Notes to the architectural history and development of the City of Clearwater, Pinellas County, Florida


Material Information

Notes to the architectural history and development of the City of Clearwater, Pinellas County, Florida
Physical Description:
Dessauer, Peter F.
Volunteers in Pinellas
Peter F. Dessauer
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Historic preservation
Spatial Coverage:
Clearwater, Florida


General Note:
UF course AE 621
General Note:
Professor Carl Feiss, instructor

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID:

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title page
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Clearwater comprehensive land use plan map
        Page 22
        Page 23
Full Text
Volunteers In Preservation dU^ ^ Pinellas County, Florida UjJ^CUj^ o*~v^l
Submitted By: Peter P. Dessauer Submitted To: Professor Carl Felss, URP Date: June 4, 1976

The following notebook Is a compilation of Information concerning the History, Architecture, and Development Planning of the city of Clearwater, Pinellas County, Florida- project undertaken In conjunction with the Architectural Preservation Survey (VIP) of that city and directed by Professor Carl Feiss, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Florida.
I have categorized collected material and research according to specific subjects as Indicated on the dividers. In a resume I have outlined the oourse of my research and basic conclusions. What is included herein is by far incomplete but represents the results to the best of my ability within a limited time frame for the project.
Peter F. Dessauer June k, 1976
page 1

Peter P. Dessauer: Spring, 1976
1) Assisted In the Survey Seminar, Wednesday and Thurday, April 21-22: Where the Preservation Studio advised the Junior League of Clearwater concerning the organization and proper execution of an architectural survey.
2) Designed a survey sheet, Logo, and letter head for VIP, Volunteers In Preservation, Pinellas County, Florida.
3) First Trip to Clearwater* April 29- with David Rigney: Interview with Jack I. Wolle. Chief Planner; meeting with Mr. Kenneth Ford, Museum Director: and photographed streetscapes pf the Clearwater CBD.
4) Value Judgements- Wednesday, May 26- with David Rigney: Evaluated as "Notable, Contributory, Insignificant, or Detractive", the buildings recorded on the VIP survey sheets.
5) Final trip to Clearwater- June 1- with Professors Reeves, Wisely -:, Susan Tate and David Rigney.
page 2

Concerning development planning the Information Included herein was collected In April when David Rigney, my co-partner In this project, and I made a special trip to Clearwater In order to talk to the directors of city planning at the Clearwater City Building. Mr. Frank Bush supplied us with a printed hsitory of Pinellas County and a list of archaeological sites, plus copies of past development plans for immediate in-offlce reading. An interview with Mr. Jack I. Wolle, Chief Planner In Clearwater for twenty years, revealed some detailed stories behind the four development plans which have passed through his office; however, In each case, excluding the present RTKL commission, few designs of these schemes, if any, were ever implemented. This left us with very little to report except general statements concerning interest, purpose, and certain circumstances surrounding the necessities for these plans.
At the Pinellas County Historic Musfeum, in the basement of the City Building, Mr. Kenneth Ford, Museum Director, was able to show us old maps and photographs of Clearwater, among the first ever made of the town's panorama. These exhibited the simple nature of the town In the early decades of the century (1900-1921) grid street plan, low rise wood and timber frame buildings, in shaded streets having the atmosphere of a large residential area, a sleepy seaside resort still untouched by boom commercialslni.
page 3

page 4
We made a promenade through the CBD- in the area where Cleveland Street Is intersected by Osceola and Port Harrison Avenues- In order to photograph individual buildings and streetscapes. Very little of the original townscape remains, this due to the fire of 1910, the boom years of the mid-twenties, and recent high-rise developments on the bayside. For the most part, downtown Clearwater retains its 1920's and 1930's appearance, this attested by looking at photographs in Hampton Dunn's Yesterday's Clearwater ^- pXc (specifically pages 71 and 109). On the perimeter of the CBD the streetscape is a bit depressing, whole lots being vacant and desolate. A demolition of empty buildings Is in progress, contributing further to the desolation. Where simple wooden residences once stould now exist parking lots or open waste land- all evidence of the decline of business in this area, so much being attracted to the outlying shopping centers.
The best source for photographs of early Clearwater, Its architecture, and the events that shaped it is Hampton Dunn's Yesterday1s Clearwater; in this book, photos show the original weatherboard, gable roof, and covered sidewalk quality in the townscape which no longer exists. What exists today to be considered of supreme preservable nature for the
city Is recent and limited: The Post Office, Coachman Building,
^-^? ^ of /u^T"
a classical style bank, two churches, and perhaps^the new
City Building. Very little architecture in the CBD is noteworthy, but much of it is Important for the contributory

page 5
function of maintaining a lowrise scale and tieing all the Individual buildings together into a cohesive continuity.
Finally, there remains the question of what can be done to both preserve the CBD of Clearwater and at the same time revitalize It as a thriving business district which can attract and service a clientel. First of all, I believe that the CBD has a unique forte in its scale and continuity as the remaining townscape; when,renovated and properly landscaped the stores along Cleveland and Fort Harrison could be made more attractive. Second: the open spaces behind the two main streets are now largely vacant? although much Is already parking space, more can be made available and designed better to accomodate inner city traffic. Third: Clearwater is fortunate to have so many large and shady Live Oaks, which shade parking lots and give character to many open spaces which are not used for anything, development of these open spaces as parks and parking areas while retaining the treescape and implementing additional planting would provide beauty and cool shade which the outlying shopping centers do not have. I view much of Clearwater's problem as one involving extensive landscaping the removal of a few insignificant structures, thus opening views to certain focal points.

1. According to Jack I. Wolle, Chief Planner of Clearwater, a Mr. John Nolen worked on a development plan for Clearwater which was written in August of 1925 hut never published. Mr. Wolle believes that this plan is stored in the archives of the Philadelphia Public Library.
2. The first published development plan was done by Harland, Bartholomew & Associates, City Planners, Atlanta, Georgia: Clearwater. Florida; Comprehensive Plan. Oct. 1962. This was essentially and "In-House" assesment of area resources; however, most schemes and proposals were never Implemented.
3. Second published plan by Alexander & Moskowitz, Inc., a frlm from New York: Plan for Downtown Clearwater. Florida. July, 1968. This was fundamentally a follow-up of the 1962 study.
*K Third published by Barr, Dunlop & Associates, Inc.: Planning for the Central Business Dlstrlct. Part II, Urban Design Proposals; City of Clearwater. February, 1970. In this the planners proposed a loop road system which connected Court Street and Drew Street, south and north paralleling Cleveland Avenue, to the Clearwater Memorial Causeway, thus eliminating much of the traffic congestion through Cleveland Avenue, which before the implementation of this plan was the only main route to Clearwater Beach.
page 1

page 2
Development Planning continued:
5) At the present time the City of Clearwater is contracting the firm RTKL Associates Inc. of Baltimore, Maryland, to make a development plan for the CBD. RTKL has already published a preliminary report: Clearwater, Downtown Plan. A Proposal. The necessity for a new CBD plan Is prompted by the decline of business in the CBD and the subsequent decay and desolation of commercial property, all caused by the attraction of shopping centers on U.S. Route 19 and the Pennys/Searstown on Missouri Avenue. RTKL plans to zone the CBD for new retirement highrlses, new commercial buildings, shopping centers, parking, and landscaping.

Mr. Kenneth Ford was very cooperative to dig through the files of the Pinellas County Museum In order to show David Rigney and myself some rare and unpublished panoramas of Clearwater. Two of these were as follows:
1) Clearwater Panorama looking west into the Bay over the
roofscape, nestled in giant oaks, exhibiting the residential quality of the CBD at the time; June 27, 1971? Photo by Burgert Bros,, Tampa.
2) Looking north up Port Harrison; Blanche Photo Service, 10903 Clifton Rd., Cleveland, Ohio, prior to 1925.
In the museum we also found two Interesting maps:
1) 18M-: T29R15 S and E; Survey of Clearwater Harbor and road north, plus environs.
2) 1882: Two photographs from an original map now In the
National Archives. This was done as a survey by the Florida Land & Improvement Co., a survey of Hillsboro County- of Clearwater Harbor and Environs.
page 3

page 6
iV* vi'riy. ov WAV.?, >AK? *l'
THIS BIRD'S EYE VIEW of Clear Water Harbor as it appeared in 1885 was published in a small history of Clearwater by the Woman's Club in 1917. It was prepared by Surveyor J. U Rousseau and Cartographer B. W. Maddak. Along the. waterfront, left to right, are: 1. Home of the West Hillsborough Times; 2. E. Purlin's orange grove and site of old Fort Harrison on the bluff at the former Brown estate; 3. Campbell grove; 4. Mary Turner's orange grove; 5. Turner's lots; 6. At foot of Cleveland Street, Munnerlyn's "Warf" and store with large building on end of dock; 7. Three-story Seaview Hotel, on bluff just north of Cleveland Street. In the bay are shown the side-wheeler steamer Governor Safford, just in from Cedar Keys, and the stern-wheeler steamer Mary DisstOA off the West Hillsborough Tunes dock. The small thin line at top is Clearwater Beach. (P.C.H.C.)
Taken from:
Yesterday's Clearwater, by Hampton Dunn. E.A. Seemann Publishing. Inc., Miami, Florida, p.21 [2l]

2 IT WAS A BUSY CORNER in 1895, this spot on Cleveland Street, standing on Randolph's Corner. The left building is the new Bank of Clearwater. Third building on left is Rehbaum's Hardware. At right is the Coachman Building. (Clearwater Sun) *
Taken from: Yesterday's Clearwater, by Hampton Dunn, p.35

page 8
A TYPICAL HOME of 1890 in Clearwater was this dwelling on South Fort Harrison Avenue near the rail crossing. The frame structure featured fancy "gingerbread" carpentry. (P.C.H.C.)
RUSSIAN ARCHITECTURE brought to the area by Peter Demens, the railroad builder, may be reflected in this interesting structure on South Fort Harrison Avenue, north of Barry store. It was the home and studio of Photographer Louis Ducrois at Belleair in 1890. This picture was taken by Pinellas County historian Ralph Reed in the 1940s. (P.C.H.C.) *
Taken from: Yesterday's Clearwater, p. 38

JUST BEFORE THE BIG FIRE in 1910: The North Side of Cleveland Street, west from Fort Harrison Avenue. Friend's Dry Goods Store on the corner later was replaced by the Peoples Bank. (C.C.)
THE BIG FIRE of June 24, 1910, razed all buildings on the North side of Cleveland Street from Fort Harrison Avenue to the house shown on Osceola Avenue. (P.C.H.C.)
Taken Prom: Yesterday's Clearwater, p. 55

HOMES NESTLE AMID GREENERY in this Clearwater panorama of June 1921, the beginning of the swinging days of the gala decade. (P.C.H.C.) beginning or tne
Taken from: Yesterday's Clearwater, p. 69

Written for Pinellas Historical Commission By Ralph Reed, Executive Director
Pinellas Peninsula Pinellas County
Discovered April 15, 1528 Established January 1, 1912
Pinellas County, formed January 1, 1912, from Hillsborough County, took Its name from Pinellas Peninsula, which had been discovered April 15, 1528, by Panfilo de Narvaez, Spanish conquistador.
The word "Pinellas" is derived from the Spanish "Punta Pinal", meaning "Point of Pines". It is the only such word in the English language, according to Miss Dorothy Dodd, Florida State Historian.
Ranking second smallest in land area among Florida's 67 counties only Union County is smaller Pinellas has only 264 square miles, or about 166,400 acres. It Is only 34 miles long, and is 15 miles wide at its widest point. The County is fringed on the west by a string of narrow islands, for almost its entire length. It has more than 150 miles of water frontage, being almost surrounded by water with Tampa Bay on the east and the Gulf of Mexico and its bays on the west. On the Gulf side, Pinellas County has the highest coastal elevation in the State.
Pinellas County is the only Florida county occupying an entire sub-peninsula. For this reason, it often is called "Little Florida".
Its location halfway down the west coast of Florida, plus the fact that It is surrounded on three sides by great expanses of salt water, gives Pinellas an ideal year-round climate. Cold winds are tempered in winter and warm breezes are cooled in summer as they blow over Gulf and bays, affording natural air-conditioning for the land and its people.
Before history was recorded, Pinellas Peninsula was populated by Indian mound builders, whose mounds have been found throughout the peninsula. When the white man came, there were six of these mounds in the St. Petersburg area. Others were found on Pinellas Point, in the Jungle area, on Weedon's Island, at John's Pass, Clearwater, Caladesi Island, Philippe Point and Tarpon Springs. Hundreds of skeletons have been dug from some of these mounds, and many have been preserved at the Smithsonian Institute in Washington.
George Fairbanks, in his History of Florida (1875), quotes various authorities who recorded that Narvaez landed In the present Clearwater Harbor. Others believe the landing was in the Jungle area. Without doubt, it was on the western shore of Pinellas Peninsula.
The Narvaez expedition, consisting of five big ships, carrying 600 soldiers, 60 horses, and packs of fierce dogs to chase Indians, was the first large body of Europeans in the present United States. When Ponce de Leon discovered Florida in 1513, just 15 years before, he had no large army, and remained ashore only a short while.
Pinellas Peninsula was discovered:
92 years before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock in 1620.
79 years before the establishment of Jamestown, Va. in 1607.
37 years before the founding of St. Augustine by Menendez, in 1565.
11 years before Hernando DeSoto discovered Tampa Bay, in 1539.
Just 36 years AFTER Columbus discovered America, in 1492.

After the arrival and departure of Narvaez and his small army In 1528, the Indians remained undisturbed for only 11 years before the peaceful peninsula was again Invaded this time by Hernando DeSoto, In April, 1539. He was the discoverer of Tampa Bay, which he named La Bahla del Esplrltu Santo: Bay of the Holy Spirit. In his great armada were six ships Santa Anna, San Chrtstobal, Concepcton, San Joan, Santa Barbara, and the San Anton. On these ships were more than 1,000 men, some women, and 350 horses. There also were many hogs, which were drl ven ahead of the army on the march north, through Florida.
(A Congressional Commission, created In 1935, Investigated and reached the conclusion that DeSoto landed at Shaw's Point on the south side of the Tampa Bay entrance. Other historians have placed the landing possibly at Pinellas Point, at Weedon's Island, or at Philippe Point).
DeSoto's departure In 1539 left the Indians again In peace for the next 28 years. Then, In 1567, Pedro Memendez, who had founded St. Augustine two years earlier In 1565 moved southward and established a mission either at Philippe Point or on Booth's Point, across the bay. He left a garrison of 30 men, all of whom were killed by the Indians within the year.
Exploration of Pinellas Peninsula by the three leading Spanish Conquistadors ended In 1567, and the land was left to the peaceful Indians for the next 268 years.
FIRST SETTLERS Dr. Odet Philippe, Pinellas Peninsula's first white settler, established his fine St. Helena Plantation on the present site of Philippe Park about the mtd-1830's. Here he Introduced the first grdpefrult In the United States, and Is said to have been the first grower to cultivate citrus trees In rows. The Florida Citrus Commission has given him public recognition for this.
Dr. Philippe, who had been a surgeon In the French Navy under Napoleon, always told his pioneer neighbors that he was a nephew of King Louis XVI, who lost his head In 1793, during the French Revolution. Dr. Philippe's gravestone in Philippe Park gives the year of his birth as 1785, but the date has never been definitely established. When he died In 1869 one newspaper said he was about 100 years old.
Captured by the British In the Battle of Trafalgar In 1805, Philippe was sent to the Bahamas with thousands of other prisoners. He was released after a couple of years and went to Charleston, where he was married, and his four daughters were born. He became wealthy as a physician and planter, but later suffered financial ruin. Having heard of the then Territory of Florida, he loaded his family and servants onto his schooner, the "Ney", and sailed southward. He became a resident of Florida In 1828, settling on the east coast at the present site of Fort Lauderdale. There the family lived until an Indian uprising caused them to move to Key West, where Dr. Philippe helped to establish a thriving cigar Industry.
He Is believed to have settled at the site of Philippe Park, on the east side of Pinellas Peninsula, In the 1830's. In 1842 his "plantation" was the center of a community known as Phlllppevllle. His house and store there were destroyed by the big gdle of 1848.
Until 1842, Dr. Philippe Is the only settler known to have been on the peninsula, but Captain William Bunce had operated a big fish ranch on Mullet Key about 1837, employing some 300 Indians and Spaniards.
Although the Seminole Wars had ended In 1842, some Indians still were on the warpath. To free the country of them. Congress enacted the "Armed Occupation Act" that year, giving 160 free acres of land to settlers who would come armed, and live on the property for five years. Dr. Philippe made claim under this Act, although he had been living here some years.

The Act brought claims from 24 settlers for Pinellas Peninsula lands. Most of them, for thesake of safety, settled neo- Dr. Philippe.'
James Stephens, "Father of Clearwater", made claim to, and was awarded, the lands and buildings of old Fort Harrison, which had been established by the U.S. Army in 1841 and abandoned a few months later, the fort was located on the bluffs, overlooking the harbor. Stephens proved his homestead, and was Issued the first land deed on the peninsula, in 1848. Other early settl ers were: Maximo Hernandez, who settled at Maximo Point, now the southern tip of St. Petersburg; Joe Silva, at Joe's Creek; John Levick, at John's Pass; Samuel Stevenson, at Stevenson 's Creek; and the McKay brothers, at McKay Creek.
Prior to the War Between the States about 52 deeds had been Issued for lands on Pinellas Peninsula, according to Harvey L. Wells, research authority of the Pinellas Historical Commission.
The first land claim on the entire Peninsula of Florida, filed under the Armed Occupation Act of 1842, was that of Elias J. Hart, In Hernando County. Florida did not become a state until 1845.... Mr. Hart moved to the Clearwater area with his wife, Margaret, In the late 1840's. Here his son, William, was born In 1849. His father, Isaiah Hart, founded Jacksonville, and his brother, Ossian B. Hart, was Governor of Florida from 1872 to 1874, dying In office.. .. Mrs. Margaret Hart, left a widow by the yellow fever epidemic, went through the war with a large family of children.
Richard J. Booth, a native of England, settled In the Safety Harbor area after being discharged from Fort Brooke now Tampa in the late 1840's. He married Melanie Philippe, youngest daughter of Dr. Odet Philippe, and they became the ancestors of Pinellas County's large family of Booths.
Richard Garrison was one of the first settlers in the Dunedin area around 1852. John S. Taylor moved to the section southeast of Clearwater in the mid-1850's. The first free school on the peninsula was the old, Taylor School on his property, in 1855. The City of Clearwater Historical Committee has placed a marker at this school site.. . Lorenzo D. Ross, a Confederate veteran, settled on Weedon's Island. He is buried there.
First of the seven McMullen brothers, Captain James Parramore, came In the early 1850's and built a log cabin home. It still is standing at Coachman Station. He was followed by Daniel, Thomas Fain, William, John Fain and Malcolm Lawrence.
In Clearwater, David B. Turner established the peninsula's first post office in August, 1859. William H. Benton established the post office of Pinellas now St. Petersburg in 1876, but John Bethel had lived in that area, at Big Bayou, before the war.
Mr. Wells, director of the census research for the Pinellas Historical Commission, has prepared a volume, with maps, giving the names and locations of more than 4,000 of the early settlers on the Peninsula. This book is available for research in the Pinellas Historical Museum. Another volume has census figures going back to 1830, and complete Florida census figures for 1880 and 1890 very difficult to obtain are on file here. Many other records and pioneer
|lics may be found in the Historical Museum, in the basement of the old courthouse. A ramp or wheel-chair users makes the Museum convenient for everyone.
Young women of the Clearwater Junior Service League have made the Museum a major project. They have arranged pictures and exhibits in historical sequence, to add greater interest. Ten large historical murals in the corridors were painted by Clearwater High School students.

As early as 1886, W.A. Belcher, Pinellas Pioneer, whose home still stands on Belcher Road, tried to get a county division act through the State Legislature, where he was a member; but he was unsuccessful.
Twenty-one years later. In 1907, W.L. Straub, 40-year-old editor of The St. Petersburg Times, launched his fight for county division from Hillsborough County. His campaign ended In success five years later, in 1912.
Str citizens
traub first published his "Declaration of Independence" In The Times, showing why of Pinellas Peninsula then known as West Hillsborough, should have their own county. Copies were mailed to all members of the State Legislature. Taxation without benefits was the main argument, and many residents of the peninsula came to Straub's assistance, to push the division bill drive.
The Legislature finally passed the bill May 23, 1911. The dct was signed by Governor Albert Gilchrist. The late John S. Taylor, Sr., who became state senator, and S.D. Harris handled the fight in Tallahassee.
The Act, being subject to referendum, was approved by the voters, 1,306 to 505, on November 14, 1911. Officials, appointed by Governor Gilchrist, were elected December 15. Mnellas County started operations in rented offices in downtown Clearwater January 1, 1912.
FIRST OFFICIALS Pinellas County's first officials of 1912 were: County Commissioners F.A. Wood and O.T. Railsback, St. Petersburg; S.S. Coachman, Clearwater; L.D. Vinson, Tarpon Springs; Jefferson T. Lowe, Anona.... County Clerk of Court, C.W. Weicking, St. Petersburg; Sheriff, Marvel Whitehurst, Ozona; Tax Collector, E.B. McMullen, Largo; Tax Assessor, T.J. Northrup, St. Petersburg; Treasurer, A.C. Turner, Clearwater; County School Superintendent, Dixie M. Hollins, St. Petersburg; County Judge, LeRoy Brandon; Surveyor, W.A. Rousseau, Dunedln;
Registration Supervisor, Albert S. Meares, Anona.....School Board: A.F. Bartlett, St.
Petersburg; A.P. Beckett, Tarpon Springs; W.A. Allen, Largo.....Justices of the Peace:
William A. Hart, Clearwater; J.J. Sullivan, St. Petersburg.
From the first meeting of the new Commissioners until May, St. Petersburg people appeared at each meeting to ask that the courthouse be built in St. Petersburg. The first Commission was controlled by the majority of three from up-county, however, and all requests were turned down or tabled for future action.
Finally, the up-county commissioners were served with an injunction, and, at a meeting on May 7, 1912, the Board, by a vote of three to two, awarded a contract to E.W. Parker, of Tampa, for a two-story frame courthouse, to cost $3,750. It was to be built within 30 days, on lots given by the City of Clearwater on the present site of Peace Memorial Church. The building |[as guaranteed for two years.
This first courthouse was built with volunteer labor, while the neighborhood women brought food to the workers. Torches blazed around the rising structure as work went on through the night, and armed guards with shotguns patrolled it constantly, because rumors hod been spread that St. Petersburg people planned to come to Clearwater and burn it down.

The first courthouse was used almost seven years. Its successor, scheduled for completion in 1917, was delayed when the original contractor went broke because of World War I. The job was completed by others. It cost about $167,000, and in 1926 an addition was built on the northwest corner. In the 1950's a new jail, costing about $800,000, was completed.
Pinellas County outgrew its second courthouse by 1960, and a new county building and jail were erected, adjoining the old one on the west. Costing approximately $6,000,000, it was opened in 1961 and already plans were being made for an addition to it.
Until 1963 no major changes were made in the operation of County Government, except that the election of the five County Commissioners was made county-wide, rather than by districts. However, they continue to run from the district.
In 1963 the State Legislature enacted a law permitting the County Commissioners to appoint an administrator, who would take a great load of administrative detail from the Commissioners' busy schedule. Pinellas voters solidly approvea this act in May, 1964, and J. Floyd Glisson was named the county's first administrator. Pinellas one of the first in the state to take this step, thus became a working model for other counties.
The next great change requested by the voters was the institution of the so-called "Home Rule" government in Pinellas, making it possible for the County Commission to adopt certain laws and ordinances without waiting for the biennial meeting of the State Legislature.
Growth of the Pinellas Peninsula through the past 135 years since Dr. Odet Philippe sailed into Old Tampa Bay and became the first white settler may best be summarized by census figures, and others, as follows:
1840 All Hillsborough County, of which Pinellas Peninsula was a part, had only 452, including 287 soldiers at Fort Brooke. On Pinellas Peninsula, Dr. Philippe was the only settler, but Captain William Bunche had a fish ranch at Mullet Key.
1850 Pinellas Peninsula had 35 families; a total population of 178.
1860 Pinellas Peninsula had 82 families; 381 individuals. It had 22 vacant houses. There were 36 Whitehursts, and only eight McMullens.
1870 The census showed 164 families; 781 population. There were 42 Whitehursts, 37 McMullens, 25 Campbells, 16 Taylors, 14 Meares, and 13 Youngbloods.
1880 Pinellas was growing. On the peninsula were 240 houses, and 1,111 persons. The McMullens had increased to 60, in 11 families. There were 45 Whitehursts; 15 Taylors. There were 10 Turners, 31 Meares, and 11 Archers.
During its first 53 years as a county (1912 to 1965), Pinellas' growth is shown as follows: Population increased from 13,193 in 1912, to 451,000 in 1965; Assessed valuation: From $3,800,236 in 1912, to $2,028,487,407 in 1965; Annual tax roll: From $90,000 in 1912, to $19,892,877 in 1964.
From a position of 48th place among Florida counties when it was created in 1912, Pinellas now ranks well up among the first "Big Three" in valuation, and is fourth, only, in population.
"Tall oaks from little acorns grow".

BcTC APR 3 0 1975
Iruartnmtt of >tatp
(904) 488-1480
April 25, 1975
Mr. Frank Bush City of Clearwater Planning Department 112 S. Osceola Street Clearwater, Florida 33516
Dear Mr. Bush:
As per your recent request, I am enclosing
a list of archaeological and historically significant
sites in the Clearwater, Pinellas County area.
Please note: The sites which are
prehistoric are marked with an asterisk (*).
Thank you.

*indicates prehistoric sites
Sites in City of Clearwater and Vicinity
Clearwater Bayview Mound Seven Oaks
Mound near Clearwater
Indian Pass Church
Sunset Point Mound
First Pinellas County Courthouse
McMullen-Coachman Log Cabin Bldg.
Sunset Point Road Mound
Sylvan Abbey Cemetery
Belcher Home
Bellair-Biltmore Hotel
Carnegie Library
Clearwater Cemetery
Francis House
McMullen Cemetery
McMullen Homestead
Ward-McMullen House
Old Fire House
Southward School
Taylor House
Uncle Jack Taylor's Place UDC House
1 mile N of Town of Clearwater (1949) T29S, R16E, S08
T29S, R16E, S09, 923 N. Haines Road
A few feet from N. end of bridge over Stevenson Creek, about
2 miles N from Clearwater (1903)
Near-Indian Pass Church, S of Clearwater (1952)
T29S, R15E, S03
110 S. Fort Harrison Avenue
Coachman1 s Station
Sunset Point Rd, E of RR tracks (same as or related to 8Pi62)
Clearwater, Florida
1949 Belcher Rd., Clearwater E of Detroit St. at Bay 36 N. Osceola
1016 N. Haines Rd.
NE Coachman Rd.
2400 NE Coachman Rd.
McMullen Booth Rd.
29 N. Ft. Harrison Avenue
610 S. Ft. Harrison Avenue
1690 Keene Rd.
1001 Keene Rd.
Gulf to Bay Blvd. at Bayview

2. AMENDED NOV. 13, 1973
3. AMENDED NOV. 4, 1974, BY RESOLUTION NO-74-149 (DEC. 9, 1974)

This map presents the third update of the Clearwater Comprehensive Land Use Plan. Clearwater first established a Planning and Zoning Board in 1932 as an advisory board, and in that year the City's first municipal zoning ordinance was approved by the voters.
The City's first Comprehensive Plan document was produced in 1962, and updated in 1968. Since that time annexations and service area agreements have enlarged the City's service area to 31 square miles.
Clearwater is located in mid-Pinellas County, 25 miles west of Tampa and 23 miles north of Saint Petersburg, The City stretches from the Gulf of Mexico on the west to Tampa Bay. Clearwater is bounded on the north by Dunedin, and on the south by Belleair and Largo.
Clearwater enjoys a warm, moist climate with average annual temperatures ranging hetween 70 and 75jdegrees. Rajiv, fall averages 54 inches per year. The City has numerous lakes and streams within its service area, the largest being Lake Chautaqua in northeast Clearwater. With 55 miles of waterfront on the Gulf, Tampa Bay and Clearwater Harbor, its location is a most valuable natural resource for Clearwater.
Of Clearwater's total land area, 20% of the land remains undeveloped. Most of the vacant land lies in the northeastern portion of the City. The predominant land use is low-density residential. Strip commercial development has occurred along primary and some secondary arterials. With the completion of Countryside Mall there will be three major shopping areas in the City as well as numerous smaller centers and a central business district.
The Comprehensive Plan map is a tangible representation of City Commission policy. The plan is implemented through zoning, subdivision, right of way, parkland, drainage and other ordinances.
The zoning ordinance is an evolving document which has been and is being modified to eliminate problem areas and respond to City Commission policy and new planning concepts. With an increasing reliance on the automobile, off-street parking requirements have been increased in multi-family and commercial districts. Concern over increased congestion has caused the deletion of higher density residential categories from the Code. Other categories have been added such as Aquatic Land and ISP which respond to environmental and church/private school usages. These newer zoning approaches recognize unique features of areas being regulated. The Aquatic Lands zone recognizes that shorelands should have restrictions on land usage and some upland protection over and above standard zone requirements. Implementation of waterfront sideyard setbacks allows public vistas through apartment complexes to open sky and water. The PRUC zoning for the downtown area allows more intense land usage than other districts in the City. This area is exempt from the 80-foot building height limit and density restrictions which apply to the rest of the City and off-street parking requirements are reduced.
A plat and subdivision ordinance requires parkland dedication for newly-platted areas (all residential, commercial and industrial lands must be platted). This ordinance addresses interior street patterns, storm drainage and utilities. Storm drainage must be retained on-site, rather than being permitted to run off on adjacent properties. In new subdivision electrical utility lines must be placed underground.
Special ordinances affect community appearance and the environmental quality. Clearwater's tree ordinance (No.1410) requires a penalty for removing any tree with a trunk diameter greater than 4" without a permit. Several species are exempt from protection, but several species of mangroves are specifically prohibited from being removed. The landscape ordinance requires beautification of parking areas for commercial and professional uses. Clearwater's sign ordinances regulate the size and nature of on-premise and off-premise signs.
A special ordinance requires that all proposed developments costing $500,000 or over to develop, file a Community Impact Statement before annexation, zoning change or issuance of a building permit. The statement consists of thirty-three elements and requires specific responses which address ecological, land use and design, social and economic aspects of the project. The Resource Development Committee, composed of department heads and key staff members, reviews the statement and makes a recommendation, which is forwarded along with the statement to the Planning and Zoning Board and the City CommissioaTHe applicant is invited to attend the Resource Development Committee meeting at which his/her statement will be discussed.
The limited planning elements presented are only a few of the elements of the Comprehensive Plan. Some elements are less directly under the City's control than its land use, but these elements are no less important. By its resolutions, its funding decisions and its directives to the City Manager, the City Commission effectively implements social, housing, economic and environmental policies. During the next several years, a fully updated plan will be prepared which reflects these policies and positions.
Clearwater's public recreation facilities include three public swimming pools; public boat launching ramps on Clearwater Harbor; public-access golf courses at the Clearwater Airpark and Glen Oaks; and five indoor recreation centers. Parks are available for active and passive recreation purposes.
Less than 1% of the land in the Clearwater area is in industrial usage. Industrial land is concentrated near the Clearwater Airpark.
Clearwater is served by two major north south arterials. East west access is provided by five major and minor arterials. Access to Clearwater Beach is provided by Memorial Causeway. The Courtney Campbell Causeway links Clearwater with Hillsborough County. Passenger rail access is provided by AmtraR, with freight service provided by the Seaboard Coast Line Railroad system. Clearwater's general aviation facility, the Clearwater Airpark, is active but is not slated for expansion. The City is also served by bus lines.
Gabriel Cazares Joseph Carwise Karleen DeBlaker John Rankin Karen Martin
Mayor-Commissioner Commissioner Commissioner Commissioner Commissioner
Picot B. Floyd City Manager
Frank H. Morris, Chairman
Jeanne K. Crampton Milner A. Cummings Florence Evers Rick Hall
Paul A. Bergmann Jack I. Wolle Warren D. Renando Christine Papandreas Michael W. Kenton Franklin D. Bush Douglas Wagner W. E. Clark Robert Jarrell Grace Loyd Elizabeth David Sherrie Nicodemus Catherine C. Nail
* Interim position
Arthur M. Kruse Eddie McCants Sallie A. Parks Ralph W. B. Reade DEPARTMENT
Director Chief Planner Chief Planner Senior Planner Environmental Planner Planning Analyst Zoning Analyst Planning Analyst Planning Technician Planning Technician
Clearwater s 1985 population capacity is estimated to be 135,000 140,000 people. When broken down by persons per age bracket, the estimated age distribution differs significantly from the 1970 national average but not from the current percentage breakdown for Clearwater.
TABLE 1 Age Distribution by Percent
Under 18 years Years 19 to 64 65 years and older
19701 State of Florida
28% 58% 16%
1970 1 Clearwater
48% 29%
19852 (Projected) Clearwater
21% 41% 38%
This divergence in age has important implications for Clearwater's economy. With relatively fewer people in their wage-earning years, transfer income (pensions, dividends, Social Security) is more important to the local economy than to the nation as a whole. Transfer income is composed of both stable slow-growing and more volatile, speculative elements.
The economy of Clearwater in 1985 will be primarily based on commercial development. Approximately 2,000 acres are planned for commercial use compared to 534 acres to be used for industry.
Industrial land uses will be located in the current Clearwater Industrial Park and in limited areas in the southwestern portion of the City along Greenwood Avenue. Tourist-oriented commercial development occurs on the beach, and, to a lesser extent, downtown along Fort Harrison Avenue and along U.S.19.
Downtown will continue its government, services and specialty commercial orientation. The downtown area will be the study area of a detailed plan to be done in 1975-76.
Economic health and the use of land are interdependent, and in no area of a city is this relationship more critical than in the downtown. As opposed to shopping centers which are built over a relatively short time span, the downtown area is the result of an extended process of growth and change. Where the shopping center itself is the unit or symbol of activity, discussion of downtown areas requires discussion not only of the whole but of its composite parts.
In recognition of the downtown area's unique needs, Clearwater established a special zoning district for the area. The Planned Redevelopment Urban Center allows, among other incentives, for structures taller than the 80 foot height limit which was recently enacted for the rest of the City.
The focus of regional commercial activities will be the two shopping centers on U.S.19 (which between them have eight major department stores) and the Penneys/Searstown area on MissounAvenue. Due to high "land costs in newer portions of the City, heavy commercial and warehouse development is expected to be centered in the Industrial Park-Airport area.
Professional office developments will be scattered throughout the City. Medical facilities will continue to expand near the two hospitals, but will not be restricted to these two areas. Additional office development has occurred along Belcher Road and U.S.19. In the Land Use Plan, office development is not considered separately from other forms of commercial development.
Clearwater's transportation planning efforts provide for streets and highway, bicycle trails and pedestrian walkways. The interurban nature of mass transit requires planning at the county and regional levels; however, these plans are coordinated with local planning efforts.
The Master Thoroughfare Plan map is coordinated with the County thoroughfare planning efforts through the mechanisms provided in the St. Petersburg Urban Area Transportation Study. There may be other arterials added in the northeast portion of the City due to need but the routes have not yet been determined. As the level of government gets closer to the people, the degree of detail in the plan increases.
New local streets are provided in the platting of new subdivision. Increasingly, consideration for other means of circulation are being requested. Bicycle paths and pedestrian walkways provide both recreation opportunities and serve valued transportation ends.
A public bus system is provided by the Central Pinellas Transit Authority. Both the Pinellas County Transportation Authority and Tampa Bay Area Rapid Transit Authority are planning for other forms of mass transit.
Transportation facilities through 1985 will still be predominantly highway based. Increasing fuel costs, as well as increasing population will make mass transit relatively more desirable. TBART is undertaking a feasibility study to determine the transportation modes to be implemented in the Pinellas-Hillsborough-Pasco region. Improved mass transit by 1985 is a certainty, although at this time indications are that it may be limited to busses in the Clearwater area.
The City's Bicycle and Master Thoroughfare Plan maps are shown below.
HResidential land uses will occupy 70% of Clearwater's land area in 1985. Low density residential opment (0 8 units per acre) is currently a well-established land use pattern. As land becomes an increasingly scarce factor, medium (8.1 16.0 units per acre) and high (16.1 30.0 units per acre) densities will account for a larger share of the total housing units.
Housing for all of Clearwater's residents in 1985 will have to include a mix of privately and publicly assisted units. Currently there are approximately 40,000 housing units in the City's service area; 1.1% of these units are subsidized family and elderly units. In order to maintain this percentage, 736 subsidized units will have to be part of the total projected 1985 housing stock of 66,933 units.
Alternative subdivision design schemes such as RPD developments will become less applicable as the City's quantity of vacant land decreases. The focus of residential development will necessarily shift from large-scale new developments to smaller in-filling and redevelopment projects. Town houses, zero-lot line clusters and other innovative forms of residential design will become increasingly important.
As the housing stock ages, maintenance of housing quality must be insured. Clearwater is investigating alternative public strategies which would augment the current minimum housing efforts. Elderly homeowners on fixed incomes must be afforded an alternative to letting their homes fall into disrepair when the burden of maintenance is beyond their means. Maintenance incentives and home repair clinics could be instituted as part of the City's ongoing housing and rehabilitation program.
Housing design and construction are not static over time. By 1985, construction methods will use less on-site labor than presently, raising the issues of mobile home and modular construction quality. Houses will be built to allow energy options such as provisions for use of solar energy. Natural ventilation will again be stressed as a design feature. The projected increase in energy costs nationwide will be reflected in changes in the way homes are built.
Recreation in the City in 1985 will be provided by both public and private agencies. In some activities, such as golf and tennis, public and private efforts overlap. In other areas, such as boating, complementary facilities are provided by the public and private sector. By 1985, population increases, increased leisure time, and the effects of inflation, will increase the demand for public recreation facilities. There are no State parks and only one County park in Clearwater; therefore, the burden of providing public recreation facilities will fall on the City.
Neighborhood facilities will become more prevalent due to the must dedicate 10% of their land (or the cash equivalent) for public u; facilities for active (ballfields, play equipmentror passive (picnic, nam criterion being the location near the homes of the proposed users.
Community facilities are designed to be used by residents who d walking distance. Recreational land at these facilities sometimes is r parking and locker room facilities. The difference between neighborhc of scale, rather than just size.
Clearwater's existing facilities will be augmented by constructi by 1985. Additional community park facilities will be constructed < and in the eastern half of the City.
Clearwater's rapid urbanization has lead to the awareness thai preservation and conservation of some open lands. These open spaces of recreational lands. Recreation, where permitted, is passive and pr smaller scale. But, in a larger sense, these lands serve as a vital part
ing continued wildlife habitat, and retaining traces of the Florida landscape as it once was. In Clean preservation areas generally take the form of wetlands, both inland, estuarine and coastal.
Wetlands serve a valuable dual purpose. They not only allow native species of vegetation and w to be retained, but also serve as water retention areas, in the case of inland wetlands, and as va nurseries for marine life, nutrient assimilation etc. in the case of mangrove tidal swamps. Inland we are the least suitable and most costly areas to develop. Clearwater encourages that new subdivisions wetland areas intact, while developers are permitted to transfer the density to upland areas of the tract. Shoreline wetlands are protected by the Aquatic Land zoning classification, which require; struction setbacks from the mangrove vegetation line. Clearwater's Tree Ordinance specifically pr mangroves, which contribute to estuarine biological activity.
The map below shows recommended conservation and preservation areas based pi
: that new lood parks r
ity fac
cipal golf i
II outside the traditional cone sions for public use will be c f the whole community by pr<
ily soil typ