• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Main
 Footnotes and appendix index
 List of Figures
 Bibliography
 Slides
 Footnotes
 Footnote 4
 Footnote 6
 Footnote 7
 Footnote 8a
 Footnote 8b
 Footnote 8c
 Footnote 9b
 Footnote 10
 Footnote 11
 Footnote 12
 Footnote 13
 Footnote 14
 Footnote 15a
 Footnote 15b
 Footnote 15c
 Footnote 16
 Footnote 17
 Footnote 18
 Footnote 19
 Footnote 20
 Footnote 23c
 Footnote 23d
 Footnote 23e
 Footnote 24
 Footnote 25
 Footnote 26
 Footnote 27a
 Footnote 27c
 Footnote 28
 Footnote 29a
 Footnote 29b
 Footnote 29c
 Footnote 30a
 Footnote 30b
 Footnote 30c
 Footnote 31
 Footnote 32a
 Footnote 32c
 Footnote 33a
 Footnote 33b
 Footnote 33c
 Footnote 34
 Design proposals
 Design proposal 1
 Design proposal 2
 Design proposal 3






Title: Peculiar progress of petroleum procurement places : a short history of the development of service stations
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 Material Information
Title: Peculiar progress of petroleum procurement places : a short history of the development of service stations
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Schuyler, Steven M.
Publisher: College of Architecture, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1978
Copyright Date: 1978
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Bibliographic ID: UF00096010
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title page
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Footnotes and appendix index
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    List of Figures
        Page 6
    Bibliography
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Slides
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Footnotes
        Page 4 (MULTIPLE)
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Footnote 4
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Footnote 6
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Footnote 7
        Page 16
    Footnote 8a
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Footnote 8b
        Page 19
    Footnote 8c
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Footnote 9b
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Footnote 10
        Page 38
    Footnote 11
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Footnote 12
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Footnote 13
        Page 49
        Page 50
    Footnote 14
        Page 51
    Footnote 15a
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
    Footnote 15b
        Page 56
        Page 57
    Footnote 15c
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Footnote 16
        Page 64
        Page 65
    Footnote 17
        Page 66
    Footnote 18
        Page 67
        Page 68
    Footnote 19
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Footnote 20
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
    Footnote 23c
        Page 78
    Footnote 23d
        Page 79
        Page 80
    Footnote 23e
        Page 81
        Page 82
    Footnote 24
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
    Footnote 25
        Page 86
    Footnote 26
        Page 87
        Page 88
    Footnote 27a
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
    Footnote 27c
        Page 94
    Footnote 28
        Page 95
    Footnote 29a
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
    Footnote 29b
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
    Footnote 29c
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
    Footnote 30a
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
    Footnote 30b
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
    Footnote 30c
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
    Footnote 31
        Page 127
        Page 128
    Footnote 32a
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
    Footnote 32c
        Page 133
    Footnote 33a
        Page 134
        Page 135
    Footnote 33b
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
    Footnote 33c
        Page 140
    Footnote 34
        Page 141
    Design proposals
        Page 142
    Design proposal 1
        Page 143
    Design proposal 2
        Page 144
    Design proposal 3
        Page 145
        Page 146
Full Text
Peculiar Progress of Petroleum Procurement Places: A Short History of the Development of Servive Stat
r i








Steven M. Schuyler University of Florida Gainesville, Florida June 1978


Gas stations come in all shapes, forms and sizes, running the gamut of American culture from a posh stone colonial in Scarsdale, New York to a greasey tin shack on a Georgian back road. They are socially snubbed and social centers. They supply the energy to power that great megamachine- the automobile. If we notice them only when the gasoline supply is cut back, we miss a powerful and playful force in our built environment.
The first "gas stations" were located at home. The motorist bought gas from a tankwagon and stored it in a barrel. It was messy and inconvenient, but the novelty of the car made it worth it. But as the novelty wore off, and the number of cars increased, it became readily apparent that a new means of selling gasoline would have to be found. It was not long before nearly everyone was selling gas from enterprising blacksmiths and liveries, to bicycle shops and grocery stores. The first cars were treated much the same as a horse and buggy. The livery would bring the car in for feedin and the general store replaced its water trough with a curb-side gas pump .
Tankwagon. fig. l Curbside pump. fig. 2


-2-
The inside pump was much more satisfactory in esthetic terms, as it kept the mess out of sight, hut gasoline fumes in an enclosed space were noxious and posed considerable fire hazzard, the pumps soon went outside. The curbside pump was efficient for the motorist, but a barrier to the pedestrian, and many localities prohibited them. The impetus was on for the development of a new form. -
The oil companies took the lead in station design and construction. Gasoline, which had been a byproduct of refining petroleum, became a major commodity nearly overnight. The growth of the auto industry was staggering. Starting with four cars in I896 it expanded geometricly. By 1909 there were 312,000, in 1919 7,565,000, and in 1929 26,501,000. The increase in stations and the level of competition was never far behind.
The retailing of gasoline is a large and complex industry. Companies are divided into two main catagories; majors and independents. Majors are big, national,vertically integrated companies. They produce, refine, transport, distribute, and retail petroleum products. Retail outlets are only a minor part of their operation, with most stations being leased to local dealers. The independents deal mainly in retailing, usually purchasing their gas and oil from the majors. A full explanation of the dealings and intricacies of the oil industry is beyond the scope of this paper, suffice it to say it is amazing.
The designs that emerged reacted to two factors; servicing "the automobile, and competing with the nearby stations.


-3-
Visual attraction was the main advertising and marketing tool of the early stations, and still is today. Americans spend billions of dollars on gasoline andonly rarely see it, except dribbling down the sides of their cars.
The original gas stations, designed as such, were highly eclectic, like the Chinoiserie Wadham stations in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. A corner site was the most desired. The station may have been little more than a small office and restrooms with the pumps out front.
Wadham Chinoiserie. fig. 3 Early Sunoco Station, fig. ^
The advantage of inside pumps was achieved with large
canopies and drivethrough service. A competition for Biscayne
Boulevard, Miami, Florida produced arched, highly decorated,
3
Spanish style stations of this type By the end of the 1920s
nearly every architectural style was represented by a filling
k
station.
As is now, price is an important selling factor, a difference of only one cent per gallon could mean making a sale or losing it to a competitor. All manner of costcutting was explored by the companies. One successful way was the tank car station. By locating near a rail line gas could be bought


in rail tanker quantities and stored in large above ground tanks. By buying in bulk when prices were low and eliminating distributor and transport costs these stations could sell at up to five cents per gallon less. This type of station declined during WW II when tank cars were diverted for military purposes and the industry switched over to large truck tankers.-^
Martin Oil Company tank car station, fig. 5 By 1930, the filling station was in the mainstream of American life. Service was being stressed by the companies. The office and canopy style of the 1920s did not promote service and when it did the grease racks and pits were placed outside. This was inconvenient for the employees and an eyesore for the neighborhood. A few hundred super service stations were built. In Detroit the Firestone Corporation constructed a station covering a full city block that included auto service, office space, and warehousing. It was the largest of ^50 one stop stations in their chain.
The 1930s produced the basic recipe for filling stations; an office/salesroom, restrooms, and two service bays all enclosed in a simple box. The pumps were outside and the canopy was often eliminated. The Standard Oil Company commisioned Clauss and'Daub, Architects to design a standard unit for pro-


auction of from 100 to 200 annually. The result was a station
of glass and metal in the International Style, that still has
7
a good contemporary look.
The Art Deco Style, with its emphisis on movement, curved surfaces, light play, and color, was perfect for station design. The movement grew up with the automobile and the two played well off each other. The materials of the Deco period were well suited to the needs of filling stations. Smooth shiny enameled metal panels and soaring neon signs, Vitrolite tiling and curved windows gave stations the dazzle desired to draw in customers. They were also often massproduced, allowing stations to pop up overnight at reduced costs. The Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Company sponsored a "Modernize Main Street"
competition in 1935 that produced a series of full blown Art q
Deco stations.
Art Deco Station 1937- fig. 6
As an alternitive to the drivethrough, Standard Oil Company designed,patented, and built at least two revolving service stations. They were done in an Art Deco Style that invited the motorist in. "Advantages claimed for this type of service station are (a) less extensive site required and


-6-
a corner position no longer necessary; (b) more economical to operate; (c) speeds up service; a car can be completely serviced with oil, petrol, air, and water in legs than two minutes; (d) no backing or turning to reach pump: electrically controlled turntable moves car to exact spot required; (e) its "FUN" for the customer: he likes the merry-go-round experience ."
Standardization, effiecency, and corporate image were
the by words of the oil companies. Architect Geddes made a
thorough investigation into the functional workings of the
service station for Socony Vacum Oil Company. The report
detailed site layout and station design"!""'" The Texas Company
retained Walter Dorwin Teague, an industrial designer, to
produce a standard station for the Texaco chain. Both psy-
cological and physical factors were considered. Five types
of stations were designed for varing size and site require-
12
ments, examples of these stations are still common. The Shell Oil Company had been promoting its scallop motif since 1926 on standardized "Stefco" canopy stations. New prototypes were introduced in 1936 including one developed by the Insulated Steel Construction Company, made up of insulated steel sandwich sections that required no skeletal frame. Erection time for one was only two and one half weeks.Carrying the corporate symbol to its fullest, a Shell station was built in 1933 in the shape of a giant scallop. The structure still stands in Winston-Salem,North Carolina and is on the Nation-al Register of Historic Places.


-7-
While the oil companies were seeking one image, the parkway system was seeking another. To go along withthe concept of the senic, landscaped roadway, stations were built of reserved eclectic designs. Stone was the prefered material and signage was kept to a minimun. Every effort was made to blend the stations in with the landscape. Service was kept to a minimun and a police station was sometimes incorporated."^
Communities were also promoting subdued designs. A wealthy suburb, such as Scarsdale, New York, most certainly could not tolerate the crassness of a porcelain and neon Shell station. Rather a stone mansion in the Tudor Style was erected complete with an arched brick gateway, for the Sinclair Oil Company
During the 19^0s the highway system was expanded and a
need to service people as well as cars developed. Ely Jacques
Kahn and Robert Allen Jacobs designed a station in the Stream-
17
line Style that included a snack bar. On an even grander scale William Lescaze proposed a facility on the outskirts of a metropolitan area complete with restaurant, bar and
-i Q
dancing.
Innovative stuctural systems and construction methods have often been employed in new stations. They have been fanciful and functional. Architect James Minor Workman derived a new form by watching and studying the forces of the wave made by a raindrop falling on a pond. The concrete structure was an intergal colmn/office and plate/canopy. The Best Oil Company had stations of this design in three sizes; 50 foot diameter station with a 15 foot diameter of-


-8-
fice; 60 foot station with a 15 foot diameter office; and an
80 foot station with a 20 foot diameter office. These stations
19
appeared m the late 1930s. y
Standard Oil in 194-5 was faced with a site on 14- feet of fill that would not support normal foundations and a limited budget of under $10,000. Architect Goldberg came up with a station hung from two steel masts. The modern industrial design elements made the station an instant sales success.
In 194-7 a major sales innovation was introduced, self-service. Modern cars required less frequent service, often just gas. The Urich Oil Company, an independent, recognized this and with the safety of an automatic shut off nozzle, opened their first station in California. It was an instant success and the chain spred rapidly. Lower cost promoted higher volume which demanded more pumps and space. Soon there were stations covering up to an acre with 150 to 4-00 feet of road frontage with as many as 18 pumps selling over 500,000 gallons per month. Roller skating female attendants did nothing but collect money. The major's station,
with four pumps selling only 5,000 gallons per month had to
.21 grow to compete.
First Self-service Station Urich Oil Company
fig. 7


-9-
The majors reacted by placing advertising emphisis on their many conveniently located stations and their brand name gasoline. They also expanded their sales in non-gas areas, until gas comprised only 71 percent, while tires, batteries and accessories made up 16 percent, minor car re-
p p
pair 9percent, and oil and lubricants 4- percent.
Sharp angles and flaring canopies characterize the ser-
23
vice service station of the 1950s. Most new stations were being built in the vicinity of existing ones and like Wayne's Associtaed Service in Aiea, Oahu, Hawaii by Wimberly and Cook,
Architects was "designed to attract attention".
24-
Mid-Fifties Union 76 Station fig. 8 A round two story tower built in Swanly, Kent, Great
OK
Briton was uncharacteristically innovative in its plan. Most stations were variations on the plans developed in the 1930s and 194-Os, including one designed by Frank Lloyd Wright. The 1956 design for Cloquet, Minnesota was large at four bays and unique for a major's station in that Wright did a total design including the logos, signs, and color schemed
With all the standardization of design it was a natural step for the module to be investigated. The British firm Shell-Mex and BP Ltd. with the support of the Royal Institute of


-10-
British Architects and the Design and Industries Association Sponsered a competition with this in mind. From the results of the competition a module of four inches and a 4:4-0 planning grid. The first station by D. A. Birchett, ARIBA in 1955 with its use of glass panels and functional lines give an "overall air of cleanliness and efficiency." The module allows for stations of varing sizes on different sites using standard components?^ A Mobile station was designed by Welton
Becket, FAIA in 1957 for the Sanford University Campus using
28
a six foot module.
The superhighways of the 1960s created a demand for super service centers. The concept of the integrated rest and service station was formulated in the 194-Os, and continually expanded. The layout was either to have all facilities inbetween the lane, or on either side with connecting restaurant bridges. The centers were often government built or
awarded to the lowest bidder, the result was often low qual-
. 29
ity design dedicated to profit and lacking m human amenities.
The period from the 1960s on has seen a lot of soul searching and evaluation by the oil companies and designers. The Beautification Act placed restrictions on billboards near highways and thus eliminated the major advertising tool of the filling stations. Localities were also passing ordinances on station location, design, and signage.
The result was a new wave of standardized station designs. Emphisis was placed on the company logo, often redesigned to meet the times. The gaudy trappings, glaring signs, flashing pennants, and whirligigs where going the way of the giant


-11-
concrete dinasaurs. Simple, clean stations in landscaped settings were going up instead.^
A shell station in the median of the parkway approach to the Toronto Airport is barely visible from the road. Architect John B. Parkin used 12 foot high earth berms to support a 100 foot square roof witha simple station underneath. The 1967 date of this station marks it as an early
31
use of earth berms in this expanding technique.
Mobile Oil Company produced a new prototype station in 1967. Designed by Eliot Noyes, the stations are a totally integrated design, characterized by clean lines and materials, with circular canopies over the pump islands. The company
logo and letter form have been worked into all aspects, from
32
the building to the pumps.
Mobile is not alone in integrated design. All the
majors have been working to establish their trademarks in the
consumer's eye. Color, shape and letter form are all studied
so that the motorist can identify the brand even before the
33
name can be read.
The basic design of gas stations has, with few exceptions, stayed the same since 1930. The identifing features have been largely cosmetic. Now the stations are growing up and learing how to apply their make-up withreserve and taste The future is certainly brighter than the past but much will need to be done to overcome the stigma of blight the industry has had.
The role of the architect has been increasing in station design. The future holds much potential for the preservation


-12-
architect. Turnover in the industry is tremendous, The oil embargo of 1973 put many stations out of business, and newly designed stations are leaving the old ones abandoned. The industry has long recognized the value in remodelling and updating stations, they have been doing it since day one, and will continue to do so.
The preservationists role will be two fold; to redesign existing stations, and finding new uses for old ones. No matter how fine a design a new prototype is, if it goes into the wrong location it will be instant blight. For Shell to modernize an Art Deco station to its "ranch" design would be a crime in the Art Deco portions of Miami Beach. A new station for a district like that might well be built from plans of the 1930s, or a whole Deco station moved in from another part of the country. In any case, stations should be
3Z1
designed to harmonize with their locations-r
Reuse of existing stations presents nearly limitless possibilities. Most stations have exellant locations, and when stripped of all the sign, pumps, oil drums, and broken down cars reveal a simple pleasant building. Reuses have included all manner of stores, restaurants, and offices. A Texaco station in Gainesville, Florida was converted into a music shop. The area under the canopy was infilled with brick and windows as were the bay doors. The site was landscaped and the result is quite pleasing.
The marketing techniques of gasoline are proving to be cyclic. The corner store is adding pumps as they did in the early 19&0s. Large service centers are being built as they


-13-
were in the 1930s. Self-service is more prevelant than it was in the 194-Os. The cycle is repeating and each time it goes around it improves and mistakes are overcome. Whatever the future holds it will be, as in the past, a reflection of the American culture.


FOOTNOTES AND APPENDIX INDEX
The footnotes in the paper often refer to an illustrated article which has been reproduced and included as an appendix .
"*""From Blacksmith's Shed to Lysicrates' Tomb". Ray Scroggins. Special-Intrest Autos. Number 30. p. 2?.
Allvine, Fred C. and Patterson, James M. Competition, LTD: The Marketing of Gasoline, p. 26.
3
"Biscayne Boulevard, Miami, Florida, Competition For Filling Station Design". American Architect. Dec. 1926 pp. 445-449.
4-
"Fill Up Here With...". Architectural Review. Dec. 1929 pp. 273-276.
^Allvine, Fred C. and Patterson, James M. Competition, LTD: The Marketing of Gasoline, pp. 74-75
"Multiple Service Auto Station in Detroit". Architectural Record. Dec. 1931- pp. 4-55-4-57.
7
"A Standardized Filling Station Unit". Architectural Record. Dec. 1931- p.4-58.
8a
'"Service Station at Ann Arbor, Michigan". Architectural Record. Aug. 1933- pp. 142-14-3.
o-u
"A Gasoline Station". Architectural Record. Aug. 1933-
p. 14-4-. 8c
"Car Service Station at Staines". Architectural Review. Oct. 1934-. pp. 122-123-
9a.
7 "Moderize Main Street, Problem D, Automotive Sales and Service Station". Architectural Record. Oct. 1935- PP 255-266.
9bPencil Points. Oct. 1935- PP- 516-519-
"^"Quick Turn Car Service". Commercial Art and Industry. July-Dec. 1935- P- 193-


-2-
1:LPencil Points. Jan. 1937- PP- 8-13 12
"Standardized Service Stations". Architectural Record. Sept. 1937- pp. 69-72.
"^"Filling Stations". Architectural Record. Aug. 1936. pp. 14-7-14-9-
14-
"Vestiges of the Recent Past". Historic Preservation. Jan.-Mar. 1978. p. 2.
J "Four Service Stations". American Architect. Nov. 1932. pp. 55-58.
"^"Filling Station" Pencil Points. Apr. 194-0. pp. 231-232.
"^"Filling Stations" Pencil Points Jan. 194-1. pp. 35-4-0.
American Architect. Feb. 1935- pp. 4-7-4-8. "^Service Station". Pencil Points. Aug. 1944. p.53.
-1 o
"Service Station". Architectural Forum. May 194-3. pp. 132-133.
19
"Southern Architect Studies Nature to Evolve New Form". Architectural Record. Apl. 1938. pp. 4-6-4-9.
20
"Service Station Hung From Masts to Minimize Foudations and Costs". Architectural Forum. Mar. 194-6. p. 115-
21
Allvine, Fred C. and Patterson, James M. Competition, LTD: The Marketing of Gasoline, pp. 76-77.
22Ibid, p.4-2.
^Architectural Review. Feb. 194-4-. p. 37 ^^Progressive Architecture. Jan. 194-8. pp. 91-93.


-3-
2^c"Prototype for a Chain of Service Stations". Architectural Record. May 1953- P- 165
2-^"Service Station". Progressive Architecture. Sept. 1954-. pp. 106-107.
23eA Handsome Gas Station". Architectural Forum. Aug. 1957. pp. 118-119.
?h
"Designed To Attract Attention". Architectural Record. June 1952. pp. 185-187-
2^"Filling Station at Swanley, Kent". Architectural Review. Aug. 1957- p.127-
26"Frank Lloyd Wright Filling Station, 1958". Society Of Architectural Historians Journal. Dec. i960, pp. 175-175-
27aThe Module j_n Service". Art and Industry. Oct. 1955 pp. 122-125-
27b
"Tankstellensystem". Architectural Review. Dec. 1963
p. 381.
27c"Shells for Shell". Domus Sept. 1?72.
28
"Modern Service Station". Architect and Engineer. July 1958. p. 7-
29a
"Road-Style on the Motorway". Raymond Spurrier. Architectural Review. Dec. i960, pp. 4-07-4-15-
29b
"Motorway Service Areas". Bev Nutt. Architectural Review. May 1968. PP-189-194-.
29c"Station-Service Total et Esso" Werk. May 1970-pp. 325-328.
29d
"Food, Petrol But No Joy". Architectural Review. June 1972. pp. 368-369, 380.
^0a"Updating the Service Station Image". Industrial


-4-
Design. Aug. 1965 PP 4-2-4-9-
^0tlAn Oilman Talks Esthetics". Stanley D. Breitweiser. A.I.A. Journal. Aug. 1966. pp. 4-1-4-4-.
30c"High Test Architecture". Mary E. Osman. A.I.A. Journal. Mar. 1973- PP- 30-34-.
-^"Canadian Service Station is Pleasingly Concealed by Built-up Earth Berms". Architectural Record. May 1967-pp. 183-184-.
^2a"Prototype for Service Station: Mobil Tests Effect of Design on Sales at 58 Locations". Architectural Record. May 1967. pp. 172-174-.
32b" '0' Come Ruota". Domus Jan. 1972.
32c"Service Station". Pencil Points. July 194-5. p. 82.
33a"High Test Gas". Industrial Design. Jan. 1972. pp. 74-75.
33t>nfjijle Design Process". Industrial Design. June 1971-pp. 4-0-4-3.
-^"Stations Service B.P.". Werk. June 1974. p. 719-34-
J "A Gasoline Station m Ropporgi". Japan Architect. Nov. 1971. p. 13-


DESIGN PROPOSALS
1. Pencil Points. Oct. 1930. p. 848.
2. Pencil Points. June 1932. p. 4-50.
3. "Classical Gas". Industrial Design. May 1971. pp. 50-51


FIGURES
1,
2 ,
3. 4-,
5. 6,
History of Humble Oil and Refining Company.
p. 28. Courtesy
Special-Intrest Autos Number 30 Standard Oil Company
Special-Intrest Autos Number 30 Milwaukee Public Library
Special-Intrest Autos. Number 30 Sun Oil Company
p. 28. Courtesy p. 28. Courtesy
Competition, LTD. ; The Marketing of Gasoline, p. 65
Special-Intrest Autos. Number 30. p. 30. Courtesy Gulf Oil Company
7. Competition, LTD. 1 The Marketing of Gasoline, p. 66
8. Sppnia-l-Tntrest Autos. Number 30. p. 31. Courtesy
Union Oil Company
9. gpecjglzlntrest Autos. Number 30. p. 29. Courtesy
Gulf Oil Company


BIBLIOGRAPHY
A.I .A. Journal. "An Oilman Talks Esthetics". Aug. 1966. p. 4-1
A.I.A. Journal. "High Test Architecture". Mar. 1973- p. 30.
Allvine, Fred C. and Patterson, James M. Competition, LTD: The Marketing of Gasoline. (Indiana University-Press. Bloomington, Indiana, USA ) 1972.
American Architect. "Biscayne Boulevard, Miami, Florida, Competition For Filling Station Design". Dec. 1926. p. 4-4-5.
American Architect. "Four Service Stations". Nov. 1932. p. 55 American Architect. Feb. 1935- P-4-7-
Architect and Engineer. "Modern Service Station". July 1958. p. 7.
Architectural Forum. "Handsome Gas Station, A". Aug. 1957 p. 118.
Architectural Forum. "Service Station". May 194-3- P- 132.
Architectural Forum. "Service Station Hung From Masts to Minimize Foundations and Costs". Mar. 1946. p. 115-
Architectural Record. "Canadian Service Station is Pleasingly Concealed by Built-up Earth Berms". May 1967. p. 183-
Architectural Record. Designed to Attract Attention". June 1952. p. 185.
Architectural Record. "Filling Stations" Aug. 1936. p. 14-7-
Architectural Record. "Gasoline Station". Aug. 1933- P- 14-4.
Architectural Record. "Modernize Main Street, Problem D,
Automotive Sales and Service Station". Oct. 1935-P- 255.
Architectural Record. "Multiple Service Auto Station in Detroit" Dec. 1931. p. 4-55.
Architectural Record. "Prototype for a Chain of Service Stations" May 1953- p. 165.
Architectural Record. "Prototype for Service Station: Mobile Tests Effects of Design on Sales at 58 Locations". May 1967. p. 172.
Architectural Record. "Service Station at Ann Arbor, Michigan". Aug. 1933- P- 142.


-2-
Architectural Record. "Standardized Filling Station Unit, A". --Dec .1931- p. 4-58.
Architectural Record. "Standardized Service Stations". Sept. 1937. p. 69.
Architectural Record. "Southern Architect Studies Nature to Evolve New Form". Apl. 1938. p. 46.
Architectural Review. "Car Service Station at Staines". Oct. 1934-. pT 122.
Architectural Review. "Fill Up Here With ...". Dec. 1929-p. 273-
Architectural Review. "Filling Station at Swanley, Kent". Aug. 1957. p. 127.
Architectural Review. "Food, Petrol But No Joy". June 1972. p. 368.
Architectural Review. "Motorway Service Areas". May 1968. p. 189-
Architectural Review. Road-Style on the Motorway". Dec. i960, p. 4-07.
Architectural Review. "Tankstellensystem". Dec. 1963. p. 381.
Architectural Review. Feb. 194-4-. p. 37.
Art and Industry. "The Module in Service". Oct. 1955- P- 122.
Commercial Art and Industry. "Quick Turn Car Service." July-Dec. 1935- P- 193-
Domus. "'O' Come Ruota". Jan. 1972.
Domus. "Shells for Shell". Sept. 1972.
Historic Preservation. "Vestiges of +he Past". Jan.-Mar. 1978. p. 2.
Industrial Design. "High Test Gas". Jan. 1972. p. 74-.
Industrial Design. "Updating the Service Station Image". Aug. 1965. p. 4-2.
Industrial Design. "Classical Gas". May 1971. p. 51-
Industrial Design. "Design Process, the". June 1971. P- 4-0.
Japan Architect. "Gasoline Station in Ropporgi". Nov. 1971. p. 13.
Larson, Henrietta M. and Porter, Kennith Wiggins. History of Humble Oil and Refining Company. (Harper and


-3-
Brothers Publishers, New York) 1959-
Massic, Joseph L. Blazer and Ashland Oil. (University of Kentucky Press, Kentucky) i960.
Pencil Points. "Filling Station". Apr. 194-0. p. 231.
Pencil Points "Filling Stations". Jan. 194-1. p. 35.
Pencil Points. "Service Station". Aug. 194-4-. p. 53.
Pencil Points. "Service Station". July 194-5. p. 82.
Pencil Points. Oct. 1930. p. 848.
Pencil Points. June 1932. p. 4-50.
Pencil Points. Oct. 1935. p. 516.
Pencil Points. Jan. 1937- p. 8.
Progressive Architecture. "Service Station". Sept. 1954. p. 106.
Progressive Architecture. Jan. 1948. p. 91.
Ruscha, Edward. Twenty Six Gasoline Stations. (Cunningham Press" Alhambra, California) 1969.
Society of Architectural Historians Journal. "Frank Lloyd
Wright Filling Station, 1958". Dec. i960, p. 175
Special-Intrest Autos "From Blacksmith"s Shed to Lysicrates' Tomb". Number 30. p. 27
Werk. "Stations Service B.P.". June 1974-. p. 719.
Werk. "Station Service Total et Esso" May 1970. p. 325.


SLIDES
Note: the number in parehthesis refers to the footnote and article index number of the contectual article the slide appeaered in. Slides labelled Schuyler are by the author.
1. (16) American Architect. Feb. 1935- P- 4-7-
2. Fina Station. Ocala, Florida. Schuyler 1978
3. History of Humble Oil and Refining.
4. Ibid.
5. Post Office. Evinston, Florida. Schuyler. 1978
6. Gulf Station. Orange Lake, Florida. Schuyler. 1978
7. Blazer and Ashland Oil.
8. Union 76 Station. Oak, Florida. Schuyler. 1978
9. J.R. Mountain Garage. Micanopy, Florida. Schuyler.
1978.
10. Special-Intrest Autos. Number 30. p. 28.
11. Special-Intrest Autos. Number 30. p. 28.
12. Historic Preservatin. Jan.-Mar. 1978. p. 32.
13. Gulf Station. Gainesville, Florida. Schuyler. 1978. 14-. (DP 1) Pencil Points. Oct. 1930. p. 848.
15 (3) American Architect. Dec. 1926. p. 44-6.
16. (3) Ibid. p. 4-4-7.
17. Mobile Station. Miami, Florida. Schuyler. 1978.
18. Texaco Station. Miami, Florida. Schuyler. 1978.
19. Allvine, Fred C. and Patterson, James M. Competition,
LTD: The Marketing of Gasoline, p. 65.
20. Gulf Station. Mcintosh, Florida. Schuyler. 1978.
21. Firestone Service Statin. Gainesville, Florida.
Schuyler. 1978.
22. (7) Architectural Record. Dec. 1931. P- 4-58.
23. ~(8c) Architectural Record. May 1953- p.165.


-2-
24-. (8b) Architectural Record. Aug. 1933- P- 3M.
25. (8a) Architectural Record. Aug. 1933- P- 14-3
26. Special-Intrest Autos. Number 30. p. 30.
27. (13) Architectural Record. Aug. 1936. p. 14-8.
28. (12) Architectural Record. Sept. 1937- p. 72.
29. Special-Intrest Autos. Number 30. p. 29-
30. Historic Preservation. Jan.-Mar. 1978. p. 2.
31. (15c) Pencil Points. Jan. 194-1. p. 35-
32. (15b) Pencil Points. Apr. 194-0. p. 231.
33. (19) Architectural Record. Apr. 1938. p. 4-6. 34-. (20) Architectural Forum. Mar. 194-6. p. 115. 35 Allvine. p. 66
36. (23d) Progressive Architecture. Sept. 1954. p. 106.
37- Ibid. p. 107.
38. (24) Architectural Record. June 1952. p. 186
39. (23c) Architectural Record. May 1953. p. 165.
4-0. (23e) Architectural Forum. Aug. 1957. p. 119-
41. (23a) Architectural Review. Feb. 194-4- p.37.
4-2. (25) Architectural Review. Aug. 1957. p.127.
4-3. (26) Society of Architectural Historians Journal
Dec. I960, p. 175-
4-4-. (27a) Art and Industry. Oct. 1955. P 122.
4-5. (27b) Architectural Review. Dec. 1963 p. 381.
4-6. (27c) Domus. Sept. 1972.
4-7. Ibid.
4-8. (3D Architectural Record. May 1967. p. 184-.
4-9. (32b) Domus. Jan. 1972
50. Ibid.
51. (33c) Werk. June 1974-. p. 719.


-3-
52. (29a) Architectural Review. Dec. i960, p. 4-12.
53. Sabine String Shop from Texaco Station. Gainesville,
Florida. Schuyler. 1978.


BISCAYNE BOULEVARD, MIAMI, FLORIDA, COMPETITION FOR
FILLING STATION DESIGN
extract from report of the jury
Ihe Jury was very much pleased with the manner in which the gas station problem was approached. Many of the designs show much originality and study of the problem, which today is greatly in need of a solution. Streets throughout the entire country are littered by horrible examples of poorly designed or contractor-built filling stations, with no redeeming features except that of service to the motorist out of gas.
The first prize of $750 was awarded to H. Roy Kelley, Los Angeles, California, for the best solution of the problem. For both practical consideration and attractiveness, this design was the best submitted. It is a good treatment of a corner city lot. It is possible for three lines of cars to get service at the same time and presents minimum interference for entrance and exit. The service lines are protected against bad weather by covered ways and altogether it is an outstanding presentation. The Jury feels that this design, properly detailed and executed, would prove a practical solution of the problem and that it is a design which would attract both business and the appreciation of the public.
The second prize of $400 was awarded to Edgar Albright, New York, for an appropriate design for a city corner, where no assurance is had of what will be built on either side. The design is excellent in character nearly equalling, in the mind of the Jury, the one awarded first prize. Of all submitted, it makes the best use of the available land. It was also the leading design in the popular influence.
The third prize of $250 was awarded to John Donald Tuttle, New York. This design is especially good for a residential section. It is of simple character and good proportions and has real charm. It would require, however, interesting landscape planting to make the most of the design. The plan is good but not carefully studied as to the practical requirements for oiling, storage of materials, etc. The design of the fountain is beautiful and if well detailed would make a very interesting feature and give a fine chance for the use of color.
The fourth prize of $150 was awarded to William Charles Ullrich, Hollywood, California. It is better than the third prize in that practical requirements have been more carefully studied. The design is the most unusual submitted, showing originality in the use of arches. However, the design lacks charm and refinement wh h the other prize winners possess.
The Jury was much gratified with the variety of ^treatment shown in many of the remaining designs, which could not be considered for awards because of the fact that some of the designers neglected highly
important practical requirements, while others produced designs suitable only for minor streets or for roadside locations.
The Jury considers the competition, taken as a whole, a very valuable contribution toward the solution of the filling station problem, and believes that it should be highly successful in reference to the second purpose of the competition, namely, the stimulation of interest in the design of better structures.
dwight james baum -] elmer C. jensen \- Jurors james H. gilman j
prize winners First prize, $750H. Roy Kelley, Los Angeles, Calif.
Second prize, $400Edgar Albright, New York City.
Third prize, $250John Donald Tuttle, New York City.
Fourth prize, $ 150Win. Chas. Ullrich, Hollywood. Calif.
MentionsHerbert Fritz, River Forest, 111.; Pierre 8 Wright, Architects, l. F. AyersAssociate, Indianapolis, Ind.; Francis Keally, New York City: Samb S. Washizuka, Ann Arbor, Mich.; Albert McNaughton, Atlantic City, N. J.; Francis J. Tarlowski, New York City.
mechanically produced decoration
Some notes in a contemporary on the new Devonshire House arising out of a visit made by the R.I.B.A. to the building, suggest some reflections on the nature of decoration, states The Builder, London. We are told that the decoration of the building excites "the hope that our architects will presently discover a way of using mechanically-produced details for the adequate decoration of buildings which are mechanical in construction," and there is added the following rather obscure comment: "thus avoiding the last reproach of reducing human craftsmanship to boredom." But arc we not likely to be reduced to boredom by mechanically-produced decoration instead of avoiding it? We have a mechanically-produced railway bridge at Ludgate Hill, embellished with mechanically-produced decorationand some of us have been reduced to more than boredom for years by it. How shall we avoid this reproach? It appears to us by giving up ornament until we recognize that it is something more than a mechanically-produced thing!
445


the american architect
first prize-h. roy kelley, los angeles, calif.
biscayne boulevard competition for filling station design


second prizeedgar albright, new york city biscayne boulevard competition for filling station design


the american architect
roUNTAIN SCOT ION
DESIGNTORAFILLIi^^
third prizejohn donald tuttle, new york city biscayne boulevard competition for filling station design
448


the american architect
DESIGN FORA filling STATION FOR BISCAYNE BOULEVARD, MIAMI,FLORIDA.
fourth prize-william charles ullrich, hollywood, calif.
biscayne boulevard competition for filling station design
449


Fill up here with . .
y b "]HE petrol station is one of the latest expressions of the building art. It has originality, certainly, but in regard to those other attributes, fitness for purpose, _JL style, suitability to its surroundings, and so on, we may perhaps be forgiven for suggesting that there is room for improvement. The average station usually consists of a litter of tumble-down sheds plastered with multicoloured enamel signs, and sprawls along the roadside, frequently at some particularly charming spot in the countryside, or up the pavements of otherwise delightful country villages and towns. Strangely enough, the oil companies and garage proprietors appear to see little u fellows and has made a bid for the approval of that small band of hyper-sensitive beings who prefer tidiness, efficiency and harmony, to muddle and discord. The growing habit amongst motorists of only filling up at such a station has our benediction, and if the movement should result in the improvement of those dreadful enamel signs for which the average garage proprietor displays such zest, and the extinction of those hideous globular bulbs to the petrol pumpsthis in spite of the admiration which they provoke in Mr. Bernard Shaw and the oil companies we shall at least discern a ray of hope that, perhaps within our lifetime, the petrol station will not only fulfil the needs of the motor-car, but also develop some regard for the feelings of the motorist.
Photo: The National Gardens Guild.
On the moors near Scarborough, Yorkshire.
This picturesque moorland scene may charm Sir Harold Bowden, Chairman of the Raleigh Cycle Company, and Mr. Lang, of
Hamilton, Lanarkshire.
Sells, the Company's publicity agents, but the difficult people who prefer order and tidiness would probably choose to fill up here.
{See Idler on page 314.)
Photo: The Sational Hardens Guild.
at-
Near Bath, Somersetshire
Ipswich, Suffolk.
Where petrol stations are set amidst woodland, why cut the trees down and put the pumps on the roadside, when, as societies
like The National Gardens Guild are constantly pointing out, the trees might be kept and gardens added to make a foreground ?
273


The approach lo Kenilwortlt, Warwickshire.
Surely it is time this all too familiar type of station was
Askers Riai flouts, Dorchester, Dorsetshire.
replaced by something a little more efficient and pleasing ; and
Photos: The National Gardens Guild.
Cdmmonhead, near Swindon, Wiltshire.
instead of leaving, the petrol pumps derelict in the open,
Muswell Hill, London.
why not group them together under cover ? This arrangement has a practical as well as an ornamental value, although we. have never yet been told
Lutterworth, Rugby, Leicestershire.
Oxford.
Newbury, Berkshire.
why it is necessary to put them outside at all. This sort of outrage is committed in the best English towns when, with a little forethought, petrol stations might be designed as at Newbury, with the pumps placed inside the garage
walls. The Newbury authorities deserve the highest praise for looking after the decencies of appearance.
274


the architectural review, December 1929.
On the Kingston Bypass Road, Surrey. Beckenham, Kent.
But if petrol pumps must show, there is no
reason why either the roof or the station or the Oriental !
should be designed in the Tudor style,
Detroit Lakes. Cheltenham, Gloucestershire. Berlin.
All the same, people are trying to make a characteristic kind of building for these things. The three examples here may not be perfection, but they are an effort.
And here is a garage on the Kingston bypass which is not altogether unpleasing. The pumps have been painted whitea great advancebut again, is there any reason why they should not have been put inside ?
275


FILL UP HERE WITH
Esher, Surrey.
What is obviously needed is a new type of building to fit a new need. Here is the best English example, and it shows that a petrol station
need not be a blot.
Muswel! Hill. London.
At night, too, the petrol station affords opportunities for dramatic effects, though this scheme might have been better for good grouping.
But by day the enamel sign is still with us, although firms like Shell Mex have seized upon the tidy idea.
Tlieale, Berkshire.
This is what happened quite recently, and while
the effect is not beautiful, the result is a tremendous improvement.
276


MULTIPLE SERVICE AUTO STATION IN DETROIT
6.
DESIGNED BY FIRESTONE REALTY COMPANY, AKRON, OHIO
Sixteen different types of service including lirake testing, wheel alignment, battery work, high pressure lubrication, vulcanizing, car washing and polishingare housed in this structure which covers one city block at the corner of one of the major motor highways in Detroit. The station is the largest unit in a chain of 450 one-stop service stations built during the last three years.
capacity
Approximately 150 cars can be served at one time hi all departments. The lubricating department can take care of 225 cars a day; the car washing department can handle 75 to 100 cars and the brake department 25 to 30 cars a day. A glass enclosed lounge is provided for the patrons.
construction
Reinforced concrete construction is used for the 4-story warehouse, and steel construction for the service station canopy. Vertical obstructions have been reduced to a minimum, and there are no visual or physical barriers between street and station. The wide column spacings permit easy access from the street to the concourse and service area. The sliding and overhead doors are constructed with sliding mullions. The skylights are movable and the lounge room glass enclosure can be opened in the sinniner.
a district office, warehouse and one-stop filling station in detroit
Diagrammatic Arrangement of Services For a Capacity of Approximately 150 Cars
the architectural record
455




A DISTRICT OFFICE, WAREHOUSE AND FILLING STATION IN DETROIT DESIGNED BY FIRESTONE REALTY COMPANY, AKRON, OHIO
THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD
457


7.
S. S. Lan
A STANDARDIZED FILLING STATION UNIT
This filling station, erected in Cleveland, is the first unit in a chain. Between 100 to 200 similar units are to be constructed each year, it is planned.
The construction cost of this station was $6,500, without equipmenta saving of approximately $2,300 below the estimated cost.
The concrete columns have been set back from the facades in order to allow a lightweight continuous glass wall which will conform to fire code restrictions. The walls are constructed of enameled metal plates backed with insulation.
Color scheme: red letters on a white background; red cornice; blue base and blue kickplates; metal strips painted aluminum.
?
o
7^
a
ftOOM
Till MCI 1TK
Till *00M
senvici room
U

>
b i
DESIGNED BY CLAUSS AND DAUB, ARCHITECTS
458
DECEMBER, 193


SERVICE STATION AT ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN
(d d n)

jepeer.son str.eet rrnmrm----1 i i i
W M So 40 00
Exterior walls: Enameled iron sheets bolted to light steel framework; joints covered by enameled iron battens held in place with bolts which have enameled iron heads. Rear walls on property line: Cement blocks to comply with local building code. Roof: Built-up roofing on wood joist, with 4 inches of rock wool insulation. Canopy: Enameled iron face and soffit with metal roof.
The Architectural Record AUGUST 1933


. . W O O D W O R T H AND LOf(EE, ARCHITECTS
Z.lor: Walls of light Ivory with base of dark blue onameled iron; canopy and :r to salesroom, yellow; wood letters on canopy painted red and Neon sign i ue. Plate glass set in aluminum. Floors: Cement throughout. Interior walls >nd ceilings: Cement plaster on metal lath. Women's rest room walls papered Salubra. Heating by fan units; basement boiler fed by automatic stoker.
The Architectural Record AUGUST 1913


^ GASOLINE STATION reinforced concrete is intended for this station. the pro
jecting canopies are supported by central beams which DESIGN AND MODEL BY permit light construction -and also provide space for dis-
R M SCHINDLER ARCHITECT p'av s'9ns- color illumination is to be used in the glass
tower.
W. P. Woodcock
ft
Orange C/a/f
e l e v a t i o kj
A
floor plan j a 0
4\
Z l e v a ti on
roof plan
plan at+u'-o" lev/el-
The Architectural Record AUGUST 1933


A series of Car Service Stations is being erected for Messrs. Stewart and Ardern, Ltd., throughout London, designed by Cameron Kirby. The aim has been to obtain a design which, although varying for each individual site, retains a characteristic that is observable in them all. The features, which enable the public to pick out at a glance the Car Service Stations as being those of Messrs. Stewart and Ardern's, are two: the Tower, which can be seen from a great distance both by day and, when illuminated, by night; and the wide span shop front of over 60 ft. clear by 14 ft. high, which is fitted with a special design of sliding-folding door supposed to be the largest of its kind in Europe. The door enables the Showroom to be opened out direct to the public, and
CAMERON KIRBY
Photographs by M. O. Dell and H. L Staff photographers to the architectural re
allows cars to be taken out c roadway has been formed for < ments. The building is steel fra girder over the large front span, and the front portion rendered i The rear elevation has rustic flet ing generally is by hot air syste the Showroom hot air is blow minium grilles. Neon lighting both to advertise the name c an harmonious composition w exterior view of the Tower, S Unit. 2. The Tower, common Service stations. It is illuminatt
CAR SERVICE STATION AT


123


i ^ 3 L E f\/[ D Requirements: The gas station, presumably, is to be modernized by an automobile dealer as a "feeder"
'or his main showroom, as well as to produce a profit through the sale of gasoline, oil, tires, acces-(yjqiylqyiyg sales *ries and parts. Servicing, such as greasing, washing and minor repairs on all males of cars, will
return a profit in addition to creating good-will which may lead to a ear sale. h The plan shall pro-| service station v'c'e howroom for two low-priced passenger automobiles; space for the display and sale of tires,
parts and accessories; cash and record space; "rest-room" toilets; one car-washing space; two greasing pits, hoists or lifts; work bench and tool racks for minor repairs, with inclosure for repairing one car at a time; gasoline pumps and oil dispensers shall be located within the building lines (no a pumps or other structure are permitted at the curb of street). As customers drive in the travel of
cars must be considered carefully to prevent traffic congestion and to-provide maiimum availability of the pumps. fl The basement is not to be shown on the drawings. It is assumed that employees' lockers, the heating plant, air compressors, etc., and extra storage space may be provided for in the basement, providing a stairway is shown on the plan. f It is assumed that the present structure may be moved, enlarged, altered, or torn down so that the most efficient design for the lot can be realized. Gasoline pumps, also, may be added, changed, or relocated . Dimensions: The level lot is on the northeast corner of intersection of Main Street and a through traffic artery. The wide Main Street runs east and west. The rectangular lot measures 100' on Main Street, 75' on the intersecting street. Both are two-way traffic streets. From building line (lot line) to curbs of streets is 12',
first prize: alfred clauss, knoxville, tenn..........256
The problem of car traffic to the gasoline pumps with exits to either street and of entrance to the repair and washing has been well solved. h The plan is compact, the different operations are in good relation to each other and are under easy control. fl The large showroom with its front following the line of traffic is easily seen from the cars while refilling. fl A car, rather than a cashier desk, should occupy the center of the circular showroom and the spare parts should be located convenient to the * repairing. The design is simple yet striking. The show front terminating in the large plain wall surface attracts attention. This wall might serve as a screen to block out an unattractive neighbor. fl The sign relamping and other details have been well studied. The whole scheme has a quality of unity and simplicity, it should therefore be economical of construction and operation which would appeal to the dealer.
second prize: suren pilafian, maurice lubin, new york.....257
The design is attractive from any elevation and the salesroom is well located so that all cars stopping for gas must see the display which can also be seen from the sidewalk. The traffic is well studied to bring the show windows as near the cars as possible without interference to convenience or safety. The separation of the showroom and sales from the repair, lubricating and washing means a more difficult control and a more expensive operation. Space around the cars for repairing or washing seems insufficient. h The feature outside lighting and the sign are effective and dignified.
third prize: isadore shank, st. louis............258
This design is especially striking in exterior color. The elevation would attract more than local motorists, since the signs are prominent and well placed. 1 The showroom provides a display of new cars which must be seen by any one stopping at the gas pumps, The plan of the service department Is not particularly well studied as there is congestion. The location of the repair department with respect to the car wash, or grease hoists, is unfortunate.
-0norable mentions: j. r. sproule, seattle, wash........... 259
charles du bose, new york.......... 260
victor spector, chicago........... 261
thomas d. taro, east orange, n. j........ 262
a. albert cooling, los angeles......... 263
horace hartman, george wright, detroit .... 264
9 henry t. aspinwall, paul f.simpson, great neck, n. y. 265
g. mclaughlin, s. c. reese, l berz, knoxville, tenn. . 266
competition sponsored jb y l i b b e y o w e n s f o r d glass company 255


first prize
alfred clauflj
14
'I r
!ti n
i i
: |w
repair in6 8reasin8 wash In6
( 12
Soala 1/8"- l'-O" MAIM STREET__
1. Cashier's Desk
2. Accesorles and Parts
3. Oil 4.Tins 5.Tire Rack* from Calling 6. Window Display
7.Customers Waiting Space Radio-Magazine Stand 8. Ladies Rest Root) 8. Man* Raat Room 10.Tool Racks 11.Work Bench
12. Gasoline Pumps
13. Light Trough
14. Overhead Doors
15. Calling Reflector
16. Lettering Light Box
17. Ventilation Louvars
f* Sandblasted Letters on Blue Situ Lettering Box
fl. -J
Stainless I Steel
i i i lx\ i i i 1 i i i i
_16 n
i i i 1 i ii
=13-
ism
17
Vant Shutter
~&-. .
6rill Stainless Steel Louvers
SECTION A-A Scale 3/16"-l-n"
Blus Enameled
olumn
Holophana Lens
Plate
Glass
STRUCTURAL DETAILS SECTION B-B Seals 3"-l'-0"
\ '\l Inoleum
through street elevation
256 october t935 issue of the architectural recoii


PEN PILAFIAN, MAURICE LUBIN
second prize
UltMUCAIKJM
0
D
C
-44
BCD VITQOilTO COPiNG -
VHITC VITODUTt VAUS--
oto twMtiicD arm
ncon TUKS (SCO) -
MOC CityATlON
lA' POLIiHCO Plklt OHM
Nll'^VITttOUTtCCIUM^^
3iainu:>5 METAL
winoov rc*Mt -
BCD AND MAUI VIIBOUTt CASE -
I PATHtO CUSHION AND CAULKING
buluhckd
modernize-main-street" competition: service station 257


third prize
isadore sha
258 OCTOBER 1 9 3 5 ISSUE OF THE A R C H I T E C T U R Ai RECOlJ


I sprqule
honorable mention
modernize-main-street" competition: service station 259


honorable mention CHARLES Du BOS
260 october 1935 issue of the architectural record


"i0r.spector
honorable mention
modernize-main-street" competition: service station 261


honorable mention
thomas d. tarc
wcgqlq till*
i
c n
1 -r--Li-^
rtOMT E.llvatiok
1
*

til B --l__---
4
cb
slot i oh
DE.5K C riL-t CAll,5HOWCA5t CQUMTljl
HTOE.AUUC ROTATING LIFTS
T3PAQ-VL PLUG TC5TL.Q. CLt-ANLD.
BAT TE.RY CH AtLGtUtt. tLACK.
LU OIL NAC.HIMIL5
3lopoL d WASTE- t>BL
UOU.k-. bLNCM
TlBX CHANGING MACHIttL
UATLQ. Ht_ATLR HtATLR
A IE. COMPRtbSOR
VACUUW C LtANt-H
CAE UlA^VUNr, MACrllML
5tlaml.r
I5L.AND 5HOW CA5C.
262 october 1935 issue of the architectural r ec 0 r


i'albert cooling
honorable mention
iuibH
f R.O N T ELEVATION
wovuk-tttu ni"'iuo nia.o-a.amk
Mpaiatla*ill
ION 0 I TUDINAL 5ECT-OM
j
J IDE ELEVATION
HEAD
yozceuw En
f LOO 61
t> U L ^ H E. A D SECTION TUDU WINDOW


O
C.ASOL I NE PUMPS STATION ATTENDANT ACCESSOBIES SALES AUTOMOblLE SALES CASH BHD BtCOP-d SPACE AUTO QEPMB. SHOP GBEASING LIFTS SEfcVICE PARKING C Afc-WASUIHG SPM1E r\ E N .5' TOILET WOME N $' TO I LET
A M
HOODLIGUTS A IB PUMPS OIL DISPENSED WOUIl C?EN,CH WATEE PUMP Tiet iALES PECOBD FILEi STAIE.5 WATEB. rUE.B.0 P-S
'modernize-main-street" competition: service station 263


honorable mention
HORACE HARTMAN, GEORGE WRIGHI
?
Sign stainless stem neon tube ligm t braces 12'o.c
DETAIL^
air,'
I bench
repairs
4
Acccssomts
usa*
pits
li U
auto
w ASH
main-
street-
\ \ \ VTTT
stainless s' reinforced reflectors directed |"bearing stainless
plate stainless white fer.alu n
l|N
EEL CLOSikj
:onc sim,
SLAB tt C LIGHT P-LATE ^TEEL COLU win dc.-TE EL sa5i
fion
URB ED&,
glass
linoleum
264 october 1935 issue of the architectural record


T. ASPINWALL, PAUL F. SIMPSON honorable mention
modern.ze-main-street" competition: service station 265


HONORABLE MENTION G. McLAUGHLIN, S. C. REESE, 1. Hi


9b.
---
1

!

mag L HE\ZffDLETrj
AUTOMOTIVE SALES-AND-SERVICE STATIONPROBLEM "D." Design submitted by John Hironimus, New York. "Modernize Main Street" Competition sponsored by Libbey Owens Ford Co
SALES INTERIORS
WallsFlexboard CeilingCopper Leaf FlooringLinoleum TrimWood
Lighting FixturesSemi-indirect
Heating, Ventilating, or Air ConditioningUnit Heuten
EXTERIOR FEATURES Show WindowsPlate Glass Front FrameAluminite
Bulkhead FacingPorcelain Enameled Metal Wall FacingPorcelain Enameled Metal TrimAs shown Sign LetteringMetal
[516]
PENCIL POINTS OCTOBER ;

GLASS
steel, concheli:
main si it let
AltTEKY SIM 11, AH
i
sag
iik all
suction
display
stkucti'kai.
PIAlli i;i.as.s
main street
AUTOMOTIVE SALES-AND-SERVICE STATION PROBLEM "D." Design submitted by Arne A. Kartwold, Berkeley, California, in Competition sponsored by Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Company
EXTERIOR FEATURES Show WindowsPlate or Safety Glass, %" front Frame Aluminum or Steel (rustproof) Bulkhead FacingSee detail IFiw7 FacingNot specified Trim-Metal, if any
Sign Lettering and IlluminationRed Neon Tube
SALES INTERIORS II allsPlate or Safety Glass CeilingAs A-6 and G-3 Flooring Dark Green Cement TrimMetal, if any Lighting FixturesTube
Heating, Ventilating, etc.Small moveable electric units
OCT<) It E l< 1935 PENCIL POINTS
15 17 1


J u
m A I N ; s ' 0 \ f. 1 i 1 t ya1 | O U
I^wnl 0(1
m>< t. aicom/
"I
i it oil n
QM pil WA1 I t Ailf
|c j) (c. n 5?
Slow CfcYti
.11 snwf iw fe.iM
11
B r r

s e c 1.1 o m
AUTOMOTIVE SALES-AND-SERVICE STATIONPROBLEM "D." Design submitted by Owen R Smith and Thomas Ilennessy, Boston, in Competition sponsored by Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Com/Mm
EXTERIOR FEATURES SALES INTERIORS
Show WindowsPlate Glass WallsLight Tan Vitrolite
Front FrameConcrete on steel frame faced with Vitrolite Ceiling While Plaster
Bulkhead FacingVitrolite and Stainless Steel Flooring Red and black squares of Armstrong's Limit.,
Wall FacingVitrolite TrimMonel Metal
TrimStainless Steel Lighting FixturesLights behind frosted glass in troufb.
SignMetal letters hacked by frosted glass, lights behind Type of Heating anil Air ConditioningUniversal
15 18
PENCIL POINTS OCTOBER Hi,


VITOMOTIVE SALES-AND-SERVICE STATION PROBLEM "D." Design submitted by Ely lirqu.es Kahn, Neiv York, N. Y., in the Competition sponsored by LibbeyOwens-Ford Glass Company
EXTERIOR FEATURES 'W WindowsClear Plate Glass '"ml FrameLally ColumnsChromium Plated Metal 'Jkhead FacingPorcelain Enameled Steel ill FacingPorcelain Enameled Steel on Metal Furring "tn Lettering and IlluminationFree standing letters-letters show up dark against floodlighted background
SALES INTERIORS
WallsPlaster CeilingPlaster Flooring- Terrazzo TrimMetal
Lighting FixturesReflectors
Heating and Air ConditioningNot specified
i TO BE R 1 935 PENCIL POINTS
15 19 1


10.
QUICK TURN CAR SERVICE
The revolving service station sponsored by the Standard Oil Co. has recently made its appearance in New York. Two have already been opened, a third is promised for the near future. The idea is patented by the Standard Oil Co., who called in the well-known designer Raymond Loewy as consultant. He is responsible for the smart and striking facade of red, white and blue seen in the model above. Advantages claimed for this type of service station are (a) less extensive site required and a corner position no longer necessary ; (b) more economical to operate ; (c) speeds up service ; a car can be completely serviced with oil, petrol, air and water in less than two minutes ; (d) no backing or turning to reach pump : electrically controlled turntable moves the car to exact spot required ; (e) it's FUN for the customer : he likes the merry-go-round experience.
193


>vrs should ): tth least. \\
va
STATION SHOULD BE SEEN AND IMMEDIATELY RECOGNIZED IN TIME j
TO DRIVE IN
A THOROUGH STUDY of service stations wade by Gcddes in 19)4 for the Socony Vacuum Oil Company, Inc., resulted in a number of recommendations which were placed graphically before busy officials and directors by means of a series of twenty-four charts of which the abate is the first. Each chart was designed to make one point of the findings immediately clear in simple direct terms. The whole set covered the basic points of a complex report. Among its conclusions were contained the recommendation that future stations should be of prefabricated construction, mostly salvageable, and that they should be so designed as to help increase the lubrication business and the sale of specialty articles as well as the regular gasoline trade. The key design of a station embodying the suggested improvements %vas included with the report and a model built to tisualize Iww it would workf several views of- which are shown on following pages
JANUARY I 1. 9 3 7
8


r
PUMPS IN DEFINITE PATTERN CAN GREATLY INCREASE ORDERLINESS, ATTRACTIVENESS A STATION IDENTIFICATION
FIRST TWO PUMPS SHOULD BE REACHED WITHOUT REVERSE TURN
GOOD VISION FOR TURNING ONTO MAIN THOROUGHFARE
FAST MOVING CARS SHOULD NOT HAVE TO PASS STATION BECAUSE OF DIFFICULT ENTRANCE
EASE OF ACCESS TO YARD .SHOULD HAVE PREFERENCE OVER
EASE OF EXIT
THE ALMOST primer-like simplicity of these charts which Mr. Geddes uses so effectively in his dealings with clients has sound psychological basis. The method promotes clear understanding by all parties and focusses attention upon one point at a time in such a way that it can be quickly grasped. Nothing essential can be overlooked as it might if a complete drawing of the whole scheme were laid before the clients for discussion. The adoption of such a technique came naturally perhaps to one so long associated with the theatre but the fundamental thought behind it could well be used by many an architect who has suffered embarrassment and even loss where a client has not understood something on his plans. In this service station study it appears reasonably certain that every innovation visible on the completed model was there because it had been logically worked out as a feature that would contribute to better business
PENCIL r O I N T s



HI Alt I HOI WATER HEATER HOI WATER TANK FOUR LOCKERS PANEL BOARD FIRE STORAGE SINK TOOL STORAGE SHELVES SPARK PLUG TESTER COMPRESSOR 8AFTERY CHARGER AUXILIARY Uf! WORK NCH PRESSURE TANK
rear yard rear yard
HFATTB attendants ano Tx\~o- >*or* space storage
f men's' hall

waiting space lubrication space
OfT-rCE SPACE
TW IFTS GREASE GUN RACK
DISPLAY CASES DISK CHAWS : SAFE CASH REGISTER TELEPHONE STORAGE yard yard yard TOOL RACK UFT CON1KX THE INfLATOt LUBRICANT CONTAINERS GREASE CONTAINERS WASTE OIL DRAINAGE EQUIPMENT
PROPER RELATION s CIRCULATION OF SERVICE SPACES ARE ESSENTIAL
TO AN EFFICIENT EFFECTIVE STATION
13 | COMPLETE DEVELOPMENT OF TYPICAL PLAN USING STANDARDIZED UNIT CONSTRUCTION
CANNOT BE
DtSASUMlLED AND SALVAGED
typical three foot section of MASONRY WALL
AVERAGE ASSEMBLY ON Silt 400 UNITS WtlOHT ........ 2400 POUNDS
EXCAVATION REQUIRED 3.6 CUK YARDS
"=1
r-4
CAN BE EASILY DISASSEMBLED AND SALVAGED
RESISTS HEAT ANO COLD TRANSMISSION EOUAL TO A n INCH BUCK WALL
MINIMUM fORM WORK NEEDED FOR FOUNDATIONS
typical three foot section of
PREFABRICATED WALL
AVWLAOI MIEmJU ON SITE 17 UNfTS
WEIGHT ..... 240 POUNDS
EXCAVATION REOmlfO 1 2 CUKC YARDS
15
PROPOSED PREFABRICATED METHOD OF BUILDING OFFERS GREAT ADVANTAGES .IN SIMPLICITY OF ERECTION AND SALVAGEABILTfY
COSTS WCLUOt UTS AND LIFTS BUT AH EttlUSTrt 0* WAT. HUMBlNG f.L[0ICIT> AND tOUIP*fNT
SAVINGS;
s6400 s6690 6480 SALVAGE VALUE
1 REDUCED COWTSUCTION PEROO
15530 LARGE SCALE PRODUCTION
ECONOMICAL EXPANSION
Of BUILDING
VALUE Of POSSIBLE PATENT
ABLE FEATURES
INCREASED MERCHANDISING
APPEAL
\
present brick proposed proposed proposed masonry building building prefabricated building in stucco in brick building
24
PREFABRICATED CONSTRUCTION WOULD INAUGURATE A PROGRESSIVE
PROGRAM OF IMPORTANT COLLATERAL SAVINGS
b'OUR MORE of the twenty-four Socony charts prepared by Mr. Geddes show that the approach to the problem was economic as well as architectural. The typical plan was clearly based on a functional analysis and the argument for using a light prefabricated construction would not likely admit of opposition by a group of business men. The view of the model on the opposite page shows lines or paths of contrasting colored paving running from the points where the customer's car enters the yard, indicating logical routes to the pumps, to the lubrication space, and to the exits. The virtue of placing the pumps diagonally as well as the building itself is clearly evident when this circulation is considered. Note that from every pump there is a clear view of the lubrication space and other service features including the women's rest room entrance
10
JANUARY


\ new looking down on model of Norman Bel Geddes' design for a Socony Service Station on a corner lot
11
p r. nci i.
[ o I N T s


THE SERVICE STATION model with its roof removed gives a clear picture of its inner arrangements. The central point of the station is the office space from which all points in the yard, the lubrication space, the rest room entrances, and the waiting room are visible. The attendant on duty there may thus promptly know where he is needed. The lubrication space connects with the office, working space, and storage spaces. The lubrication area was made the dominant feature of the plan because of the fundamental goal of promoting lubrication sales by every means. Selective display space was planned along the path of the prospective customer, whether he be at the pump in his car, in the wailing room, in the "lubritorium," or merely walking by on the sidewalk. Another evidence qf Mr. Geddes' tlx/roughness in presenting his ideas completely and dramatically is to be seen in the arrangement of the model for the study of night lighting effects


profession. It was a natural challenge to Geddes who had always been intensely attracted to anything involving the reduction of complexity to simplicity and order.
From the theatre he had learned the vital necessity of well integrated organization and had also learned how to build such an organization and make it work. He speedily gathered around him a carefully selected staff (entirely separate from the group working with him on theatre problems) composed of young, talented, well trained designers, draftsmen, and technicians. None were over thirty-five years of age and the majority were much younger, since Geddes wanted individuals with a fresh point of view, not wedded strongly to traditional ideas. He had a chance to pick from among the best young graduates of architectural and engineering schools, because the magic of his name and reputation made the jobs attractive to youth in search of a career. Incidentally, the force that he has had during the years since 1927 has fluctuated in numbers between fifteen and seventy staff members, depending upon the volume of industrial design work in hand. The young men and women found that experience in his shop
opened the door to good opportunities elsewhere when it became necessary for him to let them go. They like him and he likes them. Two of his leading competitors in the industrial field are products of his own and in the theatre the better half of the young generation of designers started in his shop.
His establishment already included a drafting and design room, a well equipped model shop, and even a small printing plant, for he had long made printing a hobby and liked to control the design and quality of every piece of printed matter that went out of his office. The equipment he had sufficed to begin his new venture with, but of course was added to and extended as need arose.
The work was as highly systemized as that of a modern manufacturing plant, everything conforming to a daily schedule worked out in advance and lived up to religiously. He developed a unique control board on which, spread over an area of some forty square feet, could be seen instantly what each member of his organization, himself included, should be doingron any day for three months ahead. He built up a technical file capable of giving him or his" assistants immediate access to the most
I> V. N C I L POINTS


Standa rdized
Service Stations
Aligned by WALTER DORWIN TEACUE
A STANDARD DESIGN has been developed which HAS TRADE MARK VALUE and It efficient In oil and gas sales, service and merchandising.
STANDARDIZATION in service stations has in most nu been largely a matter of superficial trade mark sad color uniformity.
The Texas Company, convinced of the value of a more fundamental solution, retained Walter Dorwin Teague, adustrial designer, to study the problem and pro--yce a standardized design for Texaco stations which trnld meet all geographic, economic and operating requirements.
An extensive preliminary survey covering about I twenty stations and aimed at dealer and consumer reac-'ikxis provided the material which, carefully analyzed by Mr. Teague and company experts and officials, furnished determinants of the design. Certain primary functional requirements were obvious, tuch as trade mark and color standardization, efficient layout for sales and servicing, adequate office and rest room space. Other important factors grouped themselves under two heads, physical and psychological, as lite design factors were given more serious study.
The following conclusions were reached from the organization of this material:
Physical
A standardised design must be physically adaptable to
(a) different types of country and site;
(b) different types of material (stucco, wood, steel, brick, etc.) desirable because of locality or building conditions.
Psychological
A standardized design must be determined by considerations of consumer reaction, dealing with COMFORT and MERCHANDISING, especially (a) COMFORT. The design must provide for adequate and comfortable rest rooms and toilets; for elimination of all servicing operations, such as batter}' charging, from zvaiting rooms; attractive cleanliness through thoughtful selection of materials; protection by means of canopy, etc.
(b) MERCHANDISING. The design must provide for a concentration of sales appeal at the pump (through larger display areas, advantageously placed) ; ease of servicing (through lifts and pits); speedy service through increased visibility from manager's office; promotion of night business through LIGHTING which has both trade mark value and attracting qualities.
A standardized design meeting these requirements was presented to the company, after months of study and work, in five major forms:
Type "A"
Best suited to a CORNER LOT (could also be used on an inside lot). . large octagonal office and commodious rest rooms. Cost, about $15,000.
Type "B"
CORNER LOT ONLY (where space is limited) ... triangular in plan. Comparable office and rest rooms. Cost, $10,000-$15,000 according to size.
Type "C"
RECTANGULAR IN PLAN . large office increasing length beyond lubrication bays. Cost, $10,000-$13,000.
Type "D"
Similar to "C" with one lubrication bay, smaller office and storage space. Cost, $8,000-$10,000.
Type "E"
HIGHWAY TYPE . small station (office, rest room and storage space only). Frame or masonry construction. Cost, about $5,000 to $6,500.
Each of the above types has been designed so that the canopy is optional. The design has also proved itself most adaptable to remodeling some of the existing types, as is apparent in the photographs.
DESIGN TRENDS
SEPTEMBER 19 3 7 ARCHITECTURAL RECORD
69


Above: TYPE "A" service station showing office and Iubrics tion bay. Left: model of TYPE "A" Station, with canopy r. moved, showing office.
ARCHITECTURAL RECORD SEPTEMBER 193 7 70
DESIGN TRENDS


TYPE "C" STATION, canopy addition. Miami, Florida.
DESIGN
TRENDS
SEPTEMBER 19 3 7 ARCHITECTURAL RECORD
71


REMODELED "T" TYPE STATION at Wenatchee, Washington. Sheet metal facing throughout.
fore remodeling.
ARCHITECTURAL 72
RECORD
SEPTEMBER 1937
DESIGN TRENDS


FILLING STATIONS 13
SHELL OIL STATION
DEVELOPED BY INSULATED STEEL CONSTRUCTION CO.
TOLEDO, OHIO
This station, designed end built by the manufacturer of a new structural system, was erected In 2/2 weeks (excluding concrete, plumbing and electrical system). The system is interesting in that no skeleton construction is required, wall and roof sections carrying themselves without additional framing.
The walls are 3" thick, the roof sections S^/i" thick; walls are filled solid in the shop with 3" Zonolite insulation, I" of insulation is applied to the roof. The roof deck furnishes a subceiling which can be painted as shown in the photograph, also a subroof to which the Celotex and waterproof roofing is moped. Spans of up to 28' are possible with these roof sections without any structural iron support, the roof simply resting from wall to wall.
panels
S'indard union between wall
fiVrior corner section.
Interior corner section.
Partition attachment to steel floor.
Foundation detail for frameless-steel flrst floor and exterior wall.
Window detail "A" for steel sash for painted exterior-interior finish.
Window detail "B" for steel sash for use with veneered exterior-interior finish.
.Tail "C" for wood window and doer frames.
8. Bearing angles for supporting sec-
ond floors and roofs within parapet.
9. Foundation detail for frameless-steel
wall and concrete floor slab.
10. Detail platform construction.
11. Detail of floor assembly.
12. Detail of wall assembly.
13. Detail of foundation channel.
14. Foundation asphalt strips.
15. Waterproof calking.
16. Sheet metal screws.
THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD AUGUST 1936
147


FILLING STATIONS
Using a typical plan, this small service station is popular on the Pacific Coast in locations where only one group of pumps is required in addition to a single hoist for lubrication service.
The plan is compact, combining salesroom, service space and rest room facilities. Salesroom Is offset in plan, giving operator maximum visibility. Canopy over driveway, which is typical of service stations in the West, affords protection during inclement weather and shade in hot sunny territories.
Units of this type have been constructed of wood frame and stucco, concrete with stucco finish, and steel. In the steel structures, 16-gauge galvanized steel sheets with welded and ground joints have been used for plain surfaces, and 20-gauge for molded surfaces.
con ]_?)
SIDE ELEVATION
FLOOR PLAN
148
STORES AND OTHER COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS


1>.
Seashell service station (c. 1933) in Winston-Salem, N.C. The three-dimensional shell-shaped structure was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in May 1976. (]o Ann Sieburg, North Carolina Department of Archives and History)
Historic Preservation


15a.

HOTT STUDIOS
v 0 vember 19 3 2
55


The service station proDv Westchester, N. Y., par has been well studied reappearance and relation The stations are reachea pass road paralleling the m way. The one shown on th' pn the Hutchinson River Pa is built of local stone. S.: are shingle and the root !s Its cost, including pumps of grading and paving, wa-
TAT
ON, V/ESTCHESTER COUNTY PARK COMMISSION.
PENROSE V. STOUT, At A M i: RICA X A k


COSTAIN
carkway service station d police office combined.
is located on the Sawmill rer Parkway. Exterior is
iocal stone. Gables are
cedar siding and roof of bod shingles. Interior fin-"ed with tile walls, plaster
,;ng and cement floor. :te method of recessino ~ips. Cost, c xclusive of sdlrtg and paving, $21,700
fSfnt.j V ,ouci o,nci
MOIOICTI[5
JHESIER COUNTY PARK COMMISSION, CLINTON LOYD. ARCHITECT, GILMORE CLARK. LANDSCAPE ARCHITECT
x OV E M B 1. R 1 9 3 2 57


Colonial character to monize with nearby struc and the elimination of c: tionable signs were rer,.. ments of the problem, terior: local stone, wood and black slate roof. InV brick walls cement fin' and painted; ceilings, cc-mortar on metal lath: d kalamein. Ventilating due* haust through cupola. Cc: ieaders and gutters. P. built in stone pylons an i cessed in walls. Slooine. required retaining walls and reinforced concrete Estimated cost on a level $11,500; mechanical eo ment, $3,500. 19,000 C.
SERVICE STATION, SCARSDALE, N EUGENE J. LANG, ARCHIT.
3*
A m uric A n A r c h 1 t 1


15b.
FILLING STATION
APRIL 1940
2 3 1


FILLING STATION
. Glazed.
Zead covered, copper
Crrade of Looser drive S
2 3 2
PENCIL POINTS


15c
FILLING STATIONS
Action, at
RODNEY rv1 = CAY MORGAN
CORNICE SECTIONS
i/i"scale
city of new York .. .dept. of parks A^MAJFL EMBULKY, HI. .^LrcJzil
JANUARY 1941


FILLING STATIONS
city of new York .. .dept. of parrs MMAR EMBTUKY9 H . .lArctizZccl ~ PENCIL POINTS


FILLING STATIONS
:-ty of new york ... dept. of parks AYMAK EMBURY, II. ^Lrc2ziLC
JANUARY 1941


FILLING STATIONS
Uerra colic
JKODNEY MCCAY MORGA
Slate and roof fell Wood sheatfiuy
Curved, roof
Monet metal.
Walk-
wall section
MT scale
door section
Viz" scale
end
Slate
-o-'W "6T1 jo '.1 ol lo 1!
I
g


m,
section
\/\b" scale
CITY OF NEW YORK ... DEPT. OF PARKS AYMAR EMBUKY, H . .c^TC/ZZ^Cl
3 8
PENCIL POINTS


FILLING STATIONS
RODNEY M'CAY MORGAN
typical gasoline pumps
vpump coaer
Sleeve
PLAN
<^&ace of \ pump ^
Detail s&citons at 1 Vr scale
FRONT H J SECTION
VA"scale
r~ty1 tl'i'ire
\
Brass sleeve.
end
.irai/r. I_I L__I-Broken, stone-OHM \-J
plan
40'-8"-
elevation mm" scale
Slate roof
yClonet meial-s^
city of new york ... dept. of parks AYMAR EMBXIKY", IX. *<~4jrc2zz&cl
JANUARY
19 4 1
3 9
1336


FILLING STATIONS
city of new york .. .dept. of parks AYMAR EMBURY, H. . LArcIztlecl
PENCIL POINTS






Robert Allan Jacobs
Service Station
ELY JACQUES KAHN, ROBERT ALLAN JACOBS, ARCHITECTS
"Gas and oil are the main things sold at the average 'filling' or service station. In recent years, however, the service station has begun to stock other merchandise; but rarely is it designed to invite one inside. Usually there is space for but one car under cover and the others stand out in the open. The attempt here is to provide covered space for all cars, with sheltered access for the passengers to the rest room and for service station attendants from the lubratorium or sales office to the car itself.
"The powerful motif of the 'airplane wing' supported on hollow metal piers could become the trademark of the particular oil company which operates the chain of 3er* vice stations. Like the station itself, it could easily be prefabricated and shipped.
"The idea of the snack bar is to encourage the motorist to relax en route rather than to dash in and outan idea which would surely be reflected in sales.
"Stock garage doors are used with glass instead of plywood panels. This provides plenty of natural light and shows the hydraulic equipment at work from the outside. Plate glass is used on the rest room and sales room, behind which Venetian blinds may be drawn. The rear wall of the rest room is surfaced in red structural glass, on which a map is painted in gold."
SERVICE STATION
PITTSBURGH plate glass company
Z Ptrl Avt.Newftrt, NY.


SERVICE STATION WILLIAM LESCAZE, ARCHITECT, NEW YORK
"The unit would be located on an express highway passing close by a city of 60,000 to 70,000 people. In addition to furnishing gas, oil and the usual services, it contains a roadside stand where motorists can stop for coffee, sandwiches, etc., and also a small restaurant, which both motorists and the inhabitants of the city might patronize for occasional recreation and dancing.
"To quote from On Being An Architect (Arch. Forum, Sept. '42, p. 16) ; 'Some form of control might conceivably regulate at least five hundred feet on each side of our highways. No one's driving enjoyment is increased by haphazard and planless strings of diners, gasoline stations, fruit stands, miniature golf courses, billboards, which
have been permitted on both sides. At night, their gl.i: lights obviously decrease rather than increase the dri\<. safety. But aside from reasons of aesthetics and si!'-, properly handled control constitutes a wise protect!'. business which has not been sufficiently stressed. If ih Bar & Grilles are built within half a mile, probablv i of them can survive. While, if they were separated *: three or five miles, each of them might make ;i living. IV: as an alternative, why not group in one spot the ga* :. tion, the fruit and vegetable stand, the diner and, ar .. or between them, the signboards. Wouldn't that mai.' i more effective impression, be more inviting, and bear! the businesses if they were planned as an orderly group''
KEY TO PLAN
1. LUNCH BAR
2. RESTAURANT
3. BAR
4. DANCE FLOOR
5. TERRACE RESTAURANT
6. LAWN
7. KITCHEN
8. REFRIGERATOR
9. FOOD STORAGE
10. SERVICE ENTRANCE
11. STAIRS TO BASEMENT
12. EMPLOYES' TOILETS
13. LADIES' ROOM
14. MEN'S ROOM
15. ENTRANCE TO REST ROOMS
16. OFFICE AND SALES ROOM
17. COUNTER AND DISPLAY
18. REPAIRS
19. LUBRICATING
20. CAR WASHING
21. GAS PUMPS
22. AIR
23. SERVICE PARKA;
24. GUEST PARKIN;
132
THE ARCHITECTURAL f 01..
18.


View across restaurant toward the bar. Circular dance floor is at the left. Doors to the kitchen set into a stone wall, which projects to shelter the outdoor dining space on the far side from the highway.
The filling station would look well on a roadside, has plenty of advertising value despite its unobtrusive appearance. Use of fine-textured materials rather than flashy ones makes this a pleasant place to drive in to.


When inverted, this new building form corresponds closely to the splash and ripple of a raindrop hitting the water. Its design springs from the fact that, "as the energy of the drop's impact is diffused radially over the surface of the pool, the velocity of the moving particles changes the form of the placid surface of the water, and in so doing,
individual globules of water moving one against the other trace a line of compressive force; yet in moving out-. ward from the center of disturbance, these individual globules receUe from each other and, in so pulling apart, determine the location of tensile stress." From these ; two actions Mr. Workman evolved his design.
This 40-ft. plateonly 2" thick at the edge, with an average thickness of 3I/2" and an unsupported projection of |5'_0"is designed to carry a load of 40 lbs. per sq. ft.
(approximate weight of sand and gravel insulation fill which j tops it). It has in addition sustained a 6-?n. snowfall and'; a maximum wind of 70 mph.
46
ARCHITECTURAL RECORD
BUILDINC
N E WS


SOUTHERN ARCHITECT STUDIES NATURE TO EVOLVE NEW FORM
! JAMES MINOR WORKMAN Architect

The ripple oi" a raindrop in a fishpond provided the
I pattern on which design of'this filling station in insboro, S. C. was evolved. End result of several years of research into reinforced concrete construction a period during which Mr. Workman analyzed the stress organization of such natural forms as morning glories and petuniasthe filling station was preceded i by a number of test structures employing the same struc-] lural system. (See tank test, p. 49.) Superficially re- sembling the now famous "morning glory" column of Frank Lloyd Wright (AR, 7/37, p. 38), the Workman | system actually differs quite radically in the basic prin-1 ciples involved.
Strength of the Workman system lies in the fact that the stresses react upon each other' with such fine compensation that a minimum stress is produced which does not become totally cumulative, and the compression in the concrete is "more nearly a direct compression than it is possible to provide with any other system of construction." Says Mr. Workman: "It is simpler to comprehend the character of these stresses by understanding what they are not. In this plate there is no semblance of cantilever action, there is no appreciable moment action, and there is no arch action; but in place of these familiar stresses there is a beautiful organization of curve-line compression and tension with no straight-line stress in the entire slab plate structure."
In the filling station itself, built by Mr. Workman as an illustration of the commercial applicability of his
m, practically all equipment has been incorporated le structural shell. Thus the pump mechanism is above headroom in the accessory store, so that standard pump equipment of the wet-nozzle control type simply has a length of insulated pipe together with an electrically operated hose reel (also insulated) interposed between the pump and the nozzle. Similarly, the washrooms for men and women on either side (4'x5') are of prefabricated insulated metal arranged to slip directly into place. Illumination is all indirect.
[In a forthcoming issue of Architectural Record Mr. Workman will describe his new "rotational" system its origin, its characteristics, its application.Ed.]
Reinforcing of horizontal plate
Reinforcing at "throat" of column
Plan
Reinforcing of vertical shaft
BUILDING
NEWS
APRIL 1938
47


Footings are poured, allowed to set and ... ^ frrns are hoisted into place . ^ by the derrick which tops the tower.
Forms in place,reinforcing begins... ^ with pre-crimped radial steel; then
J
^ concentric reinforcing is threaded off.
Pouring begins;speed is guaranteed by... g the rotating, rubber hose and ... rotating screed gets an accurate profili
Then formwork is removed . ^ top surface waterproofed
12 anC' ^6 unc'ers'c'e sPray-painted.
ARCHITECTURAL RECORD
BUILDING
NEWS


WORKMAN FILLING STATION
Like an increasing number of new developments in wilding, Mr. Workman's structural system can scarcely k isolated from its method oj construction; in other lords, as in industrial techniques generally, his process Modifies his product, and vice versa. As indicated by t'tie mu^ruction record on the facing page, he had to ~i;,n^B only a system (circular plate and column i but jjmethocl of erecting it (formwork, scaffolding, screeds) ; "ii'iiver, precision design of the one implied precision "ttnl of the other. His complex formwork was a design problem in itself; his reinforcing steel had to be placed with unusual accuracy; his concrete supply had to be equally available over a large area; screeding had n be clone mechanically to achieve the correct profile Wthe plate.
These factors, plus the fact that he desired to demon-:rate the applicability of the system to large-scale in-'ustrial construction, demanded the maximum ration-nzation of the construction process, Thus the first step lifter footings were complete) was to erect a construction tower in the center of the structure. By equipping this tower with a rotating derrick, he was able to handle 'lis formwork with a minimum of time and effort (3 Mid 4 on opposite page). Next was added a rotating '.mi, which served the double purpose of threading the ?pools and reinforcing steel at correct intervals (6), and, :ater, of carrying the screed which gave the upper surface t the plate its correct profile (9). Then came the 5-in. nibber hosing (also pivoted) through which the concrete was pumped (7 and 8). Final task of the tower to to support the circular tent under which all construction took place. (The tent proved impractical in 'his instance, since the entire construction process was tube filmed.) In demolition, the sequence was reversed, diejJBirick being the last equipment to be removed be-tuR^^'cking the tower proper.
In the case of this particular building, it was not practical to keep cost records on labor because construction of the building under the moving picture camera necessitated working very irregular hours, requiring the tent to be opened up and closed each day. However, the cost of all of the concrete and reinforcing materials was less than $700. Actual guaranteed bids, based upon union labor wages and conditions prevailing in Washington, f. C, showed the cost for complete stations, including electric wiring and fixtures, plumbing and fixtures, doors Jiid windows, and all painting and roof insulationin tact, complete stations except for ground paving and gasoline tanks and pumpswould be $5,000 for a 50-tt. diameter station with 15-ft. diameter office; $7,500 (or a 60-ft. diameter station with 15-ft. diameter office; $10,000 for an The actual time of construction of this building does ii"t afford a satisfactory forecast of normal conditions. However, time studies made of the different operations, indicate "that a commercial station could readily be constructed in less than ten days after the foundation and underground pipe work is completed." (The workmen on the job expressed the opinion that, under commercial cuiMJAkuis. they could erect forms on Monday; place f'ii^BFemcnt Tuesday; pour concrete Wednesday.)
5,000
Total Loads in Thousand lbs.
40,500 72,000 92J500 128,000 Maximum
500
Maximum Allowable Deflection
Tank tests show system's strength
The strength of Mr. Workman's system can best be judged by his series of water load tests on a similar plate (above). This plate18' in diameter, 2l/2" thick at the edge, averaging only 4" thickness and supported by a hollow 18" column with Sy2" wallswas subjected to a maximum load of 505 lbs. per sq. ft. without showing any failure, without reaching the maximum allowable deflection (1/360 of the span) and despite the fact that yield point in the tensile (radial) reinforcement had been passed. Although other distributions of loads were tried (including concentration all on one side), in the water test it was evenly distributed since the tank was merely a cylinder, the plate itself serving as bottom.
According to Mr. Workman: "Test to destruction will be completed sometime in the future, but it may be of interest to note thatnotwithstanding thinness of platethe concrete itself and the compression steel was designed for 1,000 lbs. per sq. ft.; unfortunately, our supply of tension steel was prematurely exhausted and pouring could not wait for more."
BUILDING
NEWS
APRIL 1938
49


Service station is hung from masts to minimize foundations and costs.
The problem was to build a service station on 14 ft. of nil which would not support a large foundation. Costs were held to $10,000 by hanging the rough construction by cables from a pair of steel masts. Foundations were thus reduced to two footings and a platform for the heating plant. Commercial appeal was created by adding transparent walls which expose all mechanical functions of the station to the always curious public, and by doing an industrial design job on the interior of the two washing-greasing rooms. Proof of this design appeal is the fact that within two weeks after the station's opening gasoline sales had exceeded the volume at which the station owner had agreed to pay the land owner a "royalty" per gallon in addition to his rental. Comments Architect Goldberg on his client's quick success: "It has shown that even Standard Oil could underestimate . what a new building like this could do for one of its gasoline dealers."
115


PLANNINGThis filli Slovakia, adjoins a car provided for running car speed, economical use ol for waiting cars and roi is shut by sliding door; proper, with its plant, testing area.
CONSTRUCTION AlS is of wood supported The wooden lattice gir hidden between the roof is covered with two laye finish. The floor is o painted.
Central heating is provic to obviate the risk of fi


Equipment for 34H
SPECIALIZED EQUIPMENT
SERVICE STATION los angeles. California
WILLIAM F. HEMPEL, Architect
i'UOBLEM: To provide, for the ['raig Oil Co., the world's largest -Tvice station, with more gasoline pumps and lubricating racks than any other, plus usual facili-'ies, salesroom for accessories, ''tinges for waiting patrons, and 'ilices.
SITE : A full block on traffic-laden Wilshire Boulevard.
FIRST SCHEME: Pump islands n two rows curving fron the normal entrance on Highland Avenue permit cars to ease back into 'raHic on Wilshire; canopy over 'hi' foremost row; entrance and "xit ramps directly at the two Wilshire cornel's; lubrication rooms -lazed along Wilshire frontage ith car entrance from rear; slim -i>rn obelisk or light shaft 90 ft "iirh; otherwise similar to final ~oheme shown.
FINAL SCHEME : Pump islands in straight rows to permit another bank of pumps ; canopy omitted to save money; corner ramps forbidden by city regulations; rear
1
lubrication approach abandoned on advice of other service station operators; sign tower height limited by regulations and design dictated by owner.
january, 1948 91


JBtquipment
SPECIALIZED EQUIPMENT
SERVICE STATION
LOS ANGELES. CALIFORNIA
WILLIAM F. HEMPEL, Architec
LOCKE
PLAN shows fire walls and doors separating hazardous areas, private office space on second floor above showroom in the cantilevered portion. Roof overhang reduces glare through the glass showroom wall, which is tilted out to increase interior spaciousness and improve visibility. Building is equipped with sprinklers.
VIEW FROM ROOFED TERRACE LOUNGE for patrons, showing lubrication racks, fire wall, and at right in distance, sign pylon. Roof is suspended from exposed light steel trusses to obtain a clean, flat ceiling, and has mineral wool insulation. Construction is steel, surfaced with porcelain enameled steel sheets, red and white in color. Roofing is perforated asbestos.
92 PROGRESSIVE ARCHITECTURE


BILL HEMPEL studied at University of California ('35), worked in San Francisco and Palo Alto, was licensed in '40, and reopened his own office after the war. Of this job he says: "I've forgotten many of the headaches, fortunately, but the Lob Angelea Street Depart-' ment gave us a bad time. . ."
VIEW FROM OFFICE BALCONY down through showroom. Flooring is terra cotto tile in showroom, concrete in work areas. The fluorescent lights are controlled by circuit breakers, and heat is provided by electric space heaters.
Equipment for 94S
SPECIALIZED EQUIPMENT
BATHROOM CABINETS
Urwton Bathroom Cabinets: new 1-piece drawn body finished in baked enamel, with first w Irj plate glass mirror, shelf supports, and tmovable razor blade box made of stainless >1 Tubular, glareless side lights held in cvcmium plated brackets. Cabinets wired. so improved hotel-type bathroom cabinet with without side lights. F. H. Lawson Co., "neinnati 4, Ohio.
Pk Lane. Parkway, Park View Deluxe Bath-raB Cabinets: 3 new models, with and without loretcent lights and reflector shades. Com-?Ute new line of forged brass, stamped brass, : ?-cast chrome bathroom accessoriestowel -~fi. soap dishes, tumbler holders, toothbrush 'irs, shelves, robe hooks. Wili be released T7 soon with advanced designs. Cabinets Trailable for immediate delivery. Faries Mfg. 3. Decatur, 111.
COMMERCIAL REFRIGERATORS
Frifidaire: complete new line of dry storage average coolers with extra work surface {4v2 7 large-capacity models, 3 large-capacity rtable models. Also redesigned milk coolers farm use. Limited production on beverage oolwt, Frigidaire Div., General Motors, 300 "^Tlor St., Dayton 1, Ohio.
rrlqidaire: new commercial products include iftaled rotary Meter-Miser, simple refrigerating =*chanism with only 2 movable parts, eliminat-'3 teals, belts, pulleys. Small powerful com-pttttor. Well suited for cooling meat and "3!able display cases, reach-in refrigerators, t, beverage, and water coolers. Frigidaire /v.. General Motors, 300 Taylor St., Dayton 1,
l^idairo: new line of commercial refrigeration Sud 8' double-duty self-service display case, equipped with slide-away night covers conserve refrigeration, save current. Also
8', 10' forced-air models, designed for clerk service. Production limited on all. Frigidaire Div., General Motors Corp., 300 Taylor St., Dayton 1, Ohio.
DOMESTIC KITCHEN
AND LAUNDRY EQUIPMENT
American Kitchen Units: completely redesigned ensembles of sink and storage cabinets. Made in sizes to fit any kitchen, regardless of shape or size. American Central Div., Avco Mfg. Corp., Connersville, Ind.
Automatic Washing Machine: soaks, washes, rinses, damp-dries, at 1 setting of dial. May be some time before it is generally available. Hotpoint, Inc., Chicago 24, 111.
Bendix gas and electric driers: both fully automatic; thermostatic control varies temperature necessary for synthetic and delicate fabrics. Standard and DeLuxe automatic ironers. These products are new and available. Bendix Home Appliances, Inc., South Bend 24, Ind.
Bilt-In Electric Range: compact, stainless steel, 1-piece cooking unit with a separate standard-sized oven that can be built into existing cabinets at any height. Cooking top has 3 heating units, a 5-qt-deep well cooker. Oven has an automatic temperature control, Telochron Automatic Timer, and Minute Minder. 1 conduit with 3 wires provides connection for the cooking unit, the same for the oven. A built-in griddle, extra ovens, and heating units will be available. Thermador Electrical Mfg. Co., S. Riverside Dr., Los Angeles, Calif.
Bilt-Well products: wide variety of new woodwork designs for large and small buildings windows with patented weatherstrip, overhead spring balance; Nu-Style kitchen cabinet units, for modern kitchens, made in graduated stock sizes to fit any size kitchen; adjustable entrance frames, each with several head designs to fit a
standardized base. Carr, Adams & Collier Co., Dubuque, Iowa.
Blackstone Combination Laundry: automatic
washer, automatic dryer, automatic ironer in matching units. Prewar type wringer washers and automatic washers again available. Improved automatic washers and dryers introduced iii 1947. A portable ironer and automatic ironer will be released before Jan. 15, 1948. Other models available in limited quantities. Black-stone Corp., Jamestown, N. Y.
Built-in Home Dishwasher: new, semi concealed
unit to fit into kitchen cabinet with machine cover flush with drain-board. Has own motor-operated centrifugal pump; not dependent on pressure levels at city's pumping stations. Optional equipment includes electric immersion heater, thermostat control. Jackson Dishwasher Co., 3703 E. 93rd St., Cleveland, Ohio.
Defrost-All: electric ranges incorporating a defrost-all which thaws quick-frozen food in a fraction of the usual time, retaining flavor and food values. Estate-Heatrola Div., Noma Elec. Corp., New York, N. Y.
Fain Foldinette: built-in cabinet which opens into complete dining set. Plastic topped, chrome edged 32" x 48" table, and 2 backed-benches to seat 4 people. Cabinet can be recessed into 4* standard wall in new construction. Sierra Wood Products, 404 S. Arroyo Parkway, Pasadena, Calif.
Freez-AU: refrigerator-type home freezer with 3 large food storage drawers; food can be segregated for easy selection. Storage space: 8 cu ft, 400 lbs frozen food. White cabinet. Portable Elevator Mfg. Co., Bloomington, III.
Frigidaire: new line of home laundry equipment,
including automatic clothes dryer, electric ironer. Dryer, thickly insulated, has electric heating units, fan ana revolving drum to "tumble" clothes. Ironer has new foot control and open-end roll 30" long. Special sag-resisting construction. Limited production. Frigidaire Div., General Motors Corp., 300 Taylor St., Dayton 1, Ohio.
General Electric: new 8 cu ft chest-type freezer. Redesigned standard refrigerators (one 6, three
univ cr
ARCHIE
JANUARY, 1948 93


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