• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Cover
 Front Matter
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 List of Figures
 Forest plan introduction
 Analysis of the management situation...
 Plan responses to issues, concerns,...
 Forest management direction
 Implementation of the forest...
 Glossary
 Appendix






Title: National forests in Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00096120/00001
 Material Information
Title: National forests in Florida land and resource management plan, proposed
Physical Description: 1 v. (various pagings) : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Forest Service. -- Southern Region
Publisher: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Region
Place of Publication: Atlanta
Publication Date: 1985
Copyright Date: 1985
 Subjects
Subject: National parks and reserves -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Forests and forestry -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
General Note: Cover title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00096120
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 12413758

Table of Contents
    Cover
        Cover 1
        Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
    Preface
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
        Page iii
    List of Figures
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Forest plan introduction
        Page I-1
        Page I-2
        Page I-3
        Page I-4
    Analysis of the management situation summary
        Page II-1
        Page II-2
        Page II-3
        Page II-4
        Page II-5
        Page II-6
        Page II-7
        Page II-8
        Page II-9
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        Page II-13
        Page II-14
        Page II-15
        Page II-16
        Page II-17
        Page II-18
    Plan responses to issues, concerns, and opportunities
        Page III-1
        Page III-2
        Page III-3
        Page III-4
        Page III-5
        Page III-6
        Page III-7
        Page III-8
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        Page III-18
    Forest management direction
        Page IV-1
        Page IV-2
        Page IV-3
        Page IV-4
        Page IV-5
        Page IV-6
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    Implementation of the forest plan
        Page V-1
        Page V-2
        Page V-3
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    Glossary
        Page VI-1
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    Appendix
        Page A-1
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Full Text





United States
Department of
Agriculture
Forest Service
Southern Region
National Forests
in Florida


LAND and RESOURCE
MANAGEMENT


PLAN A


w


ST SE
0bp*Rt










S United States Forest National Suite 4061
Department of Service Forests 227 N Bronough St.
Agriculture in Florida Tallahassee, FL 2_301

Reply to: 1920

Date: March 5, 1985



Dear Reviewer,

Enclosed for your information and review are the Draft Environmental Impact Statement
(DEIS) for the Land and Resource Management Plan for the National Forests in Florida
and the proposed Plan.

The DEIS describes nine management alternatives for the National Forests in Florida
and the consequences of their implementation. The proposed Plan presents direction
for implementing the Forest Service's preferred alternative (Alternative 7 in the
DEIS) for management of the Forests. Included as part of the Plan is a proposal for
management of the Clear Lake and Natural Area Wilderness Study Areas which were
established by the Florida Wilderness Act of 1983.

Comments about the DEIS and proposed Plan should be sent to me at the above address.
All comments must be received by June 13, 1985. After the comments have been
evaluated, we will prepare a final EIS and Plan to incorporate any needed
modifications or additions.

On Thursday, May 9, 1985, you will have an opportunity to present oral comments
regarding the management of the wilderness study areas. Beginning at 1:30 p.m., an
informal public hearing will be held in the Community Education Center meeting roam,
lower level Northwood Mall, 1940 N. Monroe, Tallahassee, Florida, to receive comments
on the management of the Clear Lake and Natural Area Wilderness Study Areas.

Earlier in the planning process, many of you helped us identify the issues and
concerns that are addressed by the various alternatives. You now have an opportunity
to evaluate and comment on how those issues and concerns are addressed in the
alternatives and in the proposed management direction for the National Forests in
Florida.

Remember, for your comments to be considered as we prepare the final EIS and Plan we
must receive them by June 13, 1985.

Thank you for the continuing interest in the management of your National Forests in
Florida.

Sincerely,




DON PERCIVAL
Forest Supervisor

Enclosures


FS-6200-28(7-82)










PREFACE


The preparation of this proposed National Forest Land and Resource
Management Plan is required by the Forest and Rangeland Renewable
Resources Planning Act (RPA), as amended by the National Forest
Management Act (NFMA). An assessment of its environmental impacts is
required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the
implementing regulations of NFMA [39 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR)
219]. This Forest Plan replaces or incorporates all previous resource
management plans for the National Forests in Florida. On approval of
the Forest Plan, all subsequent activities affecting the Forest,
including budget proposals, must be in compliance with the Forest Plan
[39 CFR 219.10(e). In addition, all permits, contracts, and other
instruments for the use and occupancy of National Forest System lands
must be in conformance with the Forest Plan [16 USC 1604(i)].

The accompanying Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) contains
analysis that supports the Forest Plan. Therefore, the Forest Plan and
the DEIS are combined documents; neither is complete in itself. The
DEIS describes the alternatives considered in arriving at the proposed
Forest Plan and assesses the potential environmental effects of
implementing the Plan or any of the alternatives.

The opportunity to request an administrative review of this Forest Plan
and its accompanying Environmental Impact Statement is limited by the
National Forest Management Act regulations. The regulations [36 CFR
219.10(D)] state:

"The provisions of 36 CFR Part 211, Subpart B apply to any
administrative appeal of the Regional Forester's decision to approve
a forest plan. Decisions to disapprove a plan and other decisions
made during the forest planning process prior to the issuance of a
record of decision approving the plan are not subject to
administrative appeal."

If any particular provision of this proposed action, or the application
thereof to any person or circumstances, is held invalid, the remainder
of the proposed action and the application of such provision to other
persons or circumstances shall not be affected thereby.


Comments regarding this Plan should be sent to:

Forest Supervisor
National Forests in Florida
227 N. Bronough Street, Suite 4061
Tallahassee, Florida 32301
Telephone (904) 681-7265



Copies of this document will be distributed free-of-charge during thc
public involvement period while supplies last. A copying fee may be
charged for copies requested after the public involvement period or
after the current supply is depleted.








DRAFT FOREST PLAN

TABLE OF CONTENTS


Chapter and &if-ien


I. FOREST PLAN INTRODUCTION

A. PURPOSE OF THE FOREST PLAN

B. RELATIONSHIP OF THE FOREST PLAN TO OTHER DOCUMENTS

C. PLAN STRUCTURE

D. FOREST DESCRIPTION



II. ANALYSIS OF THE MANAGEMENT SITUATION SUMMARY

A. SUPPLY CONDITIONS

B. DEMAND CONDITIONS

C. RESEARCH NEEDS


III. PLAN

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

F.

G.

H.

I.


RESPONSES TO ISSUES, CONCERNS, AND OPPORTUNITIES

ALLOCATION OF NATIONAL FOREST LANDS

RECREATION

SILVICULTURE

MINERALS

SPECIAL USE PERMITS

FOREST ROADS

RANGE

WATER

LAND ACQUISITION


I-1

I-1

I-1

I-1

I-2


II-1

II-1

II-11

II-17


III-1

III-1

III-3

III-7

III-12

III-13

III-14

III-14

III-15

III-16









IV. FOREST MANAGEMENT DIRECTION IV-1

A. FOREST MANAGEMENT GOALS IV-1

B. FORESTWIDE STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES IV-3

C. FOREST MANAGEMENT OBJECTIVES IV-50

D. DESIRED FUTURE CONDITION OF THE FOREST IV-65

E. MANAGEMENT PRESCRIPTIONS IV-68

1. Management Prescriptions IV-68

2. Management Areas and Management Area Standards
and Guidelines IV-87

3. Forestwide Proposed and Probable Management
Practices IV-132



V. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FOREST PLAN V-1

A. IMPLEMENTATION DIRECTION V-1

B. MONITORING AND EVALUATION PROGRAMS V-2

C. AMENDMENTS AND REVISIONS V-18



VI. GLOSSARY VI-1



VII APPENDIX

A. Gas & Oil Leasing & Operating Information A-1

B. Disposition of Other Plans B-1

C. Timber Sale Schedules C-1

D. Facilities Construction Schedules D-1

E. VQO Coordinating Requirements E-1







LIST OF FIGURES


Figure
Nu.rber_ ..... ... .... it.l.e _.... . . ... Pag

1-1 Location Map I-3
2-1 Sumnary Display of Constrained Maximum Physical
and Biological Potentials II-2
2-2 ROS Class II-4
2-3 Suitable Habitat and Population Levels II-5
2-4 Habitat Capability Index 11-6
2-5 Upland Hardwood in Yellow Pine II-6
2-6 Upland Hardwood in Sand Pine II-7
2-7 Yellow Pine Acreage Requirements for
Red-cockaded Woodpecker 11-7
2-8 hed-cockaded Woodpecker Habitat Requirements II-7
2-9 Current Mast Producing Acres 11-8
2-10 Estimates of Demand for Goods and Services on
the National Forests in Florida II-12
2-11 Recreation Opportunity Spectrum Class Demand II-14
2-12 Wilderness Demand II-15
2-13 M WFUD's Produced and Utilized II-15
3-1 Disposition of RARE II Lands III-2
4-1 Restocking Guidelines IV-14
4-2 Utilization Standards IV-15
4-3 Tolerable Accelerated Soil Loss Ratings IV-30
4-4 Tolerable Soil Loss Rates-Apalachicola N.F. IV-32
4-5 Tolerable Soil Loss Rates-Osceola N.F. IV-32
4-6 Tolerable Soil Loss Rates-Ocala N.F. IV-33
4-7 Administrative Watersheds within the South
Atlantic Gulf Water Resource Region IV-34
4-8 Summary of Agencies' and Operator's Role in
Lease Administration IV-36
4-9 Flow Chart of Oil and Gas Administration IV-73
4-10 Flow Chart (NOS Option) IV-38
4-11 Flow Chart (APD Option) IV-39
4-12 Technical and Environmental Considerations IV-42
4-13 Technical and Environmental Considerations IV-43
4-14 Fire Suppression Decision Model IV-45
4-15 Prescribed Burning Guidelines IV-46
4-16 Projected Outputs IV-54
4-17 Land Suitability IV-58
4-18 Vegetative Management Practices IV-59
4-19 Timber Productivity Classification IV-60
4-20 Allowable Sale Quantity and Timber Sale
Program Quantity IV-61
4-21 Long-term Sustained Yield and Allowable
Sale Quantity IV-62
4-22 Present and Future Forest Conditions IV-63
4-23 Recreation Construction Implementation Stream IV-64
4-24 Average Annual Timber Sale Offerings IV-66
4-25 Age Class Distribution IV-67
4-26 Habitat Capability Index Projections for
Management Indicator Species IV-68







4-27 Habitat Capability Index Projections for
Demanded Wildlife Groups IV-68
4-28 Wildlife and Fish User Days Generated by
Wildlife Outputs IV-69
4-29 Management Prescriptions IV-73
4-30 Minimum Level Allocation IV-76
4-31 Existing Developed Recreation Site Allocation IV-77
4-32 Timber Prescription Summary IV-84
5-1 Monitoring and Evaluation V-4










I. FOREST PLAN INTRODUCTION


A. PURPOSE OF THE FOREST PLAN

This Forest Plan guides all natural resource management activities and
establishes management standards and guidelines for the National Forests
in Florida. It describes resource management practices, levels of
resource production and management, and the availability and suitability
of lands for resource management.

This Forest Plan embodies the provisions of the National Forest
Management Act (NFMA), the Regulations, and other guiding documents.
The proposed land uses, prescriptions, and standards and guidelines are
a statement of the Plan's management direction; however, the projected
outputs, services, and rates of implementation are dependent on the
annual appropriations and budgeting process.


B. RELATIONSHIP OF THE FOREST PLAN TO OTHER DOCUMENTS

Forest planning occurs within a framework of Forest Service National and
Regional planning. The RPA Program sets the National direction and
output levels for National Forest System lands based on suitability and
capability information provided by each Region. By means of a Regional
Guide, each Region distributes its share of the National production
levels to the Forests based on detailed, site-specific information
gathered at the Forest level.

The Regional Guide also provides planning direction for developing
Forest plans and develops standards and guidelines for the management of
the Forests.

This Forest Plan is the preferred alternative identified in the
accompanying Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The planning process
and the analysis procedure which were used in developing this Plan, as
well as the other alternatives that were considered, are described or
referenced in the EIS. Activities and projects will be planned and
implemented to carry out the direction in this Plan. These local
projects will be "tiered to" the accompanying EIS as provided for in 40
CFR 1502.20. The local, project environmental analysis will use the
data and evaluations in the Plan and EIS as its basis.


C. PLAN STRUCTURE

This Forest Plan is organized into seven major chapters. Chapter I
introduces the general purpose of the Forest Plan, explains the
structure of the Plan and how it relates to the EIS and other documents,
and provides a brief description of the National Forests in Florida.

Chapter II provides a summary of the Analysis of the Management
Situation (AMS) which was produced earlier and is part of the planning
record. The AMS displays the supply and demand conditions for
significant market and nonmarket goods and services associated with the
National Forests in Florida.







Chapter III details how the Plan addresses and responds to major public
issues, management concerns, and resource opportunities (ICO's)
identified previously in the planning process.

Chapter IV provides direction from the preferred alternative for Forest
management. This chapter displays the Forests' management goals and
objectives, including the anticipated Forestwide levels of goods and
services, to be produced. The desired future conditions of the Forests
are also discussed. Site specific management direction is displayed in
the form of management prescriptions, management area descriptions, and
management area standards and guidelines. Proposed and probable
management practices, and the intensity of those practices, are
identified for each management area.

Chapter V explains how management direction will be implemented, how
implementation activities will be monitored and evaluated, and how the
Plan will be kept current in spite of changing Forest and market
conditions.

Chapter VI is a glossary that explains terms used that require a common
understanding or which have special meaning.

Chapter VII is the appendices that provide supplemental, explanatory
information.


D. FOREST DESCRIPTION

The area covered by this Plan includes the Apalachicola, Choctawhatchee,
Osceola, and Ocala National Forests, which cover approximately 1,099,000
acres of federally-owned land. They are referred to collectively as the
National Forests in Florida and are administered by a Forest Supervisor
located in Tallahassee, Florida. Figure 1-1 shows the Forests' location
in relation to the Nation, the Southern Region, and the State of
Florida.

The Apalachicola National Forest (558,731 acres) is located in Franklin,
Leon, Liberty, and Wakulla Counties. Its terrain is flat to gently
rolling and pocked by numerous sinkholes. The soils range from
excessively drained to very poorly drained. Natural fertility ranges
from low to high but is generally low. Most of the poorly drained soils
are phosphorous deficient. Water yield from the Forest is 1.09 million
acre feet of clear, very soft, acidic, low phosphorous water. Water
quality meets or is better than State water quality standards. The
primary vegetation is longleaf and slash pine with an understory of
turkey and scrub oaks. The Apalachicola National Forest is divided into
two Ranger Districts: The Wakulla, based in Crawfordville, covers that
portion east of the Ochlockonee River; and the Apalachicola, based in
Bristol, covers that portion west of the river.

The Choctawhatchee National Forest (675 acres) is located in Okalooska
County. The Choctawhatchee is small and was reestablished from land
declared excess by Elgin Air Force Base in June of 1980. Most of it is
under special use permit to the state and county governments. The
Forest is administered by the Apalachicola District Ranger.


I-2






Figure 1-1


SOUTHERN REGION


LOCATION MAP


STATE


kFT. PIERCE


FT,
1 LAUDERDALE
MIAMI


I-3


NATION


BEACH







The Osceola National Forest (157,218 acres) is located in Baker and
Columbia Counties. Its terrain is flat, and its soils are generally
poorly drained and low in natural fertility. Water yield from the
Forest is about 183 thousand acre feet of high quality water. Water
quality meets or is better than State water quality standards. Longleaf
pine predominates on the higher, drier ground, and the poorly drained
swampland features cypress, pine, and a variety of southern hardwood.
The Forest is managed by one District Ranger, who is based in Lake City.

The Ocala National Forest (381,930 acres) is located in Lake, Marion,
and Putnam Counties. Its terrain is gently rolling, and its soils are
generally excessively drained sands with low natural fertility and low
available moisture. Water yield from the Forest averages 593 thousand
acre feet of high quality water. There are 30,857 acres of lakes and
ponds scattered throughout the Forest. The Ocala is one of the most
popular recreation areas east of the Mississippi River. A wide variety
of vegetation thrives on the Ocala including sand pine in the Big Scrub,
longleaf on pine islands, and cypress and red maple along river swamps.
The Ocala is divided into two Ranger Districts: the Lake George, based
in Silver Springs, covers that portion north of Highway 40, and the
Seminole, based in Eustis covers that portion south of the highway.







II. ANALYSIS OF THE MANAGEMENT SITUATION SUMMARY


The analysis of the management situation (AMS) is a determination of the
ability of the National Forests in Florida to supply goods and services
in response to current and future societal demands. It also provides a
framework for Forest inventory data that allows for the development of a
reasonable, feasible range of management alternatives. The AMS is
technical and lengthy, and no effort is made to present it in its
entirety in this Plan. It is on file at the Forest Supervisor's Office
in Tallahassee and available for anyone who wants a detailed review of
this material.

This section summarizes the supply and demand conditions for significant
market and nonmarket goods and services associated with the planning
area. Special conditions affecting supply and demand are described.


A. SUPPLY CONDITIONS

This subsection includes a summary display (Figure 2-1) of the
constrained maximum production potentials and current direction
production potentials. Special conditions affecting supply are
discussed as well as the constraints used to develop the production
potentials.

Benchmark analyses were performed to determine the supply potential for
six resources (recreation, wilderness, wildlife, range, timber, and
water). The benchmarks were also used to develop reference points
against which the alternative plans displayed in the DEIS could be
developed and to define the range within which feasible alternatives
could be developed (decision space). Benchmarks also provided a basis
for analyzing tradeoffs between alternatives and analyzing constraints
imposed by laws and regulations.

Individual Forest Planning Model (FORPLAN) computer runs were made to
maximize recreation, wilderness, wildlife, range, and timber. The
Maximum Timber Benchmark was used to estimate the maximum water
production. This was considered appropriate because water yield tables
in the FORPLAN model show increases in water production that are
directly related to timber production. As timber harvest and thinning
activities increase, water production also increases. Due to the
maximum level of timber activity in the Maximum Timber Benchmark, water
output is also considered to be at a maximum.

Each of the maximum resource benchmark runs have several constraints in
common and these are listed below:

S Prescriptions to allow timber harvest to occur at the
culmination of mean annual increment.

Nondeclining yield.

Ending inventory constraint.

The long term sustained yield link.


I-1







Figure 2-1 SUMMARY DISPLAY OF CONSTRAINED MAXIMUM PHYSICAL AND BIOLOGICAL POTENTIALS


Recreation
Developed
Maximum
Current
Miniamu
Developed
Maximum
Current
Minibmum
Dispersed
Maximum
Current
Minimus
Dispersed
Maximum
Current
Minimum


PERIOD 1


34.978
14.878
0.000

0.000
8.347
0.000

2712.132
0.000
0.000

112690.561
105996.730
117337.302


PERIOD 2


34.140
14.878
0.000

0.000
6.149
0.000

2713.132
0.000
0.000


Recreation FSM (MMRVDs)
Recreation Benchmark
Benchmark
Level
Recreation RSM (MMRVDs)
Recreation Benchmark
Benchmark
Level
Recreation FSM (MMRVDs)
Recreation Benchmark
Benchmark
Level
Recreation RSM (MMRVDs)
Recreation Benchmark
Benchmark
Level


PERIOD 3


42.467
11.991
0.000

0.000
4.329
0.000

2712.132
0.000
0.000

142478.897
105441.607
138431.057


PERIOD 4 PERIOD 5


44.886
11.991
0.00

0.000
4.329
0.000

2712.132
0.000
0.000

140750.897
10927.3923
147437.008


44.886
11.991
0.000

0.000
4.329
0.000

2712.132
0.000
0.000


158599.669
97802.990
156687.835


Wilderness
Wilderness Capacity (MMRVDS)
Maximum Wilderness Benchmark 1739.962 1739.962 1739.962 1739.962 1739.962
Current Benchmark 1253.054 1253.054 1253.054 1253.054 1253.054
Minimum Level 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Wildlife
Wildlife and Fish User Days (WFUDS)
Maximum Wildlife Benchmark 11448.842 11500.587 12106.397 12983.924 13012.636
Current Benchmark 11777.519 12015.430 11715.734 11325.266 10866.999
Minimum Level 13037.478 14411.582 15381.228 16381.890 17409.759
Range
Ringe Capacity (Animal Unit Months)
Maximum RanQe Benchmark 1000.000 1126.000 943.000 900.405 1260.000
Current Benchmark 606.283 801.059 848.298 823.611 1010.318
Minimum Level 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Timber
Timber Volume (MMCF)
Maximum Timber E:enchmark 229.000 243.000 277.000 292.000 317.000
Current Benchmark 133.760 147.897 178.006 210.406 262.581
Minimum Level 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Water
Water Production (M Acre Feet) /1
Maximum Timber Benchmark 19608.281 19328.142 19330.493 19409.171 19293.744
Current Benchmark 19275.901 19116.459 19187.791 19255.747 19362.041
Minimum Level 18699.888 18699.888 18699.888 18699.888 18699.888


/1 Water yield meets or is better than State water quality standards.


II-2


RESOURCES


137694.493
108138.871
129704.236


--- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -







Sequential upper bounds of 25 percent on periodic timber
harvest.

The Florida RPA timber targets plus 50 percent are used as a
ceiling on timber production.

Minimum management requirements for the red-cockaded woodpecker
and cut size limits.

S Cutoffs on nontimber values including developed, dispersed, and
wilderness recreation.

Assignment of all existing red-cockaded woodpecker colony sites
to the colony site prescription.

S Assignment of yellow pine acres to the red-cockaded woodpecker
recruitment stand prescription.

The use of inventory constraints that force 18 percent of the
commercial yellow pine forest to an age 60 or greater age class
at any given time to provide habitat required by the
red-cockaded woodpecker.

The Current Benchmark was used to validate the FORPLAN model and to
serve as a yardstick against which the other runs could be measured.
Prescriptions and constraints were developed that simulated current
management direction. FORPLAN output and budget levels were checked
against current outputs, and where discrepancies occurred, changes were
made.

The maximum resource benchmark constraints listed above were also used
in the Current Benchmark. Additional contraints used are listed below:

Current prescriptions were used.

Area control based on current direction.

Current production levels for the first period.

Current budget level for the first period.

Current production levels for the first period.

Minimum management requirements for wildlife.

Minimum assignment of acres to mast production.


1. Recreation Supply. Maximum developed recreation capacity
would be decreased if budget constraints prevent the construction of new
areas or the rehabilitation of existing ones every 20 years. It is
unlikely however that any decrease in developed recreation capacity
would increase dispersed use capacity. Instead, developed site
utilization would increase due to the increase in demand pressure.


11-3







Figure 2-2 displays the range of supply of recreation opportunity by
Recreation Opportunity Spectrum (ROS) Class.


Figure 2-2

ROS Class ROS Class Supply (MRVD)

Primitive 0
Semiprimitive Nonmotorized 38 300
Semiprimitive Motorized 99 252
Roaded Natural 10533 11430
Rural 2184 3465
Urban 0


A total of 108 additional miles of trail are planned for construction or
have been proposed by various interest groups. This includes 21 miles
of the Apalachicola Trail needed to complete the Florida National Scenic
Trail through the National Forests, 18 miles of short loop hiking trails
in the Apalachicola National Forest near Tallahassee, and 69 miles of
developed loop trails off the existing Ocala Trail to provide shorter
hiking opportunities in the Ocala area.

An additional 8,907 acres have been recommended for classification as
special recreation areas, either through various planning efforts or by
the public.

a. Maximum Production Potential. In the Maximum
Recreation Benchmark, all existing developed and special recreation
areas were forced to a management prescription that simulates full
service management with rehabilitation. In addition, all identified
potential developed and dispersed areas were "developed" by forcing them
into management prescriptions that simulates construction of the areas.
This insured that the maximum possible level of developed recreation
capacity is provided. It also provides for the maximum dispersed
recreation capacity on those areas identified as existing and potential
botanical, scenic, archeological, and historical areas. With these
areas locked into these designations, dispersed recreation on all
remaining acres was maximized. In the Minimum Level Benchmark, all
developed sites are closed. All of the recreation capacity produced
under minimum level management is considered dispersed recreation. This
accounts for the high level of dispersed recreation capacity for the
Minimum Level Benchmark.

b. Current Production

Developed Recreation. The existing 65 developed recreation areas
were forced to either custodial, reduced service, or full service
management prescriptions. Of the existing developed recreation
capacity, a total of 17 percent was allowed to custodial management, 32
percent was allowed to reduced service management, and the remaining 51
percent was allowed to full service management.


II-4







Dispersed Recreation. The existing dispersed or special
recreation capacity is distributed among the ten areas listed below:

Wakulla District Leon Sinks, Rocky Bluff, Morrison Hammock
Lake George District Cathead Pond, Davenport Landing, Lake
Charles, Juniper Springs Creek
Seminole District Alexander Springs Creek, Kimball Island,
Bowers Bluff

All ten of these areas were assigned a dispersed recreation emphasis and
a reduced service intensity.

2. Wilderness Supply. Under current management, the 73,378
acres of existing wilderness on the National Forests in Florida will
generate a capacity of approximately 155,000 RVD's per year if managed
at the full service level.

a. Maximum Production Potential. The Maximum Wilderness
Benchmark is one of two benchmark analyses made to address wilderness
supply potentials and their impact on other multiple uses. In the
Maximum Wilderness Benchmark, the seven existing wilderness areas and
the two Wilderness Study Areas were allocated to a full service
management wilderness prescription.

b. Current Production. The seven existing wilderness
areas were assigned a reduced service management prescription.

3. Wildlife Supply. Of the ten Management Indicator Species
selected on the National Forests in Florida, four species were used to
measure habitat capability and outputs in wildlife and fish user days
(WFUD's). They were deer, bear, turkey, and quail. The red-cockaded
woodpecker does not produce WFUD's, but sufficient information exists on
population and habitat requirements to use it to measure habitat
capability. Figure 2-3 shows the suitable habitat acres and population
levels for these species.


Figure 2-3 SUITABLE HABITAT AND POPULATION LEVELS

Suitable Current Optimum Minimum
Species Acres Population Population Population

Deer 1,000,000 12,200 24,400 6,250
Bear 700,000 270 430 250
Turkey 300,000 2,200 6,600 940
Quail 100,000 5,000 6,000 1,250
RCW 475,000 2,100 5,140 1,000


Figure 2-4 shows habitat capability for the Minimum Level, Current
Level, and Maximum Wildlife Benchmarks. The current situation is
represented by the base level index of 100.


11-5







HABITAT CAPABILITY INDEX


1982 1985 1995 2005 2015 2025

Deer
Minimum 100 90 60 50 50 50
Current 100 100 100 110 120 120
Maximum 100 100 110 125 150 200
Bear
Minimum 100 100 105 115 130 150
Current 100 100 100 100 100 100
Maximum 100 100 110 125 150 160
Turkey
Minimum 100 90 60 45 45 45
Current 100 100 100 100 100 100
Maximum 100 110 140 200 250 300
Quail
Minimum 100 70 25 25 25 25
Current 100 100 100 110 120 120
Maximum 100 90 90 90 100 120
Red-Cockaded Woodpecker
Minimum 100 115 100 90 80 70
Current 100 125 125 125 125 125
Maximum 100 125 150 175 210 245


a. Maximum Production Potential. The objective of the
Maximum Wildlife Benchmark was to maximize the number of acres of mast
producing upland hardwoods provide a high level of old growth yellow
pine, and maintain a sufficient level of reforestation activity to
provide for the needs of early succession dependent species. In
combination these objectives support the highest population levels of
the management indicator species.

A number of acres are to be converted from yellow pine to upland
hardwood to provide mast. A total of 109,444 acres were set aside in
yellow pine for this purpose. Figure 2-5 shows the existing acres of
upland hardwood as well as the acres to be converted from yellow pine.


Figure 2-5 UPLAND HARDWOOD IN YELLOW PINE

Existing Total Acres
District Acres Acres Needed Converted

Apalachicola 1,967 40,328 38,361
Wakulla 2,318 36,890 34,572
Osceola 170 20,908 20,738
Lake George 1,480 4,776 3,296
Seminole 1,434 6,542 5,108

--.-------------
As used here, upland hardwoods are a mixture of mainly
noncommercial species such as turkey oak, upland laurel oak, sand
post oak, blue jack oak, southern red oak, sand live oak, Chapman's
oak, and myrtle live oak.


II-6


Figure 2-4







A total of 20,000 acres were set aside in the sand pine working group
for the production of mast. Figure 2-6 shows the existing acres of
upland hardwood as well the acres converted from sand pine.


Figure 2-6 UPLAND HARDWOOD IN SAND PINE

Existing Total Acres
District Acres Acres Needed Converted

Lake George 8,176 11,500 3,324
Seminole 6,234 8,500 2,266

Minimum habitat requirements for the red-cockaded woodpecker, as
determined by informal consultation with USFWS, required that a minimum
of 18 percent of the commerical forest (regulated) yellow pine be
maintained in the 60 plus age class. This was accomplished in the
FORPLAN model by the use of a series of inventory constraints. Figure
2-7 shows by district, the amount of yellow pine acres to be maintained
in the 60+ age classes.


Figure 2-7 YELLOW PINE ACREAGE REQUIREMENTS FOR RED-COCKADED
WOODPECKER

Total Commerical 18 Percent
District Forest Yellow Pine Acres of total acres

Apalachicola 139,076 25,033
Wakulla 153,048 27,548
Osceola 104,821 18,868
Lake George 38,556 6,940
Seminole 45,998 8,279

Constraints were used to force the designation of specified yellow pine
acreages to colony site and recruitment stand prescriptions. The 18
percent constraint includes the areas set aside as colony sites and
recruitment stands. Figure 2-8 displays the breakdown of the acres that
were maintained in the age 60 plus age class.


Figure 2-8 RED-COCKADED WOODPECKER HABITAT REQUIREMENTS

Colony Commerical Forest
Colony Site Site Recruitment Yellow Pine Acres
Acres Acres Stand Acres Age 60+

Apalachicola 2,993 2,947 19,066
Wakulla 1,894 3,426 22,228
Osceola 581 3,500 14,787
Lake George 1,084 2,220 3,636
Seminole 234 880 7,165

Capacity in WFUD's was calculated by taking 10 percent of the dispersed
recreation visitor day capacity for each benchmark. Under the Minimum


II-7







Level Benchmark, all recreation capacity is considered to be dispersed
recreation capacity. For this reason, the dispersed recreation capacity
under the Minimun Level Benchmark is relatively large. If one computes
WFUD capacity as 10 percent of dispersed recreation capacity, it shows
WFUD capacity that exceeds that of the Maximum Wildlife Benchmark.

b. Current Production. In the Current Benchmark no lands
were converted from pine to upland hardwoods. All existing upland oak
stands were forced to the wildlife mast production prescription. The
acreages of these stands are shown in Figure 2-9.


Figure 2-9 CURRENT MAST PRODUCING ACRES

Apalachicola Ranger District 2,065 acres
Wakulla Ranger District 2,318 acres
Osceola Ranger District 170 acres
Lake George Ranger District 9,656 acres
Seminole Ranger District 7,668 acres

The red-cockaded woodpecker contraints used in the Current Benchmark
were the same as those used in the Maximum Wildlife Benchmark as well as
all other benchmarks.

4. Range Supply. On the Apalachicola National Forest, 65,899
acres can be fenced into ten grazing allotments for an additional 20,700
AUMs if and when demand dictates. All suitable range on the Osceola
National Forest has been fenced into grazing allotments.

a. Maximum Production Potential. Assumptions and
constraints used in formulating the Range Benchmark include:

Follow existing legal administrative area designations.

All existing and potential allotments would be managed at the
intensive management level.

Fence 65,899 acres into ten additional grazing allotments.

Seed and fertilize 100 acres of improved pasture each year.

Prescribe burn 57,134 acres (or 1/3 of the suitable 177,670
acres) each year.

Timber management practices are unconstrained

Ending inventory constraint for timber is used.

b. Current Production. The current direction for range
is to manage the existing allotments for optimal production without
establishing new allotments. Thus all existing allotments on the
Apalachicola and Osceola Ranger Districts were assigned to a current
range management prescription. The acres included are:

Apalachicola Ranger District 20,538 acres
Osceola Ranger District 89,314 acres


11-8







5. Timber Supply. Because Regional instructions required a
ceiling on timber harvest, many of the benchmark levels are equal in
terms of timber production. This ceiling on timber harvest was set
equal to the Florida RPA timber targets plus 50 percent and was included
to reflect the shape of the horizontal demand curve for timber that was
modeled in FORPLAN. The output levels under the maximum benchmark
demonstrate the biological potential to produce timber subject to the
red-cockaded woodpecker constraints, cut size limits, and other legal
and policy related constraints described below.

a. Maximum Production Potential. In the Maximum Timber
Benchmark, timber production was maximized within the limits of a number
of constraints. These constraints included nondeclining yield, ending
inventory, the long term sustained yield link, and sequential upper
bounds of 25 percent on timber production. Other timber constraints
included a ceiling on timber production that was equal to the Florida
RPA Targets plus 50 percent. There were also a number of minimum
management constraints. First, the amount of pine site acres where titi
has encroached that were allowed to be reforested to yellow pine were
constrained to 60,000 acres on the Apalachicola Ranger District. This
was done to preserve habitat for certain indicator species.
Reforestation of similar sites on the Wakulla District was limited to
40,000 acres for the same reason.

Additional minimum management requirements were added for the
red-cockaded woodpecker. They are listed below:

All existing colony sites were forced to a wildlife
prescription that allowed cutting of trees only for habitat
improvement purposes. Any trees harvested would be
nonchargeable volume and therefore no yield was predicted

Red-cockaded woodpecker constraints described under the maximum
wildlife benchmark.

A cut size limitation constraint was used to simulate
restrictions to the size of regeneration cuts.

Prescriptions were made available to all analysis areas that allow
harvest to occur at the culmination of mean annual increment..

b. Current Production. The following timber constraints
were used in determining the current management direction production.

Nondeclining yield.

Ending inventory constraint

Long term sustained yield link

Current direction prescriptions only

Area control based on current direction

Current production levels for the first period


1-9







Sequential Upper bounds of 25 percent on timber production

A ceiling of the Florida RPA targets plus 25 percent

Minimum management requirements for wildlife and cut size
limits

6. Water Supply. The National Forests in Florida vary
considerably in the amounts of water they produce and also vary in their
proportional contribution to surface and ground water. Total yield of
water from the Forests, both surface and groundwater, is about 1.90
million acre feet per year. It is unknown exactly how much of that
water becomes stream flow and how much recharges the aquifer, but it is
estimated that 25-35 percent is recharged (mostly on the Ocala National
Forest) and 65-75 percent is surface flow (mostly on the Apalachicola
National Forest). The Osceola National Forest yields the least water of
the three, and most of its water exits as streamflow.

These water yield estimates are based on a combination of runoff
models, USGS gauge records and other literature applicable to the area.
a. Maximum Production Potential. The Maximum Timber
Benchmark was used to estimate maximum water production because water
yield tables in the FORPLAN model show increases in water production
that are directly related to timber production.

The benchmarks indicated it would be possible to increase water yield
above current direction. Such an increase would not be very significant
on a Forestwide basis but could be very significant on a watershed
basis.

b. Current Production. Water production for current
management direction is displayed in Figure 2-1.


7. Facilities Supply

a. Roads. Since road transportation needs are determined
by resource use activity, any changes in the National Forests in
Florida's transportation system will depend on changes in resource use.
In general, the road system is complete and adequate. The forest has a
maximum need of only 10-15 miles of new road construction for resource
access and use. This road construction should be completed by the year
2010. After this the transportation system will require only
maintenance and reconstruction. At least 65 miles of road
reconstruction will be needed annually to prevent deterioration of the
road system.

All of the arterial and collector roads that are under state and county
jurisdiction serve the Forest at a standard that is more than adequate,
except county road 368 (Forest Highway 13) on the Apalachicola National
Forest. Because it serves traffic primarily generated by use of the
National Forest, it has been given top priority on the request for
cooperative Forest Highway funding.


11-10







b. Administrative and Recreation Facilities. In general,
the development levels of present administrative and recreation
structures are adequate. Large changes from the present level of
resource program activities would be needed before a significant
increase or decrease in facility needs is required.

c. Water and Waste Water System Facilities
The development level of existing water and waste water systems is
adequate for present management levels. Increases in resource programs,
especially recreation development, would require an increase in the
capacity of present systems or the addition of new systems.


B. DEMAND CONDITIONS

This subsection includes a summary display of demand estimates (Figure
2-10) and a description of special conditions concerning the demand
estimates. The most likely values for domestic forage, timber, and
water are the 1980 RPA targets for the National Forests in Florida. The
high and low figures for forage and water form a range of plus or minus
25 percent while the range for timber is plus 50 percent and minus 25
percent.

1. Recreation Demand. Population growth in Florida will
probably be the single most important factor in influencing future
demand for and consumptive use of outdoor recreation on the National
Forests in Florida. Since 1960, Florida's population has more than
doubled. Florida is the eighth most populated state in the country.
Counties having the highest growth rates are located in close proximity
to the Ocala National Forest and it is expected that this Forest will
experience the greatest impact from increased population.

Rising energy and transportation costs will affect demand for outdoor
recreation use on the Forests. There will be fewer visitors coming from
long distances, and the few that do come from distant locations will
likely remain longer. Local use will probably increase because many
local residents will not be able to travel to more distant recreation
opportunities.

Available leisure time affects the amount of recreation use. As the
average age of Florida's population increases, more time will be
available for recreational activities. Along with more free time, there
will also probably be a shift in kinds of use from activities that
require active participation to more passive activities, such as
picnicking and fishing.

Motorized Travel Automobile and motorcycle travel are energy
consuming activities requiring substantial cost to the participant.
With the prices of gasoline and vehicle maintenance on the rise,
Forestwide use in this category is estimated to remain at or near
current levels. A low annual rate of increase of about 0.93 percent per
year is projected for this type of use.


II-11







Figure 2-10


Estimates of Demand For Goods and Services
on the National Forests in Florida


Average yearly values by 10 year period

Period 1 Period 2 Period 3 Period 4 Period 5


RECREATION
Developed Use (KRVD's)
High
Most Likely
Low

Dispersed Use (MRVD's) /1
High
Most Likely
Low

Wilderness Use (MRVD's)
High
Most Likely
Low

RANGE
Grazing Use (AUM's)
High
Most Likely
Low

TIMBER
Programmed Sales (MCF)
High
Most Likely
Low


1617.6
1596.8
1556.3


1630.5
1573.7
1568.7


1938.9
1551.1
1163.3


60180
48114
36108


23700
15800
11850


1954.5
1867.7
1707.2


1970.1
1761.7
1720.8


1938.9
1551.1
1163.3



64731
51785
38839


24300
16200
12150


WATER
Meeting Water Quality Goals (MAcre Feet)
High 1375
Most Likley 1100
Low 825

1/ The dispersed recreation use prediction includes
dispersed recreation RVD's, and wildlife WFUD's


1375
1100
825


full service dispersed recreation RVD's, reduced service


11-12


2853.5
2555.6
2054.4


2876.3
2153.9
2070.9


1938.9
1551.1
1163.3


3447.8
2989.3
2253.7


3475.4
2381.6
2271.8


1938.9
1551.1
1163.3


2361.6
2184.7
1782.8


2380.5
1947.9
1887.8


1938.9
1551.1
1163.3



66713
53370
40028


27750
18500
13875


68955
55164
41373


70928
56742
42557


29250
19500
14625


31650
21100
15825







Camping Out-of-state and Florida residents participate in
forest camping. With its mild winters, the Florida climate is conducive
to camping almost year around. It also provides inexpensive overnight
accommodations for many out-of-state visitors who travel to Florida to
visit attractions in the Orlando area. Camping use is expected to
increase at an annual rate of 1.43 percent. This is based on the medium
projected population rate for those counties contained within the
Forests' areas of influence.

Picnicking Picnicking is an inexpensive, low energy consuming
day use activity, enjoyed both by residents and out-of-state visitors
almost year around in Florida. Growth is predicted to occur at a high
annual rate of 1.91 percent in accordance with the high predicted
population growth rate. This estimate is substantiated by the
historical trends in picnicking growth.

Fishing/Hunting Fishing and hunting is closely related to a
number of external factors including previous success rates, food
prices, and leisure time. While these are not necessarily energy
intensive activities, they can require substantial cost, especially for
the beginner.

Warm water fishing use is predicted to remain constant. The increasing
population levels will result in additional fisherman coming into the
state. As fishing pressures increase, success rates will decrease, and
some fisherman will leave the sport.

Big game hunting is predicted to increase at an annual rate between 4.0
and 6.0 percent. Increased use due to increasing population and food
prices will partially be offset by those that quit hunting due to lack
of success.

These wildlife demand predictions are based on license sales data.

Water Sports Activities Activities in this category are
enjoyed from early spring to late fall. With a number of high quality
opportunities available on the National Forests in Florida, swimming,
canoeing, sailing, and boating can all be expected to remain popular.
Overall use is predicted to increase in each of these activities. Use
is expected to increase rapidly in the canoeing and swimming categories
and not so rapidly in the sailing, powerboating, and water skiing
activities. The later categories are either energy intensive or require
substantial investments to participate.

Use in the water sports category is predicted to increase with
population growth at an average rate of 1.67 percent per year.

Gathering Forest Products As the cost of home heating
increases, firewood will become an increasingly popular source of fuel.
Demand for fuelwood has increased steadily since the onset of inflation
in energy prices. It is assumed that conventional fuel sources will
continue to increase in price. This will make alternative energy
sources even more attractive in the future. Use in this category is
therefore predicted to increase at a high annual rate of 0.93 percent
annually.


II-13







Nonmotorized Travel As people become more aware of the benefits
of outdoor recreation, use within this category will increase.
Activities within this category include hiking, bicycling, and horseback
riding. Growth is predicted to occur at a rate of 0.93 percent
annually.

Interpretive Service Activities Use in this category is
predicted to remain at current levels. This prediction is partially
based upon the fact that the large monetary outlays necessary to develop
interpretive sites will become increasingly unavailable. Assuming that
existing sites will continue to operate, use is predicted to remain
static, with yearly fluctuations occurring between plus and minus five
percent.

Figure 2-11 displays estimated demand by Recreation Opportunity Spectrum
classes.


Figure 2-11 RECREATION OPPORTUNITY SPECTRUM (ROS) CLASS DEMAND


Average Annual Demand (MRVD)
ROS Class Period 1 Period 2 Period 3 Period 4 Period 5

Primitive 0 0 0 0 0
Semiprimitive
Nonmotorized 39 58 85 114 153
Semiprimitive
Motorized 120 134 148 164 181
Roaded Natural 1454 1627 1800 1990 2201
Rural 1597 1868 2185 2556 2989
Urban 0 0 0 0 0


2. Wilderness Demand. Demand for wilderness use was calculated
by using the assumption that 2 percent of the population that lives
within 250 miles of a wilderness will use a wilderness area for 2.5 RVDs
per year. Considering that each acre of wilderness has an average
carrying capacity of 2 RVDs per acre per year, there is currently a
demand for for 425,000 acres of wilderness in 250 mile radius of the
National Forests in Florida. Currently there are 1.7 million acres of
wilderness within this area.

Other needs besides recreation must be considered for wilderness
including scientific study, the maintenance of ecosystems in their
natural state, vicarious reasons (some people just want to know it is
there), and the maintenance of geological formations and historical
sites. Consideration must also be given to meeting the Forest Service
Southern Region's RPA Wildernss goal of 700,000 acres. The National
Forests in Florida share of this target is 73,378 acres of designated
wilderness. Estimates of capacity for that acreage is 170,619 RVD's per
year. Historical data indicates that, at a maximum, 25 percent of this
capacity would be in use by 1985. Future demand beyond 1985 is based on
a projected rate of increase of 4 percent for two planning periods, 3
percent for the next two periods and 1 percent for the next period.
These percentages are compounded. Figure 2-12 shows the estimated
demand based on the above assumptions.


II-14







Figure 2-12 WILDERNESS DEMAND


Pprin r


1985
1995
2005
2015
2025
2035


38,775
57,837
84,932
113,809
152,505
167,755


3. Wildlife Demand. The utilized supply of WFUD's produced at
the Minimum, Current, and Maximum Wildlife Benchmarks are shown in
Figure 2-13.


Figure 2-13 M WFUD's PRODUCED AND UTILIZED


Level


Current 198


Minimum
Current
Maximum
1980 RPA


537
537
537
537


500
644
719
702


1QQ9


400
733
866
735


2005


300
733
909
702


The current 537,000 WFUD's produced consists of:


Fishing
Big Game Hunting
Other Game


Using the assigned Regional RPA values of $17.85 per
$24.00 per day for other game, and 14.20 per day for
current value of wildlife demand is $9,606,700.


Fishing
Big Game
Other Game
Total


day for big game,
fishing, the


193M x $14.20 = $2,740,600
226M x $17.85 = $4,034,100
118M x $24.00 = $2,832,000
$9,606,700


4. Range Demand. National demand for beef has been decreasing
since 1976. Beef demand is not expected to increase significantly even
with the improvement of the economy, as increases in beef consumption
would have to take place as the result of substituting beef for other
meats rather than subsituting beef for nonmeat products. This is
unlikely to occur with the cheap cost of poultry. It is expected that
beef supplies will level off and remain constant over the next several
years.

Forage is provided to the permitted at relatively low costs, but low
calf crop percentages, losses from theft and death, Forest users leaving
gates open, distance from base ranch to allotment, and operational costs
on National Forest lands, make ranching on Forest ranges a marginal
operation. It is predicted that any increase in demand for range
resources on the National Forests in Florida will not be significant.


II-15


2015


300
733
909
645


2025


300
733
909
645


percent
percent
percent


Pa ri rvi Y) I CII


Wilderness Demand







5. Timber Demand. The demand for sawtimber from the National
Forests in Florida is expected to increase in the future due to the
scarcity of this size material on other lands.

The demand for small roundwood should also continue to increase in the
future although at a slower rate than in the recent past. Given the
fact that Florida is a net importer of both roundwood and mill
by-products for use in production of fiber products, demand for local
sources of roundwood should remain strong.

The demand for local supplies of hardwood stumpage has been virtually
nonexistent because hardwood sales offered contain too much small
material and undesirable species. Together with the high cost of
logging the wet areas where these species grow, some local veneer
companies have resorted to importing their raw materials from as far
away as Canada. If the demand for industrial wood fuel sources were to
increase, the demand for hardwoods may also increase.

The National Forests in Florida now provide only four percent of the
total wood needs in Florida. This comes from a commercial forest land
base that amounts to six percent of the total commercial forest acres in
Florida. As nonindustrial private forest lands are removed from the
commercial forest land base, the National Forests in Florida will need
to supply an increasingly larger percentage of the total Florida wood
production.

In conclusion, supply-demand related variables examined here indicate
that except for some local dependencies, the National Forests in Florida
do not play a major part in supplying the timber needs of the state.
However, in "Update 76, Florida's Timber Resources"; Florida Division of
Forestry, it is estimated that Florida can, and probably will, triple
its annual harvest and production of wood based products by the year
2000.

If statewide harvest and production triple, the trends already
established will result in increasing demand for accelerated timber
production from the Forests. It can be conservatively estimated that
production from the National Forests would double in this case.

6. Water Demand. Consumptive water usage at the 62 Forest
administrative sites and recreation areas having potable water supplies,
and the 184 special use permittees (summer homes, organization camps,
and hunt clubs), is estimated to be 25.6 million gallons or 78.6 acre
feet per year. All of these sites except one administrative site,
Sweetwater Cabin on the Ocala National Forest, utilize groundwater as
potable water sources. Sweetwater Cabin uses surface water and requires
about 100,000 gallons per year. The highly productive Floridan aquifer
underlies all three National Forests, thus water supplies are expected
to easily meet demand in the future.

Nonconsumptive instream water uses within the National Forests in
Florida include a wide array of recreational activities such as boating,
canoeing, swimming, scuba diving, and fishing. Inseparably related to
these human activities are the fish and wildlife habitat requirements
demanded of the Forests' aquatic resources.


II-16







Nonconsumptive water uses have not yet been quantified, nor have
instream flow requirements. These are two of the most urgent inventory
needs and will be included as part of the specific water resource
inventory objectives for administrative watersheds.

Florida Water Law, a modification of the Riparian Doctrine, provides
authority for Water Management Districts (WMD's) to establish
consumptive use permitting procedures and methodologies for determining
minimum instream flow requirements. Each of the WMD's has adopted
consumptive use permitting rules, but none has yet addressed minimum
instream flows. The Forests will pursue each of these matters with the
responsible WMD's during the life of the Plan.


C. RESEARCH NEEDS

During the planning process, areas of research needed to support or
improve management of the National Forests in Florida were identified.
They are summarized below for consideration for research projects and
will be updated during periodic evaluations of the Plan implementation.

1. What effects do timber management practices have on
earthworm production? What soils are best suited for earthworm
production? How can earthworm production be stimulated? Are current
harvest intensities compatible with a sustained worm yield?

2. What effect does deer hunting with dogs have on deer
productivity?

3. How does the potential for a deer population to produce
recreation user days compare when use of the resource is contrasted
between deer hunting with dogs and still hunting?

4. What effect does "whole tree" utilization have on long term
soil productivity?

5. Develop program for production of biomass for energy
generation utilizing titi and wood residue being destroyed in site
preparation.

6. What effect would removal of logging residue for biomass
have on soil productivity?

7. What effect does intensive site preparation have on soils
and vegetative communities?

8. To what extent does forest management on the Apalachicola
National Forest affect the Apalachicola Estuarine Sanctuary?

9. What impact does motorcycle use have on designated off-road
vehicle areas?

10. Quantify the off-road motorcycling population in terms of
riding preference, trail design and management, and conflicting land
uses.


II-17







11. How extensive and how serious is soil compaction at
developed recreational areas?

12. What are the ecological effects of summer burning compared
to winter burning?

13. What are the ecological consequences of wetland harvesting
and regeneration?

14. Will the future Forest condition, based on the direction
established in the Forest Plan, produce habitat that will continue to
support a viable population of red-cockaded woodpeckers on each of the
three Florida National Forests?

15. How can additional populations of Harper's Beauty be
established in secure locations on the Apalachicola National Forest?

16. What are the effects of improved road access on bear and
turkey populations?

17. How much should the public pay for National Forest
management?

18. How many people and disciplines are needed for National
Forest management to meet current laws?

19. What is the average home range size of deer in the sandpine
scrub? Do daily home range requirements include water areas, clearcuts,
etc.?

20. Develop a system to deal with increased demand for
"gathering forest products" such as Christmas trees, firewood, berry
picking, and the conflicts and impacts they impose.

21. How can the Forest Service respond to growing population
demands and older age composition when the resource base is shrinking or
constant?

22. How far should the Forest Service go to protect the
public? How far does the public expect us to go?

23. Develop more accurate methods for detecting/counting
dispersed users and concentrations?

24. What are the best means for coping with decreasing budgets
and increasing state and federal regulatory requirements for water,
sanitation, health, and safety?

25. What applications does remote sensing have in resource
management and Forest Land Management Planning monitoring?

26. Develop improved measurement system for recreation use and
accomplishment (VD, PAOT, PAOT days).


II-18







III. PLAN RESPONSES TO ISSUES, CONCERNS, AND OPPORTUNITIES


This Forest Plan was developed in response to the public issues,
management concerns, and resource opportunities identified early in the
planning process. Nine planning questions were formulated from the many
issues, concerns, and opportunities identified by the public and Forest
Service personnel. Those nine planning questions are presented in this
chapter along with discussions of how this Plan is responsive to the
issues, concerns, and opportunities that are represented by those
questions. The issues for each comment subject group are summarized and
the resolution of the issues in the Plan is discussed. For additional
information about the process of identifying issues, concerns, and
opportunities, see DEIS Chapter II.

Not all of the issues identified in the planning process are responded
to by this Plan, which is based on one of the 10 alternatives developed
as part of the planning effort. However, each issue was addressed by at
least one of the alternatives. Disposition of issues not responded to
by this Plan can be found in the process records available at the Forest
Supervisor's Office in Tallahassee.


A. ALLOCATION OF NATIONAL FOREST LANDS

"What lands are appropriate for special classification (e.g. Wilderness,
Scenic Area, Wild and Scenic River, Geologic Area, etc.), and what lands
are appropriate for other uses?"

1. Specific Proposals for Classified Areas

* Issues concern designating the Lake Eaton area as a wildlife
sanctuary, reserving compartment 71 and 76 of the Apalachicola Ranger
District as botanical areas, designating River Sinks and Fisher Creek as
special recreation areas, and developing a wildlife sanctuary at Mormon
Branch.

The Plan includes the designation of six areas, including Savannah
(Compartment 71) and Morman Branch, as special recreation areas. Lake
Eaton, Orchid (Compartment 76), River Sinks, and Fisher Creek were not
recommended for special classification.

2. Management of Classified Areas

* This issue concerns the development of a management plan for the Leon
Sinks Special Interest Area.

A management plan is scheduled for development for the Leon Sinks
geological area.

3. Rare II Further Planning

* Issues concern the arrangement of boundaries to avoid the inclusion of
private land within the RARE II areas, recommendation of wilderness or
nonwilderness for these areas, and completion of a detailed survey of


III-1







biological and wilderness attributes for the Great Chapman Savannah and
Clear Lake.

The enactment of the Florida Wilderness Act resulted in an addition to
the Bradwell Bay Wilderness, the establishment of six other wilderness
areas, and the requirement for wilderness study of two roadless areas.


Boundary adjustments will be made
minimize the inclusion of private
disposition of the roadless (RARE


during the wilderness study process to
land. Figure 3-1 shows the
II) areas.


Figure 3-1 DISPOSITION OF RARE II LANDS


RARE II AREAS DESIGNATED WILDERNESS
Mud Swamp New River (adj) 8,018
Sopchoppy River USA 1,170
Big Gum Samp 13 640
Alexander Springs 7 985
Billies Bay 2 326
Little Lake George 2,932
Juniper Prairie 13,875


Total


RARE II AREAS DESIGNATED FOR
Clear Lake
Natural Area


Total


acres
acres
acres
acres
acres
acres
acres


49,946 acres

WILDERNESS STUDY
5,625 acres
4,486 acres


RARE II AREAS TO BE MANAGED FOR USES OTHER
THAN WILDERNESS
Savannah 1,977 acres
Post Office Bay 7,219 acres
Black Creek Island 8,270 acres
Bay Creek 5,513 acres
Providence 6,681 acres
Long Bay 8,055 acres
Gum Bay 8,513 acres
Impassable Bay 5,884 acres
Farles Prairie 2,058 acres
Buck Lake 6,081 acres
- -----------------------------------


Total


60,251 acres


10,111 acres


4. Need for Wilderness

* Issues concern the amount of wilderness needed, limiting additional
wilderness areas to those having endangered ecosystems, and protecting a
tract of the longleaf wiregrass community.

The areas designated wilderness and wilderness study are listed above.
These include a variety of ecosystems including the longleaf wiregrass
community (Juniper Prairie).

5. Wilderness Management:

* Issues concern the level of management to be used in wilderness areas
including wildfire control, disease control, kinds of recreation
activities, visual resource management, and trail marking.

Bradwell Bay Wilderness will be managed at a moderate level in
accordance with the existing wilderness management plan. The low level
wilderness management prescription was selected for all remaining
wilderness areas pending development of individual wilderness management
plans. The low level wilderness management prescription provides for
wildfire control if fires have the potential for destroying wilderness
values or escaping outside the wilderness areas. Other management


III-2


------------------------------------
-------


-- -- - -----------"-" -- "' -- -







activities include the removal of garbage and litter, and patrol and
enforcement activities during anticipated peak problem periods. Insect
and disease outbreaks will not be controlled unless necessary to protect
valuable vegetation outside the area, and then only by measures that
have the least adverse effect on the wilderness resource. The visual
resource will be guided by the "National Forest Landscape Management,
Agricultural Handbook" series, and Forest coordinating requirements.
Trail marking will be minimized and be as unobtrusive as possible. The
moderate level wilderness management prescription is similar, but it
provides for prescribed burning when specifically approved by the
Chief's office.

6. Public Use of Wilderness Areas:

* This issue concerns permitting maximum public use consistent with the
protection of wilderness values.

All wildernesses will be governed by specific management direction to be
prepared for each area. This direction will be made part of the Forest
Plan as it is developed and will outline provisions for the use and
protection of the wilderness.

7. Wilderness Facilities:

* Issues concern trails, trail marking, primitive campsites, sanitary
facilities, and emergency access.

See the response in "6" above.

8. Wildfire Control:

* Issues concern the level of wildfire control to be implemented in
wilderness areas and restrictions allowing only the use of handtools.

The Forest has an approved Fire Suppression Action Plan for wildfires in
wilderness areas.

9. Prescribed Burning:

* This issue concerns the level of controlled burning in wilderness
areas, if any, to maintain certain plant communities and to reduce the
possibility of catastrophic wildfires.

Prescribed fire may be used as a wilderness management tool in
accordance with the policy established by the Chief of the Forest
Service.


B. RECREATION

"What types, amounts, and mix of recreation opportunities should be
provided?"


III-3







1. Visual Values:


* Issues concern visual impacts around Mormon Branch, modification of
timber practices for improvement of visual resources, protection of
visual values along roads, special use impacts on the visual resource,
impacts caused by eroded soils, and increased emphasis of visual values.

Provisions have been made for the increased protection of visual
resources around Mormon Branch by its designation as a botanical area.
Additional protection for visual resources throughout the Forests have
been obtained by the adoption of Visual Quality Objectives and Forest
Resource Coordinating Requirements.

2. Dispersed Recreation:

* Issues concern the incompatibility of timber management with
recreation use of the River Sinks area, the amount of emphasis placed on
dispersed recreation, the need to provide more educational uses, the
development of only a small number of low use sites distributed over a
large area, the desire for less primitive use areas on the Ocala
National Forest, and the overuse of hunter camps.

Timber management is not excluded from the River Sinks area. The Plan
places a high emphasis on dispersed recreation and includes the
designation of six new special recreation areas and the expansion of one
existing special recreation area. Provisions have been made for
additional hunter camps.

3. Recreation Amenities:

* Issues concern the level of recreation amenities that are to be
provided by the Forest.

The Plan provides for moderate emphasis of developed recreation and
maintaining a mix of recreation amenities levels. The areas range from
highly developed areas with many amenities to the lesser developed areas
with very few amenities. The Plan favors rehabilitation and
construction of areas with fewer amenities.

4. Developed Recreation:

* Issues concern the level of developed recreation management to be
provided.

Three recreation management levels are used in this Plan.

Full Service Management With Rehabilitaion
(25% of all developed areas)

Full Service Management Without Rehabilitation
(50% of all developed areas)

Reduced Service Management
(25% of all developed areas)


III-4







5. Recreation Management:


* Issues concern the inadequate facilities at Juniper Wayside on the
Ocala National Forest, identification of underused sites and channeling
of use to these sites, determining if use is causing damage and if
restrictions are necessary, and providing for a wider range of
recreation uses.

Construction of Juniper Wayside is scheduled in this Plan. This Plan
calls for full service management at all special recreation areas and 75
percent of developed recreation sites. Full service management requires
monitoring and dispersal of use, if necessary.

6. Recreation Planning:

*Issues concern emphasis on the natural as well as the developed
environment, the need for a park for the handicapped at Bill's Branch,
the need for boat ramps, greater consideration of river resources,
management direction for Crow's Bluff, rustic emphasis for recreation
facilities, location of highly developed sites on the perimeter of the
Forests, and maintaining recreation use at current levels on the Ocala
National Forest.

This Plan calls for a balanced recreation program, with moderate
emphasis on dispersed and developed recreation opportunities. Priority
areas scheduled for construction and/or reconstruction are Salt Springs,
Camel Lake, and Juniper Run. The new dispersed recreation areas are
Black Creek Scenic Area, Savannah Botanical Area, Morman Branch
Botanical Area, Redwater Lake Scenic Area, and Mud Lake Geological Area.

7. Recreation Problems:

* Issues concern design problems at Juniper Springs, low use at some
sites, adverse environmental impacts from heavy use, law enforcement
problems, conflicts with timber operations, and old sewage systems.

Juniper Springs Recreation Area will be managed under the Full Service
with Rehabilitation option; these problems will be addressed at the time
of the rehabilitation. Standards and guidelines provide direction for
channeling use from over used sites to underutilized sites.

8. Hiking Trails:

* Issues concern providing more hiking trails, not providing trail
shelters, clearcutting near trails, policy for trail development, and
completion and management of the Florida Trail.

Standards and guidelines require that trails be constructed and
maintained in accordance with the Forest Service "Trails South"
Handbook. The Florida National Scenic Trail establishment law requires
that a Management Plan be developed within two years to guide its
management. This Plan will address the above concerns.


III-5







9. Amount of ORV Use:


* Issues concern opportunities for and restrictions against off road
vehicle (ORV) use.

Areas open to ORV use will be reduced from current levels.

10. Nongame Wildlife:

* Issues concern the level of consideration given to nongame wildlife.

Concern is reflected in the number of nongame species selected as
management indicator species (MIS). These include two listed species,
bald eagle and red-cockcaded woodpecker, as well as unlisted species -
pileated woodpecker, scrub jay, and gopher tortoise. Activities which
benefit many nongame species include prescribed burning, timber harvest,
and site preparation. Species requiring protection or undisturbed
environments are served by the establishment of red-cockaded woodpecker
colony sites and recruitment stands and key mast production areas. Also
this Plan provides for protection of such additional habitats as
prairies, savannahs, lands allowed to RARE II and Special Recreation,
swamps, cypress swamps, bays, and bottomland hardwood sites.

11. Hunting With Dogs:

* The issue concerns the number of acres set aside for still hunting
versus the number of acres set aside for dog hunting.

Hunting with or without dogs relates to the method of taking game
species. The main issue is over the taking of deer. The Florida Game
and Fresh Water Fish Commission is responsible for determining proper
methods of taking game. As land managers the Forest Service can
recommend and otherwise work with the Commission in determining the
proper methods of taking game on National Forest lands. The two
agencies will continue working together in establishing a proper mix of
these two kinds of hunting.

12. Availability of Hunting:

* Issues concern closing areas to hunting, hunting conflicts with other
recreation activities, increasing provisions for small game hunting, and
the inclusion of all National Forest lands within wildlife management
areas.

Issues concerning allowing or disallowing hunting in high recreation use
areas, resolving conflicts with other recreation users, providing for
special kinds of hunting use, and even the designation of National
Forest lands as wildlife management areas will all be subject to annual
review through provisions of a memorandum of understanding between the
National Forests in Florida and the Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish
Commission. Changes will be made as necessary to accommodate the
changing patterns of public demand.


III-6







13. Wildlife Habitat Needs:


* Issues concern the need for more emphasis to be placed on the selection
of the best featured wildlife species, wildlife protection and
promotion, hardwood management to benefit wildlife, improvement of
wildlife habitat management, lack of bear habitat, and increased law
enforcement to prevent poaching.

Wildlife species to be featured in a given area are guided by the Sikes
Act Plan. Minor modifications are made during the planning period to
cover the critical needs of such species as the red-cockcaded
woodpecker, bald eagle, or other listed species. Other changes in the
featured species area will be guided by results of monitoring the
results of implementing this Plan, changes in direction through the
memorandum of understanding with the Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish
Commission, and changing patterns of public demand.

This Plan, which was conceived with wildlife given a high priority for
consideration, promotes special wildlife values by protection of key
habitat types.

The Plan recognizes the key importance of upland hardwood forest types
and sets aside 30,000 acres specifically for this purpose. Very limited
disturbance of the bottomland hardwood habitats are proposed for this
plan period, therefore these key habitat types are protected.

The designation of 48,928 acres of wilderness study areas recognizes key
importance of these areas for bear and other wilderness values. The
assignment of 103,288 acres of titi to minimum level prescriptions
assures additional protection of key bear cover types.

A standard and guideline was developed to promote a cooperative effort
with the Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission regarding wildlife
law enforcement.

14. Vandalism and Littering:

* Issues concern the need for better law enforcement, prevention of
vandalism, the need for more public sanitary landfills, and other
impacts associated with an increasing population.

Standards and guidelines provide for continued emphasis on law
enforcement and the use of National Forest System lands for special uses
that serve a significant, demonstrated public need.



C. SILVICULTURE

"In what amounts, by what methods, and in what relation to nonmarket
products should timber be produced?"


III-7







1. Timber Production Problems:


* Issues concern the need to regenerate large areas of overly mature
sand pine, the effect of energy shortages on timber harvest, growth
rates, and rotations, species suitability, timber management on
intermingled soil types, impacts of other resource requirements on
timber management, and the reduction of the timber land base.

Standards and guidelines associated with sand pine prescriptions provide
for a maximum stand size of 120 acres. Also an opening in sand pine
will cease to exist when a new stand has reached a height equal to 15
percent of the height of the tallest adjacent stand, thereby
facilitating regeneration harvest site locations.

Standards and guidelines call for thinning and use of superior stock as
available to maintain and improve growth rates.

Standards and guidelines provide for harvesting of off-site slash pine
plantations and regenerating to longleaf pine.

Prescriptions with a wide range of rotations were selected to respond to
various issues. Rotation ages range from 30 to 100 years.

Issues related to effects of energy shortages, timber management on
intermingled soil types, impacts of other resource requirements on
timber management, and the reduction of the timber land base were not
resolved.

2. Increase Timber Production:

*Issues concern the increase in demand for timber products, need to
increase productivity, need for firewood, and the decline of timber
supply as old growth is removed.

Prescriptions were selected that use artificial regeneration,
fertilization, precommercial thinning, and reforestation of pine sites
now encroached by titi. Standards and guidelines call for the use of
superior stock.

Standards and guidelines call for full use of available firewood.

Some prescriptions have been selected for a substantial amount of old
growth timber.

The need to increase timber productivity is addressed by prescriptions
that include fertilization.

3. Decrease Timber Production:

* Issues concern deemphasizing our response to industry needs,
increasing rotation lengths, and the use of less intensity in timber
management.

Three prescriptions were developed with rotation ages ranging from 70 to
100 years to respond to the issues of enhancing the habitat of the
red-cockcaded woodpecker, concern for aesthetic values, longer
rotations, and the use of less intensity in timber management.


III-8







This Plan has less total acreage under timber management than previous
plans, because of lands that have been designated for special recreation
areas, wilderness areas, red-cockaded woodpecker colony sites and
recruitment stands, and upland oak mast production stands.

4. Timber Management and Nonconsumptive Resources:

* Issues concern the damage to nonconsumptive resource values by
clearcutting, improvement of visual and aesthetic values through longer
rotations, and a reduction in the intensity of timber management.

Some prescriptions were selected that call for natural regeneration.
Prescriptions were selected using harvest ages between 80 and 100 years.
The Plan calls for the regeneration of fewer acres than called for in
previous plans.

5. Intensity of Site Preparation and Reforestation:

* Issues concern the use of different intensities of site preparation
and reforestation, use of natural regeneration, type conversion,
fertilization, fire for regeneration, the concept of maximum superior
yield, and site specific rotations.

Prescriptions were selected that include various intensities of site
preparation and reforestation, natural regeneration, fertilization, and
use of fire for site preparation. Prescriptions were selected using
harvest ages between 80 and 100 years. In the development of the Plan,
no type conversion for timber management purposes was proposed.

6. Stand Design:

* Issues concern stand size, harvest cut distribution and pattern,
economics of stand size, and proximity of harvests to prairies.

Standards and guidelines specify stand size, dispersion of harvest cuts,
and minimum economic size of stand to be managed. The proximity of
harvests to prairies was addressed through the use of Best Management
Practices and Riparian Area Guidelines.

7. Effects of Site Preparation and Reforestation:

* Issues concern the effects of intensive site preparation on complex
plant communities and dependent wildlife values and problems associated
with single species reforestation.

Some prescriptions were selected that use natural regeneration methods
and fire for site preparation. These methods will provide some
protection to certain plant communities. Other ways in which these
communities are protected are through the designation of wilderness
areas, special recreation areas, establishment of red-cockaded
woodpecker colony sites and recruitment stands, and establishment of
wildlife upland oak mast production stands. The single species
reforestation issue is not addressed in the Plan.


III-9







8. Stocking Levels:


* This issue concerns obtaining adequate stand densities.

Standards and guidelines provide an adequate range of stocking levels.

9. Reforestation Timing:

* This issue concerns the length of time between the completion of
harvest cuts and reforestation.

Standards and guidelines specify the time between the completion of
harvest cuts and reforestation of that area.

10. Financing Reforestation:

* This issue concerns the use of timber sale receipts for reforestation
and Timber Stand Improvement (TSI).

This issue was not addressed.

11. Regeneration Methods:

* Issues concern the use of clearcutting, seed tree, or shelterwood
methods for stand regeneration.

Prescriptions were selected that call for clearcutting and shelterwood
methods of regeneration.

12. Prescribed Burning:

* Issues concern informing the public of potential hazards prior to
burning operations, smoke problems, the effect on air quality, and
proper burning intervals.

Smoke management plans provide for public notification prior to burning
when needed and an analysis of smoke problems and effects on air
quality. Guidelines for developing burning plans are specified in the
Southern Forestry Smoke Management Guidebook.

13. Air Quality:

* Issues concern the publicizing of new and ongoing environmental
protection control programs and the perception that the Forest Service
is over-reacting to air quality requirements.

Burning activities and publicizing of environmental protection control
programs comply with the Southern Forestry Smoke Management Guidebook
and the Federal Clean Air Act.

14. Fire:

* Issues concern the high number of incendiary fires as well as the high
fire occurence from all causes and the increased fire risk caused by
subdivision development, increased levels of hazardous fuels, increased
visitor use, and bombing range activities.


III-10







The Forest will continue working with the State and Local governments on
these problems through fire prevention programs, information services,
fuel treatment, and better zoning regulations. Current standards and
guidelines are being used to guide fire suppression activities and
prescribed burning as well as law enforcement procedures.

15. Effect on Environment:

* Issues concern the destruction of wiregrass by intensive site
preparation methods, maintenance of viable ecosystems, return of land to
its natural state after use, restrictions on herbicide use, emphasis of
conservation instead of production, and formation of an advisory board
to monitor market type resource production.

Emphasis on conservation was addressed by allotment of lands to
wilderness study, special recreation areas, and wildlife habitat. The
Plan calls for the regeneration of fewer acres than called for in
previous plans.

Direction for all pesticide use is provided in standards and guidelines.

Issues related to wiregrass and the formation of an advisory board are
not addressed.

16. Production of Goods:

* Issues concern the level of timber and grazing resource production to
be used and the coordination of recreation uses with commodity resource
production.

The goal of this Plan is to provide a balanced mixture of market and
nonmarket outputs, with high emphasis on wildlife habitat improvement.
Recreation uses are adequately coordinated.

17. Other Resource Production:

* Issues concern increased impacts caused by increasing population
levels, the emphasis on the recreation and wildlife resources, problems
of compatibility involving mineral production with recreation and scenic
values, the incompatibility of mining, grazing, and logging with other
resources, and the effects energy shortages might have on Forest
programs.

Incompatibility of timber production is addressed by assigning lands to
other uses such as wilderness study, special recreation, and wildlife.
Emphasis and compatability problems of the recreation resource, as well
as the impacts of increased population pressures, were addressed by the
management level options selected and by the additional areas developed
or set aside for recreation use.

18. Nonconsumptive Resource General Comments:

* Issues concern the need for a greater frequency of burning fire
subclimax species, level of consideration to be given to nonconsumptive
resources, recommendation of RARE II non-wilderness areas containing
swamp ecosystems for wilderness study, and preservation of swamp
ecosystems on a Forestwide basis.


III-11







Greater consideration of non-consumptive resources was provided by the
assignment of lands to wilderness, special recreation, red-cockcaded
woodpecker recruitment stands, and wildlife upland oak mast production
areas. A total of 103,288 acres of titi swamps are assigned to mimimum
level prescriptions, and thus become protected wildlife habitat. The
issue of burning fire subclimax species is not addressed in the Plan.

19. Other Resources and Nonconsumptive Resources:

* Issues include the need for less intensity in grazing management,
protection of the Longleaf Islands historical features on the Lake
George District, and the emphasis of recreation over grazing use.

The grazing intensity issue is not addressed in the Plan. In this Plan,
grazing intensities are at the current level or a more intensive level.
Standards and guidelines provide for eliminating or modifying grazing
use where it is incompatible with recreation use. The Longleaf Islands
issue was not addressed.


D. MINERALS

"To what extent and under what conditions should mineral resources be
utilized?"

1. Mining Activities:

* This issue concerns reclamation after surface mining for phosphate.

An environmental assessment prepared by a multii-agency task force
concluded in 1983 that sufficientt technological capabilities do not
exist to ensure a reasonable likelihood of the successful reclamation
of mined areas consistent with the requirements established for mining
in the Osceola National Forest."



The following three comment groups could not be controlled by
the National Forests in Florida. They have been referred to
the Regional Office for resolution. They are displayed here
because of their high importance.

Alternatives to Lease Issuance on the Osceola National Forest

Issue concerns allowing future mining only from old mines and
transferring leases to remote, less productive western National
Forests.

Lease Issuance Timing

Issues concern the holding of phosphate deposits as emergency
reserves, delaying mining as long as possible, and the fact
that the need for commodities will be greater in 30 years.


III-12







Advisability of Issuing Phosphate Leases


Issues concern not permitting phosphate mining, a conservative
approach to lease issuing, the allowance of mining with stiff
bonds, and a development of a policy for reclaiming the land.


E. SPECIAL USE PERMITS

"What types and to what extent should permits for special uses of
National Forest land be allowed?"

1. Special Use General Requirements:

* Issues concern the level of special uses on the Forests, kinds of
special uses to be permitted, time span of special uses, careful
examination of need for all permits, and allowing permits only for
access purposes.

Standards and guidelines are provided for the continued authorization of
special uses when there is a significant, demonstrated need, the uses
are in the public interest, and they cannot be accommodated on private
land. Regional and State studies and proposals were evaluated and a
determination was made that identified, potential utility corridors will
not need to cross National Forest lands. Direction is established to
continue to utilize existing corridors on National Forest land to the
extent feasible. Long term special uses will generally not be allowed
unless substantial improvements or investments are involved. Short term
special uses will usually not exceed five years.

2. Special Kinds of Special Uses:

* Issues concern opposition to underground powerlines, the disposal of
radioactive wastes, issuance of permits for community centers, the
bombing range problem, lack of garbage disposal facilities, and
elimination of apiary sites where bears are featured species.

Standards and guidelines provide for evaluation of applications based on
public needs. Adequate direction exists to identify what kinds of uses
will be allowed and how they will be managed.

3. Recreation Residences:

* Issues concern the termination of recreation resident permits.

Permits will continue to be maintained until the land is needed for a
greater public use. No new recreation residence sites will be
established.

4. Administration and Issuing of Special Use Permits:

This issue concerns the enforcement of regulations, annual inspection
standards, handling of applications, and public notices and hearings for
major permits.

Current management practices and their standards and guidelines are
considered adequate for handling these problems.


III-13







5. Abandoned Military Ranges:


* Issues concern the hazards to the public and Forest Service personnel
presented by abandoned military ranges.

Current management practices and their standards and guidelines are
considered adequate for handling these problems.


F. FOREST ROADS

"What kinds and how many miles of roads should be developed and
managed?"

1. Maintenance of Forest Service Roads:

* Issues concern the appropriate level of road maintenance on Forest
roads.

Standards and guidelines were developed that provide for the
determination of road maintenance levels according to resource use.

2. Access and Use:

* Issues concern the great number of access roads and the limitation of
use on these roads. Another issue indicates that no new roads should be
built on the Ocala National Forest.

Standards and guidelines reference analysis procedures that will
determine road access needs. New roads will be developed on the Ocala
National Forest.

3. Timber Access Roads:

* Issues concern new road construction for timber access and the
identification of the shortest and best haul routes on timber roads for
fuel efficiency.

Standards and guidelines reference analysis procedures for determining
the best haul routes for timber sales.

4. Road Design, Construction Standards, Location and Funding:

* This issue concerns the standards of road design and construction.

Standards and guidelines reference analysis procedures for determining
proper design and construction standards.


G. RANGE

"What is the appropriate level of range resource outputs, and what
action is needed to achieve that level?"


III-14







1. Cattle Grazing Permit Issuance:


Issues concern permitting grazing where no damage to other resources is
caused, prohibiting grazing on special areas, emphasizing grazing over
wildlife and recreation, and minimizing grazing use.

Standards and guidelines provide for the inspection of allotments twice
a year to identify potential resource damage and the development of
recommendation for changes where needed. Current level prescriptions
are assigned to 66,224 acres and intensive level prescriptions are
assigned to 40,740 acres.

2. Cattle Grazing Impacts:

* Issues concern grazing causing adverse impacts on other resources,
unfavorable public reaction, and the unsuitability of grazing in
botanical areas.

Standards and guidelines provide for the inspection of allotments twice
a year to identify potential resource damage and the development of
recommendation for changes where needed. Standards and guidelines have
not been developed prohibiting grazing in botanical areas.

3. Fencing Access:

* Issues concern the maintenance of fence lines, the reduction of access
caused by fences, fences representing a dominant use by special
interests, and incompatibility of fencing with management objectives in
some areas.

Fences on current allotments will remain in place.

4. Management Problems With Grazing:

* Issues concern high initial costs in establishing new allotments,
improvement needed in grazing practices, low forage production in the
flatwoods, a need to convince people that grazing is a valid use, lack
of winter forage, and livestock theft.

Current allotments will continue to be utilized. The need for new
allotments are not anticipated based on an analysis of projected demand.
Should demand projections be incorrect, and the need arise to establish
additional allotments in new areas, additional public input will be
solicited prior to establishing new allotments.


H. WATER

"What is the role of the National Forests in Florida in producing
quality water?"

1. Management Impacts on Water Quality:

* This issue concerns the public's understanding of water management
problems.

A public information program outlining or detailing the importance of
the Forests' role in water quality will be developed.


III-15







2. Apalachicola River and Bay Estaurine Sanctuary:


* This issue concerns the impacts that timber activities might have on
the Apalachicola River and Bay Estuarine Sanctuary.

This issue is responded to through the application of Best Management
Practices.


I. LAND ACQUISITION

"What guides should be established to direct land acquisition through
purchase and exchanges?"

1. Acquisition, Exchange, and Consolidation of Lands:

* Issues include the need to acquire or dispose of land in certain areas
to meet management objectives.

Land will be acquired by purchase or exchange and disposed of through
land exchange. Approximately 40-50 acres will be purchased and 250
acres will be exchanged each year. Approximately five right-of-ways
will be acquired on a willing seller, willing buyer basis. Priorities
for acquisition include inholdings to reduce management costs and
increase management benefits, and acquiring land for recreation
opportunities.

Lands to be disposed of through exchange are isolated tracts having no
outstanding value. Disposing of them would reduce management costs with
no significant loss of benefits.

Legislation has been proposed that would deauthorize construction of the
Cross Florida Barge Canal and transfer certain lands to the National
Forest. Should such legislation eventually become law, the Forest
Service is prepared to manage such lands.

In 1940, Congress enacted legislation to transfer the Choctawhatchee
National Forest to the War Department for military purposes. Eglin Air
Force Base was established at that time. The Act provided the return to
National Forest status should the need for military purposes cease. To
date, the Air Force has declared 675 acres surplus and has transferred
them to National Forest status. Although several small tracts are
pending transfer, no large acreages are expected to be returned in the
foreseeable future.

2. Reasons For and Against Land Acquistiion:

* Issues include land condemnation, obtaining access to recreational
areas, alternatives to acquisition of recreational lands, purchase of
undeveloped lands, purchase of lands to protect the water resource,
purchase to avoid boundary conflicts, and the deemphasis of acquisition
because of the removal of land from the county tax roles.

Standards and guidelines provide for the use of condemnation only for a
specific project where special condemnation authority exists. The


III-16







standards and guidelines identify categories of land desirable for land
acquisition including right-of-way needs to ensure access to all public
lands and resources. The standards and guidelines also identify types
of tracts desirable for disposal. These lands are usually more valuable
for development, thereby providing a much larger tax base potential.

3. Land and Water Conservation Fund Policy:

* Issues concern the evaluation and prioritization of Land and Water
Conservation Fund proposals and inclusion of these in the Forest Plan.

These proposals are identified in recreation composite plans.

4. Dispersed Ownership Problems:

* Issues include problems associated with residential development
adjacent to National Forest lands. Such problems include conflicts
arising from increased dispersed recreation use, different emphasis on
visual values, illegal hunting, a responsible firewood collection
program, maintenance of water quality, road maintenance, an acceptable
prescribed burning program, fire protection, special uses, encroachment,
littering, and vandalism.

These issues are addressed in the Plan through standards and guidelines
applied to the various management practices associated with the above
uses and conflicts.


5. Land Lines

* This issue concerns encroachment and trespass caused by poor landline
maintenance, the cost of landline surveys, and methods used to resolve
land encroachment problems.

Standards and guidelines provide direction on how these problems will be
resolved by the year 2000.


III-17










IV. FOREST MANAGEMENT DIRECTION


This chapter describes, as required by the National Forest Management
Act regulation 36 CFR 219.11, the following subjects: the management
goals and objectives, desired future conditions, expected quantities of
goods and services, management prescriptions with associated standards
and guidelines, and the schedule of proposed and probable management
practices. The proposed Plan described by this chapter is the preferred
alternative in the Draft Environmental Impact Statement document.


A. FOREST MANAGEMENT GOALS

Management direction for the National Forests in Florida was developed
considering multiple use goals for National Forest management. The
goals are broad in scope, timeless, and provide a general description of
desired future conditions. These goals and the issues, concerns, and
opportunities identified early in the planning process formed the basis
for the management objectives displayed later in this chapter. The
principal goals used in the development of this Forest Plan are listed
below.


Provide a broad spectrum of dispersed and developed recreation
opportunities in accordance with identified needs and demands.

Manage the developed recreation resource at a moderately high
intensity to produce a moderate increase in the long term
Forest capacity.

Manage the dispersed recreation resource to provide a moderate
level of recreation opportunities.

Upgrade and perpetuate the overall visual quality of the forest
environment by managing all lands with sound visual management
techniques.

Locate, protect, and nominate significant historical and
archeological sites to the National Register of Historic
Places.

Provide for wilderness experience opportunities by protecting
the resources, quality, and wilderness character of the seven
designated wilderness areas.

Manage the wilderness areas at a level to protect and slightly
enhance the wilderness values.

Improve and maintain habitat for game and nongame wildlife
species.

Protect, improve, and maintain the habitat of threatened and
endangered species.


IV-1







S Manage the wildlife habitat to provide a diversity of habitats
in amounts that will support moderate populations of all
management indicator species and monitor these species and
their habitat to determine the effects of management activities
on native forest vertebrates.

S Provide for livestock grazing in accordance with identified
needs and demands.

* Manage the range resource to provide a moderate level of
domestic stock grazing.

* Provide for the growth and management of high quality timber in
commercial quantities.

* Manage the timber resource at moderately high intensity levels
and produce a moderate volume of timber products. Product
objective are:

Yellow pine 12-16 inch sawtimber
Sand pine 8-10 inch small roundwood
Bottomland
hardwood 14-18 inch sawtimber

* Conserve soil and water resources and protect against
significant or permanent impairment of the productivity of the
land.

* Manage floodplains, wetlands, and riparian areas to protect or
enhance their individual values and their contribution to the
overall aquatic resource.

* Provide air and water quality compatible with Federal and State
law.

S Manage the Forests to accommodate and facilitate the
exploration, development, and production of mineral resources.

S Develop and maintain road system and other facilities to
support resource management and use.

S Protect all National Forest resources from unnecessary loss or
destruction.

S Develop and maintain a fire management program that is cost
efficient and meets land and resource management objectives.

S Reduce or prevent unacceptable timber losses from insects and
diseases by using integrated pest management strategies.

S Utilize human resource programs to provide employment
opportunities while meeting natural resource management
objectives.

S Cooperate with other agencies (federal, state, county, local)
in all resource areas.


IV-2







Provide for the safe use and enjoyment of the Forests'
resources by the public.

Manage the Forests in a manner that is sensitive to economic
efficiency.

Respond to changing conditions in the land and changing social
and economic demands of the public.


B. FORESTWIDE STANDARD AND GUIDELINES

The management of Forest Service programs on the National Forests in
Florida will be guided by standards and guidelines. Standards and
guidelines describe the quantitative and qualitative rules, policies,
and principles that apply to management activities and forest uses.

This section displays those standards and guidelines that apply
Forestwide or apply to two or more management areas that encompass a
major part of the Forests. Standards and guidelines to direct
management of the forage resource for grazing (Range) are included in
the standards and guidelines for Management Area 7 (Chapter IV.E.2).
Management activities and their associated standards and guidelines are
presented in the order established by the Management Information
Handbook (FSH 1309.11a). This results in a presentation of information
that does not represent any priority for emphasis action. Where
priority or emphasis is required, it will be so stated.

1. Application of Standards and Guidelines

Several assumptions and principles which apply to the application of the
standards and guidelines are:

a. National legislation, both present and future,
overrides any contrary direction provided in the Forest Plan or its
alternatives.

b. In the simplified map presentations, Management Areas
may appear to include parcels of non-National Forest land. The Forest
Plan does not apply to any non-National Forest lands, within or outside
of the Forest Boundary.

c. Standards and guidelines in the proposed Forest Plan
are consistent with plans of other Federal, State, and local entities to
the maximum extent practicable.

d. Activities which the Forest Service does not initiate
are not analyzed by this Plan. However, Forest Service management
responsibility for such activities will be guided by the standards and
guidelines for the other resources within the management areas.

e. Activities not specifically addressed in this Plan
(and not precluded by it) are to be governed by the standards and
guidelines for the other resources.


IV-3







f. The direction in the standards and guidelines for the
proposed Plan has been developed based on current knowledge of the area;
anticipated, practicable future staff and budget levels; and the
knowledge that project development following Plan implementation will be
evaluated through an environmental analysis (NEPA) process.

Consequently, future knowledge or technology could indicate that the
application of an activity should be somewhat different than that
currently recognized in the standards and guidelines, or, future budget
constraints could preclude some activities as scheduled for this Plan.

g. The degree of programming and accomplishment of the
Forest Plan will be governed by available funding and personnel.

h. Standards and guidelines for activities that may
affect fish and wildlife habitat were developed with consideration given
to the wildlife species that are indicators of the effects of management
(See DEIS Appendix E for a list of these species). Standards and
guidelines were developed to provide for viable populations of the
Management Indicator Species with the largest home ranges. By providing
sufficient habitat for these indicator species, all species in the same
habitat with smaller home ranges will be provided for.

i. Resources and activities appearing in the standards
and guidelines are listed in the order used in Resources Planning Act
publications, and no priority by arrangement is intended.

j. Standards and guidelines which apply Forestwide for the
activities are presented separately. When these Forestwide standards
and guidelines require addending, modifying, or clarifying, the
management area standards and guidelines elaborate further.

k. Except for particular emphasis, standards and
guidelines in the Forest Plan do not attempt to reiterate standard
policy and procedures contained in the Forest Service Manual.



2. Forestwide Management Practices Standards and Guidelines


MANAGEMENT PRACTICES STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES



RECREATION


Recreation A. Categorize recreation opportunities into one of
Planning and six classes to aid the Forest visitor in
Inventory selecting a desired experience. FSH 2309.13

B. Utilize visual quality objectives (VQO's) and
resultant Forest coordination requirements as
guidelines for all management activities for all
resources. FSH 2309.226


IV-4







STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES


C. Conduct cultural resources inventory and
evaluation to determine National Register of
Historic Places eligibility. All areas of the
Forests except the bombing ranges and the
predominately sand pine scrub areas will be
inventoried. Inventory (survey) priorities will
be:

1. Land disturbing projects all Forest
management areas with the exception of sand
pine scrub.

2. Land exchanges all Forest management
areas with the exception of sand
pine-scrub.

3. General inventory all Forest management
areas(excepting scrub) and specifically the
following management areas (by priority):

a. General Forest

b. Red-cockaded Woodpecker Colony Sites
and Recruitment Stands

c. Upland Hardwood Mast Production Areas

d. Wilderness & Wilderness Study Areas.

D. Until the completion of formal wild and scenic
rivers studies of the Apalachicola, New,
Ochlockonee, and Sopchoppy Rivers, and Oklawaha
River/Silver Springs Run, protect the streams
and adjacent lands within 1/4 mile of each bank
from activities which would depreciate the
streams' wild, scenic, or recreation attributes.


Cultural Resource A. Nominate eligible cultural resources to the
Evaluation National Register of Historic Places. A
Assessments, cultural resource is significant if:
Protection,
Enhancement, and 1. It has already yielded important data and
Interpretation can be expected to yield additional data;

2. It is in good condition and can be
considered to be among the best known
examples of any given type of site known
for the region in which it occurs;

3. It is atypical or rare, and thus considered
to contain data not represented at other
sites;


IV-5


MANAGEMENT PRACTICES







STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES


4. It is located such that it represents a
good opportunity for interpretation and
public display: and/or,

5. It is associated with other sites such that
as a group or district they are:

a. representative of sites relating to
socio-political, religious,
subsistence, settlement, etc,
activities of a culture spatially
and/or temporarily within a region;

b. a typical example of such groupings
but in a good or excellent state of
preservation;

c. a rare or exceptional example of such
site groupings;

d. located such that they represent a
good opportunity for interpretation
and public display, and/or;

e. offer an opportunity to yield data
important to understanding the area's
history or prehistory.

B. Keep all site locations confidential except to
those with need to know.

C. Identify boundaries of cultural resource sites
to be avoided by:

1. Marking proposed site preparation areas
with temporary stake wire flags prior to
the scheduled silvicultural operation.

2. Marking proposed harvest activities with
unpainted face blazing on line trees prior
to timber sale.

3. Posting National Register properties with
special interest area metal sign at
prescribed intervals.

D. Interpret selected cultural properties located
within or in proximity to current or proposed
developed recreation areas.

E. Complete cultural resource evaluation of the
River Sinks area, Wakulla R.D., to determine the
extent of the site. Nominate the site to the
National Register of Historic Places. Manage
the remainder of River Sinks as general forest.


IV-6


MANAGEMENT PRACTICES







STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES


Use A. The areas will be managed to one of two levels,
Administration Full Service Management (FSM) or Reduced Service
Management (RSM).

1. When utilizing Full Service Management:

a. Make public contact and law
enforcement patrolling on a regular,
routine basis for public safety,
comfort, and adequate use management.

b. Relate intensity of administration and
direct supervision to amount of public
use.

c. Encourage Pack In/Pack Out and User
Housekeeping Programs but still
provide routine litter pickup and
maintenance at some areas.

d. Maintain existing facilities to a
satisfactory condition (RIM Condition
Class 1).

e. Add facilities at concentrated use
areas if necessary to provide for
human waste disposal, protect
resources, or provide safe drinking
water (includes testing).

f. Maintain trails at a level
commensurate with their experience
level. (Trail Maintenance Levels 1,2,
and 3).

g. Provide signing at a level
commensurate with the trail use for
public safety, user information, user
education, and user convenience.

h. Monitor use through a routine
systematic documented process.

i. Consider use measurement as an
integral part of the management, using
a variety of methods.

2. When utilizing Reduced Service Management:

a. Provide public contact and patrolling
throughout the area incidental to
other functional activities.


IV-7


MANAGEMENT PRACTICES







STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES


b. Increase emphasis on cooperative law
enforcement for the enforcement of
State laws. Reduce in-service law
enforcement efforts to a minimum level
of protection for people and property.

c. Act upon items concerning public
safety on a case-by-case basis.

d. Encourage Pack In/Pack Out. Do not
provide garbage and cleanup services;
require users to take garbage home or
deposit in approved landfill or
collection site.

e. Encourage user housekeeping to keep
dispersed area clean and free of
litter.

f. If facilities exist, perform only
minor repair or maintenance. Most
facilities will not be maintained to a
satisfactory condition (based on RIM
condition Class 1).

g. Keep signing for public safety and
basic user information at a minimum.

h. Maintain trails for public safety and
not user convenience (Trail
Maintenance 1 or 2).

i. Monitor use primarily on a visual
basis.

j. Keep use measurement to a minimum and
utilize only low maintenance methods
such as counters and self-registration
boxes.

B. Permit off-road vehicle use anywhere in the
Forests except where restricted to numbered
roads or prohibited by supervisor's orders.

C. Utilize Code-A-Site to monitor impact areas.


Trail Construction A. Maintain and construct trails in accordance with
Reconstruction, Forest Service and "Trails South" handbook.
and Maintenance


IV-8


MANAGEMENT PRACTICES







STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES


WILDERNESS


Wilderness
Planning
Inventory, and
Use Administration


WILDLIFE and FISH


Surveys, Planning,
Prescriptions,
Monitoring,
Cooperation, and
Administration












Non-Structural
Habitat
Improvement


A See Management Areas 3 and 4 standards and
guidelines (Chapter IV.E.2) for standards and
guidelines applicable to wilderness and
wilderness study areas.


A.


Adhere to requirements in FSH 2609.23R .
(Wildlife Habitat Management Handbook) for the
featured species in all timber management
activities.


B. Assure that sensitive, threatened, or endangered
wildlife or plant species and their habitat are
identified during the planning phase of all
projects. Protect those species and their
habitat as projects are implemented. Develop
action plans in cooperation with the USFWS to
implement the Forests' share of responsibility
toward meeting recovery plan objectives
(Harper's beauty, indigo snake, red-cockaded
woodpecker, and others as applicable).


A. Use direct habitat improvement such as seeding,
prescribed burning, brush chopping, fish
population control, and fertilization. These
habitat improvement methods will be used to
reduce the effect of limiting factors on the
featured species and on indicator species.

B. Use a variety of types of prescribed fire to
diversify habitat. Avoid burning large
contiguous areas with the same method or
intensity for wildlife purposes.

C. Generally recommend improvements to fishery
waters only where long term results can be
expected without the need for recurring
treatments. For example, limit the use of
fertilizer where frequent applications are
required to small accessible or special areas.
Limit chemical treatment for weed control, where
periodic retreatment is expected, to small high
priority areas.


IV-9


MANAGEMENT PRACTICES







STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES


Structural
Habitat
Improvement



Structural
Habitat
Maintenance


A. Use direct habitat improvement such as water
hole construction, wood duck nest structures,
brush attractors for fish, and protection
fencing.


A. Maintain existing structures. Maintenance of
existing structures has funding priority over
development of new improvements requiring future
maintenance.


RANGE


Range Resource
Planning,
Inventory,
Administration
Management


A. See Management Area 7 standards and guidelines
(Chapter IV.E.2) for standards and guidelines
applicable to the Range Resource.


TIMBER


Silvicultural
Examination
Prescription


A. Provide a nondeclining, sustained yield of
products consistent with land suitability
and other resource needs.

B. Use even-aged silvicultural systems for all
management types. This does not preclude the
modification of even-aged systems in special
situations, as determined by specific site
evaluation.

C. Manage the land suitable for timber production
as three working groups (management types);
yellow pine, sand pine, and bottomland hardwood.

D. Use high intensity practices for yellow pine and
sand pine management types and moderate
intensity practices for bottomland hardwood
management type. See Regional Guide for
explanation of intensities.

E. Use rotation lengths that will enable commercial
forest land to be managed to produce the
following products and sizes:


Yellow pine
Sand pine
Bottomland
hardwood


12-16 inch sawtimber
8-10 inch small roundwood

14-18 inch sawtimber


IV-10


MANAGEMENT PRACTICES







STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES


F. Follow red-cockaded woodpecker guides developed
through consultation with the U.S. Fish and
Wildlife Service.

1. Maintain at least 18 percent of the yellow
pine type in the 60+ age class distributed
throughout the Forests. Strive to keep
half of this 18 percent in the 70-90 year
age class (including unsuitable lands).
Defer stand regeneration predominately in
the longleaf management type to meet this
goal.

2. Classify all red-cockaded woodpecker sites
and recruitment stands as not suited for
timber production.

G. Emphasize artificial regeneration. Use natural
regeneration systems in visually sensitive areas
(Retention and Partial Retention areas) and
where use of on-site seed source is desirable.

H. Make silvicultural examination once every 10
years on each compartment to prescribe
silvicultural treatments needed.

I. Use a five-year cutting cycle in the sand pine
management type.


Timber Sale A. Make even-aged harvest cuts after trees have
Preparation reached 95 percent of culmination of mean annual
increment (CMAI), utilizing clearcut,
shelterwood or seedtree methods.

Exceptions to cutting at or after 95 percent
CMAI are:

Salvage or sanitation harvesting of timber
stands which are substantially damaged by
fire, windthrow, or other catastrophe.
This includes stands that have been
regenerated with species not suited to the
site and have or will have substantial
damage prior to reaching 95 percent CMAI.

Harvesting sparse or low quality stands
(see FSH 2471.1, R-8 Silvicultural
Practices Handbook for Definitions).

Harvesting stands infested by destructive
insects, infected by disease, or imminently
in danger from these agents.


IV-11


MANAGEMENT PRACTICES







STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES


Removal of a particular species of trees,
after consideration has been given to the
multiple use objectives of the area being
planned, and after completion of the public
participation process.

B. Schedule off-site slash pine plantations for
harvest and regeneration to longleaf pine as
soon as possible after stands reach 95 percent
of culmination of mean annual increment.

C. Use the following maximum size of stand opening
to be created by regeneration cutting in one
operation.

Yellow Pine 80 acres
Sand Pine 120 acres
Bottomland Hardwoods 40 acres

These acreage limitations do not apply to areas
that result from natural catastrophic conditions
such as fire, insect or disease attack, or
windstorm.

D. Make area-by-area evaluations that include more
site-specific guidance as found in the Visual
Resource Management Handbook (FSH 2309.22) and
the Wildlife Habitat Management Handbook (FSM
2609.23).

E. Use 20 acres as the minimum size for stands to
be managed for timber production. Stands
smaller than this can be created if there is a
specific ground condition or coordination need
to be satisfied, as determined by a case-by-case
evaluation of individual stands.

F. Separate regeneration cuts from each other by a
minimum distance of 300 feet. The area between
cuts will support a stand of vegetation such
that it is not classified as an opening (except
natural openings, power lines, other
rights-of-way, and wildlife openings). Good
practice will normally provide for residual
areas between regeneration cuts to be at least
of sufficient size to qualify as a stand

G. Separate regeneration cuts from each other by
hardwood or titi stringers of less than 300 feet
when the stringer is dense enough to prevent
visual penetration into the adjoining opening.


IV-12


MANAGEMENT PRACTICES







STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES


H. Refer to guidelines and standards for both
dispersal and shape of stand openings in the
Wildlife Habitat Management Handbook (FSH
2609.23) and the Southern Region Visual Resource
Management Handbook (FSH 2309.22).

I. Schedule regeneration in proximity to even-aged
harvest units only after openings from earlier
harvests have been regenerated, have taken on a
regenerated appearance, and are no longer
considered openings.

J. Openings created by even-aged management shall
be considered to exist until the new stand has
reached a height that is approximately 20 per
cent of the tallest adjacent stand for yellow
pine and hardwood and approximately 15 per cent
of the height of the tallest adjacent stand for
sand pine. Heights will be based on the average
of the dominant and co-dominant trees in
reestablished and tallest adjacent stands. The
determination of height relationship will be
made at the time of silvicultural examination
and prescription. This determination should
show whether the appropriate height has been
reached or whether the appropriate height is
projected to be reached by the time of
treatment. The percentage relationship will be
allowed to vary up or down for specific stand
situations where an interdisciplinary team,
following the NEPA procedures, recommends to the
responsible official that adjusting the
percentage will lead to better attainment of the
overall objectives of multiple-use management.

K. Thin immature stands to harvest excess trees,
capture mortality, and to maintain growing
conditions for the remaining stems.


Reforestation A. Ensure reestablishment of a new stand of
desirable trees within 5 years after the final
harvest cut, unless management of other
resources dictates a longer regeneration
period. The new stand must have adequate
stocking as described in Figure 4-1.


IV-13


MANAGEMENT PRACTICES







STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES


FIGURE 4-1 Restocking Guidelines

Stems per Acre

Lowest
Acceptable Desired
Level Level

Site Index Site Index
70 or less 80+ 70 or less 80+

Slash Pine 350 400 500 600
Longleaf Pine 400 500 600 700
Sand Pine 300 600 -
Hardwoods
(Desired species) 150 200 200 250



B. Use genetically improved seed/seedlings when
available for all seeding/planting operations.

C. Define five years after final harvest as:
five years after clearcutting,
five years after final shelter-
wood over-story removal, or
five years after seed tree removal

D. Accomplish reestablishment within 7 years of
committing a stand to natural regeneration or
prescribe further treatment to accomplish it.


Stand Improvement A. Use stocking control measure in stand
establishment and prior to attainment of
commercial cutting size that maintains optimum
growth rates and species composition objectives.

B. Use fertilization to increase timber yields on
poorly drained and/or phosphorus deficient
soils.

C. Any pesticides used in site preparation and
timber stand improvement will be used in
accordance with label instructions, USDA
approved procedures, and direction provided in
FSM 2150. Only pesticides that are labeled and
registered with EPA prior to purchase and field
application will be used.

D. Do not allow aerial application of pesticides in
floodplains, wetlands, and riparian areas.


IV-14


MANAGEMENT PRACTICES







STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES


Timber Harvest
Administration


Figure 4-2


A Use timber sale contracts to fullest
extent possible to maximize utilization of wood
and wood products (sale of mixed species and
products).

B. Use the following operability standards:

Small Roundwood 1.5 CCF/Acre
Sawtimber 500 Bd. Ft./Acre

C. Use the utilization standards shown in Figure
4-2 until technology or markets require
modification.

D. Make full use of available wood fiber from
harvested and treated areas.

E. Allow firewood gathering in cutover areas and in
other designated areas whenever possible.

F. Designate firewood for harvest from dead and
live hardwoods and dead pine. Limit firewood
harvest of live hardwoods to regeneration areas
which are planned for site preparation


Utilization Standards


Minimum Tree Specifications
(including 1 1/2 min pieces for
sawtimber and 2 for small
roundwood

Piece
DBH** Length
'>ecies Product (Inches) (Feet)


Pine
Cypress
Hardwood
Pine
Hardwood
Pine
Hardwood


ST
ST
ST
SRW
SRW
TW
TW


10.6
10.0
12.0
5.0
6.0
-


*ST-Sawtimber
SRW-Small roundwood
TW-Top wood


Minimum Piece
Specifications


Small
End
DIB***
(Inches)


Net as
% of
Gross


6
6
10
4(DOB)****
5(DOB)
4(DOB)
5(DOB)


**DBH-Diameter breast height
***DIB-Diameter inside bark
****DOB-Diameter outside bark


IV-15


MANAGEMENT PRACTICES







STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES


SOIL, WATER, AND
AIR


Inventory, A. Design and implement land management practices
Planning, so that soil loss does not exceed a tolerable
Administration, rate. (See Tolerable Soil Loss
and Management Rates Table in section 3 of this chapter.)

B. Include erosion control measures and maintenance
in all program and project plans. Disturbed,
erosion prone soils shall be treated within 30
days of termination of use.

C. Restrict logging traffic and other soil
compacting activities on Bladen, Eureka, Iberia,
and Meggett soil series to the generally dry
months. (These soils have a high compaction
hazard when the soils are wet or have a high
water table.) The generally dry months are
April-June and September-November.

D. Comply with applicable provisions of the Federal
Clean Water Act of 1977, including conformance
with state and local laws, rules, and processes
designed to protect water quality, e.g. Dredge
and Fill, Wetlands Protection.

E. Maintain or improve water quality in accordance
with State and Federal standards. Meet water
quality standards associated with State stream
classification as shown in Stream Classification
Table in section 3 of this chapter. (Florida
Department of Enviroment Regulation Chapter 17-3
Water Quality Standards FSM 2542).

F. Protect direct aquifer recharge areas (i.e.
sinkholes) from fertilizer and herbicide
application.

G. Protect floodplains and other riparian
ecosystems in accordance with E.O's 11988 and
11990. Use the following procedures for timber
harvesting from wetland sites:

1. Prohibit the establishment and use of
perimeter skid trails.

2. Limit ponding caused by repeated use of
skid trails to 10 percent of the area.

3. Do not allow leveling or filling of
drainageways within the site.


IV-16


MANAGEMENT PRACTICES







STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES


4. Do not allow skidding of logs within
stream channels. Crossings should be at
right angles as much as possible to
minimize impact.

5. Restrict logging in wetlands to the
generally dry months; i.e., April-June
and September-November. Areas of standing
water should be avoided.

6. Design and construct roads only after
carefully examining water flow patterns to
eliminate the ponding of water or creating
wet areas that would otherwise be better
drained and more productive.

H. Follow 208 Silvicultural Best Management
Practices, FSM 2527, and the Forest Supplement
to FSM 2527.

I. Manage air quality in accordance with the
Federal Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977.
Section 118 requires that Federal Agencies
comply with all Federal, State, and local air
quality regulations.

J. Post past and probable flood heights at all
campgrounds and administrative sites known to
flood one or more times per year.

K. Management area 14 (Bombing Range) is exempted
from any of the above standards and guidelines
that conflict with the use of or are impractical
to carry out on the bombing range.


Improvements and A. Return degraded areas to 80 percent ground cover
Maintenance within one year after treatment.

B. Implement soil and water improvements within the
following priority standards:

Protection of public health and safety,

Maintenance of previous capital
investments and improvements in the
production of market goods and services,
and

Improvement of all other renewable
resources.


IV-17


MANAGEMENT PRACTICES







STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES


MANAGEMENT PRACTICES


Rights/Use
Management


Monitoring


A. Maintain records on consumptive and
nonconsumptive water uses, needs, and demands.


A. Continue a water quality monitoring program to
ensure the federal and State water quality
standards are being met.


MINERALS AND GEOLOGY


Processing
Exploration
Proposals


A. Issue prospecting
of oil and gas on
mineral entry.


permits for the exploration
areas not withdrawn from


Processing Lease A.
Applications


Process routine leases within a 30 day
turn-around time. Use special stipulations to
limit surface occupancy or protect surface
resources. (See "Administration of Oil and Gas
Operations" in section 3 of this chapter for
more information on lease application
procedures.)


B. Allow limited occupancy for areas where effects
on other resources need to be minimized but
total protection would be excessive.

C. Allow necessary occupancy to complete all
exploration and production work in areas where
no serious conflicts with other resources are
expected. Apply sound land management
techniques for location, inspection, and
rehabilitation.

D. Apply standards of the USDA-USDI Surface
Operating Standards for Oil and Gas Exploration
and Development to pipeline construction and
maintenance.

E. Coordinate lease activities with the forestwide
transportation plan.

F. District Rangers may sell common variety
minerals (sand and clay) at the market price to
individuals for personal use.


IV-18







STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES


Processing
Site Specific
Development
Proposals


A. Issue permits for common minerals for
commercial, private, or public use on non-Forest
lands on a case-by-case basis. Base a decision
to permit or deny extraction on the following
priority:


National Forest System use
Other public use, e.g. State or county
Private personal use (less than 20 yards)
Commercial use


Administration
Of Operations


Reserved and
Outstanding Rights


HUMAN and
COMMUNITY
DEVELOPMENT


B. Prior to approval of new sand or clay pits, an
operating plan will be developed which will show
progressive removal of material and provisions
for rehabilitation including stockpiling of top
soil.

C. Make area by area evaluations that include more
site specific guidance as found in the Visual
Resource Management Handbook (FSH 2309.22).


A. Inspect mineral operations periodically to
ensure compliance with approved operating plans
and permits.

B. Oil and gas exploration and development
operations will be managed to prevent excessive
off-site movement of pollutants. On completion
of operation, the site will be reclaimed
according to the approved reclamation plan.


A. Ensure that when mineral owners exercise their
rights to mineral resources, the surface rights
are protected and the impact to the surface
resource is kept to a minimum.

B. Any mineral operation undertaken on National
Forest land where minerals have been reserved
will be exercised in accordance with the deed
reservation and applicable State and Federal
laws.

C. Administer operation of outstanding rights in
strict accordance with terms of the deed of
separation and appropriate State and Federal
laws.


A. To the extent funding allows, continue operation
of the three human resource programs on the
Forests (Senior Community Service Employment
Program, Volunteers Program, and Youth
Conservation Corps).


IV-19


MANAGEMENT PRACTICES







STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES


B. Select work projects for human resource programs
considering both enrollee needs and Forest
requirements.

C. Each District and the S.O. will identify the
need for Volunteers by identifying jobs that can
be accomplished by Volunteers.



LANDS


Special Use A. Allow uses of National Forest lands that serve a
Management significant, demonstrated public need, cannot be
(Non-Recreation) accommodated on non-Forest land, and are
compatible with the objectives of the management
areas.

B. Review existing uses to determine compatibility
with the objective of management areas.
Establish termination dates if conflict exists
and cannot be resolved.

C. Permit amendments will reflect changes in
standards made by Forest Service, new
technology, or Congressional direction.

D. Based on an appraisal of the market, make
occupancy and use fees commensurate with charges
for similar uses on private lands.

E. Make periodic reviews to keep fee charges
up-to-date.

F. Generally, do not issue special use permits on
land identified for disposal through exchange.

G. Place all new utility facilities within or
contiguous to existing corridors to the extent
practicable.

H. Bury all new telephone lines.

I. Bury all new electric lines less than 34.5 KV
except as discussed in Forest Service Manual
2728.12 R-8 Supp. 102.

J. Allow new electronic uses only if they are in
the public interest.


IV-20


MANAGEMENT PRACTICES







STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES


Right-of-Way
Grants for Roads
and Trails








Withdrawal
Modification, and
Revocation


Land Exchange
Acquisition,
and Transfers


K. Use of pesticides by permitted must be approved
in advance by Forest Supervisor. Approval is
contingent upon the pesticide being registered
by EPA for the proposed use and being used
according to label instructions and FSM 2150.


A. Grant easements to public agencies for County,
State, and Federal Roads.

B. Grant easements to County for access into
private subdivisions. Allow one access point to
a tract of private land being subdivided where
no other reasonable alternative exists and the
access point is the most environmentally
acceptable location.


A. Areas will be identified and evaluated for
withdrawal as needed. (Presently all areas or
sites needing protection have been withdrawn.)


A. Develop a land adjustment pattern that will
promote more efficient management and
utilization of resources.

B. Identify the following types of tracts desirable
for acquisition.

1. Lands that best meet public recreation -
special needs.

2. Key tracts that meet specific needs of
sustained yield timber management, valuable
watershed management, research, wildlife,
etc.

3. Lands that eliminate or reduce trespass
hazards, title claims, special uses,
right-of-way grants, land lines, and
corners.

4. Lands that ensure access to public lands
and resources.

C. Identify the following types of tracts desirable
for disposal:

1. Parcels isolated from other National Forest
System lands.


IV-21


MANAGEMENT PRACTICES







STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES


2. Parcels that will serve a greater public
need by being in other than federal
ownership.

3. Parcels suitable for development by the
private sector if it is in the public
interest.

D. An Enviromental Assessment will be made prior to
disposal to assure protective or mitigative
measures concerning:

1. Threatened or endangered species.

2. Significant historical or archeological
sites.

3. Wetlands, riparian areas, and floodplains.

E. Purchases will be made on a willing
seller/willing buyer basis unless special
condemnation authority exists for a specific
project.


Property Boundary A. Establish a land line location schedule to
Location and complete job by 2000. This will help prevent
Maintenance future encroachments.

B. Maintain land lines through refurbishment.

C. Establish a maintenance schedule for
refurbishment on a 7-year rotation.


Encroachments A. Take action to resolve occupancy trespass cases
in a timely manner.

B. Eliminate backlog of cases as funds and manpower
allow.

C. Authorize permits to resolve occupancy trespass
only when it can be demonstrated that the public
interest is not compromised.

D. Do not extend permits issued to resolve
occupancy trespass beyond the life tenure of the
present occupants.

E. Pursue land claims through the judicial system.


IV-22


MANAGEMENT PRACTICES







STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES


Right-of-Way
Acquisition


A. Acquire ROW where access is needed to implement
and support resource management activities..

B. Cooperate with intermingled and adjacent
landowners and local governments in developing
road systems that serve the needs of all
parties.

C. Acquire needed ROW's by purchase, donations,
agreements, or condemnation.


FACILITIES


Transportation
System Planning
and Inventory


Arterial Road
Construction/
Reconstruction





Collector and
Local Road
Construction/
Reconstruction


A. Analysis of transportation plans will be in
accordance with the FL Supplement of FSM
7712.61.

B. Limit road density through proper transportation
planning. Assure that the adverse effects of
road construction and reconstruction on bear and
turkey population are considered.

C. Avoid where possible all red-cockaded woodpecker
colony sites. Where this is not possible locate
roads so that the cavity trees (especially
active trees) and their root zone are not
damaged.


A. Provide financial assistance from Forest
Highway and Public Land Funds to the State and
counties in the construction/reconstruction of
roads that are under their jurisdiction and are
used for the protection, development, and
administration of the Forests.


A. Develop road design standards using the methods
outlined in FSH 7709.11, chapter 24 and FSM 7720

B. Use effective erosion control measures during
construction and reconstruction of major
drainage structures and approaches. Refer to
guidelines for use during road construction
contained in the Programmatic Environmental
Assessment for the Transportation Plan (FL.EA-5)


IV-23


MANAGEMENT PRACTICES







STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES


Road Operation


C. Avoid where possible all red-cockaded woodpecker
colony sites. Where this is not possible, plan
road access so that the impact on colony sites
is minimized. If roads must go thru colony
sites locate them so that the cavity trees
(especially active trees) and their root zone
will not be damaged.

D. Protect colony sites during road construction
and reconstruction by protecting all cavity trees
so that they and their entire root zones are not
damaged.


A. Regulate and control access when necessary to
protect facility investment, provide for user
safety, and accomplish Forest objectives.

B. Protect road investments, prevent environmental
damage, and provide for user safety while
perpetuating the transportation system to serve
its intended management purposes.

C. Apply road maintenance level 2 on all Forest
Traffic Service Level "D" roads that are not
currently being used for management activities.

D. Apply maintenance level 3 or above to all Forest
local and collector roads (Traffic Service Level
"D" or above) that are currently being used for
management activities.

E. Forest arterial roads are under the jurisdiction
and maintenance of the counties and state.


PROTECTION


Fire Management,
Analysis, and
Suppression


A. Provide a level of protection that will result
in the least cost of presuppression,
suppression, and net value change (cost
efficient level) on all management areas except
those where management direction requires a more
intense level of protection. The cost efficient
level of protection will be determined through
the Level II Fire Analysis Process. This will
be implemented through the annual Fire Action
plan.


IV-24


MANAGEMENT PRACTICES







STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES


B. Use prescribed fire in those management areas
with partially or totally fire dependent
ecosystems and where other management objectives
can best be met with prescribed fire. The use
of unplanned ignitions will be in accordance
with the Chief's policy.

C. Use the Fire Suppression Decision model in
section 3 of this chapter to determine action to
be taken on ALL fire ignitions (planned and
unplanned). (Unplanned ignitions may be used as
a management tool in accordance with the Chief's
policy.

D. Each wildfire ignition will have an appropriate
suppression response. Wildfires will not be
used as a management tool. Clean Air Act
standards will be applied as appropriate.

E. Approved suppression strategies are confinement,
containment, and control.


Fire Detection A. Annual Fire Action plan will determine the
and Attack Forces amount of detection and attack forces.


Fuel Management, A. Use prescribed fire to partially or totally
Treatment, and consume specific portions of a fuel profile in
Maintenance a safe, carefully controlled, and enviromentaly
acceptable fashion to achieve predetermined
effects. Follow Smoke Management Guidelines.

B. Use the Prescribed Burning Guidelines chart in
section 3 of this chapter as a guide to
determine the optimum conditions under which
prescribed fire should be conducted.

C. Each prescribed fire:

Will be conducted in strict compliance with
a plan approved by the appropriate line
officer. The plan will address actions to
be taken if fire exceeds its prescription.

Will be conducted by qualified personnel.

Will be funded by the benefiting
functionss.

Will contribute to the objectives of an
approved land or resource management plan.


IV-25


MANAGEMENT PRACTICES







STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES


Law Enforcement


Coop Law


Forest Pest
Management


D. Annual prescribed Fire plan will incorporate
site specific smoke management considerations.
The Forests will comply with all Federal, State,
and Local air quality regulations in accordance
with the Clean Air Act.


A. Maintain crime prevention program by educating
the vistor of pertinent laws and regulations,
implementing accepted regulatory signing and
posting procedures, and incorporating
presentations into existing interpretive
services (I.S.) programming.

B. Take aggressive action to discover, investigate,
and report all violations with priority on the
safety and protection of the public and their
property, Forest resources and property,and
Forest Service employees.

C. Take aggressive action to discover, investigate
and resolve any allegation of civil liability
for or against the U.S. Government in which the
U.S. Forest Service is a party of interest.


A. Promote cooperation with other Federal, State,
and local law enforcement agencies by
implementing written cooperative agreements and
maintaining a strong liaison with enforcement
and prosecution personnel of all area agencies.

B. Primary responsibility for search and rescue is
with civil authorities, usually County Sheriff
or State Police personnel. Forest Service
personnel may either supervise initial
organization of the operation until proper
authorities take control or may assist as
provided for under cooperative agreements in
search and rescue on National Forest System
lands when requested by proper authorities.


A. Implement the Integrated Pest Management
strategies presented in Section 3 of this
chapter to prevent, to the degree possible,
forest pest problems.

B. Hazard rate stands for susceptibility to annous
root disease and use appropriate IPM techniques
to prevent or reduce losses.


IV-26


MANAGEMENT PRACTICES







STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES


C. Hazard rate stands for susceptibility to
fusiform fust and use appropriate IMP techniques
to prevent or reduce losses.

D. Prevent or control pine regeneration
infestations with appropriate IPM practices.

E. Use prescribed fire to control brown spot needle
blight in longleaf pine regeneration areas.

F. Prevent or control bark beetle infestations with
appropriate IPM practices.

G. Follow standards and guidelines in the Pesticide
Storage, Transportation, Spills, and Disposal
Handbook (FSH 2109.12) and the Forest Service
Manual (FSM 2150).




3. Supplemental Standards and Guidelines Information

On the following pages is information which directly supplements or
further defines some of the direction provided in the previous section.
The subjects covered in this supplemental information are:

a. Tolerable Soil Loss Rates

b. Watershed Classification

c. Administration of Oil and Gas Operations

d. Fire Suppression Decision Model

e. Prescribed Burning Guidelines

f. Integrated Pest Management Strategies


IV-27


MANAGEMENT PRACTICES







(For reference to this guide, see SOIL, WATER, and AIR Standards and
Guidelines in Section 2 of this chapter.)



Guide for Calculating
Tolerable Accelerated Soil Loss for
Forested Lands in the Southern Region


Introduction

Section 6 of NFMA, in effect, states that soil productivity will be
maintained and that an evaluation will be made for each management
system to determine the effects on productivity. In addition, the
Planning Regulations state that soil productivity will not be
significantly or permanently impaired. Soil loss through erosion and
mass failure can lower productivity. The Southern Region soils are
particularly susceptible to accelerated soil loss from erosion due
primarily to the climate and nature of the soil. Mass failure is also a
problem, but to a lesser extent.

This Guide was developed to estimate tolerable soil loss rates and was
formulated by professional judgment of Regional Soil Scientists. There
is very little research available to provide "hard" data relating loss
rates to productivity and soil formation. It is recognized that
research and monitoring are needed to determine benchmark soil loss
rates that are tolerable and still maintain productivity. This Guide is
considered state-of-the-art for forested soils in Region 8 and will be
modified and revised as new technology provides information to improve
our interpretations.

Objective

The tolerable accelerated soil loss will be determined for each mapping
unit (EMU) using the forested T-factor which is expressed in tons per
acre per year. These tolerable rates are to be used to weigh against
management prescriptions to determine effects on productivity and will
be calculated for rotations, recovery periods or maximum yearly
allowance depending on types of analyses needed. Figure 4-3 shows the
Region 8 procedure for determining the forested T-factor.

Procedure and Application

This guide used ten soil-site categories that are key elements of soil
productivity or affect soil development. The sum of the categories
divided by 100 is the forested T-factor which gives the tons per acre
per year of tolerable soil loss. The T-factor multiplied by the length
of rotation (years) gives the tolerable accelerated soil loss for the
rotation. This loss is intended to cover the general stand area
including skid roads, skid trails, etc. that will be returned to
productive forest.

The total allowable soil loss is the amount of soil that can be lost
over 100 years from accelerated erosion and not significantly or


IV-28







permanently lower soil productivity potential. The loss may not exceed
10 percent of the total allowed for rotation in any one year nor more
than 50 percent during any time period that includes harvesting,
regeneration and the attendant vegetative recovery period. It is
estimated that rates in excess of these limits would adversely affect
seedling survival, early growth and long-term yield.

The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) will be used to arrive at
estimates of soil loss rates from various management practices and be
compared to the tolerable rates. Careful consideration must be given to
determining the C factor in the USLE since it is critical to the
estimated soil loss.

A very significant point that must be adhered to concerning the use of
tolerable accelerated soil loss figures is that such numbers do not, in
and of themselves, rule out a prescribed action. Rather they are to be
used to red flag potential problem areas where soil productivity is in
danger of being lowered significantly under prescribed standards. This
will mean (1) that standards will have to be modified, or (2) that other
approaches to accomplishing the objective will have to be explored.

Assumptions and Background

A basic assumption of this Guide is that the best forested soil could
lose 100 tons (about .7 inches) over 100 years and not lower soil
productivity. This is based on estimated soil formation rates and the
ability of soils to withstand losses and maintain productivity. Best
forested soil is conceptual and would possess the characteristics listed
in the first class of each of the ten key factors.

It should be noted that this Guide of estimated tolerable erosion losses
is somewhat different from the Soil Conservation Service Guide. The SCS
T-factors indicate soil loss rates over the rotation that were
determined to be excessive for forested soils. The SCS rates consider
the production of agronomic crops where annual additions of fertilizer,
lime, and organic residue that, to some extent, maintains productivity
and replaces lost nutrients and soil material. Forestry practices
generally consider native productivity potentials without soil
amendments and therefore soil loss tolerance levels must be less for
forest soils if long-term productivity is to be maintained.


IV-29







TOLERABLE ACCELERATED SOIL LOSS RATINGS
(Ratings in Tons Accelerated Erosion for 100 Years)


Soil-Site Categories


A. Dominant texture of 0 to 20'
Section (Main Rooting Zone)

B. Soil Depth Above Rock,
or Pan. (Inches)

C. Al Thickness (Inches)


D. Moisture Regimes (as
defined in R-8 Soil
Management Guide)

E. Topographic Position by
Physiographic Area
Coastal Plain


F. Geologic Source






G. Organic Matter % in Al


H. Base Saturation (Refer to
Depth Criteria in Soil
Taxonomy)

I. Coarse Fragments in
Rooting Zone

J. Slope


Classes and Ratings

Class : s1ilj1- scisicl sish c....- scic
Rating: 10 8 4 3


Class :
Rating:

Class :
Rating:

Class :

Rating:

Class :


Rating:

Class :






Class :
Rating:

Class :
Rating:


Class :
Rating:

Class :
Rating:


80+ 50-80 40-50 30-40 20-30 0-20
10 8 6 4 -2 -5

8+ 6-8 4-6 2-4 0-2
10 8 6 4 2

Moist Dry Wet Droughty Very Water-
-, ---- ___-- _Drouqgt _Lo_9gged
10 6 4 3 2 0

Floodplain Marine and Lower Side Ridges
Stream Terrace Slope Slope
or Flat
10 8 7 6 5

Loess or Uncon- Granite, Lime- Siltstone
Alluvial soli- Mica, stone Sandstone
dated Gneiss & Shale
Coastal or Shist
Plain
10 8 7 6 5

5X+ 2-5% 1-2% (1%
10 8 5 2

60%+ 35-60Z (35X
10 8 5


0-15X 15-35% 35X+
10 6 3

0-15% 15-30% 30-60% 60%+
10 6 4 2


Forested T-Factor = Tolerable Accelerated Soil Loss Ratin
100 Years


IV-30


Figure 4-3







Example:


What would be the forested T-factor and tolerable accelerated soil loss
rates for various time periods for a Chipley sand, 1-2 percent slope on
a rotation of 60 years?

A. 4
B. 10
C. 6
D. 10
E. 6
F. 8
G. 8
H. 5
I. 10
J. 10
77 tons allowable soil loss over 100 years


77 tons soil loss = .77 forested T-factor (forested T-factor is tons per
100 Years acre per year of acceptable
loss given for each mapping
unit (EMU))

A. Tolerable accelerated soil loss for a 60 year rotation:
.77 (forested T-factor) x 60 (rotation) = 46.2 tons

B. Maximum loss in any one year:
.10 x 46.2 = 4.62 ton/acre

C. Maximum loss in harvesting, regeneration and recovery period
(average 6 years):
.50 x 46.2 = 23.10 tons


IV-31







TOLERABLE SOIL LOSS RATES FOR APALACHICOLA NATIONAL FOREST


Forested
T-Factor
Total
Divided
A B C D E F G H I J Total by 100


Soil Name


Tons
'T' For
60-Year
Rotation


Tons/Ac.
Max. Loss
Max. Loss in Regen.
in 1 Yr. Period


Rutlege 01
Surrency 02
Dorovan-Pamlico Cpx 03
Megget Soils 14
Scranton 21
Plummer 22
Bladen 23
Chipley 31
Leon 32
Mandarin 33
Albany 34
Leefield 35
Durbar 36
Sapela 37
Blanton 38
Ortega 40
Foxworth 41
Kershaw 42
Troup 43
Fuquay 44
Dothan 45
Alpin 47


Figure 4-5


4 10 10 0 10 8 10 5 10 10 77 .77
4 10 10 0 10 8 10 5 10 10 77 .77
-------- ORGANIC -- NOT APPLICABLE


8 10
4 10
4 10
10 10
4 10
4 10
4 10
4 10
4 10
8 10
4 10
4 10
4 10
4 10
4 10
4 10
4 10
10 10
4 10


10 8
8 8
8 8
8 8
6 8
7 8
7 8
6 8
8 8
8 8
8 8
6 8
5 8
5 8
5 8
5 8
5 8
5 8
5 8


5 10 10
5 10 10
5 10 10
5 10 10
5 10 10
5 10 10
5 10 10
5 10 10
5 10 10
5 10 10
5 10 10
5 10 10
5 10 10
5 10 10
5 10 10
5 10 10
5 10 10
5 10 10
5 10 10


TOLERABLE SOIL LOSS RATES FOR OSCEOLA NATIONAL FOREST


Soil Name


A B C D E F G


Forested
T-Factor Tons
Total 'T' For
Divided 60-Year
H 1 J Total by 100 Rotation


Tons/Ac.
Max. Loss
Max. Loss in Regen.
in 1 Yr. Period


Ocilla Fine Sand 8
Hurricane 9
Leon Fine Sand 10
Sapelo Fine Sand 12
Sapelo Fine Sand 14
Mascotte Fine Sand 16
Olustee Fine Sand, 18
Thick Surface
Pelham Fine Sand 20
Pamlico Muck, 24
Loamy Substance
Surency 26


4 10
4 10
4 10
4 10
4 10
4 10
4 10


6 10 5 8 8
6 10 5 8 5
4 10 8 8 8
4 10 8 8 5
4 10 8 8 5
8 10 8 8 10
6 4 8 8 10


5 10 10 76
5 10 10 73
5 10 10 77
5 10 10 74
5 10 10 74
5 10 10 83
5 10 10 75


4 10 8 4 10 8 8 8 10 10 80


45.6
43.8
46.2
44.4
44.4
49.8
45.0


.80 48.0


- -- -- -ORGANIC--NOT APPLICABLE -

4 10 10 0 10 8 10 5 10 10 77 .77 46.2


IV-32


4.62
4.62


46.2
46.2


47.4
43.2
43.2
45.6
46.2
45.6
43.8
43.2
47.4
50.4
43.2
42.6
40.2
40.8
38.4
42.6
44.4
45.6
37.8


4.74
4.32
4.32
4.56
4.62
4.56
4.38
4.32
4.74
5.04
4.32
4.26
4.02
4.08
3.84
4.26
4.44
4.56
3.78


23.7
21.6
21.6
22.8
23.1
22.8
21.9
21.6
23.7
25.2
21.6
21.3
20.1
20.4
19.2
21.3
22.2
22.8
18.9


4.56
4.38
4.62
4.44
4.44
4.98
4.50

4.80


22.8
21.9
23.1
22.2
22.2
24.9
22.5

24.0


23.10


'"'


------------- - - - - - - - - -


----------------------------------


--------------- - - ; - - - ; -


Figure 4-4







TOLERABLE SOIL LOSS RATES FOR OCALA NATIONAL FOREST


Forested
T-Factor Tons Tons/Ac.


Soil Name


A R C D E F G H I J


Total 'T' For Max. Loss
Divided 60-Year Max. Loss in Regen.
Total by 100 Rotatinn in 1 Yr. Period


Astatula Sand,
0-8%
Astatula Sand,
8-17%
Astatula Sand, Dk.
Surface, 0-8%
Astatula Sand, Dk.
Surface, 8-17X
Astatula Sand,
Banded, 0-8%
Astatula Sand,Hod.
Deep W.T., 0-8%
Astor Sand
Basinger Sand
Delks Sand
Dorovan Muck
Ouplin Is
Eureka Ifs
Eureka Ifs, tsv.
Eustis Sand
Everglades Muck
Iberia Clay
Immokalee Sand
Meggett
Myakka Sand
Myakka & Sellars
Orlando Sand
Orlando Sand, Wet
Pamlico Muck
Paalico Muck Deep.
Paola Sand, 0-8%
Paola Sand, 8-17%
Paola Sand, Mod.
Deep, 0-5%
Posello Sand
Rains Ifs
St. Johns Sand
St. Lucie Sand
Sellers Sand
Sellers and
Paalico Soils
Terra Ceia Muck
Uicksburg, 0-5%
Wicksburg, 5-12X


AsB 4 10 4 3 5 8 2 5 10 10 61

AsD 4 10 4 3 5 8 2 5 10 10 61

AtB 4 10 4 3 5 8 2 5 10 10 61

AtD 4 10 4 3 5 8 2 5 10 10 61

AuB 4 10 4 3 5 8 2 5 10 10 61

AwB 4 10 4 3 5 8 2 5 10 10 61


4 10 8 0 8 8 10 8 10 10
4 10 6 4 10 8 10 8 10 10
4 10 4 10 8 8 5 5 10 10
--------ORGANIC--NOT
4 10 6 10 7 8 8 5 10 10
4 10 4 4 8 8 5 5 10 10
4 10 10 0 8 8 8 5 10 10
4 10 6 3 5 8 5 10 10 10
- - -ORGANIC--NOT
8 10 8 0 8 8 8 8 10 10
4 10 6 4 5 8 5 5 10 10
8 10 8 4 10 8 8 8 10 10
4 10 6 4 8 8 8 8 10 10
4 10 10 4 8 8 8 8 10 10
4 10 10 6 8 8 8 8 0 10
4 10 10 10 8 8 8 8 10 10
- -----OR ANIC--NOT
--------ORGANIC--NOT
4 10 2 3 5 8 8 5 10 10
4 10 2 3 5 8 8 5 10 10
4 10 2 3 5 8 8 5 10 10


4 10 2
4 10 8
4 10 10
4 10 2
4 10 10
4 10 10


8 8
8 8
8 10
8 2
8 10
8 10


76
80
74
APP
78
68
73
71


.61 36.6

.61 36.6

.61 36.6

.61 36.6


3.66

3.66

3.66

3.66

3.66


.61 36.6


.76
.80
.74
LICAB
.78
.68
.73
.71


45.6
48.0
44.4
LE- -
46.8
40.8
43.8
42.6


4.56
4.80
4.44

4.68
4.08
4.38
4.26


18.3

18.3

18.3

18.3

18.3

18.3

22.8
24.0
22.2

23.4
20.4
21.9
21.3


APPLICA B LE- --- -- - - -
78 .78 46.8 4.68 23.4
67 .67 40.2 4.02 20.10
84 .84 50.4 5.04 25.20
76 .76 45.6 4.56 22.8
80 .80 48.0 4.80 24.0
82 .82 49.2 4.92 24.6
86 .86 51.6 5.16 25.8
APPLICABLE - -- -- - -- --
APPLICABLE------- -- - ---
65 .65 39.0 '3.90 19.50
65 .65 39.0 3.90 19.50
65 .65 39.0 3.90 19.50


8 10 10
5 10 10
5 10 10
8 10 10
5 10 10
5 10 10


Tc - - - -ORGAN I C--NOT
WcA 4 10 8 6 5 8 8 5 10 10
WcC 4 10 8 6 5 8 5 5 10 10


22.5
22.5
23.7
18.6
23.1
23.1


APPL ICABLE----------------
74 .74 44.4 4.44 22.2
71 .71 42.6 4.26 21.3


IV-33


-------------- --- - -- - -- - -


Figure 4-6









WATERSHED CLASSIFICATION



Figure 4-7 shows the various watersheds and sub-watersheds and their
classifications by both the Forest Service and the State of Florida.
The Outstanding Florida Waters classification in general implements an
antidegradation policy required by federal law, through the
classification of water authority provided by state law.


Figure 4-7


Administrative Watersheds Within the South Atlantic Uulf Water Resource Region
(SAGWRR), Major Waters Within SAGWRR, and Forest Service and State
Classifications.


Administrative Major and Classification
Forest Watershed Sub-Watersheds Forest Service State of Florida
Apalachicola Apalachicola River Apalachicola River Multiple Use OFW*
Ochlockonee River Ochlockonee River Multiple Use OFW*
Wakulla River Wakulla River Multiple Use OFW
Lost Creek Lost Creek Multiple Use Class Ill
New River New River Multiple Use Class 111
Sopchoppy River Sopchoppy River Multiple Use OFW**
Osceola St. Mary's River Middle Prong-St. Mary'! Multiple Use OFW**
St. Mary's River Ocean Pond Multiple Use OFW
Cedar Creek Cedar Creek Multiple Use Class Ill
Olustee Creek Olustee Creek Multiple Use Class III
Deep Creek Deep Creek Multiple Use UFW**
Robinson Creek Robinson Creek Multiple Use OFW**
Falling Creek Falling Creek Multiple Use, OFW**
Ocala St. Johns River St. Johns River Multiple Use OFW*
St. Johns River Salt Springs Multiple Use OFW
St. Johns River Juniper Springs Wilderness UFW**
St. Johns River Alexander Springs Multiple Use OFW**
St. Johns River Nine Mile Creek Multiple Use OFW
St. Johns River Lake Kerr Multiple Use UFW
St. Johns River Lake Dorr Multiple Use DFW
Oklawaha River Oklawaha River Multiple Use OFW*

*OFW Designation effective within Forest boundaries as well as outside them, but not for
entire stream.
**OFW Designation effective only where stream occurs within F.S. boundaries.
NOTE: Class III Waters are for recreation and propogation of fish and wildlife.


IV-34







(For reference to this discussion, see MINERALS and GEOLOGY
Standards and Guidelines in section 2 of this chapter.)






ADMINISTRATION OF OIL AND GAS OPERATIONS


There is better than a 90% probability that the oil and gas situation
will be such that:

1. All Forest Service land that can be leased, will be leased.

2. Few of the leases will ever be activated by Applications for Permit
to Drill (A.P.D's).

3. On the average, less than one exploratory dry hole will be drilled
per year, over the next five years (none were drilled during the
past nine years).

4. The average area subjected to significant surface disturbance will
be no more than 2 acres per year during the next five years.
One-hundred percent (100%) of this 2 acres will be stabilized
immediately after disturbance. Ninety-nine percent, (i.e. 1.98 of
the 2 acres) will be completely rehabilitated within four months
after the beginning of drilling. The remaining one percent (i.e.
.02 acres per year) of disturbed (but stabilized) land will have
final rehabilitation deferred until cessation of activities.

Within recent years, reorganizations within the U. S. Department of
Interior (USDI) brought about mergers of US Geological Survey (USGS) and
Minerals Management Services (MMS) into the Bureau of Land Management
(BLM). Onshore Oil and Gas Order No. 1 (Appendix A), effective November
21, 1983, reflects these changes by placing with BLM responsibilities
formerly with USGS and/or MMS. It supercedes former NTL-6 (Approval of
Operations) under which USGS and MMS functioned.

The need for on-the-ground administration, and coordination with BLM,
arises when the lessee has decided to drill a well. Under the
provisions of BLM's new Onshore Order # 1 (00 #1), there are two
procedural options and time frames for filing and processing APD's.
Under one option, the process is initiated by the filing with BLM of a
Notice of Staking (NOS), the other option is initiated by the filing of
a completed APD with BLM.

Figure 4-8 summarizes the roles of the operator, BLM, and the Forest
Service.
Figure 4-9 is a flow chart illustrating the NOS and APD options.
Figure 4-10 is a flow chart detailing the NOS option.
Figure 4-11 is a flow chart detailing the APD option.


IV-35







Figure 4-8


SUMMARY OF AGENCIES' AND OPERATOR'S
ROLES IN LEASE ADMINISTRATION


OPERATOR'S ROLE BLH ROLE FS ROLE NOTES

Lessee contacts BLM as BLN is in charge of ASU FS is notified of proposed 15 day response time.
to intention to enter (area of surface use) entry on land--May ask for Automatic approval if
leased lands, submits operations. prestaking conference, no FS response.
preliminary sap and
explanation of proposed
activity. See 'options'
Exhibit 2.
Lessee submits Operating BLM forwards Operating DR does EA on Operating Plan/ FS policy is to consolidate
Plan and Application Plan/APD to FS. APD using Forest Plan & ID everything in Operating
for Persit to Drill. team. DR/Forest Supervisor Plan when possible rather
provides consent or recoamen- than going through numerous
nation to BLH: conference Special Use Permits.
with BLH and Lessee as needed.
Lead agency preparation (Possibility of joint agency Operating Plan may be
of EIS if needed, and/or industry preparation supplemented or amended
of EA. as needed.
Approval of Operating State and Federal air and
Plan by BLH. water quality standards rust
be met in Plan.
Bonding requirements are Bond is set by BLM.
met.
Operator conducts drilling BLM performs routine DR Forest Supervisor performs
transport, operating and inspections, routine inspections: FS can
required reclamation act directly in emergency
procedures, situations to protect surface
within or without ASU but
routinely goes through BLH.
Notice of Abandonment BLH sends copy to FS. Forest Supervisor/DR performs
filed with BLM by Lessee. inspection and approves abandon-
ment, release of bond.
Regional Forester gives consent
to BLM on abandonment and bond
release.
BLH releases bond.


IV-36










FLOW CHART OF OIL AND GAS ADMINISTRATION


The Application for Permit
to Drill (APD) Option
(See Figure 4-11)


Drilling Operation by
Lessee or Operator


Producer


IV-37


Figure 4-9


Dry Hole








FLOW CHART
Notice of Staking (NOS) Option


SApplicant Performs Surveying
and Staking for Sites and Access


Applicant Files Notice of Staking
with BLM and Surface Managing Agency (SMA)


-7-
15 days





5 working days


within 45 days
I


BLK Schedules and Conducts Onsite Inspection
and BLM/SMA Provides Surface Use and
Reclamination Stipulations at Onsite for
Incorporation in Application for Permit to
Drill (APD)


BLM/SlA Provides Applicant Surface
Use and Reclamation Stipulations
if not Provided at Onsite


Applicant Submits to BLM APD and Cultural
Resources Reports if Required but not
.Submitted Preveiously


BLM Receives ADP and Reviews for Comoletenes


SMA Participation
and Input


SMA Receives Copy of
- - Appropriate Parts of -
the Drilling Plan


within 7
working
days

J_


or

ria Major
- EA Federal
t Action
EIS
if not



S----- Final EIS
-- -- BLM/SMA Consultation ^--1


Figure 4-10


Time Frame


within 10
days with
CER or EA


IV-38


----I Snb Irpln ~e -
SI(A Input









:igure 4-11
FLOW CHART
Application for Permit to Drill (APD) Option





Applicant Performs Surveying
and Staking for Sites and Access


Applicant Submits to BLM APD and Cultural
Resources Reports if Required but not
Submitted Preveiously
Time Frame

---- BLM Receives APD



SSA Receives Copy of
within BLM Reviews APD- Appropriate Parts of --
7 for Completeness the Drilling Plan
working
'days


BLM Notifies BLM Conducts
15 the Applicant
days of Completeness
of APD Technical Environmental --- SHA Input --
Review Review
30
days either or
with
CER
rr EA Criteria Major
BLM Schedules and Conducts Engr. Geol. CER EA -- Federal-
Onsite Inspection and Eval. Eval. Met Action T
BLM/SMA Develops Surface EIS
Stipulations if not if not

5
working
days Decision on ADP Final EIS
If APD is Approved
If not, why & when --BLM/SMA Consultation
Develops Surface Use and
Reclamation Stipulations
if not Done at Onsiteertr Ntified of Decisin
o Oterator Notified of Decision


IV-39







THE NOTICE OF STAKING


Surveying and staking generally may be done without prior approval of
BLM or FS. The applicant may perform surveying and staking for site and
access first, and then file an NOS with both BLM and FS. NOS
procedures identify potential problem areas and concerns early so that
they can be addressed by the applicant in the APD submitted later. The
NOS also helps identify needed rights-of-way and special use permits,
resulting in a more acceptable APD. Information required for the NOS is
described in Section III B of 00 #1. The NOS is reviewed prior to
discussion of surface use, reclamation stipulations or any other
concerns at a predrilling inspection.


THE PREDRILLING INSPECTION

A. Onsite Inspection. Within 15 days of receiving an NOS under the NOS
option, or an APD under the APD option, BLM will arrange for an onsite
inspection to be conducted. Onsite inspections usually are required for
all exploratory wells. Onsite inspections of proposed development or
in-fill well locations are not required if an earlier and appropriate
environmental assessment has been completed for the field that includes
the location in question.

B. Participants. Participants at the inspection usually include
representatives of the appropriate BLM office, the operator, the Forest
Service, the operator's principal dirt contractor and, if known,
drilling contractor. When appropriate, the operator's surveyor and
archeologist should attend. The inspection enables selection of the
most feasible site and access road from environmental, geological, and
engineering points of view. Surface use and reclamation stipulations
are developed during the onsite inspection and provided to the operator
either at the location or within 5 working days from the date of the
onsite inspection.

The ADP must be filed regardless of whether an NOS was filed. If the
NOS option is followed, the lessee/operator must submit a complete APD
within 45 days of the onsite inspection; otherwise, the NOS will be
returned to the lessee/operator to repeat the entire process. Upon
receipt of an application, BLM reviews it for completeness. Within 7
working days of receipt of the application, BLM must advise the
applicant whether the application is complete as submitted or request
additional information.


Environmental Considerations by BLM

Oil and gas activities are divided by BLM into (1) Actions under
categorical exclusion subject to a CER (categorical exclusion review),
(2) Actions normally requiring environmental assessments, and (3)
Actions normally requiring environmental impact statements. The
proposed drilling of the first confirmation well following discovery by
an exploratory well falls under the second category.


IV-40







A. CER and EA. For actions requiring a CER, the environmental effects
of the actions are checked by BLM against the nine CER criteria. See
Figures 4-12 and 4-13. If any of the nine criteria are met, the action
represents an exception to categorical exclusion and requires
preparation of an EA. An EA is a concise public document that briefly
provides sufficient evidence and analysis for determining whether the
impacts are "significant" and, therefore, requires preparation of an
EIS, or not significant, hence concludes with a finding of no
significant impact.

B. Both the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973, as amended, and the
National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) of 1966, as amended, require a
consultation process. The FS is responsible for consultations required
by the ESA and the NHPA. However, if requested by the FS or if the FS
fails to initiate a required consultation process, BLM may take the lead
in conducting such consultations.

C. FS Recommendations. BLM must not approve any drilling operations
under conditions that are contrary to the recommendations of the FS
without further consultation. If a permit for an associated road or
other permit is required from the FS in support of the proposed
operation, the application must not be approved until BLM is advised
that the permit has been, or will be, issued by the FS. To clarify the
understanding between BLM and the FS, the FS shall furnish a memorandum
or cover sheet, containing a statement similar to the following, with
its written notification submitting its recommendations and stipulations
to BLM: "The application is acceptable provided the enclosed conditions
are included in the approval." A copy of the approved application,
minus any proprietary information, is furnished to the FS for its files.
Subsequent to initial approval of the APD, any additional operational
activities likely to result in significant surface disturbance require
approval by BLM and FS concurrence.

Release of Information. Generally, all data, plans, and applications
concerning a drilling operation are available for inspection under the
Freedom of Information Act, as amended, except geological/geophysical
and reservoir information, trade secrets, financial data and
interpretation of such data, and maps and related files for which a
lessee/operator requests proprietary status.


CULTURAL RESOURCES CLEARANCE FOR OIL AND GAS OPERATIONS

Onshore Oil and Gas Order No. 1 modifies the general past practices of
requiring, in almost every instance, an intensive on-the-ground cultural
resource survey prior to approval of an application for a permit to
drill. Under the Order, such survey is to be carried out only when
there is a reasonable expectation that significant cultural properties
are present. Section III. E., the "Cultural Resources Clearance" section
of the Order states in part that:

Survey work on NF Land, and a related report shall be required
only when the FS has reason to believe that properties listed
or eligible for listing, in the National Register of Historic
Places (NRHP) are present in the area of potential effect.


IV-41















CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION REVIEW INFORMATION SOURCES FORMAT


Local and
Federal/State Agency Private Other
Corre- Phone Corre- Previous Studies
Criteria spondence Check Meeting spondence NEPA and Staff
516 DM 2.3.A. (date) (date) (date) (date) Document Reports Expertise Other

I. Public Health
and Safety.

2. Unique
Characteristics.

3. Environmentally
Controversial.

4. Uncertain and
Unknown Risks.

5. Establishes
Precedent.

6. Cumulatively
Significant.

7. National Register
Historic Places.

8. Endangered/
Threatened Species

9. Violate Federal,
State. Local,
Tribal Law.


I






H-3160-1 TECHNICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS


Identification Number


UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT

Originating Office Address



RECORD OF (CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION) REVIEW FORMAT


Project Identification


Operator/project Name

Project Type

Project Location

Date Proposal Submitted




Field Inspection(s)

Date(s)

Participants


I have reviewed the proposal in accordance with the categorical exclusion
review guidelines and criteria. Based on my analysis of the proposal's
impacts, it is my opinion that none of the exclusion review criteria would
be met.


Date


Analyst


I concur with the reviewer's opinion
not involve any significant effects.
from further NEPA documentation.


Date


BLM MANUAL


and determine that the proposal would
Therefore, the proposal is exempted



Approving Official


Rel. 3-79
2/2/84


IV-43


FIGURE 4-13







Thus, the FS is relieved from requiring a survey when available
information does not suggest the presence of significant cultural
resources. In most cases, this should permit more expeditious
processing of APD's.



Keeping in mind that---

--There can be no significant surface disturbance associated with
BLM leases until an APD is approved by BLM with concurrence of FS.

--BLM has primary responsibility for operational phases under APD's
operating plans.

--FS role is primarily one of assuring surface protection.

--More than 99% of BLM leases remain unactivated in any single year.

R-8 shall apply the principals set forth in BLM's "Guidelines for
Cultural Resources", Instruction Memo NO. 84-368; March 23, 1984, a copy
of which is included in the Appendix.


IV-44







(For reference to this figure, see PROTECTION Standards and
Guidelines in section 2 of this chapter.)


FIRE SUPPRESSION DECISION MODEL


Execute Escaped Fire
Situation Analysis
-Until Successful
(FSM 5103 43)

SFire Out

Records Evaluation


IV-45


Figure 4-14










(For reference to this figure, see PROTECTION Standards and
Guidelines in section 2 of this chapter.)






Figure 4-15


PRESCRIBED BURNING GUIDELINES FOR PRESCRIPTIONS
NF'S IN FLORIDA

PURPOSE OF BURN

Fuel Wildlife Wildlife Wildlife Brown CUS Site Site
Reduction Habitat Habitat Habitat Spot Preparation Preparation
Pre-Marking Pine-Palmetto Longleaf & Range Sand Pine Yellow Pine
& Range Flatwoods High-Pinelands Improvement
Improvement (Winter) (Winter) (Summer)
*Early
Spring
Time of Year Winter or to Early Summer &
Nov Feb Nov Feb Nov Feb Jul Oct *May Fall Fall Anytime
Back Back Back Back Back Back Back
ype of Fire Flank Flank Flank Flank Flank Flank
Strip-head Strip-head Strip-head trip-head Strip-head Strip-head
Ring Ring
No. of Days since rain
(1/4" to 1/2") 1-4 1-4 1-3 1-3 1-3 1-4 1-15 1-15
(1/2" to greater) 1-8 1I -8 T-5 1-4 1-4 I 1-4 1 -20 1-20
Temperature 75 or less 75 or less 75 or less 95 or less 85 or less 85 or less 100 or less 100 or less
Wind Direction /2 /2 /2 /2 /2 /2 /1 /I
Wind Speed (20 feet) 4-12 4-12 3-8 4-8 4-10 4-12 4-10 4-10
Wind Speed (mid-flame) 2-8 /3 2-8 /3 2-42-4 2-8 2-6 4-10 4-10
Back 30 or more 30 oore 3o re 30 or more 35 or more 30 or more 30 or more 30 or more
Relative Flank 30 or more 35 or more 50 or more 30 or more 30 or more 30 or more
Humidity Strip-head 35 or more 45 or more 60 oor mo or mre 40r mo more 40 or more 30 or more
Ring 40 or more 30 or more
Back 1-4 1-4 1-2 1-2 1-3 1-4 1-4
Flame Flank 2-5 2-5 1-3 2-4 1-6 -6
Length Strip-head 2-6 2-6 2-4 2-7 1-7 I-7
Ring 1-7 1-7
Burning
Index (BI) 60 60 50 50 60 60 65 65

NOTE: CSI should be used as an indicator of drought conditions, not as a limiting factor and the Prescribed Fire
Manager should use fire weather data, fire behavior knowledge and best judgment in meeting their prescribed fire
objectives.
Considered best time of year for this functional type of burn.
(1 Any direction, but must be according to Initial Smoke Screen System Requirements as per the "Southern Forestry
Smoke Management Guidebook."
(2 NW to NE are best wind directions, but must be according to Initial Smoke Screening System Requirements as per
the "Southern Forestry Smoke Management Guidebook."
(3 When using a Strip-head fire, mid-flame wind speed should be 2-6 MPH.
This is a guide, but any deviations outside of these parameters must be documented
by the Line Officer in Charge.


IV-46







(For reference to this discussion, see PROTECTION Standards and
Guidelines in section 2 of this chapter.)


INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES


As demand increases for timber, recreation, and other resources from the
National Forests in Florida, pest management will play an increasingly
important role in the overall management of the forest resources.
Within the past ten years, and seemingly with increasing frequency,
outbreaks of forest pests have caused considerable losses in resource
values. The most serious of these have been outbreaks of southern pine
beetles (Dendroctonus frontalis) within the Apalachicola National Forest
and redheaded sawflies (Neodiprion leconteii Fitch) in the Ocala
National Forest. The following pests have caused timber losses during
the past ten years:

Southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm.) attacks all
southern pine species by boring into live trees, tunneling, and feeding
under the inner bark. They are attracted to stressed trees, but will
attack healthy trees during an outbreak. Several million board feet of
mostly loblolly pine have been killed during the past five years.
Practically all of the loss has occurred on the Applachicola National
Forest along the Ochlocknee and Apalachicola River floodplains.

Ips bark beetle (jI spp.) has caused minor problems on all three
Forests Removal of infested trees has been the primary means of
control.

Redheaded pine sawfly (Neodiprion leconteii Fitch) has attacked
longleaf pine on the Seminole Ranger District twice in the last 20 years
affecting roughly 3,000 acres. This pest causes mortality in sapling
stands.

Annosus root rot (Fomes annosus [Fv] Cke.) has caused a slight
problem in limited areas of slash pine.

Sand pine root rot (Several species) is a serious problem in sand
pine stands. For maximum control of this disease, rotations should be
less than 40 years.

Pitch canker (Fusarium moniliforme Sheld. var. subalutinans WR
and Reink) varies in seriousness by year. It causes limited mortality
in slash pine but slows growth and affects the form of trees. The only
effective control is removal of affected trees.

Cronartium fusiform rust (Cronartium fusiforme [AK] Hedge and
Hunt) affects slash and loblolly pine by slowing growth and
deteriorating the quality of the timber. The only serious infestation
has occurred near the Apalachicola River. Control is by removal of
affected trees.

Brownspot needle blight (Scirrhia acicola [Dearn] Siggers)
affects longleaf pine. Control is by prescribed burning while in the
grass stage.


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Several other insect pests and diseases adversely affect Forest users
and resources, but prevention or practical control of these pests is
usually not feasible.

The prevention and suppression of the major pests within the National
Forests in the future will be through the application of Integrated Pest
Management (IPM) strategies. These practices involve a greater
consideration and emphasis for prevention of pest problems than control
activities. Included in IPM are methods that involve using chemical
agents that interfere with behavioral patterns of insects, biological
organisms that adversely affect insect population dynamics, genetic
manipulation to increase host resistance, appropriate cultural practices
in stand management to avoid stress, and if necessary, the use of
pesticides to kill pests directly. In those situations that require
pesticide application, suppression projects will be carefully planned
and executed with serious consideration given to environmental
protection as well as human safety. Certified, trained personnel will
supervise and direct all projects. In general, the safest (those having
the lowest relative toxicity and being the least persistent) pesticides
registered for the particular insect pest or disease will be used.
Accordingly the method of application that affords positive placement
and control of drift will be used. Appropriate coordination and
communication between Forest Service, industrial and private landowners,
other state and federal agencies will be handled on an individual case
basis.

A number of insects such a fireants, ticks, spiders, and wasps attack
Forest visitors and users, but except in local environments, little can
be done to reduce their populations. Those found in recreation or
special-use sites and buildings will be controlled normally through the
use of household insecticides. Fireants, perhaps the most noxious pest
in recreation areas, will be treated with appropriate registered
pesticides.

When it becomes necessary to suppress outbreaks of southern pine beetles
or redheaded pine sawflies, (the two most common pest problems in timber
stands in Florida), the Forest Supervisor will request direct assistance
from Forest Pest Management Staff, Asheville, North Carolina. Forest
Pest Management Staff will conduct surveys, provide advice, and assist
in developing plans for control of specific pest projects.

Bark beetle and redheaded pine sawfly outbreaks will be reduced in the
future through the maintenance of healthy stands of trees. Particular
attention will be given in reforestation practices to regenerating
species best suited to particular sites. Stand densities will be
regulated through timely and adequate thinnings. Crown scorch and tree
injury will be minimized through careful, well-planned prescribed
burning projects. Close timber sale inspections with appropriate
penalties for injuring live, residual trees in timber sale areas will
reduce bark beetle infestations. When infestations occur, direct
control action will be taken by one or more of the following methods,
usually in the priority listed:

1. Removal of infested trees by timber sale in the infested
area plus a number of high-risk trees in the immediate, surrounding
area.


IV-48







2. Felling of infested trees without sale (cut and leave
method) if timber volume or location of area makes it impractical to
sell timber. Only infested trees plus those in a buffer strip will be
cut.

3. Felling and spraying infested trees with appropriate
insecticides.

4. Felling, piling, and burning infested trees. This method
will be used only in situations involving very small spots in highly
sensitive areas where none of the above methods can be used.


Future methods may involve the use of fertilizers, or systemic
insecticides, or behavioral chemicals (pheromones). Chemicals that
attract or repel beetles are in the research stage presently and may
offer practical means of control in the near future.

The redheaded pine sawfly has decimated longleaf pine seedling and
sapling stands in the Ocala Forest twice within the past 20 years.
Biological control was attempted in 1983 through the use of LECONTVIRUS,
a nuclear, polyhedrosis virus native to Canada. The virus proved to be
ineffective, due perhaps to high temperatures that prevailed during the
application period. Future outbreaks of the sawfly will be suppressed
by either biological means using a cultured virus adapted to the local
climate, or through use of ultra low volume application of insecticide.
Cultural techniques planned to reduce stand stress will be used in
reforestation and timber stand improvement programs.

Treatment of other pest outbreaks will be handled on an individual case
basis with suppression activities geared to the results of the most
current research and "state of the art" practices.


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C. FOREST MANAGEMENT OBJECTIVES


The objectives displayed in this section are based upon the management
goals presented earlier. The objectives are displayed in two forms.
First are narratives that describe quantitive or qualitative objectives
for management activities. Following those narratives is a tabular
display of various projected outputs that result from the application of
the objectives and the standards and guidelines. The outputs shown in
this table are also in themselves objectives which are to be met through
implementation of the Plan. The order of presentation of objectives is
based on the Management Information Handbook and dos not represent any
priority for emphasis or action. Following the outputs table are
resource summaries which display the schedule of the various resource
activities that produce the outputs.

1. Narrative Objectives

a. Developed Recreation

Manage 50 percent of the developed recreation
capacity at full service level with
rehabilitation.

Manage 40 percent of developed recreation
capacity at full service level.

Manage 10 percent of developed recreation
capacity at reduced service level.

b. Dispersed Recreation

Designate six new special interest areas within
the next 10 to 50 years.

Manage special interest areas at reduced service
level.

Maintain existing ORV policies.

Construct approximately 100 miles of trail.

Maintain existing trail system at levels
consistent with use.

c. Visual Resource

Upgrade by increasing timber age class and
species composition diversity and distribution.

d. Cultural Resources

Intensively inventory all impact related
activities.

Conduct at least five site evaluations and
nominations annually to prevent backlog.


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