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Group Title: Report Virgin Islands Agricultural Experiment Station
Title: Prospects for growing grapes in the U.S. Virgin Islands
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00096190/00001
 Material Information
Title: Prospects for growing grapes in the U.S. Virgin Islands
Series Title: Report Virgin Islands Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 18 p. : ill., charts, maps ; 26 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Cahoon, G. A ( Garth A )
Padda, Darshan S
Donor: unknown ( endowment )
Publisher: College of the Virgin Islands, Virgin Islands Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: St. Croix U.S. Virgin Islands
St. Croix U.S. Virgin Islands
Publication Date: 1977
Copyright Date: 1977
 Subjects
Subject: Viticulture -- Virgin Islands of the United States   ( lcsh )
Grapes -- Virgin Islands of the United States   ( lcsh )
Climate -- Virgin Islands of the United States   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States Virgin Islands
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 17).
Statement of Responsibility: by G.A. Cahoon and D.S. Padda.
General Note: "April 1977."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00096190
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of the Virgin Islands
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 12268384

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Full Text


Virgin Islands
Agricultural Experiment Station
Report No. 10
April 1977


PROSPECTS FOR

GROWING GRAPES

IN THE U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS



5.

St. Johns Is.









St. Cr.ix Is.





College of the Virgin Islands
Virgin Islands Agricultural Experiment Station
Darshen S. Padda, Director
St. Croix, U. S Virgin Islands











Virin lands
Apicural Eptriment Sation
Report No. 10
April 1977












PROSPECTS FOR GROWING GRAPES

In the U.S. Virgin Islands




















Collg cof ti. Vigin bl nd
Virgin hluisn AricuKtutr Expediment Station
Drhl.t S. P.Mia, Director
St. Crok, U. S. Vigin lndm







CONTENTS


Page

I. Historical Background ............................. :1

2. Present Grape Production .. ...... ....................2

3. Soils ..... ............ ................. .2

4. Varietal Adaptation and Rootstocks ...................7

5. Climate ......................................... 7

6. Irrigation ................... ................... 9

7. Diseases and Inseets................. ............9

8. Discussion and Recommendations..................... 15














PROSPECTS FOR GROWING GRAPES

In the U.S. Virgin Islands


By G. A. Cahoon I and D. S. Padda2


This study is a part of the continuous ef-
fort by the Virgin Islands Agricultural Experi-
ment Station to determine the agricultural
enterprises, both plant and animal, that have
economic potential in the Virgin Islands.

The grape, in some of its many species, hy-
brids and races, is grown over the greater part
of the world except in regions of extreme
cold. Grape growing is the world's biggest
fruit industry (25 million acres). Grapes are
grown widely wherever climate and soil per-
mit. Over 8000 varieties have been named and
described. Since the genus Vitis, with two
sub-genera (Euvitis and Muscadinia) are grown
in many areas of the world but primarily in
the subtropical and temperate regions, consi-
derable doubt existed as to the possibilities
and limitations for production under the tro-
pical environment of the U.S. Virgin Islands.
There was a feeling among the Virgin Islands
agriculture community that a cash crop such
as grapes could greatly benefit the agriculture
program of the islands. Therefore, the senior
author was invited to visit the Virgin Islands
in November, 1975 to help investigate the
feasibility of grape production in the island.
This report represents some of the available
information and observations on which to
base the best possible decision.


HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
toIn previous years, the U.S. Virgin Islands,
especially St. Croix, produced considerably
more food than it does today. At present a
substantial effort is being made to increase
local agricultural production; however, exten-
sive acreages of good agricultural land are not
available. Thus, St. Croix, St. Thomas, and St.
John are all major importers of most food
crops. As a typical example, 66,000 pounds
of fresh grapes were shipped into the Virgin
Islands during 1972 (12). This was only .7
pounds per capital as compared to 3.2 pounds
for the United States. Retail prices received
for these grapes frequently exceed $1.001 per
pound, but the quality of grapes available in
the Virgin Islands market is far inferior to
that of mainland markets. An average price in
a mid-western supermarket for the same type
of grapes of better quality would be $ .40 -
$ .80 per pound. All of these factors, it was
felt, might make grapes a favorable crop to
consider as the Virgin Islands Agricultural Ex-
periment Station searched for new crops. The
presence of many land holders with small
acreage of land, submarginal by agronomic
standards, is an additional incentive for consi-
dering the more intensive crops such as
grapes, with high cash income possibilities
(12).


I. Professor of Horticulture, Ohio Agricultural Research & Development Center, Wooster, Ohio.
2. Director, Virgin islands Agricultural Experiment Station, St. Croix, Virgin Islands.

























Fig. I Arbor of Mr. & Mrs. Jos A. Encamacion, St. Croil. Clusters and
berries a large. Grape is seeded and dark blue.


PRESENT GRAPE PRODUCTION
A limited survey of the islands, surprisingly
enough, did result in the location of four indi-
viduals who had fruiting grape vines. They
were: (Fig. 1, 2, 3) Mr. Jose A. Encarnacion
and Cyril A. Garvey of St. Croix, Dr. Walter
Phillips of Water Isle, St. Thomas, and Joseph
Aubain of St. Thomas. A more detailed
survey would probably find others.
Examination of the vines and fruit at these
locations indicated that two had similar fol-
iage while the others were definitely different
(Figs. 4 and 5). There were also indications
that grapes have been grown here intermit-
tently by several individuals over a period of
many years. Continuous production by a
single individual for many years was not con-
firmed, however, it was noted that Moravian
missionaries had an arbor near (presently a
dairy and ice cream parlor) Christiansted, St.
Croix at a much earlier date. Attempts at


growing grapes had also been made many
years earlier by McKinsie in the area of Es-
tate Fountain Valley. Many varieties of
grapes were tested for six years and success-
ful grapes were raised, however, the exact
data on the comparison performance of de-
finite varieties are not available.


SOILS

A recent soil survey (11) most aptly de-
scribes the terrain of the islands.
"St. Croix, the largest island of the Virgin
Island group, is the most easterly possession
of the United States and is approximately 100
miles south-southwest of San Juan, Puerto
Rico. It is approximately 22 miles long and
6 miles wide (Fig. 6). There are approximate-
ly 54,400 acres of land area. St. Thomas is
about 40 miles north of St. Croix and is 12
miles long and 3 miles wide, covering approxi-


S-qml~
































Fig, 2 Arbor of Mr. & Mrs. Cyril A G(;aey. S Cruix.Clusers and bernes Uri
seedd l medium in si/e and d lk blue


Fig. 3 Commissioner of Agriculture, Mr. Oscar E.Henry, Dr. Waller H. Phillips,
and Dr. Darshan S. Padda, examining a shoot from a grape vine grown
at the Water Isle Botanical Gardens, St. Thomas.


























































FiVA4 &S Comprn~ons of the two mao leaf forms found In Virgin, Islands.


nq









mately 19,000 acres. St. John, 2 miles east of
St. Thomas, is about 7 miles long and 3 miles
wide and has approximately 12,000 acres."
"The island of St. Croix is characterized
by a mountainous area in the north flanked
by a rolling plain to the south. The mountains
are broken by many narrow, steep-sided
valleys through which intermittent streams
discharge in southerly and southeasterly
courses across the plain. Few deeply cut
streams flow directly westward. Mount
Kagle, the highest peak on St. Croix, is 1,165
feet above sea level. The eastern end of the
island is mountainous also, but the elevation
is not so high and the stream valleys are not
so sharply incised."
"St. Thomas and St. John are characterized
by irregular coastlines, numerous bays, steep
slopes, and small drainage areas. For the most
part, die topography is mountainous. Coastal
plains are almost completely absent. There
are no permanent streams or rivers. Intermit-
tent streams discharge into die sea, but on
their way form narrow, nearly level alluvial
fans and terraces. Crown Mountain, the high.
est peak on St. Thomas, is 1,500 feet above
sea level. Bordeaux Mountain, the highest
peak on St. John, is 1,277 feet above sea level.
Seven major soil associations make up the
land mass (7). They are: (1) descalabrado-
jacana; (2) Aguilita-Fredensborg-Sion; (3) Fra-
teraidad-Aguirre-Glynn; (4) Southgate-Para.
sol; (5) Cramer-Isaac; (6) Dorothea-Victory-
Magens; and (7) Cornhill-Coamo-San Anton
Associations. In general, most of the soils
can be characterized as being steep and
shallow, with gravelly or stony suh-soils(lS).
Soils mseh as the Aguilita series have limestone
or marl in their profile. Several others are
mixed with volcanic rocks.
Of the groupings listed, it would appear
that soils such as the Fredenslborg'and Sion
Series might be best adapted to grape cul-
ture. However, it should he pointed out that
on small acreages, moderate slope steepness


and even shallowness over rock might be satise
factory depending on the permeability and
condition of the subsoil. Soft limestone or
volcanic subsoils may not be a disadvantage
judging by some of the rather famous grape
growing areas of the world. Clay soils that are
poorly drained should be avoided.
It should be emphasized that the soils are
somewhat an unknown quantity at this point,
since adequate on-site investigation was not
given to the various soil types. Further inves-
tigations will have to determine the relative
merits and limitations of the Virgin Island soil
groups. It must be concluded at this point,
however, that with most of the vegetation oh-
served on the islands, cultivated or native,
chlorosis, nutritional deficiencies, or other
major abnormalities were not prevalent, in-
dicating that with the wide adaptability of
grapes the present soil conditions on the is-
lands should not be die major deterrent to
grape culture. Grapes are grown through-
out the world on a wide range of soil types:
from gravelly sands to clays and from shallow
to deep-high fertility soils. Soil pH's range
from 4.5 to 8.5. Varietal preferences are
much more selective and will be discussed later.
Internal soil drairuge arnd the associated
soil aeration are extremely important factors
in grape production. Not only can they limit
production by physiologically reducing
growth, bhut are frequently associated with
disease problems. In many temperate areas
of the world with moderate rainfall, irriga-
tion is generally not needed, but good inter-
nal drainage is important to maintain ade-
quate soil aeration. In the more arid areas of
the world, good drainage is necessary to pre-
vent accumulation of salts in the soil profile
resulting from irrigation. This is especially
important if the water contains high concen-
trations of salt. Most of the soil types in the
seven associations were listed as having some
well-drained series. Thus, soil drainage does
not appear to be a major problem.
5
























5N

STA 1DA 5. S.JH 5


Fig. 6 The location of the U.S. Virgin IWslmd of St. Cri.. St. Thomas
and St. John in reference to one another and to Puerto Rico.









VARIETAL ADAPTATION AND
ROOTSTOCKS
The genus Vitis has two subgenera: Eurl.
tis and MuscodlniAs, Vitis vnlfersm species is
by far the most popular and produces over
90% of the worlds grapes. Vitis rotundifol-
ia is the best example of Muscad/nia. As a
general statement, cultivated grapes of the
species Vitis vinifero are more tolerant to
soils with high pH and lime content than
many of the others, especially Vitis aIbrus-
ca. Vinifera grapes are frequently more deep
rooted than labrusea varieties, but soil types
have much to do in regulating these charac-
teristics. Rootstocks have done much to
bridge tise growing environment between
species. They can also increase adaptability
and/or resistance to nematodes, phylloxera,
poor soil drainage, etc. However, the native
habitat of either of these species is the warm
temperate mne between 3ir and 40-and not
the tropics (235 north and south of equator).
A grape breeding program has been con-
dueled in Florida and North Carolina for
several years by J.A. Mortensen (4, 5) and
W.B. Nesbitt (8). Several varieties of bunch
grapes (sub-genus Euvitis) that are adapted
to the sub-tropical areas and resistant to a
viruss known a Pierce's disease have been
developed.
Similarly, new varieties of Vitis roturfdi-
folia (sub genus Muscadinia) that are native to
the southeastern United States have been de.
veloped. Recommended varieties for trial
include: Dixie, Carlos, Magnolia, Fry, Hig-
gans, Welder, Noble, Hunt, Coward, Chief,
Southland and Bountiful (8). Muscadine varie-
ties are also available from other experiment
stations and private nurseries in Georgia,
Mississippi, and North Carolina (6). In India,
Randhawa and Bammi (1) have reported that
species of Vitis v/nifera have been grown sue-
cessfully in the tropical conditions of south-
ern India around Poona, Bangalore, and Hy-


derbad. Thus, it is evident from such work
that varieties and cultural practices adapted
toward the tropics are being grown.
It was mentioned earlier that four residents
of Virgin Islands had been visited who were
growing grapes. The varieties being produced
were not readily identified. Mr. Jose Encarna.
dcion of St. Croix stated that his grape vines
had been obtained from Mr. John Martin as
Concord grapes and Mr. Martin had in turn
imported his original vine from the sister
Caribbean Island, St. Martin. The origin and
variety nsamu of the other vines of Dr. Walter
Phillips arid Cyril Garvey have also net been
determined. However, they appear to be iden-
tical (Figs. 4 and 5) and very well adapted to
Virgin Island conditions.
Experimental work on vinifera grape at
the Estacion Experimental Agricola, Rio Pied-
ras, Paerto RicO, hy Mr. Justo Lopes, Garcia
(3) was observed (Fig. 7, 8). The varieties Ex-
btie, Ribier, Fortuna, Roja, and Fortuna
Blanca, were performing satisfactorily in this
southern coastal climate. Vigor and uneven
ripening were some of the problems encoun-
tered. It was stated that some wild (native)
varieties existed in the area, but they had not
been collected and identified.

CLIMATE
Temperature: Since grapes have a rather
wide range of soil adaptability, the major
question in evaluating the potential for grape
production in this area is temperature, rain-
fall, humidity, and related environmental con.
editions. As shown by Table 1, the maximum
seasonal variation in temperature in the Virgin
Islands is only 6-F. Similarly, the average diur-
nal fluctuations (day to night) are about 13F
(9). Such aseaonal variations are small com-
pared to most sub-tropical and temperate
regions. Table 2 shows a comparison of tem-
perature variations between some of the
recognized grape areas in the world. These


























































Figs. 7 & 8 Grape vineyard at Estacion Experimental Agricola, Rio Piedras,
Puerlo Rico. Pictured are Mr.Justo Lopez Garcia. Horticulturist
with Dr. Darshan S. Padda (top) and Dr. Garth A. Cahoon
bottomn)








areas also represent extremes in climate and
latitude for grape production. One of the
areas most similar to the Virgin Islands that
produces grapes is the Btangalore region of
India. Yet, even here the seasonal variation is
approximately 12 degrees (1).
From all available information, the lowest
temperatures are insufficient to satisfy the
rest period of most commercial varieties.
However, there is evidence to indicate that
V. vinifera grapes, when placed under mois-
ture stress and this moisture stress is coordi-
nated with pruning, girdling, or defoliation,
can induce flowering (1). Also, as discussed
in the previous section there are grape varie-
ties, such as Vitis munsoniono and rotundl-
folio, that require a minimal amount of low
temperature chilling (5). Some of these in-
cluding bunch grapes (sub-genus Euvitis),
have been recommended for production in
Florida. Experimental work being carried
on with Vitts vinifera at the Subsitacion-
de fortune in Puerto Rico is of interest in
this regard (3).
Rainfall: As mentioned in the previous
section, muoisture for adequate production is a
major necessity to consider in determining
the potential for grape production in an
area. This can be provided as rainfall, irriga-
tion from ponds, lakes, rivers or wells. Ac-
cording to Martin J. Bowden, et al. (2) rain-
fall is a factor limiting the production of most
agricultural crops on St. Croix. As shown by
Fig. 9, annual rainfall ranges from 25 to 55
inches per year for various parts of the island.
Differences from year to year are also ex-
tremely variable (Fig. 10).
Monthly rainfall variations as shown by
Figs. 11 and 12 indicate that the months of
September, October and November are wet-
test while February, March and April are the
driest. According to the procedures used, moi-
sture deficit months (those months in which
moisture losses by evaporation, transpira-


tion, etc., exceed precipitation) are generally
much greater than months with a moisture
surplus. Anna's hope was the only station of
the six in the study that had the water deficit
removed for three consecutive months during
an average year.


IRRIGATION
Water from wells, lakes, streams, etc., arc a
means whereby crops can he irrigated during
moisture deficient months to increase pro-
duction. Such possibilities on St. Croix and
St. Thomas appear to be minimal, especially
when urban and municipal needs of the
people are considered. However, there are
other possibilities such as the re-cycling of
municipal sewage water (14) or the surface
consolidation of water (accumulating the run-
off from a larger watershed area in order to
supply a more limited acreage) (15) that are
being explored or exploited. Use of trickle
irrigation to maximize water application
efficiency is readily adaptable to grape cul-
ture and should receive consideration.


DISEASES AND INSECTS
From the limited study conducted on the
grapes found in the Virgin Islands and in
Puerto Rico, disease does not appear to be a
major limiting factor. In fact, the primary di-
seases of grapes, such as the mildews, black
rot, anthracnose, botrytis, etc., are not well
adapted to these climatic conditions. Rainfall
during the ripening period usually produces
more problems than high temperature condi-
tions. Pierce's and other similar virus diseases,
nematodes, and phylloxera would he more
suspect problems under the tropical climatic
conditions of the islands. Any study to be un-
dertaken in the future should be initiated, as
far as possible, with disease (including viruses)
and insect-free plant material.








TABLE 1. Maximum and Minimum Mean Monthly Temperatures at
St. Crox, U. S. Virgin Islands (Degees F.).

Mean Daily Mean Daily
Month Maximum Minimum

January 83.1 70.0
February 83.2 70.0
March 84.3 70.7
April 85.6 72.5
May 86.4 74.3
Jun 87.8 75.7
July 88.0 75.8
August 88.5 75.7
September 88.1 75.0
October 87.6 74.8
November 85.9 73.3
Damnmber 84.3 71.7


TABLE 2, Mean Monthly Temperatures (Degrees F.) for Several Grape Growing Areas
of the World and St. Croi., V,.I

Location Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.
Hyderbad, In. 70,9 75.0 81.3 86.0 88.0 830 78.0 77.2 77.1 77.0 72.1 69.1
St. Crohix,VI 76.0 75.9 76.4 80.0 79.2 80.4 80.8 81.0 80.5 79.6 78.2 76.7
Algiers Alg. 54.0 55.0 57.5 61.5 66.0 71.5 71.5 78.0 75.0 68.5 61.0 55.5
Davis,Calif. 44.5 48.8 52.1 57.2 63.1 70.0 74.6 73.2 69.2 61.4 52.1 45.0
Fresno. Calif. 45.3 49.8 54.0 60.4 67.3 73.9 80.6 78.3 73.8 64.2 53.4 45.7
Bordeau, Fr. 41.5 44.0 48.5 55.5 59.0 66.0 70.5 70.0 66.5 57.0 48.5 43.0
Trier, Germany 33.6 34.7 42.6 48.9 56.7 63.2 65.3 637 57.7 48.4 40.8 37.0
Wooster.Oh. 27.0 27.8 37.3 48.2 58.4 676 71.5 69.7 63.5 52.0 40.3 30.0




















ST. CROIX
AVERAGE ANNUAL RAINFALL









o s 25-30 30-35 35-40 40-45 45-50 50-55
MILES m





Fig. 9 Annual average rainfall on ihe island of Sa. Croix. (Repruduced from the publicillun
"Wiater Balance of a Dry Island")(2).




































Vwly i f nfa,


Fig. 10 Annua,,l rinufall variability for 7 areas on St. Crixb. Reproducod frount the pobhlmion
-Water Balance or. M~y hfdarr" (2).












ST. CROIX
AVERAGE MONTHLY RAINFALL
(in inches)





FFBRUA R Y





-MARCH








"M'ES 0-1 1.2 2.3 3-4




Fig. I I Monthly average rainfall (in inches) on S. Croix for the 3 driest
months (Feb., Mar.. Apr.). Reproduced from the publication
"Water Balance of a Dry Island" (2).














ST. CROIX
AVERAGE MONTHLY RAINFALL
(in inches)























'MLES 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-5 5-6 6-7





Fig. 12 Monthly average rainfall (in inches) on St. Cloix, for the 3
weltest months (Sept Oct.. Nov.). Reproduced from the publica-
tion 'Water Balance of. Dry Island" (2).



14









DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
A review of most of the factors involved in
the production of grapes has been presented.
This has included soils, topography, climate,
(temperatures, relative humidity, rainfall)
irrigation, varieties, insects, diseases, and
a brief history of island grape production. The
relative importance of these factors, from the
authors' point of view, has been discussed and
car hopefully be used to help determine
whether commercial grape production should
be attempted in the Virgin Islands.
The fact that temperatures are so uniform
throughout the year (6* maximum fluctua-
tion) is undoubtedly the greatest single factor
against the feasibility for grape production.
Yet, in at least two tropical areas of the world,
southern India and Brazil, not one but two
crops of grapes are being produced per year
(10). To accomplish this the vines are mani-
pulated both by cultural practices and taking
advantage of weather conditions. It has been
shown that moisture stress within the vine, re-
sulting from low rainfall, or withholding irri-
gation water, can be used to a degree to com-
pensate for low temperatures. Pruning and
foliage removal followed by the application
of water (irrigation and/or rainfall) can be
used to induce flowering. A step by step
procedure would be as follows: (1) with-
hold water until the soil is dry and the vine
is under stress; (2) prune the vine and remove
foliage, then; (3) apply water to the soil Re-
sumption of growth and flowering will usual-
ly result.
The question exists as to whether two such
periods can be used in the Virgin Islands and
will it be necessary to correlate both pruning
periods with moisture instead of temperature
changes. Two examples were found on St.
Croix which indicates that this procedure
might be possible. Mr. Jose Enearnacion
pruned his vines approximately every 6
months. The vines appeared to respond with


flowers and a crop each time. Any research
program that might be attempted would need
to investigate the relationship between time
of pruning, crop yield and maturity.
There is no doubt that certain varieties will
respond much more readily than others to the
previous scheme and the climate of the is.
lands. Vinifera varieties for example, adapted
to the subtropical regions of the world,
should respond more favorably than labrusca
cultivars. Muscadine grapes (Vitis muscadin-
ia) as a group are more adapted to warm eli-
mates than either vinifera or labrusca, except
that they differ in character from the tradi-
tional bunch type grapes. Crosses between
vinifera and muscadinia are also available
(5 and 8).
An experiment being conducted in Puerto
Rico at the Subestacion De Fortuna has
shown that some of the more traditional vini-
fera table grape varieties will produce modern
ately well (3). Lack of vigor and uneven ripen-
ing have been one of their major problems
indicating poor climatic adaptability. The
vines planted in 1964 on their own roots
would appear to be growing with high popu-
lations of soil nematodes and perhaps even
phylloxera. Girdling has been used to facili-
tate fruit maturation. It is possible that such
chemicals as Alar, Ethephon, gibberellic
acid or others could also be used to increase
return bloom and fruit set. It was their prae-
tice to prune only once a year, during the
second week of January, and harvest the crop
the second week of May.
Observation of the vines of Walter Phillips
of Water Ilae, St. Thomas and Cyril Garvey of
St. Croix indicated that there is a selection of
grapes very well adapted to island soil and cli-
matic conditions. Whether or not this grape is
native has not been determined. Cuttings of
these vines were gathered and are being pro-
pagated at the Virgin Island Agricultural Ex-
periment Station an St. Croix. It is recom-
mended that in any investigation attempted
IS









this selection be grown on its own roots as
well as used as a rootstock to test other select-
ed eultivars.
Most recorded literature on the subject of
growing grapes in the tropics indicates that
the vines lack longevity (short lived). It is dif-
ficult to determine whether this is due to soil
insects and disease or physiological causes.
Any experimental investigations should deter-
mine the potential problems of phylloxera,
nematodes, Pierce's disease, and others.
Soils and topography offer some limits-
rations, but relatively speaking, they are less
doubtful factors than climate (temperature
and moisture). It would appear most logical
in terms of the present agricultural situation,
if grapes were grown, that many small plant-
ings be distributed over the island in the most
favorable locations and soils rather than large
commercial plantings. This would fit most
logically with Lhe present size of land holdings.
Since foliage and fruit diseases such as down-
ey and powdery mildew, Botritis, or Black


rot do appear to be the major problems that
are in the high humidity areas of the midwest
and eastern United States, small plantings
would be possible on the islands.
Equipment costs are a limiting factor to
small plantings under high disease condi-
tions. This presumably would have the po-
tential to supplement the income of many
individuals who would receive the direct
benefit from a cash crop rather than create
jobs for a limited number. Also, since an
acreage of suitable land does not exist in large
parcels, the best use of the land would be met
by using the small land holdings.
Further, grapes could possibly be grown in
small plots on slopes that would nuot be com-
mercially feasible. Water for irrigation might
also best be obtained for small plantings dis-
tributed over the islands. As discussed pre-
viously, this water might come from reclaim-
ed sources, wells, ponds, etc. Trickle irrigation
could also be used to make the most efficient
use of available moisture.







LITERATURE CITED

1. Bammi, R.K. and G.S. Randhawa. 1968. Viticulture in the tropical regions of India. Vitis
7:124-129.
2. Bowden, Martin J. ct al. 1968. Water balance of a dry island. Geo. publ. at Dartmouth,
No. 6:1-89.
3. Garcia, Justo Lopez. 1974. Comportamiento de la uva de mesa, Vitis vinifem, L. enla
subetacion de fortune, Puerto Rico. EsLacion Experimental Agricola publ.
88:1-20.
4. Mortensen, JA. 1968. Stover an early bunch grape for central Florida. Florida Agr.
Expt. Sta. Circ. S-195, pp. 1-6.
5. Mortensen, J.A. 1971. Breeding grapes for central Florida. Proc. Symp. "Breeding Fruit
Crops for Adaptations to Warm Climates". HortScL 6(2):145-160.
6. Mortensen, J.A. 1973. Muscadine grapes for Florida: yields and other characteristics of
48 cultivars. Proc. Fla. State. Hort. Soc. 86:338-341.
7. McKinzie, William V., Bob F. Scott and Luis H. Rivera. 1965. Soils and their interpreta-
tions for various uses. St. Croix American Virgin Islands. U.S. Dept. of Agr. Soil
Cons. Serve. Caribbean Area.
8. Neshitt, W.B. 1976. Personal Communications. No. Car. St. Univ.
9. Padda, Darshan S. 1974. Some tips for growing fruit trees in the Virgin Islands. Virgin
Ilaonds Agriculture and Food Fair Book.
10. Randhawa, G.S. and R.K. Bammi. 1968. Grape culture under tropical conditions. Tropi-
cal Sci. Vol XIII (2): 137-142.
11. Rivera, Luis H., et al. 1970. Soil survey of the Virgin Islands of the United States. U.S.
Dept of Agr. Soil Cone. Serve. pp. 1-78.
12. Sands, Fenton B. 1974. Fruits and vegetables. Production and consumption potentials
and marketing problems in the U.S. Virgin Islands College of V.I. Agr. Expt. Sta.
Report No. 2, pp. 1-30.
13. Scott, Bob F., William E. McKinzie and J.F. Marrero. 1964. Virgin Islands soil and water
conservation needs inventory. U.S. Dept. of Agri. Soil Cons. Serv. Caribbean Area.
14. Virgin Islands Agricultural and Food Fair. Feb. 1975.
15. Virgin Islands Agricultural and Food Fair, Feb. 1976.









OTHER PUBLICATIONS OF THE V. I. AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


1. Grain Sorghum and Forage: Production and Utilization Potential in St. Croix, U. S. Vir-
gin Islands.

2. Fruits and Vegetables: Production and Consumption Potentials and Marketing Problems
in the U. S. Virgin Islands.

3. Profitability of Dairy Farming in St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands.

4. Profitability of Poultry Production in the U. S. Virgin Islands.

5. Profitability of Hog Production in the U. S. Virgin Islands.

6. Potential Returns from Goat and Sheep Enterprises in the U. S. Virgin Islands.

7. Marketing Potential for Livestock Products in the U. S. Virgin Islands.

8. Okra: A Beloved Virgin.

9. Virgin Islands Forestry Research A Problem Analysis.

10. Sorghum in the Virgin Islands.




















These Publications are available free of charge by writing to the VJ. Agricultural Experiment
Station, P.O. Box 920, Kingshill, St. Croix, U.S.V.I. 001850.
Is8




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