statw L),lr. nly Circular A.I. 1971.
ComrteWk. Ai ia Borsfrrd in ndhOak af Nature Study. ILhacA,
New York. Corns ,~o Publishilng Cr.mpany. 1926.
4-H EriroinoJre y Ladenrf' ;jitde. Exteniion Divisiohk VirginI
Polytdcbnilc kittute anrd *itte Unlversity Pubblifali 734,
january 1977,
Sover. Rchard J. andor-M. -y, Ctllen. 4-H BTUfenri 131.2t. En.
.namorosy, Michigan Stat Unlirslt.y M lmbers Manual,
1913.
&; ivibnr, R.A. EntornoiogV 4-H Project Booklet..hi ersity of
Kentudiy Cooperative Exte nsbrn Servce, 1982.
Teale. Edwin Way. Irn~ct Lfe. Boy Scouls of America Merit
Badge Series, 1944







p7 r

- __ .-









Other Useful References


AnrelL. R. and R. L. Jacqies. ..r Simnr arid Schuster Guide go
insect. Simon and Schuster. Inc.. New York 1981,
Authorltaliva new guide cuntoailmig practical lnfotm'.
rion on nu -w than S50 insects commonly fund In North
Amniica.

BlaT d, R G. and H. E. Jaques. H6? to Knciw Insern.. Wil-
lari C Brnwn CompanV, Dubuque. [A. 1976, Paper with
spiral bmun3dig. A-n 111LuseSteO keV to the mtorTe commoTi
families of Insect. wilth a pictured glossary.

Borror. Donald J.. D M Debong and C. A. Triplehon.i-L-A
Introduction tov he Study f Insects. Saundear College
PublishLng, Dlvlon of CBS College Publishing. Philadel-
phia, PA 19l1. Widely used coIhteg te.Ibook. Include-s
order and family keys insm descriptions. an d come
hensive data on hablts and life hiWtodre. Hardbound.

Borror. Donald J. and R. E White A rYild Culde to the
fnsects f Amenrim Nrth of MeN-ce itolightnn Mifflin,
Boiton, MA 1970. A comrnprehanstve. up Obdate. pocket
guide to North American Insect, with emphasis on family
identification. Over 1300 drawings and 14? color plates.
User should have.some experie- tri In lsect identitlratlnn


Clihu. H. F. How to Know the immature Inr.sects. Witlliam C.
Brown Publishllg Coiipany. Dubuque IA 1949. Pro-
h'ldk.i llustratoid keys fur idetiication of these Insects to
.o'ier and rher- principal famdies. Collecting and rearlng
Ini!orrnlancJi al0ng wqh nErerances for advanrld studyI.

Dennis Ctlfford. Laboratory, Marlo f ri r firodu LJ-rto u .rntmMl-
oyj,, WUIIfmr C. Bmwr, Company. Dubuque. [A. 1974
Set of exercise designed for tLUdy through ftetd expert-
ence. Base material awvll presented wlth tealy under.
stood line drawlnqs. Also suitable fur self-study program


EbeLlli g Wa Tr. Subtropical Fruij Pests .In Iversity of Cafo t n la,
DJvision of Agricultural Sciences. Los Angeles 1959. This
teax has deLfaled infoTmation and ptC rute of n.sects and
pestt artacklng clIrus, grapes walnuts. almrnnds, peeanA,
fy olives. uvocados and dates A atlrly complete cover-
age of control mtwhdds and materials of that period.

Fichiter. G. ..and H. S. Ziil Irs'ct Pesm. The Guldet Prei.
Wswern Putil Co., Racinin. WV 1%66 Decribbs tJol-
ogles. darnag~ are Illustrated with .ol r drawings. Paper-
hack.
Frear Donald E, H, Prsticide o- andaok-"Enirrmaj. Enlo-
rnologirAl Sodety of Amerni. College Park. MD. 1979. Th
:s 1i rtiing of cornmerdal peatic des with u*1s. Irncradlents
and manuJaLLturers ]t. nln Includes price.i'lans ro he IJiedd
to Iniure the safe use of pestlr-idr materials, uriidut3its amid
emergency trealments for puolSns: pa -s. present! and ruturne
trends Lui IxstlridCs: calJbratde.I of equiprtmnr for applica-
tlon and ulier useful !nforrnation re.irdjng pketicidesi
This hook is highly recomn-iended


HeadtruMTn. Richard- Nature Dismt-vries with a Hand Lens
Dover Pubmication,, Inc., NY. 1968. A paperhound hook
showing nature through the use ol a ihand lens, The infor-
mahton is presented month by month showing the acivitihts
of aUl season*,

Hollend. W J. The flutnarfl Boak. Dover PublkcMions. Inc.,
NY. 1968. Includes most butterfllas of the U.S. and
Canada, Cvmplete descrptoons are given of all mtnaea of
e.ch Insedc, with Infrrnatlun on where each is Found,
directians for colkecttng, preparing, preserving anid clasi-
fyjng. Many illustratlons.

Holland, W. 1. The Moth Book. Duver Pubkcattons, Inc,
NY. 1968. A paper bound reprint of Lhe orilgnal 1920
publicadlon- Descrlptlons and Iilustratl of several hun-
dred specles oF Nurti Amerl can moths.

Klots. Alexander B. and Elsi5 B. KJots. 1001 Ques vis An,
were Abow Insects. Dover Publcatlons. Inc., NY. 1961
(reprint 1977). Answers to questions that are hard to find
in othnv antomology books.

Lehmkuhl. D. M- How io Know the Aquatic Insects. Wilam
C. Brown Publishing Cornpany. Dubuque, IA. 1979.
Guidebook for quick and accurate ldrtiflcatlon of fam-
ll es and dlstlnctive genera of aquatic Insects. dod
Lntroductun tu s!eciitlzed literature.,

Maliis. Arnold. Handbook of Past Control, 6th Edition
Fraaki & Frnte.r Ceo. 1982. This handbook del with
behavior. life h1tory and control of household pafts.

Miln L and M MlIne. Audubon Society Field Guide co North
American Insects and Spiders. Random Houas. 1980.
Over 700 colur photos, over 600 species described In
det^al.

PeiaJrs, LeLUrlrd Marion a td Ralph Howard Davidoun- In-
sect Pests of Farm, Gurden and Orchard. John Wiley and
Snn, Inc.. NY. i956. The is a very good book whIrh In-
cludes hie histories, nd controls for many vf thie 1eneMa
Ibtat p t ptoblenms encounmred by the producer. Easy
mradLng with good Illustrfttons

Michell,. R. T and 0m. HS. Buterflies and Moths. The
Golden Pres, Western Pubi Co Racine, W1. 1964.
Paper. A guide 1o the MTUre common North Armaricfn
species with a rolnr drawing and notes for caich one.

Metcalf. C. L., W. P. Ftint, and R, L Metra f Desrucuve and
Useful InsaEs 4th Ed. McGraw-Hill, NY 19M4 A u~sv
good and complete text on the habit and corntol of
Injurtous IJnd beRteflltal Inwect'

Re.d, (i. K., H. S. Ktm and G. 5. Ficl wr. Pond L.ifr. The
Golden Pr-s. Western Publ. Co., Inc.. Rctrie, Wi. 1967
A gwd it c.>nmoinn pTant s %nd animals of North American
ponds and lak w. Cunidias much U'-fuil Information on
Aqliirr t Insects and their relatives.








Slunde. V. J- The Pclvrrdl EutL-jcopedrf of Inse.c-. The Hamlyn1
Publishing Group Limited. Lundoi, 1969, .CunrainJtig
mn-e rhaon 1 ,0IWi black arnd whlte and color photograpih1.
[his book details feidii.n halbtf, lIfe e.yrts, colors and
Sizes Uf a 1,rge vdrlVLy uf insects fiom EL1ropi. AffrirtA %nd
Asia.

T"iylir, R. L, Buerfh',ies in tivy s rrnich, lrn t' h? iHurmanr NuLrl-
aon,. Woodbridge PT. PbUlishlliii Company. Sant B-rt-bra,
CA. 1975. A serious and ITnaginave look uL inrcwL-oa alr
alternatives oy spplemenntal soirceirt o human food,

USDA. Insects. Yearbook of Agy -iclhte- Supt. oh Docurrntlts,
Washlntan, DC 1952. Over 1000 paggs packed wLI[h joi
lir moa ion and Illustratitnn- nn Insects affa ting North Amer-
ican 0gr-culture.

Vllliarl. Paul Moths and How to Rear Them. Dover Publice
tlions, Inc NY 1975. nfrmatlon n in ftodplants, alter-
nuite l'uOdi. r~trting requjiheLilnts, equlpme'nt and -txeJ[lant
pictures of eggs, l rvae, pup-e a td adults of S~rim 601
speViCs


WesCott, CVnthia, Gardener's Bug Book, Doubleday &
Company, Inc., Garden City, N I I-%1' A thoruisgh
popular treatmtnt ef Nortth American insect pists f plants.

WLggLVweri'Y V. B. The Life of Insects. Mentor Books, NQ.w
Arnerlcan Library, Inc,, NY WlyN4. Paper Ways In which
Inserc lt 1 and fiuntrtiorn, IncJudirrj tiE.lalJtvldy m-jiple explJai
nation of the pliy llogy luvolved.

ZImn. S,. and C. Cotton. lisect The [.iolrfen Press. Western
Publ. Cn.. Inc Haclne, WI 1956. Paper, A pvk" aixd
Identltkation guide: W NutCi Amerilcan Insiicts. Color
dtrwifots of each Inmsct, Itf growth stage and development
Notes on habttf, life hisrortes, and habltrt.


r~


Insects and Other Arthropods of the West Indies


Compila d by Wcltier Knrusenberger

In these refererici Vou wiJl fnd d*,AlA; v i eLd jification and
biolotiy of Mtlerted qtnups of West Ind an Lnsects and rekiled
ifot man.rne arthi.opods Only some of the major groups are
covered, 'Tid with Ltie1s, emphasis i, on those soT'res uwhlch
rover either specific Islands or Island grtup Lil tlhe L,-sser An
til's-, or th Rentir rn'tl~ln. With a few exceptions, references
tI fed deal wlth whole families' r ortersm ifr a 1voan area. All
these references Ist additimunl liieraLIre. so you have a spr-
Inbhoard Into a fascinating world of discvvery.


Arthropud -- M iucellwnou

Avrher, A. 1. "Aranns tejedwras de la Iasi Vliertwa." Carob.
benr Journal o Srienrce. 3:207.208. 1963.

Arclie, A. F "Nurffv arg5iopdos (uruTias} de lau Antlifsli."
Carib&men Journal of Sc ince, 5 129-135 1965-

Bryant, Elizabetrh B. "Noeson tho.spidtif ofthi. Virgin Islar s."
BulVtin of hie Museum of Coipartivlue Zoologyji. Vol. 89.
Part 7. 50 pp., (3 p-.) 1942.

Gooditight, C. J. and M. L, GoodnighL. "Phalangids from
Cuenral Am erica and fhe Wesr Indles." Arnerican Mufeurn
Nouttafls 1184: 1.23. 1942.


Lonmiis H I "MllphtWaS f St Jhhn U S. VLrgin inlacik. end a
new species Fcoth Puerto Rko.'" Floride Ervtrmut4jqq.,
53:129-134. 1970.

Luu. F. E, "LLst of Greater Antille-An spidfrs with nrote on thEIr
distributtan." Annal of sire New York AL-Sd aty of
.S'ance, 26-71.14A. 1915.

Petrnkevttich, A. "Spide from the Virgin [slands."
rat-n itannt, of the (.onnacttcut Acoderny of Arts and
Sclenres. 28:21-78 1926.
Quintero, D. 'The dmblypygid genu. Phrynus In the Amrierlca
(Ambhlypygl, Phryndade)," Jovrrial of AmchnnoJoa
9:117-1&6 1981.








Insects General
Ballou, Henry A. "Notes on West Indian insects, Wert Indian
Bufetin. 7 40-63 1906,

Betnnt. F. D. and M. Munir Alam. An Arrioajed Check-flst
of fhe insftwonnd Alted Arthropuds ofBart dos Trioidad.
Commonwealth Irwt. of loJnqklnt Control. 1984 (in pwRsQ.

Fennah, R. G. The insect Pests of Food Crops ki the Lsser
Anrifles. Antigua, B.W.I.: Dept. ul Agrtcukure for Lke-
wird Is.. Grenada, B.W.I.; Dept. af AgricultUre (ot the
Windward [s. 5 .- 207 pp. 1947.

Miskineri. George W and Richaid M. Bond. "The insect Fauna
of St. Croix. UnLted 5tAes Virgin islands." New York
Acadamy of Serlncei: Scetifc Suruea aif Porto RFeo and
the Vrgin Islands. Vol. 13, P4rt 1. 114 pp 1970.

Ogblvi. Lawre ce. The Inseats jo Barmudo. A Pernmir'wr
Checklist. Bermuda; Dept. of Agriculture. 50 pp. 1928.

Tuckr, R, W. E. "Thelnsects of Barbados." JournofAgrcut-
turn oj ihe Universiyj of Ptfertn Rica. 36:330-363. 1952.

WdtlersDo, J. M. A Lst ol Food Phans of Svrre EtermLJdo in-
sects. Piget East, Bn-rmuda: Dept. of AgricutiLre. 59 pp.
June 1941.

WaWtrston, J M .5tppfari enraryi List of BerrIudu lnMect~. Paget
East. BCT;Tiuda, Dept. of Agriculture. 10 pp. De., 1940.

Wokot, (- -nrge Norton. "Inseiiv e Bortnque.nse A revised
anrIOated chek-list of ithe Itiscis of Puerto Rico. Journrn
AgricuJture Urilvenitrry of Puarto Rico 20{I();1 600,
figuress). 1938.

Wolcott. George Norton. "The Insects of Pueriu Rico." JournPrl
of Agric. Unicersjty of Puerto Riaco. .Q(1.4k 1-975. 1948.
]published in 1950).


lrangunfll e
KIMts, E. B. 'nsects of Puerff Rlea and the Vkrlikt Islands.
Odonata or drm-utvi ltes." New YVbrk AcadamV of Scfences
Scierlific Survey of Porkv Rico. and the Vitrgn Islands.
24W:1 107. 19i.

Termites
Bliank. "AnlleUf i soptera Ohelain af the Museumi of Corn
paratiue Zo lotn. 62(10):473-90 (2 plates.) 1919.

Orthoptem
Otte Daniel, The North American CGrqsi1oppers--AcrJdidae'/
Gamphacerfraw. anud Acridinae. Vol, 1. Cambrkige, MA.
and l.nndon, England- i larvard University Prk.. 265 pp
(plates. figure, blblagriaph~. iiap5) t191.

Walker. Thomas .. and M chael D. GOr~leid. "Lqngn and
Syslematlcs of Caribbean Neocfinraphalus (OrLhioptera
Tei tlonild ," 'Im rna..tJons Amncrin r m- mologkcat So-
ciley. 109:357-389. 1982.


Hemiptira- Homaptem
Rbrher. H. G, "Insectm of Portu Rko and the Virgin Lslands.
I lempteera Heteroptera [excepting the Mindae and Cor-
axidae) ." New York Academy of Siennces Sciuennfc Survey
of Porto Ric and the Vtryn Isfonds 14(3):2i63-441. 1939.

Osborn, 'li. "Insects of Puerto Rico and dih Virgin Islands.
Homoptra exceptionn Stwerorhnchthi" New York Aca-
derrwy of Shrrc, Sci &wntifMr SUrLIey of Port Rico and the
Virgin isands. 14(2); 111-260. 1935.

Nakahara, S, "Lrsto thcC cxrid easpactes (Homoptera] f lihe
United States Vitg1 Es andjs." U.S. Dept. of Agriculture,
Animal and Plant Heath Inspection Setvce. Plant Protec-
hon and Quarnnt ne APH15 Publ. No. 81-42, 21 pp.
SeptenberF 1983.

Beetles
aIackwalder, R. "Chetekstl of the Coleoptw rus Ineas. ofi Mexi-
co, the Wesit IndJis, ad South America," Budetirn of the
U.S. Nalvonl Mlaeuf 1885(1-.6 1-1492. 1944-1957.

UCaer, M, A. and L. Lamy. "The CerambycdMa of the
Bahamn i slnds. Brttla. Westl Indies (Coleopiera]." Amed-
ctan Mu-eum Noutaln, 18M8:1-56, 1952,

ChaTumrnau, F- Cgalopkrex Sco&rdefes des Peones Anlle.s,
Paris: Edt.ons LeChevaHer. Encyclupedte Entomologiqiue
XLIV. 292 pp: 4140 fig.) 1983.

Chalijmeau, F and J. Balumu, "Cuntributlon ni Ia fauna des
Antilles Fi-nrlses. Cl.lndetldae (Clteoptera:Caraboeid "
Neou. Rev, En;imo?. 8(1.):17-256. 1978.

Chapln. E. A- "A revision of iie West Indian beetles of the
scaiaboaed subfarmly Aphtedlnae." Pruc. U.S. No.
Daenu Museum. 80(302)- 1-41 (1 table. figs.). 1980.

Chemsak. J. A and E. G. Linslay. I"The Longicorn beetles and
Ihe alntly Distenlidae Checklit of the bee de of Cotdoda,
Unfted Stiles. MELico, Cenua America and the West
Indls. BiologIcal Research Institute of Amerlca.
RensselaeT]alle., NY. Vol 1, P.il 6- 224 pp. 1975.

Johnson, Clarence Den and John M Kinqgsovar. "Ch ckbl of
the tBruchldae (Coelopteral of Canada, United States.
Mexkio. Central America, and the Weit IrndLs," The Cole-
opler lsu' &BAefan. 35 (41:409-442 (bIblio.). 1981.

O'Brien, Charles W. and Guiltermno J. Wlbmnr "Annotated
checklist of the weevila (Curcultonidae Se'nst IJlo) of North
Amercla, Cent al Amertr, and the West Indies (Culerup
tEpa: Curcullonuldtaf ," Memoirs Arerfran l 1ntomologfcal
Institute No. 34, Ann Atboi. MI. ix + 382 pp. 1982.

Butterflies and Maths
Hirnwn, I- Martin and Bernard He-ineman. Jrini -oa and Hut-
e0ef iae.? lndon: E. W. Classey, Lid. xv + 478 pp. 1972.

Clench, Harry K. "A syniopiis of the West Indian Lycaentdae,
with Remarks on their Zuy-eugraphy." Jnijrnm of U0e-
earrih ,an the Laepdoaptara 2(4}:247-270. 1963







Co'stock, W. P. and E. i, HurInJyoti. "Lycaenidao of the
Antllos Lepidoptekn. Whipaloecera." Annah Df the New
York Acqaderrp oS Sientccs. 45.49--1.0 1943.

Co:nstoc. WItllamPhiLlips. "Nymphalidae of the Anrtille (Lop
idup4ra, Rhopalocera)." Journal of the .New York Enlo-
motloqcal Society. 50:283 288. 1942

Constock., W P. "I nsact of Porto Rico and thu Viryin llaands.
RhupiJuctt-a or butterflies Neui York Acaddem of Sci-
ences Scenbtfc Surueyj of Porlo RiHo aund rh- Vfrirn Wsands,
12m4}:421-622. L944.

Forbfe, W. T, M- "Inse tt 11 Porto Wioe and lhaVWrqn Islands.
Heteracer pr Mulhs it.ceptl n the NnC'tuidBa.
.eor meldme and Pyralidak)" New York. A-cad!eiy 1
&SFitceas Siernfiie- urvey 6f Porrno Rico and the Vjryroj
1srirds- 12(M-1 171. (jgs., 2 pl) 994)

Forbes, WM. T M "A Supple mntrial rep-rt .ot iler-occrla or
itILhs of Porut RLrt," lNe.w York Acaderim of Sc&enrt''
ScienUfte Surve r. vf Poioa Rf-o ond rhE Vilrn Islands,
12:339-394 supply. ] (rprarited froni. J. Depr Agr Prrtn
Rico 15(4):339-394 4 1931.

Hunt, E. and G,. MLtdIell. "A Recognition Gulid?. to ih Inoc.ts of
St 1-uci 2. Hawkmoihs (Lepiduptera. SphLnTp1de0) '
Occuslurol PuN. St. L.,udi NatureIsts' Socetiy. 35 pp. 1978.

Lsk, C. F. "Butterflies ofSi. CriM,' JoumLrN Research Lepidsn'p-
Ierem 1t{3:1t1-1W2. (Sept. 1973.) 1974.

Riley, N. D. A Fievd GuJfe iu Jht Biutte-f of the Wadl Indies,
..ondon: Wri. Collins Sons & Co.- 22 pp., fmap.. figt
blbliography, color pktis.( 1975

Rindge, F. H. "T1 niateiflles ori the Baharme Islands, British
West Indies fLepidopherd)." AmLerkiN MuSur?,um NOni(tna12
15631-I8. 1952.

Schaus, W. "insct- of Porto Rico and the Virgln islands. Moths
r tfhe family Nactuldae." New Yurk Acade yt of Scienrres
Scweni/ic Siorve't f Penn ricor and the Virgin kbrids
L22}0:177-290. 1940.

Schaut. W. -inse'cts of Poro Rico and ath Vwyin Islands. Moths
of tsw fanillie5 Geometrldam arind PFialdae." New York Avo
demy of &JScerras SciEntific Srtey of Porto hico and Tre-1
VFrin Isands. 12{3)291-417. 1940-

Tnee fWe
Currri. C H. inmects of Porto Rico and the Viin Islands Dip
tera ox two-winged flies." New York AAcdeam, of Scenrce
ScLerriflc Survep vf Porto Rico and rhe Virgin rslJtnds,
11(1);1-118. 1928.

Curran. C. "Flrs supplement to the Diptera of Puerto Rico and
ihe Virgn Island." Arrwr eor Mussum Novitares. 155 1- 3.,
1931-

Flernimas, Milton B., and Robert D Walsh "MWrlquto.a of the
American Virgin Iland -." Mosqutv Newsr, 26(3):424-426.
1%66


Porter, J. A. "A checl iset f the mosquitoes of the Greater Aniles
and the Bahamna and Virgin Iilands." Mvsquio Nes,
27:h-41. 1967.

Rubnarmor. H. "BrediL-A.rchbld Sniithwisoni, bWl-Kol survey
of Dominira. The family Dolichopudidae with some rented
Antillean and lPanamanlmn series." Smithfonjian ontb-iu-
tias to Zoolog 185:1 141. 1975

Spencer, Kenneth A. and Carl E. Stegmajer. "Agromycldae uf
I-lr da. wlth o pwppament on SperiSe fornm the Carbbean,"'
Vol. 7. Ar[i -pods of Ftorida and.Neighbomnng L.nd Areo
Gainesvtkl1, FL- Flurida Dept. vf Agriculuse Consumer Sat
vies, Dv, P1. Industry. iv 205 pp. 1490 fig.. ca,. 120
te S March 30. 1973,

With. W. W, and F. S, Bianton. '"Tw. We IndLit wisd nvies vt
the qoenus Cuarcdoes (fllpte: CQratopoganldae)L'" U.S.
Dlept Agricrlture, Arrc. 1neta bh Sevw.e Technical Bul-
Ietit No. 1474. 98 pp. January 1974.

Ants and Wanps
Sleinrich. Getrd E "lchneumronlnat oft Flortld and eighhbrting
siE*, (,iHyewiMopraicleunuonidael ," Vol. 9.Arthinpuds
of Florida and Nelghboring Land Areas. Gulneville. FL;
I:t dca )Dept of Aqrlclturv and Consumer Services. Div.
Plan Iindustry x 350 pp. (figs., mps. cnlrjr piAciLs.
140 mris.) DaLmb-r 23. 1977.

Prwsslck, M I. ;nd F. H-tbst "E[Xwtbutlon of ants on St. John,
Viraln Islands." Curib&,tjn Journrl of S&vnce, 13:187-197
1973.

Wbeatkr, Willarm Mnrton, "The Ants of rhe Bahami writh a .ST
of Known West indian Species Bulfeo't ,i the American
Musurnm of Nacuraf History, Vol, XX1, AtuL-ki Vi.Vl:79 135.
(fi s.) June 30, 1905.


B









Publishers' Addresses

SWllTam C. Brown Company, 2460 Kerper Blvd., Dubuque, lu!ra 52001
Doubleday & Company. Inc., %.1I Franklin Ave., Garden City. New Jerse 11530
Dovr PubliauIonis; Inc., 180 Varluk Sr, New York, New York 10014
ErrtomologicaJ Socrty of Am3wrk. 4603 .Calvet Rd.,, Colleg, Park, Marlnd 20740W
FranC; & Frnter Co., 4012 Bridg2 Ave,, Cleve.Tid, Ohik 44113
The Golden Press, Inc.. We tem Publshing Co., Inc., 850 Third Ave., New York
New Yrk 10022
Hamlyn Publishing Group LimLted, Sajindet Lodge Industrial Etaite, Ruibhden,
Northmrnpton, England NNIO 9 RZ
Hutuuhton MIfflin. 2 Park Sr,. otton, MKnwhusefia 02107
McGraw-Hill. 1221 Avenue of the AmeriCas, New York. New York 10020
Mentor Books, New American Librry. inc., 1633 Broadway. New York, New
York 10019
Random HIoue. 201 East 50th St New Ynrk, New York 10022
Saundenrs College Publ htlln. DLvision of CBS Colale Publishing, W Wshington
Sq., Phitadmlphia, PA 19105
Simon and Srchu.-i, 1230 Avenue of the Americas, New York, New York 10020
UriLvvrsqly of California Division of Agricultural Scences, Berkelley, CA 94720
Western Publishing Co.. Inc., Dept- M_. 1.20 Mound Avenuet Racine, W 534L04
John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 605 Third Avenue, New York. New York 10158
Woodtlide Press Publishlng CompanyL P.O. Bx il89 Santa Barbara, Calfornita
93160







SAppendix

* Digraorms
Exiernal Anatomy
1. Orthoptera
2- Derrnmptera
3. Anoplura
4- Hemlptlera
5, Homoptera
6. Coleoptera
7. Lepldoptera
8- Diptera
9. Hymenoptera
IntErfnal Anatomy
10. Respiratory sVstem of the grasshopper
I1. Circulatory, digesttuve, nnd nervous yterrns af
thq grasshopper
12. Cross sectional view of the grasshopper
Crossword Puzzle uF Inhsect OrdeniT
Insect Collecrioi Data Sheet
fsrwcti dentlfiMation. Order and Poisonr Labels






The following diagrams of Insects may be used
several ways:
1. Teaching Insect identification, type of
feeding, anatomy (external, internal)
2. Conteate or quizzes
3. Coloring.


DIAGRAM 1
ORDER Orthoptera, grasshoppers, crickets
and roaches
MEANING OF ORDER NAME Straight wing
TYPE OF MOUTHPARTS Chewing
6
f ----.








SL


antenna
ocellus
(also simple eye)
head
compound eye
pronotum
legmen
(also forewing)


7 hindwing
B tympanum
(also ear)
9 targite
(dorsal or top
part of body
segments)


10 cercus (hind sensory
structure)
11 ovipositor (egg laying
organ)
12 claw
13 sternIte (ventral or
bottom part of body
segment
14 spiracle


tarsus
tibia
femur
trochanter
coxa
palp
labrum (lip)
clypeus (flap attached
to lip)









* DIAGRAM 2
ORDER Dermaptera, earwig
MEANING OF ORDER NAME Skin wings
TYPE OF MOUTHPARTS Chewing




13-







12
11 -
10



















1 palp
2 antenna
3 eye
4 head
5 pronoturn
6 forewing
7 hlndwing
8 abdomen
9 forceps
10 tarsus
11 tibia
* 12 femur
13 claw










DIAGRAM 3
ORDADER Anoplura, suc king I ce
MEANING OF ORDER NAME Unarmed tall
TYPE OF MOUTHPARTS Piercing and sucking
NUMBER OF WINGS None





1 0



















-4


1 mouth
2 antenna
3 head
4 abdomen
5 spiracle
6 claws
7 tarsus
8 tibia
9 femur
10 trochanter
11 coxa










DIAGRAM 4
ORDER Hemlptera, true bugs.
MEANING OF OROER NAME Half wings 1
TYPE OF MOUTH PARTS Piercing and sucking


15 t13









12
11


1 antenna
2 head
3 compound eye
4 ocellus
(also sImple eye) 10
5 pronoturn
6 scutallum 13 clavus (special section of
7 femur forewing, found only in
6 tibia this order)
9 tarsus 14 membrane
10 claws 15 corlurn (leading edge of torewing)
11 abdomen 16 hemelytra
12 hlndwIng (also forewing)
39,










DIAGRAM 5
ORDER Homopt ra, aph de, scales and hoppers
MEANING OF ORDER NAME Same wings
TYPE OF MOUTHPARTS Plerclng and sucking


antenna
head
thorax
forewing
wing vefn
hindwing
abdomen
cauda (tall)
cornicle


in










* DIAGRAM 6
ORDER Coleoptera, beetles
MEANING OF ORDER NAME Sheath wings
TYPE OF MOUTHPARTS Chewing


t 4


15


antenna
palps
mandible
claws
head
compound eye
pronotum
femur
tibia
tarsus
spiracle
abdomen
vein
hindwing
forewing elytronn)










DIAGRAM 7
ORDER Lepldoptera, butterfIFes and moths
MEANING OF ORDER NAME Scale wings
TYPE OF MOUTHPARTS Siphoning






























6



1 antenna
2 head
3 torewing
4 hindwing
5 thorax
U abdomen


B










DIAGRAM 8
ORDER Diptera, flies and mosquitoes
MEANING OF ORDER NAME Two wings
TYPE OF MOUTHPARTS Piercing and sucking
NUMBER OF WINGS Tw Or one pair














Scr-7


















1 proboscls
2 palp
3 antenna
4 eye
5 head
6 leg
7 thorax
8 wing
9 halter modifiedd wing
which serves as a
balancing organ)
10 abdomen









DIAGRAM 9
ORDER Hymenoptera, bees, waspe and ants
MEANING OF ORDER NAME Membranous wings
TYPE OF MOUTHPARTS Chewing


1 antenna
2 head
3 eye
4 thorax
5 forewing
6 hindwlng


7 pedicle (segment
connecting thorax
and abdomen)
8 abdomen
9 coxa


10 trochanter
11 femur
12 tibia
13 tarsus


S









. DIAGRAM 10
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM OF A GRASSHOPPER


lateral tracheal trunk
abdominal air sac
dorsal branch


4 dorsal tracheal trunk
5 abdominal spiracle
6 ventral tracheal tunk


7 ventral branch
8 thoracic spiracles


* DIAGRAM 11
CIRCULATORY. DIGESTIVE AND NERVOUS SYSTEM OF A GRASSHOPPER


2 5


brain 1 I I '
aorta 1'9 I3 12
esophagus 18 17 16 15 14
erop 13 pylorus
proventriculus 8 Malplghlan tubes 14 vertrtculus
("gizzard"] (excretory kidneyss") 15 abdominal ganglion
heart 9 colon 18 gaatric caeca
ostla (small 10 rectal sac 17 nerve cord
openings or 11 anus 18 thoracic ganglion
valves) 12 Ileum 19 mouth










DIAGRAM 12
CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF A GRASSHOPPERrS
CIRCULATORY, DIGESTIVE, NERVOUS AND RESPIRATORY SYSTEMS


1 heart
2 alimentary canal
3 lateral t(acheal trunk
4 lateral branch
5 ventral tracheal trunk
6 ganglion
7 spiracle
8 air sac
9 dorsal branch
10 dorsal tracheal trunI










The Orders of Insects Crossword


by David Eppfthelmer (Michigan)


I
U
/


ACROSS
3. True bugs
5. Antlions, lacewings, dbsonftiles
9. Fleas
10. Dragonflles and damselflies
12. Scorparnfries
14. Silverfish
16. Sucking lice
* 17. Leathoppers, cicadas, scales
18. Beetles
19. Mayflies
20, Chewing lice


DOWN
1. Stoneflles
2. True ffles
4. Earwigs
6. Caddiaflies
7. Butterflies and moths
8. Springtalls and snowfleas
11. Grasshoppers, crickets, katydids
13. Ants, bees, wasps
15. Termites







RECORD OF INSECTS COLLECTED


COLLECTED FROM IMPpRFAICE NUMOBER OF KIND O
X0MMDN NAME p~ ait Bor limr LOCALITY COLLECTION TO MAf Wmls MOUTH
(T19pr Bwte Stink Bugs ORDER had or othar iltend and Estati) DATE I1 -b u-- -
f"ld hll ful 2 4 Jg lop Lfa

2





5
6

I


9
10
11
12

13
14
15
16
17


a


p




f i .Nlm I p %w- 'lr Un i.LiiWJ

I3138 00158 S
INSECT ORDER LABELS


ANOPLURA
Sucking Lice

COLEOPTERA
Bennties

COLLEMBOLA
Springtalltm

DERMAPTERA
Earwigs

I0PTERA
File

EPHEMEROPTERA
Mayflies

HEMIPTERA
True Bugsp
HOMOPTERA
Aphids, Scales
Leashoppmrs
HYMENOPTERA
Ands, Bees, Wasp8

1SOPTERA
Termites

LEPIDOFTERA
Moths, ButterflesB

MALLOPHAGA
Chewing Lice


Cut out and use
these labels In your
insect collection.


MECOPTERA
Scorplantlies

NEUROPTERA
Lacewings
ODONATA
Dragonflies
Damaelflies
ORTHOPTERA
Grasshoppers,
Roaches, Crickets
PLECOPTERA
Stoneflles

PSOCOPTERA
Book & Bark Lice

SIPHONAPTERA
Fleas
STREPSIPTERA
Twisted-wing
parasites

THYSANOPTERA
Thrips

THYSANURA
Slverfish
TRICHOPTERA
CaddisflIes


INSECT IDENTIFICATION LABELS


E~L LIDLI



B~ILIE1

WELL'


WELL'



EL LIII EL

WELL'


INSECT KILLING JAR LABEL


Insect Killing Bottle


U POISON I
LIBRARY
UNIVERSITY OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS
ST. CROIX




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs