• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Foreword
 Acknowledgement
 Part I: Introduction
 Part 2: Resource units
 Part 3: Sources of materials






Group Title: Florida program for improvement of schools. Bulletin
Title: A Guide to teaching effective living;
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00096122/00001
 Material Information
Title: A Guide to teaching effective living; a course in health and safety education for senior high schools
Series Title: Florida program for improvement of schools. Bulletin
Alternate Title: Teaching effective living
Physical Description: iv, 341 p. : illus. ;
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- State Dept. of Education
Publisher: Florida Department of Education
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date: 1950
Copyright Date: 1950
 Subjects
Subject: Health education   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00096122
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 17933072
lccn - a 53004518

Table of Contents
    Cover
        Cover 1
        Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Foreword
        Page iv
    Acknowledgement
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Part I: Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
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    Part 2: Resource units
        Page 36
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    Part 3: Sources of materials
        Page 334
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Full Text



DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION

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UNIVERSITY
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A Course in Health am
for Senior Higl


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Florida Program for Improvement of Schools
Bulletin 4-B May, 1950


STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
THOMAS D. BAILEY, Superintendent
DIVISION OF INSTRUCTION
T. Q. SRYGLEY, Director


7eadci



I Safety Education
h Schools

































F4







CONTENTS
Page

Foreword ............... .............................. -............................... ......... iv

Acknowledgements .............. ................................................... .. v

Part One: Introduction .................................................. 1
P oint of V iew .......... ................... ........... .. ........................................................ 3
P oint of V iew ....... ........................ ........................................... ..... 3


Selecting Problems and Experiences .............................................. 4
Providing Essentials for the Health and Safety Course,
the Administrator's Responsibility ..................................................... 13
Assisting the Teacher ...................................................... ...................... 20

Part Two: Resource Units ............................................... 36
Making the Most of Yourself .............................................................. 36
Understanding Habit Forming Drugs ................................. 96
Understanding Ourselves ..................................................... ..... 118
SGrowing into Maturity ............ ............. .............. ........................ 163
Outwitting Disease Hazards .............................................. ................. 206
Controlling Environment to Protect Health ................................. 254
Assuming Individual Responsibility for Group Health .- 279
Learning to D rive ............... ..... ........................................................ 291

Part Three: Sources of Materials ................................................. 334
References for Teachers ..... ........................................... .............. 334
References for Students .......................................... ........ 336

Organizations .. ................. ................................ .. 339
Sources of Visual Aids ............-......--- ................................. 341







FOREWORD


We have but to read our daily newspapers, to listen to our
radios, or to look at the disease and accidents so prevalent
around us to recognize the need for improving the health and
safety education of Florida's young men and women. We know
far more about healthful living than we are practicing through-
out this State. Because of this lag, it is very necessary that we
emphasize this area of the secondary school curriculum in the
years to come.

Good teachers need help in teaching in this field. They have
asked for accurate and sound information to guide them in
teaching health and safety to high school boys and girls. As
a result, Bulletin 4-B, A Guide to Teaching Effective Living,
has been cooperatively developed by Florida educators, health,
safety, and medical specialists, and representatives of voluntary
health organizations.

I am grateful to all of the agencies and individuals who have
contributed to making this bulletin useful in Florida schools.
To Miss Louise Smith, Consultant in Health and Safety Edu-
cation in the State Department of Education, goes my appre-
ciation for her leadership in getting this material ready for
publication.

It is my hope that Florida's secondary teachers and admin-
istrators will use every opportunity to teach our high school
boys and girls effective living. I am happy to recommend this
bulletin as a guide for all who assume this responsibility.




THOMAS D. BAILEY






ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


Widespread cooperation so generously given by all who con-
tributed to the development of this bulletin is deeply appre-
ciated. Special indebtedness is gratefully acknowledged to those
who have assisted in planning, writing and reviewing materials
contained in this bulletin.
Special thanks are due to the members of the Health Com-
mittee enrolled in the Health Education Curriculum Guide
Workshop held at Florida State University, summer school
1948, who participated in the production of the Guide and to
the staff who so ably assisted the Committee.
Committee members were: Ruth Lenora Anderson, DeFuniak
Springs; Lucille Avant, Eau Gallie; Francis C. Cannon, Ponce
de Leon; Marion C. Eldridge, Blountstown; Lude S. Fryer,
Jacksonville; K. P. Jackson, Ponce de Leon; Lotta Keith
Kilgore, Tallahassee; Birdelle McAllister, Miami Beach; B. B.
Mendoza, Jacksonville; Rachel Chambers Peacock, Altha; Anne
Laura Rogers, Leesburg; Edwin A. Shuler, Bristol; Louis
Owen Ziebold, Tallahassee.
Staff members included: Dr. Elizabeth Avery, Associate Pro-
fessor of Health Education, Florida State University; Katie
Sue Echols, Consultant in Narcotics Education, State Depart-
ment of Education; Zelda Johnson, R. N., Dade County Health
Unit, Miami; W. Leroy MacGowan, Science Instructor, Robert
E. Lee High School, Jacksonville, who also assisted in editing
the bulletin.
The contributions of the following persons, listed with titles
held at the time assistance was given, were invaluable in plan-
ning or reviewing the manuscript in whole or in part:
Stanley A. Abererombie, Specialist in Traffic Safety Edu-
cation, National Commission on Safety Education; Dr. Sullivan
G. Bedell, Practicing Psychiatrist, Jacksonville; E. L. Bowers,
Principal, Greensboro High School, Greensboro; Charles A.
Brooks, Director of Safety, State Fire Marshal's Office; Dr.
George A. Dame, Director, Bureau of Local Health Units,
Florida State Board of Health; Dr. Howard Danford, Head,
Department of Physical Education for Men, Florida State





University; Mrs. Janet Fowler, Health Teacher, Greensboro
High School, Greensboro; E. C. Garmo, State Highway Engi-
neer, State Road Department of Florida; Edwin R. IIartz,
Assistant Professor of Social Work, Florida State University;
Ray M. Hays, Supervising Principal, Leesburg City Schools,
Leesburg; Dora Hicks, Associate Professor of Health, Univer-
sity of Florida; Mrs. Onie Ruth Hunter, Executive Secretary,
Lake County Tuberculosis and Health Association; Joe Jenkins,
Health Teacher, Tavares High School, Tavares; Lieutenant
C. W. Keith, Chief Driver's License Examiner, State Depart-
ment of Public Safety; Dorothy Kitchens, Health Teacher, Leon
High School, Tallahassee; Mrs. Brenda Kuykendall, Health
Teacher, Leesburg High School, Leesburg; Norman Key, Edu-
cational Consultant, American Automobile Association; David
B. Lee, Director, Bureau of Sanitary Engineering, Florida
State Board of Health; Raymond G. McCarthy, Executive Di-
rector, Laboratory of Applied Physiology, Yale University; Dr.
William H. McCullough, Practicing Psychiatrist, Jacksonville;
Betty Mathis, Director, Public Health Information, American
Cancer Society, Inc., Florida Division, Tampa; Wilbur H.
Marshall, Supervising Principal, Tallahassee Schools, Talla-
hassee; B. J. Nelms, Principal, Leon High School, Tallahassee;
Dr. Coyle E. Moore, Chairman, Division of Applied Social
Sciences, Florida State University; Dr. L. L. Parks, Director,
Field Technical Staff, Florida State Board of Health; May
Pynchon, Executive Secretary, Florida Tuberculosis and Health
Association; Elizabeth Reed, Acting Director, Bureau of Health
Information, Florida State Board of Health; H. Jennings Rou,
Supervising Principal, Tavares City Schools, Tavares; Lucille
Russ, Health Improvement Specialist, Agricultural Extension
Service; Dr. E. Benton Salt, Head, The Professional Curricu-
lum, College of Physical Education, Health and Athletics, Uni-
versity of Florida; Dr. Harry Sauberli, Health Officer, Leon
County Health Unit; C. E. Sauls, Principal, Leesburg High
School, Leesburg; Dr. C. M. Sharp, Director, Bureau of Tuber-
culosis Control, Florida State Board of Health; Mrs. Malcolm
Smith, State Commander, The American Cancer Society, Inc.,
Florida Division, Tampa; Dr. Frank G. Slaughter, Psychiatrist,
Author and Lecturer; Dr. W. P. Smith, Jr., University IIos-
pital, Augusta, Georgia; Dr. R. F. Sondag, Director, Bureau of
Preventable Diseases, Florida State Board of Health; Dr. Mode





L. Stone, Professor of Education, Florida State University;
Dr. Golda Van Buskirk, Associate Professor of Psychology, Flor-
ida State University; Dr. Walter Wilkins, Director, Nutrition
Investigations and Services, Florida State Board of Health; Mrs.
Mary S. Williams, Social Science Teacher, Leon High School,
Tallahassee; Dr. Melvin J. Williams, Associate Professor of
Sociology, Florida State University.
Grateful appreciation is extended to the consultants for the
workshop held in 1946 who assisted in planning the health
course: Dr. H. F. Kilander, Associate in Health Education, Na-
tional Tuberculosis Association and Dr. Charles C. Wilson,
Professor of Education and Public Health, Yale University;
to Fannie B. Shaw, Associate Professor of Health Education
and Director of the Health Education Workshop in 1946 at
Florida State University, who has served as consultant through-
out the preparation of this Guide; and to Dr. Dean F. Smiley,
Health Education Consultant, American Medical Association,
who served as a consultant for the second workshop.
Finally, grateful acknowledgment is made to the members
of the State Department of Education; to J. K. Chapman, Dep-
uty Superintendent; to Katie Sue Echols, Consultant, Nar-
cotics Education; to Joe Hall,1 Director, Division of Instruc-
tion, who gave invaluable assistance throughout the experimental
program and the preparation of the Guide; to J. T. Kelley,
Assistant Director, Division of Instruction, School Accredita-
tion and Teacher Certification; to Sara M. Krentzman, Con-
sultant, Library Service; to Sam H. Moorer, Assistant Director,
Division of Instruction, Supervision and Curriculum; to Mrs.
Dora Skipper, Coordinator, State Supervisory Program; to
D. E. Williams, Supervisor of Instruction; to T. Q. Srygley,2
Director, Division of Instruction; and to Louise Smith, Con-
sultant, Health and Safety Education, who directed the experi-
mental program and the Health Education Curriculum Guide
Workshop, completing the preparation of the Guide.
Grateful acknowledgment is made to the W. K. Kellogg Foun-
dation for financing the first workshop and the experimental
program.

1. All titles listed are those held at the time assistance was given
m developing the Guide.
2. Present Director.











PART I: INTRODUCTION


Science largely controls the destiny of man today. It has
the power to liberate and safeguard or to destroy man. New
discoveries and improved techniques are constantly being re-
ported from the laboratories of the world. This scientific knowl-
edge can enable man to live not only longer but also better.
Yet there is a great lag in the scientific information now
available and the application of this knowledge to daily living.
This lag is costly to Florida-costly because there are sick and
handicapped children in school who are retarded in their edu-
cational progress; costly because millions are being spent to
cure and rehabilitate the ill and the injured; costly because
life itself is being needlessly lost; costly because children are
being deprived of the joy of radiant health. Education of the
individual to prevent disease and accidents is one of the sound-
est investments the State of Florida can make. It is a major
function of education.
It is important that the schools provide health and safety
education which will function effectively in the lives of all
boys and girls. This lag in what is known to the scientist and
what is applied in the lives of people must be reduced. The
State Courses of Study Committee, recognizing this need, has
recommended a course in health and safety education as one of
the offerings in the program of studies for the secondary school.
Institutions of higher education in Florida have only re-
cently begun to prepare health education teachers and teachers
of driver education. In many schools it will be necessary for
teachers of related fields to teach these comparatively new
subjects in the curriculum. This Guide will help teachers meet
these new responsibilities.
This bulletin has grown out of the needs of high school boys
and girls in Florida. They have expressed their problems, their
interests and their preferences. College youth have voiced their
opinions. Parents of adolescent boys and girls have revealed the
needs of this age group as they have seen them in close contact





2 A GUIDE TO TEACHING EFFECTIVE LIVING


day after day. High school principals, teachers and college
professors have contributed their viewpoints from years of
experience in dealing with adolescents.
The development of this Guide has been a cooperative under-
taking. It has evolved from the experiences of many people-
not only high school and college youth, parents, high school
and college teachers, and school administrators, but also com-
munity leaders, specialists in health and safety education,
nurses and physicians. It represents the results of two years
of experimentation in selected high schools in Florida. Partici-
pants in two workshops have contributed to the development
of this bulletin. The first workshop was held in 1946 at which
time a course in health and safety education for the senior
high school was tentatively planned. The second workshop was
held in the summer of 1948 for replanning and writing after
a period of two years' experimentation.
The Directors of the Bureaus of the State Board of Health,
of voluntary health organizations, and of official agencies con-
cerned with safety have aided the Committee by indicating state-
wide needs, as they saw them, in dealing with the out-of-school
population. They have suggested content, experiences and mate-
rials appropriate for this age group which would help to prevent
and to solve some of the problems they were encountering. Each
unit of work after it was developed was submitted to specialists
in each area to review for: (1) scientific accuracy, (2) practi-
cality, and (3) ability of organized groups to render the services
suggested on a state-wide basis. The Committee has also had
the benefit of out-of-state consultants who have stimulated their
thinking and guided their planning.
This bulletin has been planned as a suggested guide for teach-
ers and administrators to aid them in developing a more effec-
tive and more functional course in health and safety education
for boys and girls at this age level. Personnel of the State
Board of Iealth, of county health units, of official state and
local agencies concerned with safety, of voluntary health organi-
zations and of voluntary safety organizations may also find it
useful in cooperatively planning and coordinating school-
community programs.





HEALTH AND SAFETY EDUCATION


POINT OF VIEW
We believe that:
The needs of boys and girls should be the first consideration
of the school.
Health education will be most effective when included in
the secondary school curriculum as a separate, concentrated
course in addition to being integrated in other subject
areas.

This course should be offered to boys and girls in mixed
classes; each will profit from discussion and opinions of
the other.
This course should consider the health of the whole child
in his total environment.
We learn what we live.
The school, working cooperatively with the home and the
community, should provide experiences which are con-
ducive to desirable health and safety behavior.
An understanding of the word democracy can be most ef-
fectively developed by boys and girls experiencing demo-
cratic processes at work.
This bulletin should be used as a guide to the teacher in
developing a health and safety course suited to the needs,
interests, and abilities of boys and girls in a local situation.

GOALS
Health education through scientific information, through
student experiences that develop understandings and attitudes,
and through practices that lead to the formation of skills and
habits, seeks to help guide the student in developing into an
individual who will:
Keep himself and his surroundings, in so far as possible,
free from the threat of accident and disease.
Maintain vitality and vigor at a high level of effectiveness.
Live wisely so as to conserve health and energy.


















4 A GUIDE TO TEACHING EFFECTIVE LIVING


Be happy in his human contacts, able to work with others
effectively.
Find satisfaction in his vocation, and enjoy his leisure with
zest.
Be resourceful and adaptable, facing his problems with
self-confidence and poise.
Be competent to choose wisely in marriage.
Be able to maintain a wholesome and happy home rela-
tionship.
Be sensitive to his responsibility for helping establish and
maintain adequate and effective community health services.
Be able to identify himself wholeheartedly and construc-
tively with the social and community life around him.







HEALTH AND SAFETY EDUCATION


SELECTING PROBLEMS AND EXPERIENCES
High school is terminal school education for the majority
of boys and girls in Florida. It is important that they be ade-
quately prepared in high school not only to cope with their
present developmental needs and problems but also with the
health and safety problems they will encounter as parents and
tax-paying citizens of this state. An informed, intelligent citizen
is one of the strongest bulwarks of democracy. The problems and
experiences included in this Guide have been selected in consid-
eration of:
Growth and developmental needs of adolescents.
Interests of this age group.
Major problems of adolescents and adults as revealed by
morbidity and mortality statistics, surveys of health status
and experiences of students, teachers, school administrators,
parents, local and state community leaders.
Major environmental health problems of Florida as re-
vealed by surveys of environmental conditions.
Activities of family life related to health which are com-
mon to the majority of boys and girls.
Preparation for citizenship responsibilities relating to health
and safety.
A summary of the characteristics, needs and interests of this
age group is included in this Guide as well as activities of family
life and citizenship responsibilities related to health and safety.
These facts determined the selection of the problems and expe-
riences. Many of them are true of this age level in all parts of
Florida. However, such a study should be made of boys and
girls in each school and of the environment in which they live.
Then, the problems and experiences for this course should be
determined by the teacher and by the students to meet their
personal and environmental needs.





6 A GUIDE TO TEACHING EFFECTIVE LIVING



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10 A GUIDE TO TEACHING EFFECTIVE LIVING


II. Interests of this Age Group According to Surveys and
Analyses :1

A. Associating with opposite sex.
B. Developing desirable personality traits.
C. Attracting opposite sex.
D. Understanding themselves.
E. Conforming to group behavior.
F. Earning recognition.
G. Participating in sports.
H. Developing skills in things they want to do.
I. Improving personal appearance.
J. Achieving popularity.
K. Forming friendships of own age group.
L. Being approved and accepted by group.
M. Excelling in all activities.
III. Major Problems of Adolescents and Adults as Revealed
by Morbidity and Mortality Statistics of the Bureau of
Vital Statistics, Florida State Board of Health, and Sur-
veys of Health Status:

A. Ten leading causes of death in Florida for age group
15-24 years during the 4 year period 1945-48:
1. Accidents (other than motor vehicle) ............ 1,033
2. Motor vehicle accidents .................................. 569
3. Tuberculosis ................................. .. 296
4. Homicide .......................................................... 291
5. Maternal deaths .......................................... 167
6. Diseases of heart ................................................ 151
7. Pneumonia ............ ......... ..... ............ .......... 94
8. Suicide .................................................... 74
9. Nephritis ....................................... .. ........ 71
10. Cancer ...................... ........ ....... ...... ........... 66
B. Ten leading causes of death in Florida for all ages during
the 4 year period 1945-48:
1. Disease of the heart ..................................................26.433
2. Cancer ................... ......................................... .....10,566
3. Cerebral hemorrhage, embolism, thrombosis,
and softening .............................................................. 9852
4. Nephritis ........................... ........ .......... 6,235
5. Pneumonia ........... ..................... ....... ....378
6. Premature birth ................... ..... .... ..... .. ... 3.147
7. Motor vehicle accidents ......................................... 2,931
8. Tuberculosis of respiratory system ........................ 2,728
9. Diabetes mellitus .............................-............. 1,825
10. Diseases of the arteries ........................................ 1,740
C. Cases of reportable diseases for persons 15-24 years of
age for 1948:
1. Gonorrhea ........................................11,604

1. Denver Public Schools, Health Interests of Children. Denver, Col-
orado: Superintendent of Schools.






HEALTH AND SAFETY EDUCATION 11


2. Syphilis ...................................... 5,140
3. Hookworm .......... ................................... 425
4. Granuloma inguinale .............................................. 334
5. Tuberculosis ............ ................................. 274
6. Chancroid .................................................................. 179
7. M easles ....... -------............---- ......................... 138
8. Dysentery bacillary ..................................................... 121
9. M um ps .................................---.............. ................... 105
10. Lymphopathia venerea ......................................... 82
D. Health needs of youth as shown by National Youth Ad-
ministration and the United States Public Health Service
in 19422:
Out of every 100 youths examined:
85 needed dental care.
20 needed refractions.
19 needed tonsillectomies.
14 needed additional diagnostic procedures.
12 needed special diets.
11 needed study by a specialist.
E. Per cent distribution of principal causes for rejection at
local boards and induction stations in Florida from April
1942 to March 19438:
Syphillis ..........................-----............................. 55.0
M usculoskeletal .................................................... 10.4
H ernia .................................... ..................... 8.4
Neurological ..........--............--- ....-.....-- ...........-.. 4.0
Eyes ..................... ...... ...-...... .-----. ... ---... ....... 3.8
Cardiovascular ............................. ....- .................... 2.3
Lungs ....................-................ .-------.-----... 1.6
Underweight and Overweight .............................. 1.6
T eeth ..................................... .......---- ....... ... 1.3
G enitalia ......................... ....................... .. 1.3
F. Accidental deaths in the United States, age 15-24, 1945,4
1946,' and 19478:
1945 1946 1947
Motor vehicle ........................5,358 7,445 7,251
Drowning ..................................1,670 1,570 1,600
Falls ........................................1,100 930 960
All Burns ............................... 930 800 780

2. Federal Security Agency. Physical Fitness Through Health Edu-
Scation For the Victory Corps. Washington, D. C.: U. S. Office of
Education, p. 46.
3. Selective Service System. Medical Statistics Bulletin No. 3-
Physical Examinations of Selective Service Registrants During
Wartime-April 1942 December 1943. Washington, D. C.: Na-
tional Headquarters Selective Service System, p. 72.
4. Accident Facts, 1947 Edition, Chicago: National Safety Council,
p. 10
5. Accident Facts, 1948 Edition, Chicago: National Safety Council,
p. 13
p. 13
6. Accident Facts, 1949 Edition, Chicago: National Safety Council,





12 A GUIDE TO TEACHING EFFECTIVE LIVING


Firearms .................................. 684 793 676
Railroad .................................. 626 695 681
Poison Gases ............................ 220 220 230
Poisons (except gas) ............ 110 110 110
In the young adult group, 15-24 years old, the
accidental death rate in 1948 was 55.97.
G. Principal types of accidental deaths in the United States,
19478 and 19489:


1947
M otor Vehicle ..........................................32,300
Falls ............................................................26,650
All Burns .............................. -----.......... 8,350
Drowning ......................... -----...........--- ... 7,500
Railroad .................................................. 4,450
Firearm s ................................................. 2,500
Poisons (except gas) ...................----........... 2,050
Poison Gases ....................................-----... 2,000
All Types ........................................... 100,000


1948
32.000
27,600
8,600
6,800
4,000
2,200
1,800
2,000
98,000


From age 1 to 35 accidents killed more persons in
1946 and in 1947 than did any diseaselo.
H. Accidental injuries by severity of injury in the United
State, 194811:


All
Injuries

Total ................10,400,000
Motor Vehicle.. 1,150,000
Public Non-


Non-fatal Permanent Temporary
Deaths Injuries Impairments Total
Disabilities
98,000 10,300,000 370,000 9,900,000
32,000 1,100,000 100,000 1,000,000


motor Vehicle 2,100,000 17,000 2,100,000 60,000 2,050,000
Home ................ 5,300,000 35,000 5,250,000 140,000 5,100,000
Occupational .. 1,950,000 16,500 1,950,000 80,000 1,850,000
IV. Major Environmental Health Problems of Florida as Re-
vealed by Surveys of Environmental Conditions:
A. Provision of pure water supply in Florida is one of the
most important problems of sanitation. Approximately
39.1 (986,000) of the total population drink raw water
without any treatment. The dangers lie in the fact that
limestone formation which underlies much of Florida is
full of underground streams which connect with each
other and with many new sink holes. Into these seep
much human and industrial waste.12
B. Food handling is another major health problem since
thousands of people eat in the 11,000 eating establish-

7. Ibid., p. 6
8. Accident Facts, 1948 Edition, op. cit., p. 12
9. Accident Facts, 1949 Edition, op. cit., p. 13
10. Ibid., p. 4
11. Ibid., p. 10
12. Lee, David B. Stream Pollution Problems in the State of Florida,
p. 6.





HEALTH AND SAFETY EDUCATION


ments in Florida. Food infections are common, and it is
estimated that the reported cases represent only 5% of
the total number of upsets due to this cause.
C. Milk must receive special consideration. It is not only one
of the most perishable foods, but it furnishes an excel-
lent growth medium for harmful bacteria. If contami-
nated, it can be an important factor in the spread of
scarlet fever, typhoid fever, septic sore throat, and
dysentery.
D. Insect borne diseases are of special significance to Flo-
ridians. The climate and geographic conditions in Florida
are conducive to the breeding and harboring of many
disease-spreading insects and animals.
E. Soil conservation is rapidly becoming one of Florida's
outstanding health problems. More attention should be
given to the depletion of minerals in the soil of the
state. Where the soils are depleted, the crops are also
depleted. This has been brought about by continuous
cropping with little thought given to conservation. There
is a direct relationship between the condition of the soil
and the health status of the people who live upon it.
V. Activities of Family Life Related to Health Common to
the Majority of Boys and Girls:
A. Selection of a mate.
B. Marriage.
C. Parenthood.
D. Infant care.
E. Caring for members of family who are ill.
VI. Preparation for Citizenship Responsibilities Related to
Health and Safety of Each Individual as He Becomes:
A. An ordinary taxpaying citizen who should understand
the functions of government and how his tax money is
spent.
B. A supporter of voluntary and official health and safety
agencies.
C. A member of boards of health, welfare and safety
organizations.
D. An official in city, county and state governments.

PROVIDING ESSENTIALS FOR THE HEALTH AND
SAFETY COURSE; THE ADMINISTRATOR'S
RESPONSIBILITY

School administrators in Florida are constantly on the alert
to make their schools as responsive to the needs of youth as
possible. They realize that the needs of the time and place
shape and fashion education. Of all the needs of youth those
which relate to survival values must be considered fundamental.





14 A GUIDE TO TEACHING EFFECTIVE LIVING


BASIC PROBLEMS CONFRONTING ADOLESCENCE
High Accident Rate
Our high accident toll is testimony of the failure of man to
adjust his life to the hazardous environment in which he now
must live. In 1948 accidents in Florida took the highest toll
of life in ages 1-44, causing 40.6 per cent of the deaths from all
causes in the 15-24 age group. What profiteth all other learn-
ing, if one has not learned how to stay alive?

Maladjustments, Delinquency,
Mental Diseases a Major Problem
Approximately half of all hospital beds in Florida are occu-
pied by cases of mental disease. One out of every eight rejec-
tions for the armed services in World War II was for mental
disease of some form or other. This cause ranked fourth for re-
jection in Florida. Suicides were the seventh leading cause
of death in the 15-24 age group according to 1948 statistics.
These represent the extreme cases only. It does not take into
account the great number harassed by anxieties, worries, and
fears to the extent of impairing efficiency and happiness. These
adults who have not been able to make satisfactory mental or
emotional adjustments have passed through our schools.

A Period of Emotional Struggle
Adolescence is a time when one is struggling to emerge from
the age of dependence upon parents to independent self-
direction. At this time the individual is trying to find out how
to get along well with his peers, especially the opposite sex.
Their opinions are vastly more important to him than the
opinion of adults. He frequently feels that no one understands
him. Many times he is torn by conflicts within himself, within
his home and frequently with differences between the ideals
of his parents and his friends. He is maturing physically and
often does not understand his moods, his tensions or his drives.
Schools have offered little in the past to boys and girls in help-
ing them to understand themselves and to make a satisfactory
and easy adjustment to this age of transition. The mounting
juvenile delinquency rate offers some insight to this need.





HEALTH AND SAFETY EDUCATION


Personal Health Problems a Cause of Worry
Personal health problems such as acne, overweight, under-
weight, and postural defects are more acute to adolescents than
to any other age group. They are frequently causes of hidden
and prolonged anxiety causing feelings of inferiority. This is a
time when they need special understanding and assistance.
Schools too often have offered little direction in helping them
to meet these problems so important to them and to their
development.

Diseases Taking Major Toll of Life and Health in Florida
Heart diseases continue to be the leading cause of death in
Florida. The death rate for cancer continues to mount. It is
the second highest cause of death. Though tuberculosis ranks
eighth as a cause of death for all ages in Florida, of the dis-
eases it ranks first in the 15-24 age group, being preceded only
by accidents and homicides. There were almost twice as many
cases of venereal diseases reported in Florida in 1946 and in
1947 as cases of all other reportable diseases combined; in 1948
the number of cases of venereal diseases reported exceeded the
number of cases of all other reportable diseases combined. The
schools cannot ignore such facts!

Health Problems of Family Life
Common to Both Boys and Girls
The majority of boys and girls marry and have a home. In
nearly all homes there are children and at some time sickness.
Though we have long considered the home the very foundation
of American democracy, the schools have only recently con-
cerned themselves with such vital problems as helping boys and
girls choose a mate wisely, understanding the privi!e.s and re-
sponsibilities of parenthood, caring for infants and children and
acquiring nursing skills needed during illness in the home. In
those schools which have included these areas in their curricu-
lum, boys in the majority of instances have been deprived of
these school experiences. Boys and girls build homes, rear chil-
dren and care for illness together. Both need preparation for
these joint responsibilities.





16 A GUIDE TO TEACHING EFFECTIVE LIVING


Boys and Girls in High School Today
Voting and Tax Paying Citizens Tomorrow
Boys and girls who are in school today will be voting and
tax-paying citizens of tomorrow. They will be paying taxes to
support governmental health and safety activities and volun-
tarily contributing to non-official agencies. As officials in city,
county and state governments they will be charged with the
responsibility of voting and spending tax monies. As members
of boards and committees of health and welfare organizations
they will be called upon to make decisions relating to the wel-
fare of the people. Florida needs intelligently informed citizens
who will be able to make discriminating choices.

Cost to Florida
Florida spent for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1948 ap-
proximately $14,000,000 of state and federal tax funds to care
for the victims of disease who had to be provided for at public
expense. This did not include money paid to private physicians
or to hospitals which were not state supported. Motor Vehicle
accidents alone in 1948 cost the State of Florida $33,825,000,
counting $45,000 property damage loss from all accidents for
each death recorded. Yet in the fiscal year ending June 30,
1948 Florida spent a total of only $77,051,389.23 for her public
schools.

Responsibility of School Administrators
Experience has shown that education can reduce the incidence
of disease and accidents. It is imperative, therefore, that school
administrators assume greater responsibility for reducing and
preventing this tragic waste in human life and property. Since
high school is terminal school education for the majority of
boys and girls in Florida, it is during these years that these
vital needs must be met.
Some secondary schools neglect health and safety education
almost entirely; others combine it with physical education and
give only one or two periods a week to this area. In actual
practice the preference has usually been given to physical edu-
cation. In many cases health has been integrated with other
subjects in the curriculum such as homemaking, social studies,





HEALTH AND SAFETY EDUCATION


biology, or vocational agriculture. It has frequently been taught
by inadequately prepared teachers. The results oftentimes have
been intangible, diluted, unbalanced and lacking cohesion or
continuity. This situation has not always made for effective
teaching or learning. Few schools have well planned health
and safety education programs.
An effective health and safety program can be developed
only when educational authorities assume active leadership in
this field. This is particularly true of the school principal.
Upon his interest, understanding and active concern will de-
pend most largely the success of this phase of the educational
program.

Place in the Curriculum
Problems posed by conditions of modern living, unnecessary
illness and injury, and preventable loss of life, as well as the
needless economic waste which results, make an insistent de-
mand for a place in the school curriculum. They require a
teaching personnel qualified to cope with them. They necessi-
tate the introduction of courses such as health education and
driver education, aimed at specific needs of present day living.
The State Courses of Study Committee has recommended that
this course be offered for both boys and girls in the senior
high school, preferably at the eleventh grade level. It should
be offered, temporarily, as an elective course; but it is recom-
mended that it become a required unit for graduation in every
high school as soon as qualified teachers become available. This
is in line with recommendations of the United States Office
of Education and other national groups. The American Asso-
ciation for Health, Physical Education and Recreation in 1944
adopted a resolution recommending that "classes in secondary
school health instruction meet five times a week for a minimum
of two semesters." The Society of State Directors of Health
and Physical Education has made the same recommendation.
A similar recommendation was made by the National Committee
on School Health Policies.
In many schools in the past all boys have been deprived of
all health education. Many girls have received only limited in-





18 A GUIDE TO TEACHING EFFECTIVE LIVING


struction in this area; usually in homemaking education. Health
education is as important for boys as for girls, and should be
made available for all boys and for all girls. Disease and accidents
are not confined to one sex. The problems of youth dealt with in
this course are common to both sexes. Boy and girls profit
greatly from an exchange of viewpoints and often have greater
influence on each other's behavior than adults. When these prob-
lems are discussed and solved together a feeling of mutual under-
standing and appreciation has been found to develop. Hence,
it is recommended that this course be taught in mixed groups
by well qualified teachers. The personality, preparation, skill
and approach of the teacher will determine the success of the
course.
Relationship to Physical Education
Health education and physical education are two separate
areas of instruction. Each requires special preparation to teach.
In methods and materials they are very diverse. Neither can
substitute for the other, though they complement and supple-
ment each other. While physical education makes a very valu-
able contribution to health, there are many other factors which
determine a person's health, such as food, sleep, emotions,
diseases, organic defects, medical care and accidents. These as a
rule are not included in the physical education program. Health
education has a separate and distinct place in the curriculum.
Time Allotment
This course should be taught one hour a day, five days a
week, for two semesters. In some schools, driver education and
training will be offered separately for one-half unit's credit.
In such cases, the unit on "Learning to Drive" should be omit-
ted and the time devoted to other units.
Credit
One unit's credit toward graduation should be given.
Selection of Teacher
Careful selection and adequate preparation of the teacher
for this work are essential to the success of this course. It will
be necessary for this teacher to work closely with the home and
with community organizations. The following qualifications





HEALTH AND SAFETY EDUCATION


should be considered in selecting the person who will assume
this responsibility.
Personal Qualifications:
He should be genuinely interested in health and safety
education.
He should have a sympathetic understanding and genuine
interest in boys and girls of this age group and in their
problems.
He should be able to gain the respect and confidence of
students, other faculty members and parents.
He should work well with people and with community or-
ganizations and have an active interest in the community.
He should be emotionally poised, stable, and should exer-
cise mature and sound judgment.

Preparation:
He should be certified in health education and driver edu-
cation and training.
He should be skilled in the techniques of individual and
group guidance.
It is proposed to place the course in the hands of carefully
selected teachers whose training, personality, skill and expe-
rience most nearly fit them for this work. If a teacher with
major preparation in the field of health education is not avail-
able, it is recommended that the administrator select a teacher
whose educational background is in the field of biological sci-
ences, homemaking education, or physical education in the order
named. These teachers will need specialized training based on a
thorough background of science. This recommendation is made as
an emergency measure for the immediate implementation of
this health course. This teacher should secure additional train-
ing until he is properly certified to teach health education and
driver education. Prospective teachers and teachers-in-service
may now take a major in the field of health education in Florida
schools.
When it is necessary for the health education teacher to teach
more than one subject, the following combinations are suggested
in the order listed:





20 A GUIDE TO TEACHING EFFECTIVE LIVING


Health education and biology.
Health education, everyday living, and biology.
Health education and other sciences.
Health education and homemaking education.
Health education and physical education.
Scheduling Time for Health Guidance
and Improvement and Service Projects
Some time each day should be scheduled as a part of the
teacher's regular load to counsel individual students and to
help them develop plans of action for meeting their health needs.
Time will also be needed to assist them in planning and check-
ing improvement and service projects in health and safety.


ASSISTING THE TEACHER
Year after year scientists over the world have made discov-
eries which should preserve and enrich life. Yet because of
ignorance or because of failure to apply these scientific truths
the lives of millions have been unaffected by them. Only as
scientific information is applied does it affect living. To know
that toxoid will protect a baby from diphtheria is useless unless
the baby is immunized. Knowledge of the necessity for a periodic
chest X-ray is valueless unless the X-ray is made. Both scien-
tific information and application of that information are needed.
The ultimate goal of this course in Effective Living is im-
proved health behavior. Scientific knowledge alone is not enough.
Opportunity must be provided for boys and girls to experience
better ways of living. They must do things to improve them-
selves and to improve living in their homes and in their com-
munity. Scientific knowledge must function in their day-by-
day living.
There must be constant interaction between the school and
the community. The health problems of the students, their
families and the community in which they live form the sub-
stance of this course. The school, then, must extend its educa-
tional program into the home and into the community. The
solution of such health problems as control of communicable
diseases, nutritional deficiencies, personal maladjustments and





HEALTH AND SAFETY EDUCATION


lack of sanitation require concerted efforts of many forces. The
effectiveness of this course will be able to be demonstrated
largely by the improvement which takes place in living.

Use of Curriculum Guide
This bulletin is intended merely as a guide to the teacher
in developing a course in Effective Living which will be suited
to the needs, the interests and the abilities of the particular
group he is teaching. Many needs and interests are common to
all senior high school students, but special problems exist in
each community, in different schools within a school system,
and even in two sections of the same class within the same
school. These should be carefully analyzed so that experiences
may be provided which will help the students in each group to
solve their own particular problems to the best advantage.
Material for the units in this bulletin has been carefully se-
lected and includes information which may not be otherwise
easily available to a busy teacher. It suggests the scope of in-
formation which it is felt students should have before leaving
high school. It should be taught in such a way as to become
meaningful and fruitful in the lives of the students. These
are not facts to be memorized but information which should
be acquired through discussion, through useful and satisfying
individual and group activity, and through daily living.
Experiences are suggested to meet the varied situations to be
found in Florida. The teacher will want to select experiences
which are most suitable to the needs of his students and to
their environment. The most valuable experiences are those
which the teacher and the student plan together to meet their
own special needs. Students, as a general rule, are more inter-
ested in carrying through those activities which they suggest,
since they are more meaningful and more important to them.
Some of the experiences have been planned for the total group
and some as individual experiences. There will be some students
who will wish to pursue a subject further and some who will
find some of the experiences too difficult; some experiences will
interest one sex more than the other; some will be more suited
to a rural environment, others to an urban situation. A careful





22 A GUIDE TO TEACHING EFFECTIVE LIVING


selection of experiences will help take care of individual differ-
ences and meet group needs.
In selecting problems and experiences a teacher may give
consideration to the following factors:
1. Need.
2. Importance in attaining objectives sought.
3. Possibility of changing a condition or situation.
4. Interest.
5. Ability to carry on activity without outside aid.
6. Ease of doing.
7. Acceptability both by the students and the community.

Nothing succeeds like success. It will be well to begin with
the more simple experiences or projects and branch out as skill
is acquired. Once anything is undertaken, it should be carried
through to successful completion. One class activity carefully
planned by the students, involving the whole group, and suc-
cessfully completed will be more valuable than many unrelated
activities.
Problems included in this Guide have been selected on the
basis of the needs and interests of senior high school boys and
girls in Florida. If some of these problems are already being
adequately met elsewhere in the high school curriculum they
may be omitted, and the time devoted to other problems. For
instance, if driver education is being provided as a separate
course available to all students of this age level, it should be
omitted from this course. It is strongly felt that all high
school students, both boys and girls, should have the oppor-
tunity to secure the attitudes, understandings, habits and skills
necessary to meet the problems of living with which this course
deals.
Additional problems may be added to this course as some of
these are being met in other areas of the curriculum. However,
these problems are recommended for all boys and for all girls.
It is suggested that units on Acquiring Nursing Skills, includ-
ing Infant Care and Learning to Meet Emergencies be incor-
porated in this course. Selected areas from the American Red
Cross Home Nursing and First Aid Courses are highly recom-





HEALTH AND SAFETY EDUCATION


mended. Husbands, fathers, and sons must frequently help
care for the ill in the home as well as take care of accidents.
Since both text books and instructor's manuals are available for
these courses, these units are not included in this Guide. Secure
these materials through the local Red Cross chapter.
Materials of Instruction
Adequate reference material is essential. No single textbook
can supply all the information needed. Each school library,
therefore, should contain at least the minimum list of references
suggested in this Guide; the more materials available, the richer
the course will be. Information pertaining to health is con-
stantly changing; library references must be checked fre-
quently, and out-of-date and unscientific materials discarded
as new materials are added.
Annual or biennial reports of official and voluntary agencies
in Florida can be obtained without cost by writing for them.
These should be added to the library year after year for pur-
poses of comparison and of determining trends. Many health
and safety organizations will supply schools with scientific ma-
terials upon request. Students should be encouraged to examine
these materials and taught to evaluate them. With the help
of the librarian they can organize and file for permanent ref-
erence materials which are scientifically and educationally
sound.
A collection of magazine articles by recognized authorities
should be started. These may be kept in an information file by
subject, or indexed, if not clipped. Pictures, posters, charts,
and graphs may be added to this collection. Students should
help select this material and work out a plan for organizing and
filing the material they consider valuable for future reference.
Thus a school can develop an increasingly valuable set of
materials.
Health and safety magazines should be added to the library.
These are absolutely necessary in order that teachers and stu-
dents may keep abreast of developments in these fields. In no
area of instruction are current magazines more essential.
Radio recordings, transcriptions of other records, films, and





24 A GUIDE TO TEACHING EFFECTIVE LIVING


film strips are available, many of them for the cost of transpor-
tation only. These should be used often and wisely to enrich
student experiences.
Class Rapport
The teacher of this course must understand boys and girls
and love them. He must be a friend in whom they can confide.
There must be mutual respect and trust. Such friendships es-
tablish a rapport between the teacher and his students which
enables him to be of greater service in helping them to solve
their problems.
He should develop a relationship whereby he and his students
may think through their problems together. Together they de-
cide what they want to know. Together they plan ways of finding
out these things. Together they weigh the facts. Together they
draw conclusions. Together they test the validity of the con-
clusions they have drawn. The teacher becomes a guide and
counselor who, because of his training and experience, is able
to help the members of the class find the truth for themselves.
Such discussion and experimentation take place most easily
in an informal grouping. More informality may be attained by
arranging the class in a circle or square, or sitting around a
table together, whenever possible. The students should be made
to feel at ease. They should be encouraged to express their view-
points. Respect must be developed among members of the class
for the contributions of each member and, in turn, each mem-
ber must be made to feel that he has a contribution to make.
Class discussion should be on a general, never a personal basis.
Students must never be embarrassed. They must feel that the
teacher has the welfare of each individual at heart.
Such an atmosphere enables a teacher to get close to his stu-
dents, to learn their hidden problems, and to be of genuine
service in helping them.
Health Guidance
It will be advantageous for each student to have a thorough
medical examination as early as possible in this course. The
teacher should study not only the student's health record but
also familiarize himself with all available information concern-





HEALTH AND SAFETY EDUCATION


ing him, such as scholastic record, results of intelligence, achieve-
ment and aptitude tests, interests, hobbies and home conditions.
He should seek to know and understand these boys and girls
and to become acquainted with their backgrounds, their needs
and their problems.
He should find occasion to talk to each student alone, espe-
cially in regard to his hobbies, his achievements, his ambitions.
It is necessary to let each student know that the teacher has
a personal interest in him. This interest is greater and more
intelligent when the teacher becomes acquainted with the family.
Then the school and the home can work together more effectively
to achieve desired results.
The teacher should confer with each student concerning the
results of his medical examination. These conferences should
be so scheduled that there will be ample time to discuss prob-
lems without interruption and in privacy. The results which
can be achieved through these individual conferences are well
worth the time they take. Each student should be helped to work
out a plan for solving his particular problems. For those stu-
dents who have no special health problems, further conferences
should be scheduled to enable the teacher to establish the
rapport which is necessary as a foundation for individual
guidance later on.
Health guidance requires great skill. Medical advice should
be given only by a physician. The school has the responsibility
of seeing that the physician's recommendations are carried out.
The counselor must see that due weight is given to recommen-
dations without creating over-anxiety concerning any condition.
The following suggestions may prove helpful:
1. There must be a feeling of mutual confidence and re-
spect between the student and the counselor.
2. The counselor should help the student to think through
his problems and help him to plan solutions for them.
3. The counselor must keep all the facts and findings of
the conference strictly confidential.
4. A wise counselor leads the student to become increas-
ingly self-directive.





26 A GUIDE TO TEACHING EFFECTIVE LIVING


5. The interview should be informal; friend talking with
friend.
6. There should be no show of surprise or disapproval
about any information revealed to the counselor.
7. The counselor should never diagnose illness or prescribe
medicine. Only a physician can do so.
8. The counselor should never recommend a particular doc-
tor or dentist. Sources for finding reputable physicians
are:
a. Family physician.
b. Hospitals.
c. County Medical Association.
d. American Medical Association.
9. The counselor should be aware of the emotional state of
the adolescent and be careful not to excite him nor cause
undue anxiety in regard to any condition.
10. The exceptional child should be helped to build his life
in spite of (not around) his handicaps; he should be
taught to adjust himself to permanent defects and to
enter into as many normal activities as possible.
Group Guidance
Group discussion can be one of the most effective methods of
guidance. Students learn that many of their problems are com-
mon problems. Those who are timid are encouraged to talk
when they hear others telling about difficulties. This in itself
is a wholesome release. High school students are concerned
about what other members of their class think. This offers an
unusual opportunity to clarify thinking, to build ideals and
patterns of behavior, especially when boys and girls discuss
their problems together. Ideas accepted by the group tend to
have great influence in molding behavior.
Community Relationships
To conduct this course adequately, a new type of health
teaching will be necessary. It differs from traditional teaching
in that it reaches out into the community, using it as a labora-
tory, and draws the various community groups into an inte-
grated program which will be of benefit to all.





HEALTH AND SAFETY EDUCATION


The teacher of this course must be community-minded. lHe
must know the personnel of official and voluntary health or-
ganizations in the community, their programs, and services
available to schools. He should participate in health activities
of the community.
Official and voluntary health and safety organizations are
resources which the teacher may tap for personnel and for
materials of instruction to supplement and enrich the school
health program. These, however, should be carefully selected in
terms of the noeds and purposes of his particular class. The mate-
rials used should be scientifically correct and educationally sound.
All parts of the course should be taught by the classroom
teacher. Resource people should be called in for supplementary
information and assistance. However, the responsibility for con-
ducting the course is the classroom teacher's.

Influence of Teacher
The teacher of this course will be more effective if he prac-
tices what he is teaching. Students recognize quickly any dis-
crepancy between teaching and practice. Example is often a
more potent influence than discussion. Adolescence is an age
of hero-worship. A teacher, respected and loved by his stu-
dents, who demonstrates his teachings in action exerts a strong
influence over his students.

Functional Program
This course, if it is to be effective, must deal in a practical
way with the actual problems of boys and girls of this age level.
Always the teacher must seek to develop attitudes and under-
standings which will motivate students to adopt ways of living
which lead to health, enduring satisfactions, and skillful living.
It is especially necessary to provide them with opportunities
to practice and develop skill in these ways of living.
This can never be a textbook course. It must include much
purposeful activity related to day-by-day living at school, at
home and in the community. It is these experiences which the
students undergo that will bring about changes in their be-
havior which will result in self-development and improvement
in the environment in which they live.





28 A GUIDE TO TEACHING EFFECTIVE LIVING


Health Improvement and Service Projects
Learning is worthwhile only when it affects living. In order
to achieve improvement not only in personal living but also
in the quality of group living in school, home and community,
it is necessary that the teacher provide opportunities for ac-
tivity. He and his students should plan improvement and serv-
ice projects designed to aid the individual and the group in
solving health and safety problems. If these projects are
practical, aimed at felt needs, and appropriate to the situa-
tion, the student will feel that they are valuable and they will
become educational experiences beneficial to the family and
the community as well as to himself.
These experience projects should be thoughtfully chosen with
regard to the student's ability as well as to their timeliness
and their appropriateness to local conditions. A minimum of
six a semester is suggested, although most students will do
more than this. Experiences such as vaccination and chest X-ray
take little time; other projects can run concurrently. If ex-
perience really is the best teacher, then this phase of the course
should be made as meaningful, as varied and as extensive as
possible. In matters which involve the development of atti-
tudes, the acquisition of skills or the formation of habits,
nothing can take its place.
The prevailing habit of teaching subjects through the use
of spoken and written words must yield to the necessity for
guiding individuals in self-development, which demands an in-
creasing inclusion of first-hand experiences in the curriculum.
This is especially necessary in a course such as this.
The teacher will guide the student's choice of projects so
that he will gain experience both in self-development and in
improving conditions in home, school and community. In many
cases these will overlap.
The teacher will find it very helpful to work in cooperation
with teachers in other departments of the school: the shop
teacher, vocational agriculture teacher, homemaking education
teacher, nurse, librarian, and English teacher. They may assist
each other in carrying through these projects, making the pro-
gram of each more functional and vital.





HEALTH AND SAFETY EDUCATION


It is likewise important that the parents understand and be
sympathetic with the projects undertaken. If they join forces
with the teacher in helping their children to accomplish their
purposes, much can be achieved. On the other hand, informed
youth can do much to improve the health practices and environ-
ment of their families.
If community agencies understand the school health program,
they will be in a better position to offer constructive assist-
ance. They can often utilize the services of the students of the
health classes, thus enriching and vitalizing the experiences of
the classroom.
It is very important for the student to carry through to
successful completion whatever he undertakes. He should be
supplied with resources which will enable him to obtain the
information he needs. His plan should be carefully reviewed by
the teacher before he begins his project. He should keep a
record of his progress and his accomplishments. All materials
used in any school or community-wide activity should have
the approval of the teacher before release.
The projects listed below are suggestive only. Each school
situation will be different. Students will be able to develop other
projects which they may wish to undertake in accordance with
their own needs and situations.
Personal Improvement and Service Projects:
1. Have a medical examination; work out a plan for cor-
rective measures with parents and teachers; carry out
the plan.
2. Have a dental examination and work out a plan for pro-
phylactic or corrective measures; carry out the plan.
3. Work out a plan under the direction of a physician and
in consultation with the teacher and parents for solving
such problems as losing or gaining weight, improving
posture, getting rid of pimples, biting nails; put the plan
into daily practice.
4. Work out a plan in consultation with the teacher for im-
proving social effectiveness in such ways as learning to
control temper, developing ease in meeting people, learn-





30 A GUIDE TO TEACHING EFFECTIVE LIVING


ing to carry on an interesting conversation, overcoming
selfishness, developing consideration for others, talking
before a group with ease, mixing easily with a group:
record progress on a daily work-sheet.
5. Secure needed immunizations. See that all members of
family receive needed immunizations.
6. Equip a first aid kit for a hunting or fishing trip. Include
snake anti-venin; demonstrate how to use it.
7. Learn to eat and like three foods which are now distasteful.
8. Work out a plan for wise use of time, planning and car-
rying out a balanced program of work, play and sleep
for two weeks.
9. Select a health practice which you desire to develop, work
out a plan for acquiring this habit and carry through the
plan until the habit is acquired.
Home Improvement and Service Projects:
-1. Survey home for accident hazards. Plan with teacher or
other adults ways to correct such hazards as fixing frayed
cords on electrical appliances, repairing steps, porches,
or floors, making a rack for garden tools; report when
corrections are made.
2. Build a home medicine cabinet and equip it.
-3. Check medicine cabinet, removing useless or unlabeled
materials and replenishing supplies needed.
-4. Build a step stool for mother to use in the home rather
than stepping up on chairs.
5. Build a small step for young child to permit him to
use lavatory in bathroom without assistance.
6. Correct defective plumbing or water systems; improve
sewage disposal and garbage disposal systems such as:
a. Install a flush toilet.
b. Improve drainage for the sink or build a grease trap.
c. Cover garbage cans. After emptying, wash, sun, and
air them. Arrange a way for keeping them below
ground level.
d. Build a septic tank.
e. Build a pit privy.





HEALTH AND SAFETY EDUCATION


f. Move pit privy or barnyards or stables away from
well.
g. Build an incinerator for home.
7. Take active measures to control insects around home;
remove all containers in yard holding stagnant water,
such as tin cans, and automobile tires; secure DDT
spray for home, put minnows in lily pools or use oil.
8. Screen house or repair screens.
9. Build and maintain storage space for food.
10. Plan and develop recreation areas around home, as cro-
quet and tennis courts, outdoor fireplace and picnic area,
horse shoe equipment.
11. See that domestic employees obtain health cards.
12. Install proper methods of storing and handling animal
fertilizer.
-13. See that dogs are inoculated against rabies.
14. Help members of family to secure needed corrective
measures, as glasses, hearing aids, rehabilitation services.
'-15. Equip a first aid kit for family car or for main out-
building.
16. Clean up all breeding places for flies around home.
L7. Destroy rodents. Proof home and other buildings against
them.
18. Build or prepare sanitary pens or stables for cattle or
hogs, or spray them to keep them sanitary.
19. Raise a home garden and supply the family table.
20. Can or market surplus garden products.
21. Make and carry out a plan for getting some member of
family to develop a taste for a vegetable which he doesn't
like.
22. Plan a program of family entertainment for a six-week
period and help to execute it.
23. Investigate the values of health and accident insurance.
"Sell" the family on needed insurance or investigate
benefits of policies the family now has.
.24. Get members of family above 15 years of age to have a
chest X-ray when available.
25. Encourage all members of family to have a medical ex-
amination including chest X-ray and blood tests.
26. Plan and equip a study in home.





32 A GUIDE TO TEACHING EFFECTIVE LIVING


27. Get cows tested for tuberculosis and Bang's disease.
28. Improve methods of milking, as securing new buckets
and using sanitary methods of caring for containers and
milk.
29. Assume responsibility for care of younger brother or
sister for definite periods, to relieve mother. Work out
a general plan for care of child of age of young brother
or sister. Help mother to carry out this plan.
30. Plan menus for family for week. Shop for the groceries.
Prepare a breakfast, a lunch, a dinner during the course
of a week. Analyze menus to see that essentials of an ade-
quate diet are included. Keep a record of cost of meals.
31. Care for sick person in home in such ways as: making
bed, preparing tray for food, giving medicine, giving
bath, taking temperature and pulse, keeping chart, mak-
ing patient more comfortable by improvising needed
equipment.
School or Community Improvement or Service Projects
1. Check school first aid equipment, keep in order, and see
that necessary supplies are secured.
2. Serve as an assistant to teacher responsible for first aid
room for a period of a month.
3. Build an incinerator for school.
4. Where needed, work out improved parking procedures
for cars at school and for trucks to unload.
5. Develop and carry through a plan for securing bicycle
racks.
6. Build an outdoor grill for school grqunds or community
recreation center.
7. Plan a school-wide campaign to interest more people in
eating in school lunch room.
8. Plan with necessary authorities and direct a school-wide
clean-up campaign.
9. Assist in city-wide clean-up campaign.
10. Plan and give a talk before a civic organization on health
or safety matters of current interest, such as Christmas
Seal campaign, Cancer drive, Community Chest. Point
out relationship of such drives to community health.





HEALTH AND SAFETY EDUCATION


'11. Plan and assume responsibility for a store window dis-
play on a health or safety subject.
12. Write and assume responsibility for a radio program
on health or safety.
18. Contribute two articles on health or safety to local
newspaper.
14. Plan and assume responsibility for a school assembly
program on health or safety.
15. Assist librarian in improving school collection of health
and safety education materials. Be responsible for se-
curing current materials on two subjects and seeing that
they are added to permanent collection in a usable form.
16. Plan and arrange bulletin board on health and safety
subjects three times.
17. Write a column in school paper on topics of current
interest in health or safety, or contribute three articles
to school newspaper.
18. Work for scheduled hours in a clinic, hospital, or wel-
fare organization, when proper arrangements have been
made by organization and school.
19. Make a health and safety survey of school. Write out
recommendations for improvement for principal. Plan
with principal ways for correcting or improving
conditions.

Individual Records
It will be helpful if each student has an individual folder
which is kept in a file. In this folder he should keep a record
of his health and safety activities during this course. It should
be the responsibility of the student to see that significant plans,
progress and results are recorded. This record will be one
means for student and teacher to evaluate progress.

Appraisal
Appraisal should be in terms of goals cooperatively deter-
mined by teacher and students. Both should make an objec-
tive and subjective appraisal of their activities. Both should be
concerned with practices and skills of living, improved home
conditions, and improved community conditions. It will be












34 A GUIDE TO TEACHING EFFECTIVE LIVING


desirable to provide for both periodical and terminal evaluation.
Appraisal should always be in terms of the student's own po-
tentialities and limitations and should stimulate further progress.
Such techniques as tests of various kinds-the health exami-
nation, personality and achievement tests-will be found help-
ful. Behavior records concerning in and out of school health
and safety activities should be kept. These may be in the form
of check lists, score cards, rating scales, codes for evaluating
personality traits, behavior and attitudes, or anecdotal records
such as diaries or logs. Individual conferences with students
will give some insight into changes which may be taking place.
Observations made by students, teachers, parents and members
of community agencies will give some indication of the progress
being achieved. Surveys of changes in environmental conditions
will often prove stimulating since these are visible changes. It
is important to see changes which are occurring.
A sample survey sheet is included so that the teacher and
students may evaluate the actual number of changes in indi-
vidual behavior and in school, home and community conditions
over a period of six weeks and at the end of the course. Each
student should list the health experiences in which he has par-
ticipated that have benefited him, his school, his home, or his
community. This progress sheet should be kept in his individual
folder and the experiences totaled at the end of each six weeks.
On the basis of such appraisal new goals may be set up and
plans for further improvement worked out.






HEALTH AND SAFETY EDUCATION


SAMPLE SCORE SHEET

Survey of Progress


EXPERIENCES IND.
1. Secured health examination .. X
2. Detected scoliosis and started
corrective exercises .................... X
3. Immunized against typhoid
fever .............................................. X
4. Wrote an article on health
for school newspaper ................
5. Checked first aid cabinet-
discarded and replenished as
necessary ....................................
6. Made barn at home rat-proof..
7. Participated in radio program
on need for chest X-ray ..........
8. Appeared before community
health council in behalf of
teen-age recreation center ....
9. Practiced home pasteuriza-
tion of milk .............................
10. Helped build incinerator for
school ............................................


Date .................................



HOME SCHOOL COMM.








X


TOTAL........ 3


3 2 2


Summary Sheet for Teacher


First six weeks
Second six weeks
Third six weeks
Fourth six weeks
Fifth six weeks
Sixth six weeks


IND. HOME SCHOOL COMM.


TOTAL..


................................................................................................................................








PART II: RESOURCE UNITS



MAKING THE MOST OF YOURSELF
THE PROBLEM
The age of adolescence is a period of acute self-consciousness
and extremes. It is a time when being unlike one's peers may
cause deep anxiety. Such conditions as acne and marked over-
weight or underweight produce extreme worry and often drastic
behavior. The desire to make a good impression assumes greater
importance at this time because of increasing interest in the
opposite sex and the prospect of securing a job or going away
to college. There is a special need at this time for them to study
about themselves and for teachers and parents to aid them in
solving their personal health problems.
There is evidence to prove that the schools should give much
greater attention to this need than they have yet given. A clear
picture of the failure of schools to meet their responsibility
in this respect was presented by the examination of the young
men of this country called for military service in World War
II. About 40 per cent of the first million examined were unable
to meet the requirements-two out of every five rejected as
unfit, and about 60 per cent of the second million were re-
jected. Thus, before Pearl Harbor, when standards for military
service had not been lowered, about 50 per cent of the approxi-
mately 2,000,000 registrants examined were rejected as un-
qualified for general military service. Dental defects and de-
fective vision ranked high as causes of rejection. Many of the
defects of the rejectees were of long standing and should have
received attention in school. Many were remediable and some
might have been prevented by adequate care.
The National Youth Administration reported that more than
15,000 young men and women between the ages of 16 and 24
in forty-seven states were given medical examinations. Nine out
of every ten examined needed some kind of medical or dental
36





HEALTH AND SAFETY EDUCATION


care. About one-third of this group was considered unfit for
employment because of preventable defects or physical handi-
caps that could be corrected.1
In Florida, Dr. Walter Wilkins in 1945 conducted a Nutri-
tion Survey of over 2000 children in seven counties, giving fair
representation to all sections of Florida.2 He found signs sug-
gesting vitamin deficiency as follows.
Highest Rate Lowest Rate
Vitamin Found in SchoolFound in School
Crusty Eyelids ......................A or B, 24.0% 0%
Granulated Eyelids ............ A 52.0% 13.0%
Scarring and Sores at
Corner of Mouth .............. B2 85.7% 0%
Swollen, Spongy, or
Bleeding Gums ................. C 60.0% 1.2%
Rough or Scaling Skin ........ A 64.0% 12.5%
Mild Skeletal changes-
Head, Chest, or Knee ...... D 93.7% 12.5%
"In that same year 668 food intake records were kept by
321 children representing every economic level. Of these 95.7%
were white children, 4.3% were Negro. Only 64.3% of the
diet lists showed that a green or yellow vegetable was eaten
during the day. In a state producing fruits, only 55.8% of
the diets studied contained any rich food source of Vitamin
C. Food lists showed that only 48.5% of the diets contained
three or more glasses of milk each day, 25.1% recorded two
glasses, 16.3% showed only one glass. No milk was recorded by
10.1%. While 56.8% indicated two good sources of protein
foods during the day, 27.9% showed only one good source, and
15.3% showed none."
Dr. Wilkins further reports,3 "One-day diet records made
on a number of children have presented some interesting facts
about the group eating patterns of our school children. For
instance, in one large high school, over 40 per cent of the 740
students did not have any fruit for the day. This was a typical
school day in February-when citrus fruits are plentiful in
Florida.

1. Will Burnett, To Live in Health, p. 13
2. Florida Health Notes, Vol. 37, No. 5, p. 78
3. Florida Health Notes, Vol. 39, No. 7, p. 164





38 A GUIDE TO TEACHING EFFECTIVE LIVING


"In one Junior and Senior High School 35 per cent of the
children who did not eat in the school lunch had no milk for
the day. Almost 70 per cent of the students did not have any
eggs. Those eating in the school lunchroom had superior diets
to those eating elsewhere. The Negro children in the same com-
munity fared even less well. Over 65 per cent not eating in
the school lunchroom did not have milk or meat during the
day. Almost 30 per cent came to school without breakfast.
Over 75 per cent did not have eggs during the day.
"More than 3500 Florida children have been given over
15,000 hemoglobin tests this past year (1946). Although only
a small per cent had severe anemia, many had border-line or
sub-clinical anemia, as judged by the usual standards."
The age 16-18 is a dangerous age in the field of nutrition;
many individuals in this age group develop very peculiar ap-
petites. It is an age of "hot dogs and pop" and irregular
hours.
This age of extremes is a time when boys and, particularly,
girls are likely to expend energy to the point of exhaustion.
They are often highly keyed up, due to the large number of
activities in which they try to participate. Many of them are
unwilling to spend adequate time sleeping and resting and stay
in a state of continual fatigue.
The school and the home have the responsibility of helping
students to learn how to live sanely, wisely and happily, and
to conserve their health. Defects and diseases should be dis-
covered and corrected before permanent damage has been done.

OBJECTIVES
To help boys and girls to:
Understand the "wholeness" of an individual and that any
part of living affects the whole of living.
Desire to grow into well rounded and well balanced
individuals.
Learn how to conserve and maintain optimum health.
Discover their personal assets and liabilities.





HEALTH AND SAFETY EDUCATION


Understand their personal health problems.
Develop and carry through specific plans for meeting their
individual health problems-removing or improving reme-
diable conditions and adjusting wisely to permanent
handicaps.
Learn how to choose health services with discrimination.

Desire and experience the best in health services.
Acquire scientific information which will enable them to
evaluate intelligently health fads, health products, nos-
trums and quacks.
Desire to keep abreast of new developments in health
knowledge.

PREPLANNING
Secure needed materials before beginning this unit-pam-
phlets, tests, appraisal forms, films.
Check library to see that materials listed in bibliography
are available in sufficient number for class.
Use magazine, Today's Health, for reports on subjects
under discussion.
Ask each student to read weekly and outline briefly on
cards two magazine articles pertaining to health from such
authoritative sources as Today's Health. Select at least one
article each week related to topic under discussion. Have
each student make a contribution to this activity and feel a
responsibility for finding and bringing to members of class
interesting, pertinent and authoritative information.
Discuss unit with county health officer and ask his coop-
eration in giving health examinations to members of class
who have not had examinations recently or who do not have
examinations by family physician.
See that the examinations are preceded by and interwoven
with class discussion. Let the health service and the class
discussion supplement and reenforce each other.







40 A GUIDE TO TEACHING EFFECTIVE LIVING


Study individual records of students; utilize all the in-
formation available about them; plan to fill in gaps in in-
formation which will enable them to understand themselves
better.
Help students to see and to appreciate their assets; empha-
size these; deal kindly, gently and wisely with their health
problems; remember that a teacher is not a physician.
Create a healthy interest in self-improvement; steer a sane
course between morbid self-interest and utter neglect.

Spend the most time on the most urgent personal health
problems in your group. Other problems may need to be
added to this unit; some of these may need to be omitted;
the problems included in this unit are basic to "making
the most of yourself."
Help students to help themselves. In general, people grow
strong through doing things for themselves and are weak-
ened by having things done for them. Teach them the pro-
cedures to follow and place the responsibility upon them;
help them only when they cannot help themselves.

Plan, insofar as possible, individual conferences with each
student; if time is limited, have conferences with those
who have the greatest needs.
Become acquainted with resources in community for meeting
health needs.
Work in close cooperation with students' families and other
staff members in determining and meeting students' needs.
Let this unit be doing something about health, not talking
about health.
Help each student to feel that he has improved in some
respect and that he has contributed to improving the health
of his family.






HEALTH AND SAFETY EDUCATION


SUGGESTED PROBLEMS, CONTENT AND EXPERIENCES:


Problems and Content

I, Your Goals.


A. What do you really want in life?

1. True friends.
2. Happy home.

a. Faithful, fine husband or wife.
b. Normal, healthy children.

3. Satisfying job, career.
4. Happiness.
5. Opportunity to render service to
fellowmen.
6. College education.
7. Car.
8. Clothes.
9. Travel.
10. Money.




B. How can studying yourself help
you attain these things?

1. Increase understanding:

a. Of why you act as you do and
why others act as they do.
b. Of how to make others like
you better.
c. Of how to get along with
others better.
d. Of ways of making a favor-
able impression meeting peo-
ple and when applying for a
position.
e. Of factors in holding a job
and attaining leadership.
f. Of factors which enter into
building a happy and perma-
nent home.
g. Of conditions which favor the
birth and development of nor-
mal, healthy children.


Experiences for Students


Write on a sheet of paper the
things you really want in life.
Collect unsigned papers and
tabulate results on board.
(List under Content is com-
pilation of replies of hundreds
of adolescents asked this ques-
tion.)












Discuss elements that enter
into achieving wishes and
ways by which an understand-
ing of yourself, physically,
mentally and emotionally, can
help attain the things you
most ardently desire.

Read Part One, "Your Way
of Life," in Life and Health
by Wilson, Bracken, and
Almack.






42 A GUIDE TO TEACHING EFFECTIVE LIVING


Problems and Content

h. Of ways of preventing illness
and accidents which will save
money, pain and time.
i. Of desirable ways of meeting
emergencies of illness and ac-
cidents, if they occur.
j. Of ways of attaining and
maintaining optimum health,
basic to achieving other de-
sires.

2. Enable you:

a. To appraise yourself.
b. To determine your needs and
your goals.
c. To chart a course which will
lead you to your destination.
d. To check from time to time to
see that you are staying on
the course.


C. If you want to make the most of
yourself, in what ways will you
need to grow and develop?

1.Physically develop a sound
body which functions efficiently.
2. Mentally-develop a keen mind
able to reason and judge with
discrimination.
3. Emotionally learn to under-
stand, control and use emotions
wisely.
4. Socially-learn to get along with
others and work cooperatively
with groups.
5. Spiritually-develop an under-
standing of the Power which in-
tegrates the total self.


Experiences for Students


Discuss desirable ways of
planning for self-improve-
ment.


Write an autobiography de-
scribing inherited and en-
vironmental influences which
have made you the person you
are today. Describe your fu-
ture ambitions.

Discuss what you think a
study of yourself should in-
clude.

Discuss phases of growth
necessary to develop a well-
balanced and unified person-
ality.

Discuss interrelatedness of
physical, mental and emo-
tional well-being.

Cite illustrations of overde-
velopment or underdevelop-
ment of one phase of growth.
Discuss effects on individual.

Develop a chart showing fac-
tors which enter into a well-
balanced personality.

Analyze your daily and week-
ly program of living; list the






HEALTH AND SAFETY EDUCATION


Problems and Content


II Personal Inventory.

A. What does the term "inventory"
mean?

1. To take stock.
2. To draw up a list of goods on
hand.
3. To estimate on the value, as of
a business.




B. What are the purposes of an in-
ventory?

1. To determine assets.
2. To find out needs.


C. In this "business of living," what
should a personal inventory in-
clude?

1. Taking stock of one's:

a. Appearance and physical con-
dition.
b. Personality traits, habits and
behavior.


Experiences for Students

things you are doing; deter-
mine to which phase of your
growth they are contributing;
decide whether you are neg-
lecting or overemphasizing
any phase of growth; work out
a plan to provide for all
phases of growth.

Decide, as a class, the prob-
lems which you feel you need
to study. Decide on individual
problems which you wish to
know more about.


Discuss meaning of word in-
ventory.

Interview merchant to find out
values of inventory to him;
see how often he takes inven-
tory.

Discuss value of applying good
business practice to business
of living.

Compare taking inventory in
only one department of store
with taking inventory of only
one part of yourself as the
mind.

Discuss reasons for making an
inventory of your total assets
and studying your needs.

Discuss intelligent attitude one
should take toward permanent
problems as color blindness,
partial deafness, lack of beau-
ty, heart condition, some
physical defect.

Discuss the question, "Can
personality be improved?"






44 A GUIDE TO TEACHING EFFECTIVE LIVING


Problems and Content

c. Natural abilities and interests.

2. Appraising one's assets and
needs.
3. Setting out to meet needs or
learning to adjust wisely to per-
manent problems.


D. How can you make such an in-
ventory?

1. By consultation with school and
family physician, dentist, nurse,
and other health specialists.
2. By consultation with teachers,
family and friends.
3. By studying cumulative health
record.
4. By studying cumulative scho-
lastic record and taking achieve-
ment test.
5. By taking mental tests, aptitude
tests and personality tests.
6. By personal observation and an-
alysis.

E. Why should you take such an in-
ventory?

1. To appraise strong points and
to determine those needing at-
tention.
2. To help decide vocation.


Experiences for Students

Discuss ways by which a per-
son with some unusual fea-
ture or defect can wisely com-
pensate for it.

Discuss danger of becoming
too concerned about oneself;
the intelligent attitude one
should take toward oneself.

Discuss danger of excusing
oneself for undesirable beha-
vior as temper tantrums on
the basis of, "I inherited a vio-
lent temper from Aunt Sally."
Discuss facts that each indi-
vidual has assets and needs
and each individual can im-
prove himself in some re-
spects.

Consult family and talk with
friends to get their viewpoint
about your assets and needs.

Request aptitude tests from
school adviser. Study results
carefully.


Take personality tests and ask
teacher to go over them with
you very carefully.


Ask teacher to go over find-
ings of all school records with
you and help you analyze as-
sets and needs.

Secure rating scales, "Who-
Me?" (for boys) and "My Re-
flections" (for girls). Check
yourself as you study each
topic in this unit.

Prepare a list of your strong






HEALTH AND SAFETY EDUCATION


Problems and Content

3. To set up a plan for meeting
present needs.



F. How can a periodic health exami-
nation be of value to you?

1. Assure you that you are in good
condition, able to participate in
vigorous sports.
2. Discover unsuspected diseases
or defects before great damage
has been done.
3. Call attention to necessity of
correcting known conditions.
4. Save you money, pain, time,
loss of pleasure.


G. What does a health examination
usually include?

1. Health history.

a. General information.

(1) Name, age, address.
(2) Name and address of fam-
ily physician and dentist.

b. Information concerning fam-
ily.

(1) Names, ages, nationalities,
occupations of parents.
(2) Names and ages of broth-
ers and sisters.
(3) Serious diseases w h i c h
have occurred in family
especially those resulting
in death.
c. Personal health history.
(1) Past diseases.


Experiences for Students

points and needs. Develop a
specific, written plan to
change a need to an asset;
carry it out.

Report on lives of people who
have made their problems
their greatest assets as De-
mosthenes, the stutterer, Glen
Cunningham, the athlete.

Justify statement, "It's smart
to stay healthy."

Discuss problems which may
arise if a carious tooth is neg-
lected or hookworm or tuber-
culosis are undiscovered.

Ask coach to discuss with
group the reasons he has his
football team given a careful
examination.

Ask nurse or physician to go
over health record form care-
fully with class. Discuss rea-
sons for items which are in-
cluded on form.
Discuss reasons for removal of
clothing when doctor is mak-
ing an examination.
If possible, visit a doctor's of-
fice or clinic to see instru-
ments frequently used in giv-
ing an examination such as
stethoscope (an instrument
for conveying sounds of the
body to ear of observer), X-
ray equipment, fluoroscope (a
device for examining deep
structures of body by means
of roentgen-rays), sphygmo-
manometer (instrument for
taking blood pressure), hemo-
cytometer (instrument for






46 A GUIDE TO TEACHING EFFECTIVE LIVING


Problems and Content

(2) Major accidents.
(3) Operations.
(4) Immunizations.
(5) Health habit inventory.

(a) Diet, sleep, exercise.
(b) Mental, emotional and
social behavior.

(6) Work.

2. Medical examination.
a. Weight, height.
b. Skin.
c. Eyes and eyelids.
d. Nose, throat, and mouth.
e. Teeth and gums.
f. Ears.
g. Bones and muscles.
h. Heart.
i. Lungs.
j. Kidneys.
k. Blood.
1. Digestive organs.
m. Nerves.
H. What other tests may be provided
which will help you determine your
physical condition?
1. Vision tests.
2. Hearing tests.
3. Posture tests.
4. Dental examination.
I. If the health examination is made
by the school physician, what fol-
low-up procedures will he use?
1. Have findings of examination
recorded on cumulative health
record card.
2. Suggest, if needed, further di-
agnostic tests by family physi-
cian or other specialists.
3. Make any necessary recommen-
dations concerning school pro-
gram.


Experiences for Students

counting blood cells), hemo-
globinometer (instrument for
estimating hemoglobin con-
tent of red blood cells). If
physician will measure blood
pressure of a student, make a
few hemoglobin tests, let them
see blood cells under a micro-
scope, fluoroscope another stu-
dent, show them some X-rays
and discuss values of these
procedures, he can create
great interest, help to dispel
fear of physicians, and de-
velop a desire for a thorough
medical examination. Such a
visit can have a great psycho-
logical and educational value
when properly planned and
executed.

Discuss sanitary measures
used in physician's office and
reasons for these precautions.


Discuss reasons for health ex-
aminations in school and de-
sirable follow-up procedures.






HEALTH AND SAFETY EDUCATION


Problems and Content

4. Request conferences with
school personnel or parents as
needed to secure recommended
remedial measures.

J. How can you cooperate with the
physician and nurses?

1. Appreciate opportunity of hav-
ing examination.
2. Answer questions truthfully, giv-
ing all necessary facts.
3. Have conference with nurse or
teacher concerning results of ex-
amination.
4. Discuss findings with parents.
5. Follow through with remedial
measures needed until all cor-
rections are made.


K. What are the dangers of self-
diagnosis and self-treatment?

1. May not understand significance
of symptoms.
2. May make incorrect diagnosis
and attempt to treat wrong dis-
ease.
3.Delays treatment by physician;
disease sometime too far ad-
vanced to cure.
4. Often costs more money and
time in long run because ad-
vanced disease is more difficult
to cure.
5. May cause unnecessary compli-
cations by delaying treatment.


L. What type of training is required
before a medical school feels that


Experiences for Students


Discuss the part of the stu-
dent in the health examina-
tion.

Interview physician, nurse,
principal and health educa-
tion teacher to find out what
they think is the part of the
student in the health exami-
nation. Report findings to
class.

On basis of class discussion
and interviews, outline pro-
cedures to follow. Post on
bulletin board in hall or in
health examination room.

Secure h e a th examination
from your family physician
or school physician.

Plan a conference with teach-
er to discuss recommendations
made by the doctor as a re-
sult of the examination. De-
velop a plan of procedure to
secure any remedial measures
needed; carry out plan.

Cite illustrations of self-
diagnosis and self-treatment
that have proved costly to an
individual.

Ask physician or nurse to dis-
cuss dangers of self-diagno-
sis and self-treatment with
class.

Ask physician to discuss re-
quirements for becoming a






48 A GUIDE TO TEACHING EFFECTIVE LIVING


Problems and Content

a physician is capable of diagnos-
ing and treating disease?

1.Minimum of two years pre-
medical training g, preferably
four.
2. Four years in medical school.
3. One to two years hospital in-
ternship.
4. Two years additional training
for specialists.
5. Seven to ten years total prepa-
ration.

M. What are some of the specialists
you should know and what spe-
cialty does the name indicate?
1. Obstretrician specialist con-
cerned with management of
pregnancy and labor.
2. Pediatrician baby and child
specialist.
3. Dermatologist-specialist in skin
diseases.
4. Ophthalmologist specialist in
regard to eye and its diseases.
5. Otorhinolaryngologist-ear, nose
throat specialist.
6. Neurologist specialist in dis-
eases of nervous system.
7. Psychiatrist-specialist in treat-
ment of mental disorders.
8. Gynecologist-specialist in dis-
eases of women, especially geni-
tal, urinary and rectal diseases.
9. Orthopedist-specialist in cor-
rection of bone deformities and
injuries, especially those in chil-
dren.

N. What should you consider in
choosing your doctor?
1. He should be a graduate of a
recognized medical school.


Experiences for Students

doctor, a specialist in some
branch of medicine, and some
kinds of specialists to whom
people frequently go.


Discuss ways by which people
frequently select physicians
and more desirable ways of
choosing a doctor.






HEALTH AND SAFETY EDUCATION


Problems and Content

2. He should be licensed in state
in which he is practicing.
3. He should be a member of lo-
cal or county medical society.
4. He will not advertise.
5.He will welcome consultation
with other doctors when needed.
6. He will keep all information
concerning you strictly confi-
dential.
7. Additional considerations:

a. Experience.
b. Personality.
c. Continuous training by such
means as clinics, conferences,
refresher courses.

O. How would you obtain information
about physicians in a city to which
you were moving?

1. Consult:

a. Local, state or American Med-
ical Association directory
which gives the following in-
formation:
(1) Age.
(2) Year of graduation.
(3) Medical school.
(4) Hospital connections.
(5) Type of practice.
(6) Specialty.
b. Secretary of local county med-
ical society.
c. Local hospital.
d. Local health department.
e. Local secretary of national
health organization as Red
Cross, National Tuberculosis
Association or American Can-
cer Society.
2. Discuss problem with former
family physician.


Experiences for Students

Discuss problem John encoun-
tered when he moved from
New York to Miami and his
little girl suddenly became ill
one night. He knew no doc-
tors in Miami. Explain how
John could have intelligently
provided for that unexpected
emergency.


Secure a medical directory for
your locality and see what m-
formation you can discover
about a physician from it.
If you can find many physi-
cians in your locality, discuss
basis on which you would se-
lect one.






50 A GUIDE TO TEACHING EFFECTIVE LIVING


Problems and Content

III. The Teeth Behind Your Smile.

A. What do the teeth behind your
smile reveal about you?

1. Appreciation of value of "mak-
ing the most of yourself."
2. Attention given to personal
grooming.


B. What are the advantages to you of
a clean mouth and sound teeth?

1. Social advantages.
2. Professional advantages.
3. Economic advantages.
4. Physical advantages.



C. What is the condition of your
teeth and gums?

1. Number of teeth in mouth.
2. Number extracted.
3. Number not cut.
4. Number with fillings.
5. Number with visible cavities.
6. Cleanliness.
7. Occlusion.
8. Gums.

a. Color.
b. Firmness.
c. Inflammation.


Experiences for Students

Discuss statement, "A tootn
is more precious than a dia-
mond."

Read Part Four, "As Others
See You," in Life and Health
by Wilson, Bracken and Al-
mack, and "Your Health and
Personal Appearance," in
Health for You, by Crisp.

Select a committee to plan
and arrange bulletin board
showing values of good teeth
to high school boys and girls.

Discuss those things which ev-
ery individual can do to care
for teeth regardless of kind
he has.

The night before discussion
of teeth ask each member of
class to examine teeth and
gums at home, to find out if
he has all the teeth he should
have, to bring to class record
of number lost, not erupted,
filled and with visible cavities;
to see if teeth need cleaning;
to decide if gums are pink,
thin, firm or spongy, purplish
and bleeding. Ask a commit-
tee to compile record of class
showing: total number with
perfect teeth; total number of
sixth year molars missing, of
extracted teeth, of teeth not
erupted, of filled teeth, of
teeth with visible cavities.
Secure dental examinations
and needed corrections. Ask
each member of class to make
a count of number of teeth
dentist finds with cavities; to-
tal and compare with num-






HEALTH AND SAFETY EDUCATION


Problems and Content


D. What changes have occurred in
your teeth since birth?

1. Deciduous teeth.

a. Number.
b. Names.
c. Time of formation.
d. Time of eruption.
e. Importance of proper care.

2. Permanent teeth.

a. Number.
b. Names.
c. Time of formation.
d. Time of eruption.
e. Importance of sixth year
molar.


E. What principally has affected the
condition your teeth are in today?

1. Diet until permanent teeth were
formed, usually up to about the
age of thirteen.
2. Amount of carbohydrates eaten.
3. Geographical location.
4. Care given by dentists.


F. What has happened when a tooth
becomes carious and aches?


Experiences for Students

ber discovered by own exam-
inations.

Discuss advantages of regular
visits to dentists and X-raying
of teeth.

Discuss what is meant by pre-
ventive dentistry.

Demonstrate with charts or
models difference in decidu-
ous and permanent teeth.

Discuss reasons for taking
care of deciduous teeth.

Explain importance of sixth
year molar and reason it is
commonly mistaken for a tem-
porary or deciduous tooth.

Explain why third molars are
called wisdom teeth.

Describe what has occurred
when one has an impacted
wisdom tooth.
Find out hardest substance in
human body.

Account for condition of your
teeth today.

Explain how geographical lo-
cation could affect kind of
teeth ne has.

Discuss number of dentists in
your locality in relation to
population.




Demonstrate by means of
charts, diagrams or pictures
what really happens when a






52 A GUIDE TO TEACHING EFFECTIVE LIVING


Problems and Content

1. Most generally accepted theory.

a. Bacteria produce acid from
ingested foods rich in carbo-
hydrates, such as sugar, can-
dies, pastries, and sweetened
drinks.
b. Acid dissolves enamel attack-
ing weak spots.
c. Decay, unchecked, spreads
further involving dentine and
eventually pulp.
d. Dental abscess likely to form
at root-end of tooth after pulp
infection.
e. Infection from dental abscess
may travel through blood
stream to other parts of body.

2. Most effective time for treat-
ment has passed when tooth
aches.

G. What comparatively recent exper-
iments have given us new infor-
mation in regard to reducing
dental caries?

1. Experiments in regard to effect
of sugar on teeth.

a. Strong evidence of relation-
ship between sugar and dental
caries-more decay when diet
is high in sweets.
b. Rising lactobacillus count us-
ually followed by dental
caries.
c. Lactobacillus count reduced
by reducing carbohydrates;
followed by less dental caries.

2. Experiments in regard to sodium
fluoride.

a. Too much fluorine in drinking
water causes dental fluorosis
or mottled enamel.


Experiences for Students

cavity begins; when a tooth
aches; when an abscess forms.
Show how areas of body re-
mote from teeth may be af-
fected.


Read "Your Teeth-How to
Save Them," by Herbert
Yahres and make a report to
class on what long shortage
of food did to dental health
of Italians as discovered by
American dental investigators
at close of war.

From same pamphlet report
on Dr. Philip Jay's study con-
ducted on residents of a chil-
dren's home.

Discuss relationship of lacto-
bacillus acidophilus count to
dental caries.

Make a study of sweets being
sold at your school. Discuss
advisability of selling sweets
to children in consideration
of their relationship to dental
caries. Discuss this problem






HEALTH AND SAFETY EDUCATION


Problems and Content

b. One part of fluorine to a mil-
lion parts of water reduces
decay without mottling.
c. Direct application of sodium
fluoride to teeth.

(1) Two per cent solution used.
(2) Decay reduced by an av-
erage of 40 per cent.
(3) Series of four applications
used-applied at intervals
of three days to a week.
(4) Teeth cleaned before first
application.
(5) Teeth surrounded by cot-
ton rolls; dried with com-
pressed air.
(6) Sodium fluoride sprayed
or swabbed on all sur-
faces; dried three or four
minutes.
(7) Applications given at
about ages of 3, 7, 10 and
13 years.

(a) To protect baby teeth.
(b) To protect teeth de-
veloping.

(8) Applications may be given
at any age.
(9) Effect on adult's teeth yet
undetermined.
(10) Direct application only
method of proved effec-
tiveness.

H. What can you do at your age to
take care of your teeth to make
them last as long as possible?

1. Visit dentist regularly.
2. Control carbohydrate consump-
tion, at least use sweets temper-
ately.
3. Eat adequate diet to keep gums


Experiences for Students

with teacher and principal.
Present recommendations to
principal.

Write an article for school
paper about relationship be-
tween sugar and dental caries.
Report on early discovery of
effect of fluorine on teeth, and
experiments trying artificial
chlorination of water now go-
ing on in cities of United
States and Canada.

Ask dentist to describe the ap-
plication of fluorine to the
teeth or report on method de-
scribed in "Your Teeth-How
to Save Them."

Consult Reader's Guide and
report on recent research in
this field.


Ask dentist to
vitis, pyorrhea
infection with


discuss gingi-
and Vincent's
class.


If needed, make appointment
to visit your family dentist.
Secure needed corrections.

Begin a plan of preventive
dentistry.

Keep diet record for week to
determine amount of sweets
eaten. Develop practice of sub-






54 A GUIDE TO TEACHING EFFECTIVE LIVING


Problems and Content

healthy; will not affect teeth
after permanent set are formed.
4. Brush teeth for sake of clean-
liness and to strengthen gums,
not to reduce decay.


I. What care should a child be given
to help him develop sound and
beautiful teeth?

1. Provide a good general diet.

a. Well balanced, adequate.
b. Temperate use of sweets; sub-
stitute fruits for candies.

2. Provide hard objects such as
hard crusts of bread and toast
for him to bite on when teeth
are coming out.

3. Protect child against diseases;
see that he is immunized.

a. Enamel formed during illness
may be defective.
b. Acid attacks weak spots in
enamel.

4. Feed baby by breast, if possible.

a. Contributes to normal devel-
opment of jaw, nose and roof
of mouth.
b. Contributes to emotional se-
curity.
c. Confers early immunity to
certain infections.


Experiences for Students

stituting fruit for candies and
rich pastries. Keep record for
two weeks to see how success-
ful you have been.

Demonstrate type of brush
one should use and proper
way of brushing teeth. Use
mouth model. Discuss proper
care of tooth brush.

Make tooth powder for fami-
ly use. Combine one part of
salt with three parts of soda.
Flavor with oil of peppermint.

Plan first visit of little brother
or sister to dentist; discuss
plan with mother and father;
take to dentist or go with
mother when visit is made.
Report what occurred before,
during and after visit and re-
actions of child at dental of-
fice.


Find out why breast feeding
is advisable from standpoint
of providing best conditions
for development of teeth.






HEALTH AND SAFETY EDUCATION


Problems and Content

5. Begin supervision by dentist
after deciduous teeth have
erupted, sometime between ages
of two and three.

a. Make first visit to dentist a
pleasant experience.
b. Teach child to co-operate
with and to like dentist.

6. Teach child how to brush teeth
at about three years of age.
a. Provide steps or foot stool at
lavatory, if necessary.
b. Let him help himself.

7. Have dental fluorine treatment
at ages of 3, 7, 10 and 13.
8. See that child visits dentist
regularly.
9. Keep deciduous teeth until re-
spective permanent successors
are ready to erupt.
10. Consult dentist concerning any
dental irregularities.


J. What should a person look for in
selecting a dentist?
1. Graduate of recognized school
of dentistry.
2. Licensed in state in which he is
practicing.
3. Active member of dental society.
4. No advertising of services.
5. Clean, well equipped office.
6. Application of hygienic princi-
ples in practice.
7. Education of patients in preven-
tive dentistry.


Experiences for Students


Make or secure steps for small
brother or sister to use at lav-
atory to brush teeth. Teach
him how to brush teeth.

Plan and give a P. T. A. pro-
gram explaining care a child's
teeth should have. Ask local
dentist to explain new sodium
fluoride treatment.

Secure pamphlets on teeth
from county health depart-
ment; distribute to members
of P. T. A.


Discuss standards by which
you would select your dentist.






56 A GUIDE TO TEACHING EFFECTIVE LIVING


Problems and Content


IV. Skin, Hair and Nails.

A. What has the greatest appeal to
members of opposite sex in regard
to skin, hair, nails?

1. Clear, firm, smooth skin.
2. Natural beauty with cosmetics
skillfully applied.
3. Naturally glossy hair becoming-
ly arranged.
4. Clean, well-cared-for nails
shaped to follow contours of end
of fingers without extremes.
5. Cleanliness of body and clothing.


B. What general ways of living are
especially reflected in the skin?

1.Kind of food eaten.
2. Amount of exercise taken.
3. Waste materials eliminated.
4. Amount of sleep and rest se-
cured.
5. Attention given to cleanliness.


Experiences for Students


Ask a committee of boys and
a committee of girls to de-
scribe what each considers to
be attractive skin, hair and
nails for opposite sex.

Observe skin, hair and nails
of young, healthy children; of
children who do not appear
to be healthy. Discuss differ-
ences.

Discuss ways in which skin
is an index of health.

Discuss the fact that the kind
of person you are inside is
being daily etched on your
face.

Collect photographs from
newspaper stories. Analyze ex-
pressions of these people to
see if the face reveals person-
ality traits.

Discuss importance of each in-
dividual studying himself, and
learning to make the most of
his natural assets and to mini-
mize conditions which can-
not be corrected.

Read "Nutrition for You" by
Wilkins and Boyd to find out
how faulty diet may affect
skin.

Explain how exercise helps to
keep skin healthy.

Discuss possible effects on
skin of faulty elimination.

Discuss effects of constant loss
of sleep on appearance. Find






HEALTH AND SAFETY EDUCATION


Problems and Content


C. How is the skin constructed and
what are its functions?

1. Layers.

a. Epidermis.

(1) Layer of cells.
(2) Pigment.

b. Derma.

(1) Cells.
(2) Lymph vessels.
(3) Capillaries.
(4) Nerves.
(5) Sebaceous glands.
(6) Sweat glands.
(7) Hair Follicles.

2. Functions.

a. Protection.
b. Sense organ.

(1) Pain.
(2) Temperature.
(3) Touch.
c. Aid in temperature regulation.
d. Excretion.


Experiences for Students

out why pallor often accom-
panies continuous loss of sleep.

Draw up a list of desirable
health practices basic to at-
taining real beauty.

With aid of model, charts or
drawings, describe structure
and functions of skin.

Find out: (1) why some peo-
ple are blonde, others brunet,
(2) what happens when one
acquires and loses a coat of
tan, (3) danger of excessive
coat of tan, (4) why some
people freckle, and (5) how
to attain a coat of tan without
sunburn.

Discuss coloring of people in
different climates. Account for
these differences.

Find out: (1) upon what the
natural rosiness of cheeks de-
pends, and (2) what occurs
when one blushes or turns
pale.

Find out: (1) where on body
sebaceous glands and hair
follicles cannot be found, and
(2) where sweat glands are
most numerous.

Discuss effect of emotion, such
as fear, on sweat glands.
Discuss: (1) reasons for bath-
ing, and (2) effects of warm,
hot, and cold baths.
Discuss use of deodorants.
Discuss ways in which body
loses heat.
Find out amount of perspira-






58 A GUIDE TO TEACHING EFFECTIVE LIVING


Problems and Content


D. What are people trying to do with
cosmetics and beauty treatments
of all kinds?

1. Imitate natural beauty-attain
appearance of health and youth.
2. Cover up or correct blemishes or
defects.
3. Change themselves t o more
nearly approach their ideals of
beauty.


E. What are some common skin prob-
lems and what can be done about
them?

1. Blackheads.
2. Pimples-acne.
3. Boils and carbuncles.
4. Cold sores or fever blisters.
5. Scars, birthmarks.
6. Warts.


Experiences for Students

tion sweat glands normally
prepare in twenty-four hours.
Discuss factors which increase
this amount.

Test sensitiveness of skin on
finger tips, back of hand, back
of neck, arm and forehead by
seeing how close point of di-
viders or compasses can be
brought together and still be
felt as two. Subject must be
blindfolded. Account for dif-
ferences.

Discuss care a broken place
in skin should always receive.

Find out how much is spent
annually in this country for
cosmetics.

Discuss necessity of being
able to evaluate claims made
for cosmetics and beauty
treatments.

Collect and evaluate adver-
tisements of products recom-
mended for skin and hair.
Analyze motives to which they
appeal.

Make a collection of super-
stitions or fallacies concern-
ing skin and hair. Explain
why each is incorrect.

Ask a physician or skin spe-
cialist, if available, to dis-
cuss common skin problems
with class.

Discuss personal skin prob-
lems with school physician or
nurse. Plan for their care.

Discuss what occurs in each






HEALTH AND SAFETY EDUCATION


Problems and Content

7. Moles.
8. Sunburn.
9. Blisters.
10. Allergies.
11. Athlete's foot.
12. Ringworm.
13. Impetigo.
14. Scabies.


F. How can hair be kept glossy and
healthy?

1. Effect of general health on hair.
2. Cleanliness.
a. Daily care.
b. Shampooing.


G. What are some special problems in
keeping hair attractive?

1. Excessive exposure to sun.
2. Dandruff.
3. Curling.
4. Changing the color.


H. How can superfluous hair be re-
moved?
1. Hair remover or depilatories.
2. Shaving.


I. What care should the hand and
nails receive?


Experiences for Students

of these conditions and recom-
mend procedures to follow.

Develop "Hints to Prevent
Athlete's Foot" and post on
bulletin board.

Discuss reasons for consulting
a dermatologist for any skin
blemish rather than taking
advice of friends.

Discuss importance of using
individual toilet articles.

Examine a hair under micro-
scope. Describe its structure.
With aid of model, chart or
drawing, explain how a hair
grows. Explain what occurs
when a cat "gets her back
up."

Explain how general health
affects hair.

Find out difference in straight
and curly hair.

Explain what happens when
hair becomes grey.

Discuss proper methods of
caring for hair daily; of sham-
pooing hair.

Discuss home care of combs
and brushes.

Discuss sanitary measures
which should be used in beau-
ty parlors and in barber shops.
Discuss use of hair tonics.
Evaluate truth of claims made
in advertisement of these
products.
Discuss effects of permanent
waves on hair.






60 A GUIDE TO TEACHING EFFECTIVE LIVING


Problems and Content

1. Cleanliness.
2. Manicuring.
3. Special problems.

a. Hangnails.
b. Biting nails.
c. Chapping.


V. Your Body Lineup.

A. What are the advantages of good
posture to you?

1. Social values.

a. Increases attractiveness -
symmetry of line and proper
proportions add to beauty.
b. Increases poise and confi-
dence.
c. Makes clothes look better.

2. Economic values.

a. Signifies energy and alertness
when applying for a position.
b. Signifies keenness in knowing
how to make the most of one-
self.


Experiences for Students

Ask a dermatologist, physi-
cian, or nurse to discuss prob-
lem of dandruff with class.
Discuss safety and desirability
of various ways of removing
superfluous hair.

Discuss care of skin in shav-
ing.

Discuss the things your hands
tell about you.

Explain why nails grow.

Discuss care a surgeon gives
hands before operating and
reasons for this.

Discuss ways of overcoming
habit of nail biting.

Arrange to see the film, Body
Care and Grooming (McGraw-
Hill).

Discuss values of good posture.
Collect, display, discuss pic-
tures and sculpture that in-
spire good posture such as
Richter's Queen Louise, The
Winged Victory, movie actors
and actresses and models.

Discuss use of posture to por-
tray characters on stage and
screen. Use some recent films
to illustrate different types
of character portrayals.

Ask student in homemaking
education to discuss value of
good posture from standpoint
of clothes.
Dramatize a scene where an
employer is interviewing pro-
spective employees who have
good and poor postures. Ask






HEALTH AND SAFETY EDUCATION


Problems and Content


3. Hygienic values.

a. Organs held in normal posi-
tion more likely to function
efficiently.
b. Respiration, circulation, di-
gestion, elimination, menstru-
ation hampered by organs
cramped or pushed out of po-
sition.

4. Mental values.

a. Outward carriage expresses
inward spirit.
b. Uplifted body helps to uplift
spirit.

B. What are some causes of bad pos-
ture?

1. Fatigue.
2. Weakness of muscles due to:

a. Illness.
b. Lack of exercise.
c. Malnutrition.

3. Diseases such as:

a. Rickets.
b. Tuberculosis of bone.

4. Physical defects such as:

a. Defective eyesight.


Experiences for Students

members of class to discuss
reactions they would have if
they were the employer.

Demonstrate effect of round
shoulders on chest and ab-
domen. Look at position of
internal organs in mannikin.
Have each member of class
place hands on his chest and
abdomen, let shoulders drop
forward and downward and
feel what happens. Lift chest
and feel what happens. Dis-
cuss ways in which poor pos-
ture could affect functioning
of internal organs.

Discuss feelings portrayed by
high chest and straight back;
by shoulders dropping for-
ward and downward.

Study The Winged Victory.
Read the story of this piece
of sculpture. Note the high
chest, feel the sweep of the
wind m the drapery and
sense the feeling of victory
and courage expressed in the
forward movement of the
body.

Assume fatigue posture fre-
quently observed. Discuss im-
pression you make on others
if you habitually assume this
position.

Find out cause, effects on
skeleton, treatment and pre-
vention of rickets. Discuss
tell-tale signs it may leave.

Explain ways in which astig-
matism, near-sightedness or






62 A GUIDE TO TEACHING EFFECTIVE LIVING


Problems and Content

b. Impaired hearing.
c. Shortness of limb.

5. Habitual wrong use of body such
as:

a. Standing on one foot, weight
on heel.
b. Bending in waistline over
work.
c. Sitting in slumped position
without touching back of
chair or seat.
d. Walking toeing in or out.
e. Carrying objects habitually on
one side.

6. Mental attitudes reflected by:

a. Failure.
b. Discouragement.
c. Lack of self-confidence.
d. Fear and timidity.

7. Incorrect clothing such as:

a. High heels.
b. Clothing, restricting freedom
of movement.

8. Wrong idea of correct posture.
9. Constant nagging by adults.
10. Very rapid growth and inequal-
ity of size in chums such as:

a. Very tall and very short
friends who go together con-
stantly.


Experiences for Students

partial deafness may affect
posture.

Discuss structure of bones-
organic and inorganic mate-
rials; characteristics of each,
and changes in proportion of
these materials with age.
Bring out fact that skeleton
is gradually hardening in po-
sition in which it is habitually
held.

Ask members who are in
chemistry class to secure two
leg bones of a chicken; leave
one in dilute hydrochloric
acid for several days; weigh
and burn other on wire gauze
in laboratory; cool and weigh
again. Bring results to class;
show what happened to each;
discuss characteristics given
to bone by organic and inor-
ganic materials.

If skeleton is available, study
it and imagine posture of per-
son to whom it belonged. Dis-
cuss reasons for deciding on a
particular posture.

Demonstrate what happens to
body in positions commonly
observed. Ask each member
of class to stand, put hands
on hips, place weight forward
on ball of both feet, then
stand on one foot with weight
placed on one heel. Feel what
happens to hips and longi-
tudinal arch of foot. Place
weight again forward to balls
of both feet. Feel what hap-
pens.
Place hands on chest and ab-






HEALTH AND SAFETY EDUCATION


Problems and Content


C. What are some common abnormal
spinal curvatures?

1. Kyphosis, exaggerated thoracic
curvature (round shoulders).
2. Lordosis, exaggerated lumbar
curvature (sway back).
3. Scoliosis, lateral curvature (one
sidedness).


D. What should one strive for in
posture?

1. Flexibility.
2. Grace.
3. Litheness.
4. Relaxation.

E. What are correct positions for?

1. Standing.
2. Sitting.
3. Walking.
4. Climbing stairs.
5. Picking up an object.
6. Carrying heavy objects as books,
luggage.


Experiences for Students

domen. Slide out from back
of seat. Feel what happens.
Feel seventh cervical vertebra.
Push back in chair. Feel what
happens.

Put heavy load of books in
one arm. Feel what happens.

Discuss what you want to por-
tray to friends regardless of
how you feel inside.

Discuss way a fearful, timid
person is likely to be treated.


Ask a boy to discuss way very
high heels make a girl walk.

Discuss advantages of being
tall and necessity for short
person to carry himself well.

Study carefully the structure
of spinal column. Use skele-
ton, if possible, and describe
(1) its functions, (2) number
of bones making it up, (3)
differences in structure of ver-
tebrae, (4) how they are held
together, (5) normal curves,
(6) differences in adult's and
child's vertebral column.

Draw diagram of normal
curves on board and exagger-
ated curves. Observe position
of clavicles (collar bones) and
scapulae (shoulder blades) on
skeleton.

Demonstrate a n d describe
signs of kyphosis, lordosis and
scoliosis. Ask each member of
class to assume these positions
and feel what happens to






64 A GUIDE TO TEACHING EFFECTIVE LIVING


Problems and Content Experiences for Students

body; following each incor-
rect posture assume cor-
rect position. Use these direc-
tions: Feet parallel, weight
forward to balls of feet, abdo-
men flat, chest high, chin in,
shoulders relaxed. Lift body
with chest. Stand tall.

Discuss importance of feeling
relaxed and comfortable.

Discuss quotations:

"Grace is ease in force
Awkwardness is waste of en-
ergy"-Ruskin

"He trod the ling like a buck
in spring
And he looked like a lance
at rest"-Kipling

Demonstrate and have each
member of class practice cor-
rect ways to stand, sit, walk,
pick up an object, carry heavy
objects, climb up and walk
downstairs.

Adjust your school seat to
proper height for you. Meas-
ure length of leg from floor to
undersurface of thigh at knee
with both feet flat on floor
and knee bent. Adjust front
of seat from floor one inch
less than leg measurement.

Have posture analysis made
by:

(1) Studying yourself in full
length mirror
(2) Using plumb-like test
(3) Studying snapshots of
yourself






HEALTH AND SAFETY EDUCATION


Problems and Content


VI. Feet.

A. How does the normal foot look?

1.Foot will touch floor on outer
border, but be slightly raised
from ball of heel on inner bor-
der.
2. Central axis of foot, ankle and
leg will be straight line; inner
and outer ankle bones will be
equally prominent.
3. Toes will be straight, free of
corns or rubbed places.
4. There will be a slight arch for-
mation across ball of foot in-
creasing as toes are flexed.

B. What are some common foot
troubles?
1. Fallen arches.
2. Bunions.
3. Corns, callouses.
4. In-growing toe nails.



C. What may be some effects of foot
trouble?

1. Pain in foot, back of leg, small
of back.


Experiences for Students

(4) Taking sideview snapshots
in bathing suit
(5) Health and physical edu-
cation teachers
(6) Silhouetteograph

Develop and carry through a
plan to improve posture with
aid of health education and
physical education teachers.

After a period of several
months make new pictures,
analyze, and replan.


With aid of model, chart or
drawings discuss structure
and appearance of normal
foot. Use skeleton to show
bony structure of feet.












Name and define common foot
troubles.

Mold from modeling clay a
normal foot and an abnormal
foot showing common foot
troubles. Place on plywood and
shellac. Add to permanent col-
lection of materials for class.

Discuss effects of foot troubles.
Account for saying, "You can
tell a woman's age by her
feet."






66 A GUIDE TO TEACHING EFFECTIVE LIVING


Problems and Content

2. Poor posture.
3. Stiff, inelastic walk.
4. Continual fatigue.
5. Irritability.
6. Limitation of activity.

D. What are some indications of
weak or flattened arches?

1. Longitudinal arch.

a. Pain under arch; back of leg.
b. Change in imprint of foot;
becomes almost same width
through its entire length.
c. Bulging on inner side of lon-
gitudinal arch as weight is
put on foot.
d. Ankles tend to roll in.


2. Anterior transverse arch.

a.Pain in three outer toes and
directly under ball of foot.
b. Flattened arch.
c. Callus.

E. What are the cause of foot trouble?

1. Misuse of feet such as:
a. Toeing out.
b. Standing on one foot.
2. Lack of exercise of leg and feet
muscles.
3. Improperly fitted and incor-
rectly designed shoes.
4. Overweight.




F. What are the characteristics of a
hygienic shoe?

1. Straight inner line from heel to
toe.
2. Heel as broad as human heel


Experiences for Students

Discuss effects of foot trouble
on posture.

Discuss signs of weakening or
fallen arches.

Discuss importance of seeing
a physician if feet and ankles
are swelling.

Make a print of feet of each
member of class either with
a pedograph or with vaseline
or cold cream on brown paper.
Outline prints before cold
cream spreads. Superimpose
shoes on imprint; decide '
whether shoes fit feet or feet
fit shoes.

Discuss degrees of falling
arches.

Examine feet and most worn
pair of shoes for signs of foot
trouble.

Demonstrate ways in which
feet are misused. Have mem-
bers of class try each way
so they can feel for them-
selves how misuse of feet af-
fects arches.

Secure a permanent collection,
if possible, of hygienic and
unhygienic shoes. Make pos-
ters indicating characteristics
of each. Arrange an exhibit
of these.

Demonstrate with real models
characteristics of hygienic
shoes and unhygienic shoes
commonly worn.






HEALTH AND SAFETY EDUCATION


Problems and Content

and one-half to one and one-
fourth inches high.
3. Flexible shank.
4. Broad, roomy toe fitting heel
snugly and gripping instep.
5. Low cut.
6. Not patent leather.

G. How can one correct foot troubles?

1. Buy correctly designed and prop-
erly fitted shoes.
2. Take corrective exercises.
3. See chiropodist, if necessary.
4. Use feet correctly.







H. What care should feet and shoes
receive?

1.Care of feet.

a. Have shoes fitted one inch
longer and same width as
foot; have feet measured,
weight bearing, each time
shoes are bought.
b. Toe straight ahead when
walking.
c. Avoid high heels for working
hours.
d. Discard shoes which are mak-
ing trouble and are uncom-
fortable.
e. Avoid overweight.
f. Do not overtax feet following
an illness.
g. Bathe feet daily with warm
water and soap; dry thorough-
ly; feet may be toughened by
soaking in salt water.
h. Trim toe nails straight across.


Experiences for Students

Discuss importance of wear-
ing hygienic shoes for work.







Demonstrate a set of exer-
cises for correcting trouble
with longitudinal arch and
with anterior transverse arch.

With aid of physical educa-
tion teacher, work out a set
of foot exercises for any spe-
cial problems in class. Keep
record of exercises taken and
results at three month inter-
vals.

Discuss proper care of feet
and shoes.


Divide into committees and
have each committee write
rules for care of feet and
shoes. Report to class.

Discuss care one should take
in buying shoes.

Discuss reasons for trimming
nails straight across.

Discuss proper care for in-
growing toe nail, heel blisters,
corns and callouses.

Discuss difference in ortho-
pedic surgeon and chiropodist.






68 A GUIDE TO TEACHING EFFECTIVE LIVING


Problems and Content

i. Use talcum or deodorant pow-
der, if necessary.

2. Hose.

a. Buy one-half inch longer than
foot.
b. Use fresh hose daily.

3. Shoes.

a. Keep heels leveled.
b. Keep polished.
c. Dry slowly when wet.
d. Air daily; preferably have
two pairs; wear alternately.
e. Use shoe trees to keep in
shape.

VII. Nutrition for You.

A. What are signs of good nutrition?

1. General appearance of vigor.
2. Facial expression alert.
3. Head and chest well shaped.
4. Straight limbs.
5. Flat shoulders.
6. Glossy hair.
7. Eyes bright and clear.
8. Mucous membrane of eyelids
and mouth healthy pink.
9. Pink, firm gums.
10. Firm, well developed muscles.
11. Muscles covered with moderate
padding of fat.
12. Normal amount of hemoglobin
for age and sex.
13. Appetite and digestion good.
14. Hungry at meal time.

B. What is the difference in hollow
hunger and hidden hunger?

1. Hollow hunger results from
muscular contractions of stom-
ach when empty or containing
traces of food.


Experiences for Students


Examine pictures, photo-
graphs or slides of individuals
who are well nourished; con-
trast with others who show
signs of malnutrition; point
out signs of good and inade-
quate nutrition.














Discuss meaning of "hollow
hunger" and "hidden hunger."

Show films, "The Modest Mir-
acle" and "Hidden Hunger"
(State Board of Health.)






HEALTH AND SAFETY EDUCATION


Problems and Content

a. May be accompanied by feel-
ing of weakness, emptiness,
headache or nausea.
b. Usually results in alleviation
of sensation by securing food.

2. Hidden hunger results from
diets lacking essential food
substances.

a. Not accompanied by feelings
of normal, hollow hunger
which may be satisfied.
b. Is very common.

c. Causes distress signals just as
hollow hunger does.

(1) Often unrecognized as
hunger signals.
(2) Different kinds of signals
according to essentials left
out of diet.

C. How can you tell whether or not
you have hidden hunger?

1. Danger signals which may indi-
cate hidden hunger'. Let your
doctor be the judge.
a. How you LOOK.
(1) Much overweight.
(2) Much underweight.
(3) Poor posture.
(4) Rough bumpy skin.
(5) Pale skin due to pale thin
blood.
(6) Flabby muscles.
(7) Pot belly.
(8) Dull lifeless hair.
(9) Spongy bleeding gums.
(10) Bad teeth.
(11) Red eyes.
(12) Look older than your years.


Experiences for Students

Discuss signs indicating hid-
den hunger in individuals in
above film.

Discuss reasons for great in-
crease in attention to diet
during World War II.

Discuss effects of inadequate
diets on our soldiers in prison
camps during World War II
with members of family who
were in service.

Read "Nutrition for You" by
Walter Wilkins and French
Boyd.


Find out how red your blood
is. Arrange for a physician to
make hemoglobin tests of
members of class. Demonstrate
differences in color of blood
to class. Give each member
informational H e m o globin
Quiz when returning results of
hemoglobin tests. A form for
Quiz may be obtained from
the Florida State Board of
Health.

Discuss cause of color of
blood, amount of hemoglobin a
high school boy and girl
should have, what it takes to
build red blood.

Look at some red blood cells
under the miscroscope; find


4. Walter Wilkins and French Boyd, Nutrition for You, p. 5






70 A GUIDE TO TEACHING EFFECTIVE LIVING


Problems and Content

b. How you FEEL.

(1) Lack energy.
(2) Feel lazy.
(3) Easily tired.
(4) Poor appetite.
(5) Sore mouth.
(6) Burning tongue.
(7) Itching, burning eyes.
(8) Eyes tire easily.
(9) Frequent colds and sore
throat.
(10) Headache.
(11) Feel older than your years.

c. How you ACT.

(1) Cross and fussy.
(2) Can't do much work.
(3) Lack mental alertness.
(4) Brood or worry over trifles.
(5) Finicky about food.
(6) Poor eyesight.
(7) Night blindness.
(8) Act older than your years.









D. What is malnutrition?

1. No commonly accepted yard-
stick for measuring nutritional
status as yet.
2. Not a single disease entity with
a single causative agent.
3. A general term similar to the
term "communicable diseases,"
including a "group of diseases
with as many manifestations as
there are combinations of defi-
ciencies of calories, protein,


Experiences for Students

out how many of these cells
a man and a woman should
have per cubic millimeter of
blood; how much a cubic mil-
limeter is; how much blood
the average person has.

Describe origin, development,
function and fate of red blood
cells; point out fact that they
are continuously developing
and being destroyed.

Illustrate by pictures, photo-
graphs, or colored slides in-
dividuals s h o w i n g obvious
signs of nutritional deficiency
diseases.

Arrange for different mem-
bers of class to discuss signs,
cause, and prevention for each
of these diseases.












Discuss interpretation of term
malnutrition; point out that
multiple deficiencies usually
exist together and that there
are different levels of nutri-
tional status.

Discuss differences in signs of
milder deficiencies and pro-
nounced deficiencies.

Explain how a person may be
overweight and at the same






HEALTH AND SAFETY EDUCATION


Problems and Content

minerals and the various vita-
mins."
4. Single deficiencies rarely, if
ever, exist outside of research
laboratories; almost every case
of malnutrition a combination
of deficiencies with one or more
predominating.
5. Many degrees of deficiency ap-
pearing in an infinite number of
combinations.
6. Signs of milder conditions us-
ually less pronounced and often
less specific.
7. Milder deficiencies usually re-
sult in disturbances in function
rather than gross organic or
anatomical changes.

E. Where does malnutrition begin?

1. Depends upon yardstoick of
measurement used by investi-
gator.
2. Range between severe deficiency
disease and optimum nutrition
wide.
3. Quoting from Dr. Wilkins:5 "For
practical purposes, nutritional
status may be divided into zones
merging and blending into each
other".

a. "Danger zone, including nu-
tritional states varying from
full-blown deficiency disease
through different levels of
poor nutrition, gradually
blending into subsistence
zone".
b. "Subsistence zone, nutrition
ranging from fair to moder-
ately good and blending into
optimal zone".


Experiences for Students

time malnourished. Discuss
eating practices of some high
school students that may re-
sult in malnutrition.


Discuss benefits of reaching
optimum zone in nutrition.







Discuss purposes for which
body needs food.

Discuss statement, "You are
what you eat."

Compare fuel needs of body
to fuel needs of automobile.

Discuss unit of measurement
of fuel value of food.
Find out difference in fuel


5. Walter Wilkins, Nutrition from the Doctor's Point of View, p. 5






72 A GUIDE TO TEACHING EFFECTIVE LIVING


Problems and Content

c. "Optimal zone ranging from
good to best".




F. What does the body do with food?

1. Uses proteins, minerals and
water to build, maintain, and
repair tissue.
2. Uses carbohydrates, fats and
proteins to supply energy.
3. Uses minerals, vitamins and
water to regulate body process.






G. What determines how much food
a person needs?
1. Age.
2. Body size.
3. Activity.
4. Sex.
5. Climate.
6. Season.
8. Shelter.
H. What practical plan can one fol-
low for selecting a well balanced
diet daily?
1. Eat three regular meals each
day.
2. Eat one or more servings of
dark green or yellow vegetables
-some raw, some cooked.
3. Eat at least one large serving of
a food rich in Vitamin C-or-
anges, tomatoes, grapefruit, raw
cabbage or salad greens.
4. Eat two or more servings daily
of potatoes, other vegetables
and fruits-raw, cooked, dried,
frozen or canned.


Experiences for Students

value of 1 gm. of carbohy-
drates, fats, and proteins.

Find out what happens to ex-
cess fuel in body.

Find out some body processes
which food regulates.

By means of bar graphs show
the composition of ten com-
mon foods.

By means of bar graphs show
the caloric content of one
large orange, 1 cup chopped
cabbage, 1 medium potato, 2
T. peanut butter, 1 egg, 2 T.
sugar, 7 oz. broiled steak, 2 T.
butter.

Show film, "Foods and Nutri-
tion." (State Board of Health.)
Discuss differences in dietary
needs of one family: Mary
who is in the first grade, Bob
who is playing football in high
school, father who is farming,
and grandmother who is
nearly seventy.
Find out approximate num-
ber of calories a person of
your age, sex, and activity
needs.

Discuss differences in eating
habits in summer and in win-
ter.

Develop a practical guide for
meeting daily food needs.

Keep a diet record (food
diary) for a week. Check your
food habits by using form in
"Nutrition for You."
Make a personal food plan to






HEALTH AND SAFETY EDUCATION


Problems and Content

5. Use milk and milk products-
fluid, evaporated, dried milk or
cheese.
a. One pint, at least, for each
adult.
b. One quart for growing chil-
dren and prospective mothers.
c. One and one-half quarts for
nursing mothers.
6. Eat one serving of lean meat,
poultry, fish, eggs or dried
beans, peas, nuts or peanuts.
7. Eat at least 3 or 4 eggs a week,
preferably one a day.
8. Eat at least two servings of
bread, flour, cereals -natural
whole grain-or enriched or
restored.
9. Eat some butter or margarine
fortified with Vitamin A.
10. Eat small amount of sweets.
11. Get at least 6 to 8 cups of liquid
water, milk, soup, etc. per day.
12. Eat enough food to meet growth
and energy requirements.
13. Eat a variety of fruits and vege-
tables.



I. What can one do to preserve min-
eral and vitamin values of food?

1. Use fresh or properly canned or
frozen vegetables; keep in cold
place; aging wilted vegetables
lose Vitamin C.
2. Don't soak out minerals and
vitamins.
3. Cook vegetables in as little
water as possible.
4. Use cooking water (pot liquor)
to drink or in soups, if any.
5. Cook vegetables quickly in water
which is already boiling; when
cooking with pork, cook meat


Experiences for Students

improve food habits, using
guide. (See form in "Nutrition
for You.")

Select some vegetable which
you do not eat, and learn to
eat it.

Keep a record for a week of
foods each member of class
purchases for lunch. Tabulate
results and discuss class prac-
tices.

Plan an exhibit showing an
adequate diet for a day for
a football player; for a high
school girl.

Discuss the disadvantages of
omitting breakfast.

Discuss possible effects of eat-
ing sweets such as candy, pas-
tries and sundaes between
meals.

Show films, "Proof of the Pud-
ding," and "Something You
Didn't Eat" (State Board of
Health.)

Find out ways to preserve
mineral and vitamin values
of food. Ask a homemaking
education student or teacher
to discuss this with class.

Find out what destroys Vita-
min C.

Try drinking warm liquid left
from cooking vegetables.

Discuss with your mother
ways of getting most nutritive
value from foods.

Select one or more of these






74 A GUIDE TO TEACHING EFFECTIVE LIVING


Problems and Content

until nearly done, then add veg-
etables; cook in covered utensils
without stirring.
6. Never add soda to vegetables.
7. Prepare chopped fruit and vege-
table salads just before serving;
add dressing immediately after
cutting.
8. Start frozen foods cooking while
still frozen.
9. Serve raw frozen foods imme-
diately after thawing.
10. Pare (or better scrape) potatoes
and other root vegetables as
thinly as possible. Preferably,
cook them in their jackets.
11. Cut carrots and other long veg-
etables lengthwise. Less nutrient
qualities escape in cooking
water.
12. Shell peas or lima beans just
before cooking them. They re-
tain Vitamin C better in pods.

J. How can you get the most value
out of your food dollar?

1. Plan menus for a day at a time,
preferably for a week.
2. Look before you buy!

a. Compare prices.
b. Take advantage of bargain
days and sales.
c. Compare cost in bulk with
cost in packages; cost in small
quantities with cost in large
quantities; cost of ready-to-
serve, uncooked and home-
made products.

3. Read labels.

a. Notice weight and quality.
b. Consider cost in relation to
use.


Experiences for Students

methods of preserving vita-
mins and minerals not in use
in your home and get the
practice established.

Ask school lunch director to
discuss ways she uses to pre-
serve minerals and vitamins
of foods served in lunchroom.

Ask homemaking education
teacher to discuss good
lunches to bring from home.

Ask farm agent or agricul-
tural teacher to discuss effects
of soil elements on food.









Plan menus for a day at home.
Shop for groceries and see
how economically you can
plan well-balanced menus for
family.


Arrange for the boys in the
class to plan, buy, cook and
serve the girls a meal (even
if an outdoor one); arrange
for the girls to do the same
for the boys. Find out which
group can plan the better
balanced meal for the least
money.

Plan menus for a week for a
young couple who have just
married on a very limited
income.






HEALTH AND SAFETY EDUCATION


Problems and Content

4. Buy by weight, measure, or
count.

5. If money is limited:

a. Pay cash and carry.
b. Buy least expensive forms of
food containing same nutri-
tive value, such as cheaper
meats, oleomargarine with
Vitamin A.
c. Use more meat substitutes as
dried peas and beans, peanut
butter, cheese.
d. Use more cereals and breads,
if energy needs are high.
e. Buy foods in season when
plentiful.

K. Your weight.

1. What is overweight?

a. Term, overweight, indicates
variation from average weight
of one's height, age and sex.
b. When variation is 15-20 per
cent more than average
weight of similar individuals
one may be considered over-
weight.
c. When variation is 25 per cent
more than average weight, one
may be considered obese.

2. What are the causes of over-
weight?

a. Overeating.
b. Inactivity.
c. Abnormalities of ductless
glands thyroid, pituitary,
sex.


Experiences for Students


Read "Overweight: Its Signif-
icance and Treatment" in Nu-
trition and Physical Fitness
by Bogert.

Discuss advantages of well
filled out body and moderate
store of fat for high school
boys and girls.

Compare your weight with
weight of average boy or
girl of your age; determine
percentage above or below av-
erage weight. Divide differ-
ence in average weight and
your weight by average
weight.

Discuss ways in which weight
tables were made and rea-
sons why you should not try
to weigh exactly what the av-
erage boy or girl of your age
weighs. Consider size of your
skeleton and family tenden-
cies. Each person has an indi-
vidual growth pattern.






76 A GUIDE TO TEACHING EFFECTIVE LIVING


Problems and Content

3. What are the disadvantages of
being overweight?

a. Predisposition to functional
diseases of heart, circulatory
system, kidneys and pancreas.
b. Lessened expectancy of life.
c. Embarrassment.
d. Inconvenience.
e. Decrease in activity.
f. Cost of clothes increased.


4. What are some common ways
of reducing?

a. Rubber garments.
b. Medicines, such as laxatives.
c. Remedies containing extracts
of thyroid gland or thyroid
gland tissue.
d. Baths.
e. Exercise.
f. Special diets such as lamb
chops and pineapple, skim
milk and banana, all fruit,
green vegetable.
g. Leaving off meals.

5. What is the best way for the
ordinary overweight person to
reduce?

a. Have examination by physi-
cian to determine cause of
overweight.
b. If overweight is due to over-
eating and underexercising:

(1) Reduce calorie intake by
1/5 1/3 of maintenance
level.


Experiences for Students

Mak e a height-weight-age
table.

Discuss signs of good nutri-
tion.

Discuss causes of overweight;
food practices of high school
boys and girls that may lead
to overweight.

Discuss necessity of reducing
only under a physician's di-
rections, if overweight is due
to glandular disturbance.

Discuss disadvantages of ov-
erweight.

Compile list of ways known
by members of class by which
individuals have tried to re-
duce. Discuss methods used
and results obtained.

From magazines and news-
papers, make a collection of
ways advertised to reduce;
analyze psychology used in
advertisement, safety of meth-
od advocated, expenditure in-
volved, diet advocated.
Discuss dangers of unbal-
anced reducing diets.
Discuss reasons for reducing
under physician's directions.
Determine maintenance level
of calories needed by multi-
plying average weight by 15,
if sedentary, and by 20, if
active. Plan diet so as to
yield 500-1000 calories (1/5-
1/3) less per day than main-
tenance level, depending on
how rapidly you want to lose
weight.






HEALTH AND SAFETY EDUCATION


Problems and Content

(2) Select a diet of:1
(a) Low calorie content.
(b) Relatively high protein
value.
(c) Moderately low carbo-
hydrate content.
(d) Very low fat content.
(e) Good satiety value.


(3) Lose not more than 1-2
lbs. per week.
(4) Increase exercise provided
heart is normal.
(5) Keep diet at maintenance
level after losing desired
amount.


6. What is underweight?

a. Term "underweight" indicates
nothing more than variation
from average weight as deter-
mined by measurements and
indicated by tables.
b. Term, "malnutrition," indi-
cates a deficiency in dietary
essentials.


Experiences for Students

Discuss dangers of reducing
too rapidly.

Discuss characteristics of a
good reducing diet.

Discuss desirable ways of re-
ducing calories and of pre-
venting excessive hunger.

Find out the number of calo-
ries per gram of carbohy-
drates, fats and protein.

Discuss undesirability of go-
ing without meals.

Discuss what is likely to oc-
cur with increased exercise.

Discuss necessity for keeping
diet at maintenance level if
weight is to be held at de-
sired point.
Make menus for a week de-
signed for reducing.

If you want to reduce, de-
velop a written plan for re-
ducing; check plan with
teacher.

Keep a weekly weight record
during this course, if you are
trying to gain or lose weight.

Discuss meaning of term "un-
derweight" in contrast with
malnutrition.




Discuss hereditary tendencies
to underweight and over-
weight; discuss part family


1. Bogert, Jean L. Nutrition and Physical Fitness, p. 415.






78 A GUIDE TO TEACHING EFFECTIVE LIVING


Problems and Content

c. Average weight or overweight
person may be malnourished.
d. Reduction of vitality and
stamina may occur in those
persons whose weight is 7-10
per cent below average weight
for their height, age and sex.
e. Malnutrition should be deter-
mined by physician.

7. What are some disadvantages
of malnutrition?

a. More susceptible to infections
such as colds, tuberculosis and
skin infection.
b. More susceptible to digestive
disturbances, constipation,
anemia.
c. Tire easily, tendency to chill.
d. Listless.
e. Irritable.
f. High strung and nervous.
g. Scrawny in appearance.
h. Fatigue posture.
i. Sagging internal organs.
j. Lacking endurance and vigor.

8. What are the causes of malnu-
trition?

a. Faulty diet.

(1) Too little food.
(2) Food inadequate.
(3) Poor food habits.
b. Faulty hygiene.
c. Disease and defects.

9. What should one do if one
wishes to gain weight?

a. Discover cause of malnutri-
tion.

(1) General medical examina-
tion.


Experiences for Students

food habits play in so-called
"family tendencies."

Discuss those who should try
to put on more weight.

Read, "Malnutrition: How to
Detect and Overcome It" in
Nutrition and Physical Fit-
ness by Bogert.


Make a list of disadvantages
that frequently accompany
underweight.










Discuss causes of malnutri-
tion.

Have a committee make a sur-
vey of food practices of mem-
bers of class.


Develop a program for gain-
ing weight.

If you wish to gain weight,
make a written plan and
check this with teacher.






HEALTH AND SAFETY EDUCATION


Problems and Content

(2) Study daily food and oth-
er health practices.

b. Correct causes.

(1) Correct defects and dis-
eases, if present.
(2) Improve habits of living,
especially in regard to rest,
eating and freedom from
worry.

c. Increase number of calories
eaten. Up-building diets should
include:

(1) High energy intake, con-
trated fuel foods.
(2) Moderate amounts of pro-
tein of high quality.
(3) Abundant supply of min-
erals, vitamins, cellulose.

10. What conditions promote good
digestion?

a. Environment.
b. Condition of individual.
c. Eating practices.
d. Kind, preparation and attrac-
tiveness of food.


VIII. Your Voice.

A. How do you convey your ideas to
others?

1. Voice.
2. Gestures; movement of body.
3. Expression.

B. What does your voice reveal about
you?


Experiences for Students

Discuss necessity for medical
examination in treatment of
malnutrition.


Discuss conditions which pro-
mote good digestion.

Discuss the undesirability of
using meal time to solve fami-
ly problems.

Select c 1 ass committee to
study school lunch environ-
ment; report good features
and needed change; decide
what health class can do to
help improve environment;
discuss needed improvements
with school lunch director.

Consult Reader's Guide for
recent articles on nutrition.
Report on selected articles in
class.

Discuss the question, "Are
you judged more by what you
say and how you say it than
in any other way?"

Discuss ways which actors and
actresses use to convey ideas
to others.

Discuss t h i s statement by
Eleanore King, personality






80 A GUIDE TO TEACHING EFFECTIVE LIVING


Problems and Content

1. Personality.
2. Health. *
3. Education.
4. Cultural, and often geographical
background.
5. Kind of person you are inside.

C. What are the physical factors en-
tering into production of the hu-
man voice?

1. Breath, motive factor.
2. Larynx, contains vocal cords.
3. Resonating chambers, modify
and mould sound.

D. How does the larynx function in
producing sound?

1. Structure of larynx.
2. Essentials in producing sound.
a. Vocal cords brought close to-
together and tightened.
b. Current of air forced through
narrow slit produces vibration
of cords.


Experiences for Students

coach to top Hollywood act-
resses, "I believe your ability
to say the right thing at the
right time will have more de-
sirable influence on every
phase of your life than any
other quality you can pos-
sess."

Discuss advantages of a good
voice in debating or as a mem-
ber of a club or of legislative
body.

Discuss ways of identifying
sections of country from
which one comes by voice and
speech.

Listen to voices around you.
Analyze qualities you like
best.

Explain the statement by Em-
erson, "Conversation is an ac-
count of ourselves."

Portray effects of vitality, ill-
ness, happiness, sorrow, kind-
ness and hate in voice. Ob-
serve pitch, v o lume and
quality.

Read "Some Special Regula-
tive Processes" in Healthful
Living, by Williams.
Compare production of hu-
man sound to production of
sound on violin and horn.
Discuss relationship of pos-
ture to voice production; dis-
cuss postures of concert
singers.
Inhale and exhale continu-
ously, producing sound of o,
e, or u with head bent, erect,









HEALTH AND SAFETY EDUCATION


E. What are the resonant chambers
and how do they affect voice?
1. Resonant chambers.
a. Nose.
b. Mouth.
c. Trachea.
d. Lungs.
2. Effects.
a. Vibrations of walls of cham-
bers combine with and reen-
force vibrations of cords.
b. Shape and conditions of air
passages determine character-
istic quality of each voice.
F. How do voices vary?
1. Pitch.
a. Determined by rate of vibra-
tions of cords.
b. Affected by conditions of
cords:
(1) Tightness.
(2) Length.
(3) Weight.
2. Volume.
a. Determined by strength of ex-
piration of breath.
a. Affected by:
(1) Health.
(2) Emotions.
3. Quality.
a. Determined by resonant cham-
bers.


then lifted. Note differences
in voice.
Demonstrate with model, dia-
grams or films structure of
larynx.
Explain how voice is produced.
Find out range of human
voice; limits of vibrations av-
erage human voice is capable
of making per second; effect
of number of vibrations on
tone.
Study, with aid of model,
charts or diagrams, structure
of air passages. Locate sinuses,
adenoids and septum of nose;
note mucous membrane lin-
ing all air passages; observe
openings of eustachian tubes
in naso-pharynx.
Explain how such conditions
as colds, sinusitis, deviated
septum, adenoids, catarrhh"
affect voice. Explain relation-
ship of such conditions to
hearing and mouth breathing.
Discuss what happens when a
person is said to talk through
the nose.
Read aloud with normal voice.
Close nostrils and continue
reading. Explain what hap-
pens.
Compare effect of tightening
violin strings and vocal cords
on pitch of sound produced.
Discuss conditions which
tighten cords such as excite-
ment, anger, fear, nervous-
ness, worry, strain.






82 A GUIDE TO TEACHING EFFECTIVE LIVING


Problems and Content

b. Affected by:

(1) Shape.
(2) Defects.
(3) Disease.


G. What can you do to take care of
and improve your voice?

1. Improve general physical con-
dition; vitality affects voice.
2. Use voice as little as possible
when hoarse.
3. Attain good posture.
4. Have nasal obstructions removed
and inflammatory conditions of
respiratory tract treated.
5. Sing within the range of voice
to prevent strain.
6. Work for inner poise and self-
confidence.
7. Develop warmth, flexibility and
resonance.


Experiences for Students

Discuss what one portrays to
a discerning ear by a shrill,
high-pitched voice.

Discuss what a doctor could
tell about a patient by just
listening to pitch, volume and
quality of voice.

Explain difference in tone
produced by light and heavy
violin strings.

Explain effects of a cold or
of smoking over a long period
of time on the voice.

Discuss other things that may
affect weight of vocal cords.

Explain what is happening
when a boy's voice is chang-
ing and why a man's voice is
usually deeper than a wom-
an's.

Discuss effects of physical
strength and weakness, of
timidity and aggressiveness on
voice.

Discuss reasons for investigat-
ing chronic or abnormal
hoarseness.

Discuss relationship of hear-
ing to a monotonous voice.

Read "You Talked Yourself
Into It" in Glorifying Your-
self by Eleanore King. Try
one or more of her suggestions
and keep a record for two
weeks of your achievements.
Have voices of members of
class recorded; analyze quali-
ties of voice to determine good
qualities and qualities which






HEALTH AND SAFETY EDUCATION


Problems and Content

8. Be kind, gentle and considerate
-a fine person inside.
9. Habitually speak in well modu-
lated tones.
10. Cultivate melody and express-
iveness in voice; avoid affecta-
tion.

v IX. Your Vision and Hearing.

A. What symptoms or signs indicate
the need for a vision test or eye
examination?

1. Symptoms of eye strain.

a. Frowning.
b. Holding book too close or too
Sfar from eye.
c. Inability to read work on
black board.
d. Headache.
e. Holding head to one side.
f. Blurred vision.
g. Redness of eyes.
h. Spasms of eyelids.
i. Sensitiveness to light.

2. Symptoms associated with dis-
eases of the eye.

a. Discharge of water, tears, or
pus from regions of eye.
b. Redness or swelling of eye-
ball or of inside or edges of
eyelids.
c. Scaling of edge of lid or loss
of lashes.
d. Wnitish or grayish areas on
or in eyeball.
e. Lumps inside eyelids.
f. Variations in size of pupil.


B. How is the eye constructed and
how does it work?

1. Appendages of eye.


Experiences for Students

need improving; work out a
plan for improvement. Seek
aid of English or Speech
teacher.




Find out number of students
in class possessing or wearing
glasses. Ask each one what
made him go to an eye spe-
cialist the first time.

Find out percentage in class
wearing glasses; number who
have had eye diseases; eye
accidents.

Find out rate of rejections for
eye and ear defects among
18-19 year old registrants for
armed services in World War
II.

Discuss difference in symp-
toms of eye defects and eye
diseases.

Find out what pin-point pu-
pils may indicate and also pu-
pils of unequal size following
an accident.

Discuss need for consulting a
physician for eye diseases.

Dissect eye of sheep.
Place fresh lens of chicken's
eye over ordinary print. Ob-
serve what happens.
Demonstrate with model,
charts or diagrams parts of
the eye; discuss functions of
each part.

Compare eye to camera.






84 A GUIDE TO TEACHING EFFECTIVE LIVING


Problems and Content

2. Structure.
3. Functions.

C. What are common visual defects?

1. Myopia (Nearsightedness).
2. Hyperopia (Farsightedness).
3. Astigmatism.
4. Strabismus ("Crossed eyes").
5. Color blindness.
6. Night blindness.
7. Presbyopia (Farsightedness of
old age).


D. What precautions should you take
if you year glasses?


Experiences for Students

Test binocular vision with
both eyes open walk slowly to-
ward pencil held up by class-
mate and touch tip. Close one
eye and repeat performance.
Notice results.

Discuss changes which take
place in eyes with growth and
types of adjustments neces-
sary to meet change.

Demonstrate with charts or
diagrams what occurs in nor-
mal vision, farsightedness,
and nearsightedness.

Test vision using either Snel-
len's E chart or Massachu-
setts Vision Test.

Ask nurse to explain what the
vision test indicates and ex-
plain why it is called a screen-
ing test.

S e c u r e remedial measures
needed.

Test vision for astigmatism;
color blindness.

Discuss effects of color blind-
ness on driving and on occu-
pational choice.

Discuss effects of deficinecy of
Vitamin A on eyes.

Discuss relationship of vision
to automobile accidents; dif-
ferences in individual report-
ing of same scene by eye
witnesses.

Discuss necessity for periodic
testing of vision.






HEALTH AND SAFETY EDUCATION


Problems and Content

1. Have periodic examinations of
vision according to directions of
eye physician.
2. Keep lenses clean.
3. Keep frames properly adjusted.
4. Wear glasses as directed by eye
physician.

E. Whom should you consult about
your eyes?

1. Opthalmologist, often called oc-
ulist or eye specialist.

a. Holds degree of Doctor of
Medicine.
b. Licensed to practice as physi-
cian and surgeon in his state.
c. Competent to measure visual
acuity, perform surgery, and
diagnose diseases of the eye.

2. Optometrist.

a. Has completed a course in a
school of optometry.
b. Has taken an examination
and received a license to prac-
tice in most states.
c. Has been trained to measure
visual acuity without use of
drugs and to fit glasses.
d. Does not perform surgery or
diagnose diseases of the eye.

3. Optician.

a. Makes optical instruments or
glasses.
b. Does not need a license.
c. Does not measure visual
acuity.

F. What care should you take of your
eyes?

1. Use of eyes in reading and
studying.


Experiences for Students

Discuss care one should take
of glasses.







Discuss training necessary to
become an ophthalmologist;
an optometrist.

Discuss differences in types
of conditions with which each
may deal.


Discuss types of optical in-
struments which an optician
may make other than lenses.

Find out what the science of
optics is.


Demonstrate the right pro-
cedure to follow in removing
a foreign body from the eye.






86 A GUIDE TO TEACHING EFFECTIVE LIVING


Problems and Content

2. Position for reading.
3. Position of light.
4. Protection from brilliant light.
5. Nutrition.
6. Care in case of accident.


G. What are some
hearing loss?


indications of


1. Inattention.
2. Difficult nasal breathing.
3. Asking to have questions or con-
versation repeated.
4. Expressionless voice.
5. Peculiar posture (in attempt to
hear).
6. Ear ache; running ears.
7. Peculiar sounds in ears as buzz-
ing, bells ringing.

H. How may impaired hearing affect
an individual?

1. Language development.
2. Vocational choice.
3. Personality.
4. School progress.
5. Posture.


Experiences for Students

Make a list of practices which
one should follow to take care
of eyes.

Discuss desirable lighting con-
ditions for studying at school
and at home; appoint a com-
mittee to see that shades and
lights are kept properly ad-
justed during day.

In cooperation with Home-
making Department plan for
a demonstration of good home
lighting.

Make a survey of lighting con-
ditions in your classroom;
measure amount of light on
your desk with light meter in
early morning and afternoon
(secure meter from Public
Health Unit, Florida Power
and Light Company, or Flor-
ida Council for Blind); de-
velop plan for improving con-
ditions, if needed.

Improve home lighting condi-
tions for studying, if needed.

Dis c u s s indications of im-
paired hearing in persons you
have known.

Discuss possible effects of
hearing loss of individuals.
Discuss effect of weather con-
ditions and infections of res-
piratory tract on hearing.

Discuss attitude adults fre-
quently have toward children
with hearing loss, since hear-
ing acuity is not always uni-
form.






HEALTH AND SAFETY EDUCATION


Problems and Content

I. What are the major causes of
hearing loss other than congenital
deafness?

1. Diseased conditions of nose and
throat.
2. Infectious diseases.
3. Stoppage of outer canal.


J. What measures should you take to
protect your ears?

1. Care in blowing nose.
2. Prevention of infections of nose
and throat.
3. Removal of foreign bodies from
ear.
4. Treatment for earache.
5. Hearing tests.
6. Hearing aids.


Experiences for Students

Read story of Helen Keller's
life.

Demonstrate structure of ear
and its relationship to nose
and throat with a model or
charts.

Discuss diseased conditions of
nose and throat which may
affect hearing.

Show how mastoiditis may de-
velop from a nose and throat
condition.

Arrange to see the film, "The
Ears, Nose and Throat" (Mc-
Graw-Hill).

Find out what infectious dis-
eases may impair hearing.
Discuss conditions which may
cause stoppage of outer canal.
Discuss ways of protecting
ears when swimming and div-
ing.
Discuss first aid measures for
removing foreign bodies from
ear and for ear ache.
Have hearing tested with an
audiometer.
Discuss necessity for consult-
ing ear specialist for ear ache,
running ears and hearing loss,
or if one is contemplating buy-
ing a hearing aid.
Find out sources of assistance
for individuals with hearing
loss in your community.
Have a conference with teach-
er and family to plan steps
to be taken if vision or hear-
ing are impaired.






88 A GUIDE TO TEACHING EFFECTIVE LIVING


Problems and Content

X. Exercise-Fatigue-Rest.

A. What values have you received
from the exercise which you have
been taking?

1. Physical values.
2. Emotional values.
3. Social values.
4. Mental values.


B. What determines the type of exer-
cise an individual takes?

1. Age.
2. Sex.
3. Occupation.
4. Climate.
5. Physical condition.
6. Facilities available.
7. Cost.


Experiences for Students

Make a survey of class to de-
termine amount of time, and
form of exercise each mem-
ber took preceding day. Tabu-
late types of exercise taken.

Discuss values derived from
these activities.

Study effect of exercise on
circulation and respiration.
Check pulse rate and respira-
tion; run around building and
check again. Note increase.
Check length of time for pulse
and breathing to return to
normal. Take pulse rate sit-
ting, standing, after one min-
ute of running in place. Re-
cord each count; discuss ef-
fects on different individuals.
Note other effects of exercise
and account for them.

Discuss advantages of team
games such as football or ten-
nis, and individual activities
such as swimming and danc-
ing.

Discuss number of adults par-
ticipating in team games.

Discuss advantages of becom-
ing skilled in several sports
and other types of activities.

Discuss cost involved in dif-
ferent types of exercise.

Discuss reasons coach re-
quires medical examination
for football team before sea-
son begins.

Discuss necessity for medical
examination before partici-
pation in strenuous exercise.






HEALTH AND SAFETY EDUCATION


Problems and Content Experiences for Students

Ask coach or football player to
discuss training practices for
football team and reasons for
practices.

Interview coaches to deter-
mine procedures for develop-
ing endurance and lessening
fatigue.

Discuss ways of reducing stiff-
ness and soreness after exer-
cise.

Discuss various physical con-
ditions that would affect kind
and amount of exercise.

Discuss reasons for girls play-
ing by girls rules and having
teachers of same sex after
age of eleven.

Discuss anatomical reasons
why a boy and girl cannot
compete on an equal basis in
competitive athletics.

Arrange for a committee to
survey facilities in your com-
munity for recreation.

Invite recreation leader to dis-
cuss recreational needs of
community with class and re-
sources for meeting these
needs. Develop a plan for im-
proving facilities or use of
facilities.

Make a list of curricular and
co-curricular activities which
develop recreational skills and
interests.

Discuss these questions:
C. What are dangers of overactivity? D e
"Which is more important,
1. Overfatigue. winning or health of player?"






90 A GUIDE TO TEACHING EFFECTIVE LIVING


Problems and Content

2. Sore, stiff muscles.
3. Muscular strain.

D. What signs indicate overactivity?

1. Undue breathlessness.
2. Dizziness.
3. Nausea.
4. Pain in side.
5. Pounding of heart.
6. Throbbing in head.
7. Pallor or bluish red color of
skin.

E. What is difference in exercise and
recreation?

1. Exercise may or may not be
recreation, depending upon in-
dividual's reaction to it.
2. Many other forms of recreation
other than exercise, such as hob-
bies, reading, movies.


F. What conditions may produce a
feeling of fatigue?


Experiences for Students

"Which is more important,
football and basket ball for
a few or games for all?" De-
cide from evidences in your
school program, what is the
real belief of your community.
Discuss the meaning of term,
"burned-out" athlete.

Discuss ways you have felt
from too prolonged exercise.

Discuss reasons for rest pe-
riods and "time-outs" during
games.

Discuss values of a hobby.

Find local people with inter-
esting recreational hobbies.
Invite a group to display their
hobbies and tell the class how
they happened to develop
them.

Plan and carry out an eve-
ning of recreation at home for
your family. Compare plans
with other students.

List all recreational activities
connected with your school;
evaluate each.

Help organize needed recrea-
tional activities in or out of
school which will appeal to
other students. Secure help
from physical education
teacher, community recreation
leaders, and interested citi-
zens.

Discuss differences in normal,
physical fatigue and mental
fatigue.




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