Group Title: Circular ;
Title: Irrigating flue cured tobacco
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Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00096116/00001
 Material Information
Title: Irrigating flue cured tobacco
Physical Description: 1 folded sheet : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Harrison, D. S. ( Dalton Sidney ), 1920-
Brothers, S. L.
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1964
Copyright Date: 1964
 Subjects
Subject: Flue-cured tobacco -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: <D.S. Harrison and S.L. Brothers>
General Note: "March 1964."
General Note: University of Florida Agricultural Extension Service circular 270
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00096116
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 82904512

Full Text


IRRIGATING FLUE CURED


AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
University of Florida, Gainesville

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TOBACCO


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IRRIGATING FLUE-CURED TOBACCO

I). S. Harrison
Associate Agricultural Engineer

S. L. Brothers
Assistant Agronomist


Introduction
In most years, properly irrigated tobacco
will produce better quality and higher yields
than non-irrigated tobacco. Irrigation has
contributed to the increase in yield of flue-
cured tobacco in Florida from 860 pounds
per acre in l 1: .. to 1077 in 1953, and to
1;-.. in 1963.
Water requirement of tobacco increases as
the plants grow, as the daily mean tempera-
ture increases and as the days become
longer.
The amount of water to apply and the fre-
quency of irrigation are governed, not only
by the use of water by the plant, but also
by the soi! type. The more clay and silt par-
ticles the soil contains, the greater the soil
moisture capacity and the longer the interval
between irrigation. A well-drained fine sand
may hold only enough moisture for three
days.
The interval between irrigations should
be shortened and the amount of water ap-
plied should be increased as the growing sea-
son advances and the rate of water con-
sumption by the plants increases.

Will Irrigation Pay?
The answer to this question is: Yes, if the
allotment is not less than three acres and
the source of water is a nearby pond, lake
or stream; yes, if the altnm>-t is not less
than five acres and water must be pumped
from a deep well.






Water Requirements of Tobacco
The daily use of water by flue-cured to-
bacco was studied for several years by the
Agricultural Experiment Station in Gaines-
ville. Results were as follows:

Period After Inches Period After Inches
Transplanting Water Transplanting Water
(Wks.) Per Day (Wks.) Per Day

1 .06 8 .25
2 .08 9 .22
3 .10 10 .16
4 .11 11 .15
5 .13 12 .14
6 .16 13 .13
7 .22 Avg. .15

These findings indicate that tobacco re-
quires the greatest amount of water from
the seventh through the ninth week after
transplanting, and the average daily use is
approximately 0.15 inches per day for the
entire growing season. However, from the
seventh through the ninth week after trans-
planting, the average daily use is approxi-
mately 0.23 inches.

When to Begin Irrigation
One-half-inch of irrigation or eq ual
amounts of rain immediately after trans-
planting will insure a better stand of plants.

How Much Water to Apply
Excessive irrigation should be avoided.
About 1 -inch of water per application is
sufficient through the fourth week. Begin-
ning with the fifth week after transplanting,
each application should be increased to %-
inch on light textured soils and to one-inch
on medium textured soils.
A Lakeland fine sand will require no more
than :' -inch of water to return the 18-inch
root zone to field capacity. A medium tex-
tured soil may require one-inch. These
amounts per application will be sufficient
until the tobacco reaches maturity.






Need for water is greatest during the
seventh to tenth week after transplanting
due to increased plant transpiration. Dur-
ing this period, do not increase rates but
irrigate more often.

How Often to Apply
The frequency of irrigation depends upon
the water-holding capacity of the soil and
the daily crop use. Since most flue-cured
tobacco in Florida is planted on light or
medium textured sandy soils, the frequency
can be fixed with reasonable accuracy for
these two soils.
On the light-textured soils irrigation water
should be applied every 5 to 6 days at %.-
inch per application from the third to sev-
enth week after transplanting. From the
seventh to tenth week after transplanting,
when the demand is greatest, irrigation water
should be applied every 3 to 4 days.
On the medium-textured well-drained soils
irrigation water should be applied every 7
to 9 days from the third to seventh week at
the rate of one-inch. From the seventh
through the tenth week after transplanting,
one-inch should be applied every 4 to 5 days.
When irrigation is begun follow your
schedule, unless rain occurs. If rain occurs
delay next irrigation, on basis of amount of
rain fall.
Delay of irrigation for tobacco under a
soil moisture stress condition will cause a
reduction in yield and quality of the crop.

Day vs. Night Irrigation
Irrigation water may be applied during
the day or at night with no harmful effects
on the tobacco, provided it is properly ap-
plied. Irrigating at night may enable a
grower to catch up on needed irrigation.
Low winds and high humidity at night will
usually increase the efficiency of night irri-
gation over day time irrigation. There is






no evidence available that irrigating during
the day will cause scalding of tobacco.

Guns vs. Low-pressure Sprinklers
A large gun-type sprinkler or the conven-
tional sprinkler will give good water distri-
bution when designed properly and operated
correctly. Due to the higher operating pres-
sures required at the nozzle of the gun-type
sprinklers (70-110 pounds per square inch),
they are more adversely affected by high
winds and evaporation. The guns should be
spaced not greater than 50 percent of their
effective diameter. Horsepower require-
ments are greater due to higher operating
pressures of the gun-type sprinkler, how-
ever, less labor is required in moving pipes.
Conventional or low-pressure sprinklers
may be used as effectively as the gun-type
sprinkler. Where a grower has both types
of sprinklers a common practice is to use
the conventional sprinklers at transplanting
time and gun-type later in the growing sea-
son.
Summary
1. Tobacco should be irrigated immediately
after transplanting with about /2-inch of
water.
2. Additional irrigation water may not be
needed until the end of the second week
after transplanting.
3. Water requirements increase as tobacco
grows, as temperature, winds and day
length increase.
4. When irrigation begins, a schedule should
be set up and followed, unless rain oc-
curs.
5. The rate of irrigation should be increased
beginning with the fifth week. Thereaf-
ter, the rate should remain constant but
the interval between irrigations should be
shortened.






no evidence available that irrigating during
the day will cause scalding of tobacco.

Guns vs. Low-pressure Sprinklers
A large gun-type sprinkler or the conven-
tional sprinkler will give good water distri-
bution when designed properly and operated
correctly. Due to the higher operating pres-
sures required at the nozzle of the gun-type
sprinklers (70-110 pounds per square inch),
they are more adversely affected by high
winds and evaporation. The guns should be
spaced not greater than 50 percent of their
effective diameter. Horsepower require-
ments are greater due to higher operating
pressures of the gun-type sprinkler, how-
ever, less labor is required in moving pipes.
Conventional or low-pressure sprinklers
may be used as effectively as the gun-type
sprinkler. Where a grower has both types
of sprinklers a common practice is to use
the conventional sprinklers at transplanting
time and gun-type later in the growing sea-
son.
Summary
1. Tobacco should be irrigated immediately
after transplanting with about /2-inch of
water.
2. Additional irrigation water may not be
needed until the end of the second week
after transplanting.
3. Water requirements increase as tobacco
grows, as temperature, winds and day
length increase.
4. When irrigation begins, a schedule should
be set up and followed, unless rain oc-
curs.
5. The rate of irrigation should be increased
beginning with the fifth week. Thereaf-
ter, the rate should remain constant but
the interval between irrigations should be
shortened.




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