Title Page
 Title Page
 Appendix A : History
 Appendix B : Technology
 Appendix C : Catalogues

Group Title: Sheet metal roofing : the history and technology of tin-plate and galvanized roofing
Title: Report
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00096006/00001
 Material Information
Title: Report
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Schuyler, Steven M.
Publisher: College of Architecture, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1977
Copyright Date: 1977
Subject: Architecture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Architecture -- Caribbean Area   ( lcsh )
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00096006
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
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        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Appendix A : History
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Appendix B : Technology
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Appendix C : Catalogues
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
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Full Text
The History and Technology of Tin-Plate and Galvanized Roofing
Steven M Schuyler December 1977

In the search for a sound, durable, aesthetically pleasing, safe and economic roof, man has tried and used nearly all mannor of material, from grass, skin and bark -- to wood, stone, cement and metal -- and finally to aspestos and plastics.
This paper is in two parts, One is on the history of metal roofing, ane the other is on the technical aspects of tin and galvanized roofing.
Metal roofs have been used since ancient times, due to certain properties of metal. All metals are nonporous, and thus water tight, even when extremely thin so long as there is no direct penetration. Leakage problems occur where one piece meets another. Nonferous metals; bronze, lead, zinc, tin and copper, are extremely resistant to deterioration, as they oxidize very slowly or form their own protective coatings. Ferous metals, iron and steel, are subject to rapid oxidation and rusting -- and therefore must be protected. The history of metal roofs marks the invention of ways of seaming and protecting.
Aesthetically, metals possess a wide range of attributes. The lead used in ancient times had high concentrations of arsenic and silver that with time, produced a "patina" or white coating. Copper is characterized by its green tarnish.

page 2
Zinc gives a shinny, silvery finish. With the invention of
metal stamping machines, sheet metal could be made to imitate
stone or wood roofs. It was also given an almost limitless
variety of patterns of its own.
Metal roofs contributed to the safety of cities due to
their resistance to fire from falling embers. When grounded,
a metal roof gives the entire building protection when light-1
rung strikes.
The economics behind using metal roofs has its fluctuations. The old lead roofs were extremely expensive both in initial cost and maintenance, but were justified because of their beauty and overall durability. With the increase of mechanization and mass production in the 19th century, the price of metal roofing went down, and was certainly cheaper than a stone roof. The lightness of the material and its own structural qualities reduced the overall structure of the building and in some cases eliminated it altogether. The ease and speed by which a factory-made roof could be installed by unskilled labor also brought the overall cost down. The life cycle cost of a metal roof is much less than a wood or asphalt roof.
The earliest metal roofs were on monumental structures
and were of the nonferous type. "The dome of the Pantheon in Rome was once roofed with bronze, which was later stripped off and taken to contranople."^ The Byzantines covered the dome of Constantine's basilica of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem with sheet lead. The Romans covered domes with sheet

page 3
lead which they obtained in the northern parts of England. In Gothic times "York Minister is said to have been roofed in lead about 669."3
In A Short History of the Building Crafts, Martin S. Briggs devotes a chapter to "External Plumbing" dealing primarily with leadwork. "The lead used in the Middle Ages was cast, not milled like modern lead."^ The sheets were thick and extremely heavy, creating problems in the attachment of the lead to the building and increasing the size of the structure needed to Support it. The lead was soft and had a tendancy to creep--requiring frequent maintenance and replacement of parts. "From the 13th century to near the end of the 16th century, leadwork was largely employed for the roofing of churches.
In the last part of the l?th century milled lead was invented. Sir Christopher Wren "used lead very largely on the Dome of St. Paul's and on the picturesque steeples of his city churches."6 He also "employed it with disasterous results at Greenwich Hospital in 1700, and it was a long time before
improved methods of manufacture made it generally accepted."' After 1750, the interest in leadwork as a craft generally declined .
The history of modern metal roofing begins shortly before 1800 with the flat rooling of iron sheets. These sheets were used in America shortly after the turn of the century. The next major development was corrogation, starting in England about 1828. It quickly caught on and within five years the
London docks were covered with corrugated sheets.

page 4-
In 1833 J.O. Loudon's Encyclopedia of Cottage Farm and Villa Architecture recommended corrugated iron for larger cottages, "smithies, corpenter's shops, and all manor of sheds" as well as portable buildings. Loudon recognized the problem of thermal expansion in the roof and suggests that such roofs "must be covered with ivy, or some other evergreen creeper, to moderate the effects of changes in exterior temperature.
Galvenizing -- the process by which iron is coated with zinc -- was developed into an industrial process by the French chemist I.M. Sorel in I836. He obtained five French patents on different ways of coating the metal, though only one "hot dip" was used for building material.9 Tin plating -- where coating of pure tin is applied -- was developed earlier as a means to prevent rust. Sorel's method differs^ in that an alloy of zinc and iron was applied. Most galvanizing done today is by the basic "hot dip" method. Coating the galvanized metal with tin was tried by Sorel in 1837 "to give a brighter and more handsome surface than the zinc affords." It also makes the metal more durable.
Electroplating was discovered in I838 and used to apply a coating of pure zinc on iron in 18kh The process died out by 1861 because a coating of sufficient thickness could not be obtained.
A machine for the stamping of metal plates was invented in 1848. "This machine, in combination with a new method of coating iron with.zinc and tin is the invention of F. Moreland and G. Rodgers of Hearndale, England.11

page 5
Now, metal plates could be made in a multitude of patterns, an idea palatable to most people of this time. A metal roof could be stamped in an imitation of wood, stone and tile, or take on a fanciful pattern all its own. This one invention ushered in the era of the decorative metal roof.
Up until 1852, all galvanized plates used in the United States were imported. Zinc, the vital ingredient in galvanizing, was not mined in the United States until 1848 when a mine was opened in New Jersey. It was not until I860 that "spelter" --the form of zinc in galvanizing, was domestically produced. The American Galvanizing Works was opened by the McCullough Iron Works in 1852. The plant, in the south part of Philadelphia, was reportedly the largest in the world. McCullough had five rolling mills in Maryland that supplied the flat iron sheets .
In the same year, the company of Marshall Lefferts and Brother was established in New York City. They engaged in the inportation and manufacture of galvanized metal plates, along with a line of roof trusses, gutters, ridge plates, and even whole buildings.^
The Philadelphia Architectural Iron Company, founded in 1872 out of the J.P. Stidham and Company, also imported and manufactured a range of iron building components. It claimed 20 years experience in the field at that point, though no information about the original plant or products is available.
During the 1860's, more and more cities were adopting building codes calling for fireproof building materials. The use of wood roofs, cornices and Mansard roofs was often prohibited. These codes were undoubtedly a boom to the sheet iron

page 6
people, as their products often cost less than half what a
slate or tile roof did.
The problem of leaking joints plagued metal roofs from
the start. Joints that ran parallel to the eaves were sealed
by overlapping -- it was the eeams that ran from the eave to
the ridge that presented the problem. Even when overlapped
water could force its way in and be carried by capillary action
William G. Reed of Chelsea, Mass., on March 26, 1861, patented
a groove metal roof that was "perfectly and surely tight.
The roof used overlapping opposing V's such that water getting
into the joint would run down the trough created the V.
Cornelius G. Van Pappeldam of Charlestown, Iowa, on June 13. 1871, patented a metalic tile for walls and roofing. "The tiles may be of iron, zinc, or any other suitable metal, and either of cast or sheet metal -- the ornament being stamp-ed thereon when rolled sheets are used." The tiles, either square or diamond shaped, are installed at an angle. The part of the title that is overlapped contains a chanel that will carry any water that might leak under to the top of the next till down." The raised ornamental designs serve to strengthen the tiles, acting as corrugations to prevent rolling up by the action of violent winds." An advertisement appeared in the Scientific American of October 7, 1871, for the Van Pappelenden tile:
Great imporvement in roofing and covering of walls. Roofing and wall tiles of galvanized iron. No leaking, no cracking, no blowing off, no repairing and highly ornamental, saving about 50 percent of metal by shingles now in use. Patented June 13, 1871. Send stamp for circular. G.S. Van Pappelendam, Charleston, Lee Co., Iowa. ^

page 7
W.S. Belt, of Cincinatti, Ohio, on Augest 8, 18?1, patented an'"improved sheet iron roofing. The two-foot by eight-foot sheets were V crimped along the long edges and were painted on both sides. The roof could be applied over a fully sheathed roof, or "to purlins where no sheathing is employed. In this case, the purlins may be placed any distance less than eight feet apart, and triangluar strips of wood are nailed to and at right angles with them two feet apart between centers, so as to fit under the crimps and support the sheets. Or boards three inches wide may be nailed to the purlins and the sheets applied to them. Mr. Belt has also devised a combination iron frame to support his roofing, by the use of which cost is lessened and its fireproof qualities heightened. It is applied with such facility, aided by the inventors directions, as to require no skilled workmen to put it on,"^
The V crimp made the roof stronger, thus less likely to
bag, and used 20 percent less metal than corrugated roofing.
The roofing was considered good for temporary buildings as "the
entire roof can be taken off one building and put on another
1 7
without damage and at trifling expense." '
"Mr. William S. Hawley of New York City, assignor to David J. Millard and Company, of Clayville, New York has invented an '.Improvement in composition metal for roofing and other purposes, for which he has just obtained a patent through the scientific American Patent Agency."1'^ The metal was intended for roofing, linings, pipe and other purposes. The formulation made the metal resistant to acid, saltwater, and controlled expansion due to heat and cold. "Lead, tin, bismuth and al-

page 8
uminum, or lead, tin and bismuth without the busmuth, according
to the use for which the metal is intended are employed." 7 The metal is cast and rolled, and can be rolled quite thin and used as is.
An aricle appeared in the Scientific American May 15, 1875 describing Scott's Patent sheet iron roofing. The roofing is unique in two ways. First it is seamed with a seperate piece of metal rather than the seam being integral with the sheet. Secondly, it was finished and claimed to be made rust-proof by a coating of pure iron oxide (rust) and linseed oil.
The use of enamaled iron was experimented with in 1875 as a ceiling material for the refreshment stand at the South Kensington Museum, London. The idea was to create a highly decorative ceiling that would also give an image of perfect cleanliness, "and that every part might be washed down by a fire engine weekly, if necessary". The experiment was declared a success. Whether the fire engine was used or not is unknown.
The Centenial Exposition of 1876 had exhibits from many of the firms dealing in sheet metal building materials. The Philidelphia Architectural Iron Company had a display of galvanized iron and and sheet zinc products. Kittredge & Company of Ohio had a sheet metal pavillion with metal cornices and displays of stamped metal parts. The McCullough Iron Works and three other Philidephia firms had exhibits.
While the use of sheet metal products was wide spread and generally accepted by the public, its imitative uses were looked down upon by some of the architects of the time. Richard Morris Hunt, reporting on the Centenial, said: The

page 9
tendency to return to the legitimate use of stone for cornices, limiting the use of sheet-metals to such portions of
the roof cresting, hips, gutter linings, etc., is to he wel-
corned with satisfaction". Hunt probably died an unsatisfied man, as the use of use of sheet metal products continued to grow and is active today.
The greater frequency of advertisements for metal products is an indication of the industy's growth and the diversity of their products. Such an advertisement from the Scientific American, January 20, 1883 P- 45 excentuates the
ROOFING AND SIDING Iron buildings, Roofs, Shutters, Doors, Cornices, Skylights, Bridges, etc. MOSELY IRON BRIDGE AND ROOF CO., 5 Dey Street New York
...and from the Scientific American, May 5 1883 p.47 ONE THOUSAND TONS METALIC SHINGLES
Are now being used by the W.S. and B.R.R. on depots
between New York and Buffalo
Manufactured by the
And 221 Audley Road, Wolverhampton, Eng.
According to the Pocket Reference Book: "The oldest and best known brand of Galvanized Sheets produced in this country was "Apollo Best Bloom Galvanized" manufactured first in 1884, and continued for over half a century, or until the consolidation of American Sheet Tin Plate Company with Carnegie-Illinois Steel Corporation in 1936 when the starter designation "USS" was adopted." ^ The Leffert Brothers would probably disagree.

page 10
An improved metallic shingle was patented in 1890 by Thomas Toner and John E. Carrol of Philidelpia. Their shingle design prevented leaking, allowed for thermal expansion, and could be installed by an ordinary workman. The shingle is made of a sinle piece of sheet metal pressed to a shape that caused no undo stretch of the metal. It is the type of shingle that is most often seen on residential buildings. A standard 10 by 14 inch shingle is the most common. (See examples)
The type of metal used in the shingles is often unspecified in the design. They were usually adaptable to several types-- galvanized steel and tin plate being the most common. Galvanized steel was domestically produced while most tin plate was imported.
An article in the Scientific American on January 13, 1883
makes a point of the importation of tin plates.
"Increasing Use of Tin Plate." The importation of tin plates into this country has increased in a remarkable degree within the last few years. The imports in 1870 were 1,507,000 boxes; 1875 1,920,000 boxes; 1876 1,800,000 boxes; 1877 2,140,000 boxes; 1878 2,160,000 boxes; 1879 3,120,000 boxes; 1880 3,380,000 boxes; and in 1881 3,600,000 boxes. There are about 20 boxes of common tin plate to the ton. Two of the chief causes of the increased demand for tin in the United States are found in the enormous canning industry and the growth of the tin-roofing business. 23
The American tin industry got a boost in 1890 with the
passing of the Tariff Act of October 2890. The duty on imported
tin plate was doubled. With new economic stimulus "the growth
of this industry in America has been phenomenal." CHf

By the turn of the 20th century, metal roofing was being used in all parts of the country. It was distributed by building supply houses, hardware stores and the catalogue houses. The 1897 Sears catalogue listed V-crimp roofing as well as corrugated iron. The Sears metal was not galvanized, but rather came painted on both sides. An order of roofing from Sears also included nails and enough dry paint for a second coat.^5
The use of metal roofing is still active today mainly on form buildings and steel commercial buildings. The use of metal shingles on residences has pretty well ceases due to their now high cost.
While considered a crass material, suitable mainly for form and out buildings, many fine homes have metal shingle roofs. A variety of types and styles exist in Gainesville, Florida; 2 foot by 8 foot textured and smooth V-crimp, 20 by 28 inch shingles, 10 by 14 inch shingles. Finishes include silver metalic paint, red and green paint, and galvanizing. The slides illustrate the diversity and levels of maintanance found in Gainesville. The elements and time will eventually take these fine old roofs, though, hopefully with a raised consciousness it will be long time.

page IX
The metal roof industry developed a set of standards and specifications for the materials and methods of installation and maintenance of sheet metal roofs.
Roofing plates are usually a r- soft steel or wrought iron body coated with zinc or tin and lead. A coating of zinc is called galvanizing. Galvanized roofing came in many gauges and thickness of coatings. A coating of pure tin is called bright-tin and a coating of tin and lead, usually a 20 80 mixture, is called terne-plate. Both bright and terne-plate are commonly referred to as tin. The plates are coated by dipping or "hot dip method," or by a patent roller process.
The thickness of the body and the coating determines the function and value of the plate. While the dimensions are kept constant the composition and proportions of the metals were different for each manufacturer. The merits of each project are posted by its producer and"damned "' by its competition. The companies had pride and stamped the brand and weight on each plate.
In tin plate the two common body weights are IC, approximately No. 30 gauge, and IX, approximately No. 27 or 28 gauge. The IC being lighter, is used primarily for roofing, while IX is used for gutters, flashings, ridges etc.
The plates are based on a 14 by 20 inch nominal dimension module. The thickness of the coating is measured in pounds per 112 plates, a standard box. Weights ranged from 10 to 40

pounds, 30 to 40 pound was used for roofing.
Galvanized sheets are normally from 10 to 31 gauge. The zinc coating varies widely. Much galvanized roofing is modulated for 2 by 8 foot covering.
The seams are divided into two groups--soldered and fitted Tin roofs are generally soldered using one of three seams, while galvanized sheets seal by interlocking pieces.
A metal roof that is flat or under 5 degrees slope will have a flat seanw-the two pieces interlock. On a steeper roof a standing seam is used--the two pieces are folded together. A ribbed seam has a wood strip between the plates with a metal piece capping the strip and locking the plates.
__sluqs for NoWinQ-j
(a) Flat (b) Standing (c) Ribbed
Fir. 16. Seams in Sheel Mclal Roofing
The seams are sweated with a solder that is half tin and half lead. Only rosin may be used as a flux.
A tin roof should be laid over a fitted board sheathing covered with lapped building paper. Tar paper cannot be used as tin will not tolerate tar asphalt, graphite or bituminous material.
Metal roofs should be shop painted on both sides with a red, white, metallic brown, or Venetian red lead paint in a raw linseed oil base. Turpintine cannot be used with tin. The roof should be painted within three days of installation, by the roofer. A galvanized roof should be first cleaned with acid. The roof should be repainted every three to five years. (See Appendix A)

page If
The sheet metal roofs on farms and factories are often corrugated or V-crimp. These come in large sheets and have enough structural integrity to need purlins only two feet on^center. They are commonly left unpainted or only with factory coat. It is this type of metal roof that is still in common use today.

'""Metallic Roofs in Thunder Storms" Scientific American, June 1, 1872, volume 26.
Davey, Norman. A History of Building Materials
^Bond. Gothic Architecture in England, p. 389. 4
Briggs, Martin S. A Short History of Building Crafts, page 248.
^Ibid, p. 246.
6Ibid, p. 258.
7Ibid, p. 258.
Waite, Diana S. Architectural Elements: The Technological Revolution (Albany: New York State Historic Trust, 1971), p. 8.
9Ibid, p.7.
10Ibid, p. 7-11
"Machine For The Stamping of Metal Plates," Scientific American, Aug. 23, 1848. vol. VII, p. 8.
Waite, p. 7.
13"Metalic Roofing" Scientific American, Aug. 23, 1862 vol. VII p. 8.
"Van Pappelendams Metalic Tiles" Scientific American, July 22, 1871, vol XXV, p. $T.
"^Scientific American, October 7, 1871, p. 286.
"^"Imported Sheet Iron Roofing" Scientific American, August 10, 1872, vol. 27, p.86.

17Ibid, p. 86.
1 "Hawley's Metal Roofing" Scientific American, May 4, 1872,
Vol. XXVI, p. 288.
19Ibid, p.288
"An Enameled Iron Ceiling" Scientific American, Aug. 28, 1875, vol. 33, V-lW^~
2lWaite, p.12. 22
Carnegie Illinois Steel Corporation, Pocket Reference Book, (USA, 1937) p. 7.
^"Increasing Use of Tin Plate" Scientific American, January 13, 1883, vol. 48, p. 25-
Carnegie Illinois Steel Corporation, publisher, p.9<
2 "5
^Sears Roebuck and Company, Catalogue 1897, p. 96.

Bond. Gothic Architecture in England.
Briggs, Martin S. A Short History of Building Crafts.
Carnegie Illinois Steel Corporation, Pocket Reference Book, (USA, 1937)
Davey, Norman. History of Building Materials
Kidder, Frank E. and Parker, Harry. Kidder-Parker Architects' and Builders' Handbook (John Wiley & Sons, fnc~. New York) 18th ed. 9th Printing 19^6
Scientific American. "Machine for the Stamping of Metal Plates.'" Mar. 18. 1848, vol. VII p.8
Scientific American. "Metalic Roofing." Aug. 23, 1862 vol. VII, p. 8.
Scientific American. "Van Pappelendams Metalic Tiles." July 22, 1871. vol. XXV, p. 5^
Scientific American. Oct. 7. 1871. p. 286
Scientific American. "Hawley's Metal Roofing." May 4, 1872, vol. XXVI, p. 288
Scientific American. "Metalic Roofs in Thunder Storms." June 1, 1872, vol. 26
Scientific American. "Imported Sheet Iron Roofing." Aug. 10, 1872, vol. 27. p. 86
Scientific American. "An Enameled Iron Ceiling." Aug.28, 1875. vol. 33. p. 131*
Scientific American. Increasing Use of Tin Plate." Jan. 13. 1883, vol. k8, p.25
Sears Roebuck and Company. Catalogue 1897. p.96
Waite, Diana S. Architectural Elements The Technological
Revolution (Albanyt New York State Historic Trust, 197T5

1. 404 NE Second Ave.
A true representation of the qualities of a metal roof in the historic aspect.
2. 404 NE Second Ave.
Painted shingle.
3. 4o4 NE Second St.
4. 414 NE Second St.
Use on a larger home now used as part of church complex.
5'. 414 NE Second St.
6. 117 SW Third Ave .
Cottage with red painted tile roof. Excellent maintenance on house and out building.
7. 117 SW Third Ave.
8. 313 SE Third St.
9. 313 SE Third St.
10. 1300 Block NW Fourth Ave.
Use of sheet and tile. Probably recycled.
11. 506 NE Second St.
Start of deterioration -- needs painting.
12. 506 NE Second St.
13. 106 NW Third Ave.
What looks like a sound roof.
14. 106 NW Third Ave.
A patterned V-crimp sheet.
15. 106 NW Third Ave.
A maintenance problem -- note spacing of purlins.
16. 417 SW Second St.
Roof coated with what appears to be tar.
17. 417 SW Second St.
18. 400 Block NE First Ave.
The house is rotting out from under.

19. 507 SE Fourth Ave.
20 by 28 plates
20. 200 Block NE Fourth St.
20 by 20 plates
rusting quickly, note green paint.
21. 405 NE First Ave.
The last stage?


Metallic Roofing.
In constructing metallic roofs there is no difficulty in making those joints tight that are parallel with the onves, as by lapping the upper plate over the lower the water is sure to he carried off; but the wholo trouble has been with the joints that extend from the ridge to the oaves, and which aro vory liable to leak. We hero illustate a plan by which those transverse joints are made perfectly and surely tifrht. It cori-BiBts in making the rafters each of two plates of iron bent into the form of V-shaped troughs, one of which is directly be--neath tho joint and catches any drops that may leak through.
The construction of the rafter is shown in crosB-sootion in Fig. 8, and its relation to the side plates in Fig. 4. Each section, a a, of tho rafter has a flange, J, upon its edge, and between these flanges the roof plate, D, is secured by the bolt, e. The edges
the plate, B, are bent up at c, thus forming a trough of the plate, while -if any water or snow should beat through, it will be caught in tho lower section of the rafter and conducted down into tho eave trough.
Fig. 1 is a perspective view of the roof from the lower side, and Fig. 2 is a longitudinal section. The rafters cmptyinto theeavo troughs. F and the stringers, G, the collar beams, H, and braces, K, are all made of iron in tho same manner as the rafters. When tho rafters are very long they may be supported by a longitudinal beam, J, and the stringers may be sustained in the middle by the king post, J.
The inventor states that there is a roof at Chelsea, constructiM "u this plan, 66x20 feet, which pitches only one foot in 20, that has bef;n on over two years and that has never leaked one drop either with rain or snow.
The patent for this invention was granted, through the Scientific American Patent Agency, March 2fi. 1861, and further information in relation to it may bS obtained by addressing the inventor, Wra. G. Beed, at Chelsea, Mass.
A portion of the rags thus out up is reduced so vory fino that it cannot he mixed with wool so as to bo spun, still it has its usesnothing is lost by tho economical woolen manufacturers. This very fine stuff is called mungo ;" it is reduced to powder, or flocks, dyed various colors, and sold for covering wall paper, to give it the appearance of velvet. The paper is prepared by printing a paste upon it, suita-
Scientific American vol. VILNo. 8 Aug. 23, 1862 Page 1
ble'to the pattern deEired, then the colored flock is] dusted on with a tieve and adheres to the moist print-c I parts, thus forming velvet flowers.

Van I'apjielciidHiir?, Metallic Xilea.
Our engraving shows an undoubted hiiprovemont in tho construction of metallic tiles, whereby, it is claimed,-perfect security again?!, leakage of 'iiofg is obtained; while, at tho same time, a great variety of ornamental design is possible, without much increase of cost over that of perfectly plain tiles. The raised ornamental designs, furthermore, servo to strengfhen the tiles, acting as corrugations to p rent rolling up by tho action of violent winds,
The tiles may be made of iron, zinc, or any other suitable metal, and either of cast or sheet metal, tho ornament being stamped thereon when rolled sheets are used. The tiles are shown singly in Figs. 4 and 5, obverse sides of two different tiles being shown. Ono side of the tile has two parallel ribs formed along two of its edges, as shown, forming a channel. Below these ribs, a single rib on another tile rests, when the tiles are placed together on the roof, as shown in Fig. 2, and more clearly in Fig. 8.
. The two angles of tho tiles on the right and left are cut off, as shown, and tho channel formed by the parallel ribs is bent so as to conduct any water that may pass over tho lower ribB, downward, and delivor it upon tho upper surface of tho next tile below.
By these means, it is claimed that the penetration of water through the joints is effectually prevented.
The tiles may be made square or diamond shaped, either form being ornamental as well as effective.
The tiles thus made will, it is thought, find a wide application in this country and abroad.
Patented through the Scientific American Patent Agency, June. 10,1^71, by Cornelius G. Van Pappelendam, of Charles-town, Iowa. Tho entire right will be sold. Address, for fuithor information, as above.
Scientific American July 22, 1871 Vol. 25 Page 54

The ntniiiifnrtiiro or HiiMMlnu siicei Iron,
A particular lilnd of shoot iron is manufactured in Jiiip^in-which scorns not to have boon produced elsewhere. It Ik re markablo for its smooth glossy surface, which is dark metallic pray, and not bluish gray.like that of common sheet iron. On bending it backwards and forwards with the fingers, no scale is separated as is the case with sheet iron manufactured in the ordinary way by rolling-; but on folding it closely, as though it wore paper, and unfolding it, small Bcales are detached along the lino of the fold.
This sheet iron is in considerable demand in Russia for roofing, and in tho United States, where it is largely used in the construction of stoves, and for encasing locomotive engines. It is there named stovepipe iron.
Russian sheet Iron has been recently subjocted to chemical examination in the metallurgical laboratory of the lloyal School of Mines, and the analytical work has been executed by Dr. Percy's assistant, Mr. VV. J. Ward,
The occurrence of a peculiar carbonaceous mass, left aftor the solvent action of dilute hydrochloric or sulphuric acid, may reasonably bo accounted for, Dr. Percy says, by the method of manufacturing Bussian sheet iron, which he describes. Tho sheets are intcrstratified with charcoal pow-dor, and bound up in packets, eaph of which is subjected to repeated hammering. Hence, it is easy to conceive how fine particles of charcoal should be beaten in over both surfaces of each sheet; and, if this be so, a relatively larger proportion of carbon should exist in the thin sheet, as is the case. Yet, that some of the carbon is combined, may be inferred from the fact that distinct hardening occurs after heating the metal to redness, and immersing it while hot in water, and especially in mercury.
In the volume on iron and steel, which Dr. Percy published in 1804, he stated that the mode of manufacturing the Hussian sheet iron in question was kept rigidly secret; that it was made from iron smelted and worked throughout with charcoal as tho fuel; that, according to information which he had received from three independent sources, tho sheets, after the completion of the rolling, were hammered in packets, with charcoal dust interposed between every sheet; and that they were subsequently assorted, and the outer ones, being inferior in quality, were thrown aside as wasters.
Our author has since found that the secrecy i\as more dependent on ignorance of the Russian languago than on anything intentional; and he now gives various particulars of the process.
The manufacture of sheet iron in Russia, he says, is chiefly confined to the iron works on tho eastern side of the Oural Mountains. Tho malleable iron, which is the subject of this manufacture, is derived from pig iron, obtained by smelting the following ores with charcoal in cold blast furnaces
Scientific American October 14, 1871 Vol. 25 Page 241
namely, magnetine, carbonate of iron (sphairo sidcrile), and red and brown homatite. The conversion of the pig iron into malleable iron is effected either in the charcoal finery or in the. puddling furnace.
The puddle balls, intondod for the manufacture of sheet iron, are rolled into bars five inches wide and half an inch thick. The iron should be more crystalline than fibrous, and should contain sufficient carbon to render it more like steel than iron. Tho machinery required consists of ono or two pairs of rolls and two kinds of hammers. Reheating is conducted in furnaces of particular construction. The rolls are driven by water wheels, and should mako not fewer than fifty revolutions a minute. Tho hammers are also put in motion by cams on tho axles of water wheels, The hammer heads are of wrought iron, with striking faces of steel. Each anvil consists of a solid block of white cast iron. It is necessary that the hammers and anvils should 1)0 so made, in order that they may have the requisite hardness, in default of which the surfaces of the sheets would not acquire sufficient brightness or polish.
The puddle bar?, five inches wido and ono fourth of an inch thick, are cut into pieces twenty-nine inches long, which weigh about 1535 pounds avoird. (10 pounds?J. P.). Theso pieces are heated to redness, and cross rolled into sheets about twenty-nine inches square, and in order to become thus extended, they require to bo passed through the rolls about twelve or fourteen times. The sheets thus produced are arranged in packets of throo in each, heated to redness, and rolled, each packet passing through tho rolls about ton times. But just before rolling, tho surface of each packet Is cleaned with a wet broom, usually made of tho green loaves of tho sllvor fir, and powdered charcoal is strewn between the sheets'.
The sheets obtained from thiB rolling are sheared to the dimensions of twenty-eight inches by fifty-six inches. Each sheared sheet is brushed all over with a mixture of birch charcoal powder and water, and then dried. The sheets, so coated with a thin layer of charcoal powder, are arranged In packets containing from seventy to a hundred sheets each ; and each packet is bound up in waste sheets, of which two are placed at the top and two at tho bottom. A single packet at a time is reheated, with logs of wood about soven feet long placed round it, tho object of which is to avoid, as far as possible, tho presence of free oxygon in tho reheating chamber. The gases and vapors evolved from heated wood contain combustiblo mntter, which would tend to protect tho sheets from oxidation In the event of free oxygen finding its way into tho reheating chamber.
The packet is heated slowly during five or six hours, aftor which It is taken out by means of large tongs and hammered. Tho packet is moved ahout so that tho blows fall in a certain regular order. After this treatment the surface of the packet presents a wavy appearance, as the striking faco of tin1, hammer and the face of the anvil aro both rather narrow. Whon the packet has traveled about six times under the hammer, in the manner specified, it is removed ; and immediately afterwards, completely finished sheets aro arranged alternately between those of the packet.
The actual cost of manufacturing theso Russian sheets is about 12 15s. per tun, to which must be added general charges, which raise the amount to 10 or 17 per tun, exclusive of profit. Tho average price of sheet iron at the fair of Nijni-Novgorod is about 22 or 25 per tun.

Our engravings illustrate a good form of sheet iron roofing, which was patented by Mr. W. S. Belt, of Cincinnati, Ohio, Aug. 8,1871.
Fig. 1 represents the roofing partly applied to the roof and sides of a building. In Fig. 2 is shown the under side of one of the iron sheets of which it is composed. It will be observed that the sheet is triangularly crimped at its sides In such a way as to allow the crimped portion of one sheet to overlie the crimp of another, (in the manner shown in Fig. 3), and that the jower side is provided with fastenings which are riveted to the plate. The overlying crimp has a perforated flange, J&rough wbich two adjacent sheets may be nailed to the sheathing or rafters of the roof, as f-hown at A, Fig. 8. It can readily be Bfen that, in thus employing the roofing, tach sheet is fastened by both of its sides to the supports. The nail used is barbed, and as the fibers of the wood, into which it is driven, soon resume the position from which they are displaced, a very firm hold is taken by it. A lead washer, as at B, is placed between the nail and the plate, and by its use any unevenness of surface is accommodated and an air and watertight joint formed on driving the head of the nail home into the lead. The sheets are eight feet long and two feet wide between centers of crimps, and, as manufactured, are coated on both sides with paint.
Fig. 4 represents the application of the sheets to a sheathed roof, in which case rough board's of an even thickness are all that is necessary for the sheathing. Fig. 5 shows the mode of applying the roofing to purlins where no sheathing is employed. In this case the purlins may bo placed any distance leas than eight feet apart, and triangular strips of wood are nailed to, and at right angles with, them, two feet apart between centers, so as to
taken out and replaced. The entire roof can be taken off one build'ng and put on another, without damage and at trifling expense, for which reason it is considered admirably adapted for temporary buildings, In all these respects, it is superior to the plain sheet metal roofing, and it is claimed to excel the corrugated; while the same weight of metal in the crimped
' form oovers twenty per cent more surf-ics thin if corrugated. In roofing warehouses and small buildings on this plan, from two thirds to thrje quarters of the wjod usually employed
, could be dispensed with.
Scientific American Aug. 10, 1872 Vol, 27 Page 86

HawIcy'h Dloinl Uoolins.
Mr. William- S. Hawley, of New York city, assignor to David J. Millard & C i., ef Clayvillo, N. Y., has invented an improvement in composition metal for roofing and other purposes, for which he lias just obtained a patent through the Scientific American Patent Agency. This invention relates to metal which is adapted to roofing, linings, pipe, either cast or made from the sheet, and other purposes, forming a composition metal, which, when rolled into sheets suitable for rooling, linings, and all similar purposes, or cast or made iulo pipe, and is designed to resist the action of salt water and most of tho acids, and does not peiceptibly expand or contract from heat aud cold.
hoHd, tin, bismuth, and aluminum, or leud, tin, and bismuth without the aluminum, aud with or withjut the bismuth, according to tho use for which the mota.1 is intended, are employed. In forming tho composition metal, the above mentioned metals aro used in various proportions, but never so much us oii'e fifth part of tin to lour parts of lead is used.
Tho inventor claims to have discovered that, by using a much less quantity of tin to a giveu quantity of lead, an article subject to no mechanical difficulties in the process of manufacture, and in every way superior to what has before btou manufactured, can be produced, lie has found that a metal composed of lead, one hundred pounds, tin, sixteen pounds, aud bismuth, one ounce, with from three to five pounds of aluminum added, is beBt adapted for roofing and tho Other purposes for which it was intended. As tho purposes are vurious, tho proportions named may accordingly bo varied, and the aluminum or tho bismuth may bo dicpeused with whero it is not desired to furnish a very lino quality of metal.
The metals used may vary from live pounds to twenty pounds of tin to ono hundred pouuds of lead, aud from ono ounce to two pounds of bismuth to tho said quantity of tin and lead, when bismuth is u?ed.
In preparing the metal, tho lead is fused in an iron ves sel, and then the block tin is added, taking caro that the lead is nut at so high a temperature as to bum or vaporize the tiu. When tho tin has been fused aud thoroughly mingled with the leud, about half a pound of tallow to the hundred pounds of metal is introduced, which cleanses tho com bined metals from all the impurities, which may be skimmed from the surface. The bisuiuih is then Introduced, and also tho aluminum when aluminum is used. When tho compo sition has been thoroughly stirred, it is ready to bo poured into tho molds, and thus formed into ingots or slabs, Aftor being perfectly cooled, tho ingots or slabs aro reudy for the rolling mill.
This composition metal can, it is claimed, bo cast and rolled without cracking, and no mechanical or other dillicul ties are mot with iu rolling it to extreme thiuuess, making a most tough and teuaciouj sheet, admirably adapted for roofing, liuing barrels for holding petroleum, iniuoral water, and all similar lluids, sheatuiug vesaels, Watertight floors, dump walls, and various other purposes. It is also averred that no acids allect it which will not destroy gold aud silver.
Tho advantages and value to tho public of such a metal will be apparent to all having a general knowledge of the many uses to which it can be put.
Scientific American May 4, 1872 Vol. 26 Page 288

Metallic Roofs in Thunder Storm*.
To the Editor of the Scientific American:
A communication in the last Scientific, signed .Toliu Wise, lias the passage : Wliile I am not prepared to say positively that a metal-roofed building cannot be injured by a stroke of lightning, I havs nover found ono so roofed, in my fifteen years' investigation, that has been injured by a thunderbolt," etc.
Will yon do your subscribers the favor to give your views as to whether a metallic roof is a protection against lightning?
Wilmington, N. C. L. M.
[Answer: A metallic roof upon a building, if connected with tho earth, is undoubtedly a protection against tho ii ju-rious effects of lightning. Even when lightning rods aro not used, a connection is generally established, between the roof and tho earth during a thunderstorm, by the water spouts or the wet walls of the building. A metallic roof, if it were insulated from the earth would be a source of danger, and not a protection.Eds.
Scientific American June 1, 1872 Vol. 26

Scientific American Aug. 28, 1875 Vol. 33 Page 134

fFebruary 22, 1890.
am ntraorxs khauic amu
Tbc accompanying Illustration reprsstnU ft Mf form of motslll*) shingle patented by Meevi. Thomas Toner and John 8. Carroll, of No. M North Fifth Street. Philadelphia. Pa. Fig. 8 I* a perspective view, and Fig. 8 a asetional end vtew of a blcuis, Fig. In-praseotin*; a roof tho* covered. The stjiigli hat a ridge shaped central body part, and to folded upon Itself oh ooe outer edge to form a V-ehaped ridge, the natal being continued oat to tone a nailing flaage. On the other edge of the body ie an upwardly eiteodlng la-ellned flange, with a ebaaoel formed on lie outer edge. The entire ehiagie te> mad* of one piece of beet metal bent to the form deetred, and IU upper end hae a short Sange, and projsctlsns to prevent water driven up on the ehlngio from palag to the wood or being draws up by capillary attraction. On the lower end of the hingle h formed a V shaped saddle, adapted to at
on to the upper end of the ridge o the nest following hingle. This shingle ono be readily laid on a roof by an ordinary workman so as to give thereto a very attractive appearance, and Ita shape la eooh as not to unnecessarily stretch the metal If made by a pram. The look penults of all necessary contraction and expan ion. thereby preventing the bottom from cupping up In the oenter, and the lock can be used for a valley as
Scientific American Feb. 22, 1890 Vol. 62 Page 116
well as a single lock. tbu giving the. workman let* trouble to ndjurt the valley shingles. The male portion of the look has a catch basin to Interrupt all inols tore that may accumulate under the cap. and prevent It from finding Its way to the nailing Hang* below. Samples may be seen at the offleee of the patentee*.
Anew article of manufacture, consisting of a |>eclal form of plates which may be easily and conveniently applied by the roofer, as a ridge or hip covering or as a corner finish, Is shown In the accompanying Illustration, and bs been patented by Messrs. Thomas Toner snd John K Carroll, of No. 83 North Fifth Street, Philadelphia, Pa. Fig. 1 Is a perspective view showing the application of the plates, of ope of which
Fig. 3 is a plan view. Fig. 4 showing a sectional side elevation, and, Fig. 8 a transverse section. One end of the plate is beat under to form a bottom flange, -and the other end la partly doubled up and boot over the top to form a flange adapted to be engaged by f he bottom flange of the pest following plate. The end of the plate, after leaving the doabled-ap flange, Is bent downward to form a flange to be secured by nails to the part of the building on which It le need. The hot. torn flange Is narrower In the mtddpc than at the ouder ends, to facilitate bending It under, and the sides of each plate are bent under to increase their itreogt !.-From Its peculiar form of look thl* cover can be used on all kinds of hips and r

S., R. & Co. Felt Roofing.
when you build, you will want rooting (we will save yon 32H percent, on it); you will want hardware (we will save yon 8SM per cent, on it); you will want paint (we will save yon 3316 per cent, on it); yon will want paper (we will save you 50 per cent, on it); you will want doors, sash, moldings, blinds, etc. (we will save you 60 per cent, on it). Why not figure with us before you build?
So much of this Boofing has been sold, we think al-most everybody must be acquainted with its good qualities, it has been used in all climates and lias given universal satisfaction. It is easily and cheaply applied, notools being required except a jack-knife, hammer and brush. Complete directions with each roll. Tiie Two-ply Booting consists of two layers of Felt Roofing with a layer of waterproof asphalt cement between, tho whole being united under great pressure. The Three-ply Roofing consists of three layers of Felt Roofing with two layers of asphalt cement between, the whole being united under great pressure. We have this roofing made for us in enormons quantities, by manufacturers of established reputation, and can offer our patrons all the advantage which large purchases for spot cash can secure. This Roofing is 32 inches wide, and is put up in roils containing 108 square feet. Allowing for laps each roll will cover 100 sqnare feet. The Two-ply Hoofing weighs about 75 lbs. per roll; the Three-ply Roofing weighs about 100 lbs. per roll. If this Roofing is kept well coated with our itooliuir cement itis practically indestructible.
No. 14477. Two-ply Roofing only, per roll containing 108 square feet........................................87c
No. U478. Three-ply Roofing, only, per roll containing 108 square feet................................$1.15
No. 14479. Barbed Roofing Nails (114 lbs required for each roll of roofing. Per lb...........................4c
No. 14480. Tin Boofing Caps (1 lb. required for each roll of roofing). Verlb...............................oc
No. 14481. Roofing Cement (2 gals, required for each roll of roofing), in wood pails, kegs or carrels. Cost of package is included in these prices: Two gals, or less, per gal............................!j8c
5 to 5 gals., per gal....................................gc
6 to 10 gals., per gal..................................ltlc
11 to 20 gals., per gal.................................17c
21 to 40 gals., por gal.................................15c
50 gals, or more, per gal..............................lite
Neoonset Red Rope Roofing Fabric.
This is an air-tight and wuterproof roofing paper, and makes a durable covering for roofs and sides of buddings at one-quarter the cost of shingles. A coat of good paint adds to its durability. It is also used extensively instead of plaster, being tucknd to furring or laths and covered with wall paper. It io made in one grado only, and that is the best it is possiofe to produce. With each roll we furnish sufficient caps and nails to apply it to roof or siding.
No. 11485. Neponsot Rod Ropo Roofing Fabric, in rolls of 250 erjunr > feet. Per roll..................s2.55
No. 14 Mt). Nepon6ut I?d Rope Boofing Fabric, in rolls of 500 square feet. Par roll..................SS.iiO
Steel Pressed Brick Siding.
This hnsnoequal as a handsome covering surface. In-surauce companies generally give same rating for this as for stone. Shoots are 60x28 inches, painted on , b o t h sides. Wo
furnish 10 sheets to tho sqnare, including nails to putit on, and sutlicient dry paint for second coat. Weight, per squaro, 75 lbs.
No. 14502. Price, per square, for le3B than 5 squares. 83.1u; price, per square, for 5 squares or more.. 83.00 We do not 6ell less than one square.
V-Crimped Roofing.
The popularity of this roofing is .evidenced by the very large quantity sold by us continually. It is par excellence the farmer's roofing. It is the cheaper of all roofs offered and costs less to put it on the roof. Any person can apply it who can drive a nail. It is painted on both sides.
May be laid over sheathing, shingles, lath or direct to rafters placed 24 inches from center, on any roof having a pitch of more than two inches to the foot. The endB of sheets can either be lapped three iuches or more, or put together with lock, joint-
For a square of this roofing we ship: 6! No. 14503. Price, per sqnare, for less than 5 squares, 8)5.85; price, per square, for 5 squares or more.. 82.70
Corrugated Iron.
Corrugated Iron being used in such very large
giuantities, and or so many useful and varied purposes, it would seem useless to enter into any discussion concerning it. It is light, cheap, durable and fire proof, used for roofing, siding, ceilings and partitions. When ordering state what it is to be used for, andgive dimensions of spaoe it is to cover, and we will send sizes that will cut and lay to best advantage and the proper corrugations.
Our iron roofing is put up in squares consisting of 6 sheets, 96 inches long by. 26 inches wide (or ita equivalent) with sufficient nails to put it'on, and enough dry paint for second coat.
No. 14505. Price, per square, for less than 5 squares, 82.80; price, per square, for 5 squares or more.. 8&.g0
We do not sell less than one square.
Galvanized Corrugated Expanding Conductor.
No. 11508. This pipe is made from galvanized iron and is a solid pipe 10 feet long without joints. Wo do not furnish cut lengths. It will not burst when full of
ice. Size, inches, Price, per foot,
3 .05
Tackle Blocks.
Iron Strapped Tackle Blocks. Iron Bheaves, steel pins. Remember that only the lower block requires a becket. Be careful to give the right order number.
Galvanized Iron Elbows.
No. 14509. Made in three different shapes or angles. You must always state which angle is wanted. Size, inches, 2 8 4 5 B
Price, each round, $0.09 .11 .15 .18 .22
Galvanized Eave Troughs.
"slip joint."
No. 14ol0. Made of galvanized steel in 10-foot lengths without cross senn^ is much more durable than tin and easier to put up. It is made in 10-foot lengths, and wo qo not lurnish cut lengths. Sizes are measured inside of head.
Size, inches 314 4 5
Price, per foot, $0.03^4 .01 .0414
Galvanized Ridge Roll.
No Makes a neat waterproof
ridge of ropf3. It. is made in 10-foot lengths. We do not
214 10 .0514
2*4 214 12
Sli 15 ,01
furnish cnt lengths. Size of roll, inches, Vi 114 Width of apron, inches, 2 2 Girt, inches, 7 8
Price, per foot, $0.04!i .0414
Galvanized Eave Trough Corners.
No. 14513. Made complete, ready for use. Always state if bead is to be inside or out.
Size, inches, 814 4 5 6
Price, each, $0.23 25 .27 80
Wire Eave Trough Hangers.
4 5 6 .85 .38 .40
Conductor Hooks, Tinned.
No. 14515. For fastening conductor to side of house. Size, inches. 2 3 4 5 6
Price, per dozen, $0.12 25 35 50 1.00
with becket. without itecket.
Single Double Triple pulley pulley, pulley, each. each. each.
$0.19 $0.35 $0.48
.21 .40 .54
.23 .44 .59
.25 .48 .62
.30 .54 .79
.35 .65 .95
.45 .78 1.15
.75 1.22 1.69
1.21 2.03 2.87
Single pulleys weigh from % to 18 pounds. Houblo pulleys, from l!i to 32 pounds. Triple pulleys, from 2 to 04 pounds.
Awning Pulleys.
No. 14528. Galvanized Awning PuUoye. Will not take rope larger than 5-16 inch diameter. Single pulleys weigh 8, 5, and 8 o u n o e s. Double pulloya weigh 6, 8 and 12 ounces.
Single Single
Size of pulley, pulley,
wheel, each, dozen.
$0.03 $0.80
.04 .40
.08 .80
Double Double Size of pnlley, pulley, wheel, each. U in. $0.05 1 in. .06 114 in. .11
dozen. $0.50 .60 1.15
Screw Pulleys.
No. 14529. Screw Pulley, japanned iron; will not take ropo larger than 5-16 inch. Sizoof wheel. Weight. Each. Perdoz.
114 inch. l?i inch. 2 inch. 2'i inch. 214 inch. 8 inch
4 oz. 5oz. 5oz. 7 oz. 8oz. 9oz
$0.03 .03 .04 .05 .06 .07
$0.20 .28 .35 .45 .52 .65
Hot House Pulleys.
Hot House Pulleys, japanned iron, takes small rope 5-10 or 9a inch. Single pnlleys, 13 oz.; double pulleys, 1 lb. 2 oz.
No. 14530. Single Pulley. Size of wheel, Each. Perdoz. 2 inch. $0.08 .80
No. 14581. Double_PuUey.
No. 14514. Size, inches, Per dozen.
314 ).30
has not affected the price of our turkey red table cloths. we are still selling turkey red table cloth at 24c per yard that is positively the best value on earth.
we knock them out whenever we can. don't overlook our table linen department. we can save you quite a neat sum of money on your linens
Size of wheel, 2 inch.
Each $0.12
Per doz. $1.25
Side Pulleys.
No. 14532. Japanned Iron Side Pulleys;
will not take larger than 5-10 inch rope.
Size of wheel. Weight. Each. Perdoz. 114 inch. 5oz. $0.04
ljf inch. 7 oz. .05
2 inch. 10 oz. .06
214 inch. 14 oz. .07
8 inch. 18 oz. .10
10.85 .45 .48 .70 1.00
If You Want to Pay Little
and get what you pay for and get the best value you ever saw, order only from our watch department when you need a timekeeper.
there'is a chance or us not knowing.-acuy, w^ - ~
Sears Roebuck Catalogue 1877

NEW TYPE OF GALVANIZED ROOFING A new kind of galvanized roofing with a patented spring-pressure lap and other exclusive features has been announced by The American Rolling Mill Company, Middletown, O. It is known as Armco galvanized Seal-Krimp roofing, and is said to be storm-proof, weather-tight, and easily installed. It costs no more than ordinary metal roofing per square applied.
The new roofing is available in three grades of metal
copper-bearing steel, open-hearth steel and Armco ingot iron. The company's new galvanized Paintgrip finish is recommended for roofs to be painted immediately. Roofing accessories are available.
The new roofing is especially suitable for farm buildings, factory buildings and homes. It also finds ready use as siding for factories, garages, barns and other structures, filling stations and similar buildings.
When Armco Seal-Krimp is placed in position and nailed down, the sections are held firmly together with spring tension at three points. Drainage channels and siphon breakers are built-in features.
The pressure lap at the lower end of each sheet gives added protection, providing a pressure-sealed contact at the end laps and an effective water stop. The sections nest snugly together and cannot get out of alignment. Because of the spring pressure seam, Seal-Krimp must be laid one row or width at a time, starting at the eaves and working towards the ridge.
Roofing accessories available with Seal-Krimp include adjustable ridge roll, made in two pieces to fit any ordinary roof pitch without bending or mallcting. It may be adjusted lengthwise to fit V's on either side of the ridge. Other accessories available are end wall flashing and gambrel joints.
Reinhold Publishing Corporation New York, NY

lieans a new roofing material, metal, in both' sheet and 'form, is becoming increasingly popular for this pur-ttiere are several reasons for this, not least of which it-js sometimes the only medium for a solution of cer-ficult roofing problems. Although copper is still the opular form, other metals are also frequently used.
hif of planetarium in Chicago, III., Ernest A. (irunsfeld
lUjjje in Newton, Mass., C. C. Crowcll
itise in liethesda, Md., John J. Whelan
aeon's Castle," Surry Co., Va.
W$e on Long Island, N. Y,, James W. O'Connor

/VPT Vol. II Nos. 1-2 1970 Page 61


External Plumbing
External Plumbing
The object to be attained in laying lead is so to see it that it is free to expand and contract, yet firm enough to throw no undue weight on the supporting rafters aa^* boarding, thus avoiding sagging of the timbers and tfc* resultant water-holding depressions in the lead s\m-Figs. 206 and 207 (adapted from Viollet-le-Duc) shw* how this was done at Chartres Cathedral in the thirtctnife
Another requirement for plumbing on roofs is that every piece of lead can be as easily removed or repla'iac as is a tile or slate. In Gothic work this was contrivferj' not only for plain sheets and for gutters, but also for the elaborate lead ornaments that were used so largely in France and that Viollet-le-Duc has described.1 The medieval craftsman showed himself thoroughly practical
century. The lead was about i in. thick, in sheets MS more than 2 ft. wide and 8 ft. 4 in. long. These *m nailed at the top, with iron nails having very htp heads, to oak boarding. The side of each sheet was rolled up with the edge of the sheet adjoining as to foff= rolls of rather more than l\ in. diameter (Fig. 20?.' The bottom edge was secured by two iron clips to prevt** the wind from blowing it up. The tails of the clips *** nailed to the boarding. All this work was sound *W examined in 1835J At Canterbury the sheets 2 ft. wide and of 12 lb. lead.
in all plumbing details ; thus, he provided small outlets in the leadwork to ventilate the roof-timbers, and where he had to put a nail on an exposed surface he was careful to protect it from the weather by means of a smme. lead flap.
In the chapter on Roof Coverings (Chapter VIII) the development of the parapet, gutter was briefly described. Figs. 208 and 209 illustrate a type of eaves
Viollet-le-Duc, op. ext., pp. 214-18.
Briggs,Martin S. A Short History of the Building Crafts

gutter often found in France. Here the lead stri forming the gutter, each about 4 ft. in length, are dressed over an iron rod, supported on iron brackets carried under the gutter, and caulked into the coping stone under the wall-plate. The gutter is lapped, wt^t a drip at each joint and a gargoyle at about every oth joint. Fig. 210 1 shows how a wooden fascia was iise&
to form a miniature parapet gutter on dwelling-house* in France, the lead being brought over the top to protect the top edge of the woodwork. In some cases in England the sheets of lead were simply carried over the ends of the rafters at the eaves, and the water allowed to drip from them. The choir of Canterbury has an enriched lead parapet, and at Lincoln is another lead-covered wooden parapet which looks very much like stone.
England possesses many lead spires of various forms, but from a purely constructional point of view theif 1 Based on diagrams in Viollet-le-Duc, op. cit.
importance to us as regards leadwork lies chiefly in the method by which the lead was secured. The surface being nearly vertical, the metal sheets are apt, by their own weight, to tear at the nail-holes. They should therefore be laid with diagonal rolls, as shown in Figs. 211 and 212. Many examples have vertical rolls, but Figs. 213 and 214 show alternative diagonal treat-
ments from Godalming and Chesterfield respectively.
I* The famous twisted spire at Chesterfield has been held
fj up as an example of architectural refinement', but, so
B 'ar from being intentional, this twist appears to be only
I an exaggerated instance of timbers warped by time.
Briggs, Martin S. A Short History of the Building Crafts

Sheet-Metal Tiles. Roofing-tiles stamped from sheet steel, plain or galva-'. nized, and also from sheet copper, in imitation of clay tiles, are made by several [ manufacturers and have been extensively used for factories and buildings of [ secondary importance. The first cost of these tiles, except those made of t copper, is much less than that of clay tiles and they do not require as heavy ; roof-framing. Tin or galvanized-iron tiles, however, must be painted every
few years, so that for a long period of years they probably cost as much as clay
tiles and more than slate.
Tin Roofs
The Sheets. Roofing-plates are made of soft steel of various special analyses, I or wrought iron (more commonly of the former), covered with a mixture of lead I and tin, and are designated terne-plates, in distinction from plates coated % only with tin and therefore called bright tin. Roofing-plates are coated by I two methods. (1) The original method of coating the plates consisted in dip-I ping the black plates by hand into the mixture of tin and lead, and allowing I the sheets to absorb all the coating that was possible; and at least one brand of roofing-tin is still made by this process. (2) The other process, by which i the majority of roofing-plates are now made, is known as the patent-roller-I process, by which the plates are put into a bath of tin and lead, and are I passed through rolls. The pressure of these rolls leaves on the iron or steel a i thickness of coating which, to a great extent, determines the value of the plates. i These rolls can be adjusted to leave a relatively large amount of coating on the I plate, an ordinary coating, or a very scant coating. The heavier the coating | the more valuable the plate. Some makers employ a variation of this patent | process, by which the plates are given an extra dip, by hand, in an open pot, I to give a hand-dipped finish.
Brands. The best roofing-plates always have the brand stamped on them, I and as the manufacturers have a pecuniary interest in keeping up the reputa-I tion of these brands, the only way of being sure of a good tin roof is to specify I a brand of tin that has a reputation for quality and durability. Machine-made I plates are usually stamped with the weight of coating per box of 112 sheets, | 2S by 20-in size.
Tin Roofs
Sizes of Sheets. The common sizes of tin plates are 10 by 14 in and multiples of that measure. The sizes generally used are 14 by 20 in and 28 by 20 in. The larger size is the more economical to lay, and hence roofers prefer to use it; but for flat roofs the 14 by 20-in size makes the better roof.
Thicknesses of Sheets. Teme-plates are made in two thicknesses, IC, in which the iron body weighs about 50 lb per 100 sq ft, and IX, in which it weighs 62lb per 100 sq ft. For roofing, the IC, or lighter weight, is to be preferred, because the seams do not contract and expand as much as they do when the thicker plates are used. For spouts, valleys and gutters, however, IX plates should always be specified, and should preferably be used for flashings, as they are stiffer and less liable to be dented or punched. The thickness of the iron does not add to the durability of the plates, as this depends entirely upon the tin coating.
Weights of Sheets. The standard weight of 14 by 20-in IC terne-plates is 1071b for 112 sheets, the number usually packed in one box, and of 14 by 20-in IX sheets, 135 lb. The 28 by 20-in sheets should weigh just twice as much. The black sheets, before coating, should weigh, per 112 sheets, from 95 to 100 lb for IC, 14 by 20-in sheets, and from 125 to 130 lb for IX, 14 by 20-in sheets. The difference between the weights of the black sheets and finished sheets is the weight of the tin. A heavily coated tin should weigh from 115 to 120 lb per 112 sheets ior IC, 14 by 20-in sheets, and from 145 to 150-lb for IX, 14 by 20-in sheets. The 28 by 20-in sheets should, of course, weigh twice as much.
The Roof. Roofs of less than one-third pitch are made with plat seams and should preferably be covered with 14 by 20-in sheets rather than with 28 by 20-in sheets, because the larger number of seams stiffens the surface and helps to prevent buckles and rattling in stormy weather. For a flat-seam roof, the edges of the sheets are turned in, locked together and well soaked with solder. The sheets are fastened to the sheathing-boards by cleats spaced 8 in apart and locked in the seams. Two 1-in barbed and tinned-wire nails are used in each cleat. No nails should be driven through the sheets. The seams must be made with great care and sufficient time taken to properly sweat the solder into the seams. Steep tin roofs should be made with standing seams and with 28 by 20-in sheets. The sheets are first single-seamed or double-seamed and usually soldered together, preferably end to end, into long strips that reach from eaves to ridge. The sloping seams are composed of two cpstands, interlocked at the upper edge, and held to the sheathing-boards by cleats. The standing scams are usually not soldered but simply locked together with the cleats folded in about 1 ft apart. Nails should be driven into the cleats only. The use of acid in soldering the seams of a tin roof should be carefully avoided as acid coming in contact with the bare iron on the cut edges and corners, where the sheets are folded and seamed together, causes rusting. No other soldering-flux but good rosin should ever be used.
Durability of Tin Roofs. A tin roof of good material, properly put on, and kept properly painted, will last from forty to fifty years, or longer. All traces of rosin leit on the roof should be removed as soon as the tin is laid and soldered, and one coat of paint should be applied promptly; a second coat should follow two weeks after the first. One or more layers of felt or water-proof paper should be placed under the tin, to serve as a cushion, and also to deaden the noise produced by rain striking the tin. The durability of tin roofing, and especially of tin gutters, valleys and flashings, is generally increased by painting the tin on the back before laying. An excellent paint for tin roofs is composed of 10 lb of Venetian red, 1 lb of red lead and 1 gal of pure linseed-oiL
Kidder, Frank E. and Parker, Harry Kidder-Parker Architects' and Builders' Handbook

2002 Memoranda on Roofing [Part 3
Maintenance of Tin Roofs. The tin roof should be given one coat of paint after it is iaid and an additional coat of paint at four-year or five-year intervals should be amply sufficient to keep its upper surface in first-class condition as long as the building stands. With each painting the roof is fully restored to its original condition. Graphite and tar paints should be avoided on tin roofs. Metallic brown* Venetian red, red oxide or red lead, only, should be used as pigments, with pure linseed-oil. Tinned gutters should be swept clear of accumulations of leaves, dirt, etc., and if water has a tendency to he in the gutters they should be painted yearly.
Humber of Sheets Required to a Square. For flat-seam roofing a sheet of tin 14 by 20 in, with J^-in edges, measures, when edged or folded, 13 by 19 in, or 247 sq in; but its covering capacity when jointed to other sheets on the roof is only 12}^ by 18j^ in, or 231.25 sq in. The number of sheets to a square, therefore, equals 14 400 divided by 231.25 or 63, and an area of 1 000 sq ft requires 625 sheets. A box of 112 14 by 20-in sheets will cover, approximately, 180 sq ft. Sheets 28 by 20 in, When edged or folded, have a covering capacity of 490.25 sq in each. To cover 1 000 sq ft (10 squares) requires 294 sheets. For standing-seam roofing the locks require 2% in off the width and lj-jj in off the length of the sheet. A 28 by 20-in sheet, with the seams on the long edges, will cover 463 sq in. To cover 1 000 sq ft requires 312 sheets.
How a Tin Roof Should be Laid *
The Slope of the Roof. If the tin is laid with a flat seam or flat lock, the roof should have an incline of in or more to 1 ft. If laid with a standing seam, there should be an Incline of not less than 2 in to 1 ft. Although tin is used on roofs of less pitch than this and on some which are almost flat, a good pitch is desirable to prevent the accumulation of water and dirt in shallow puddles. Gutters, valleys, etc., should have sufficient incline to prevent water from standing in them or backing up far enough to reach standing seams. Tongued and grooved sheathing-boards of well-seasoned dry lumber are recommended. Narrow widths are preferable, and the boards should be free from holes, and of even thickness. A new tin roof should never be laid over old tin, rotten shingles, or tar roofs. Sheathing-paper is not necessary where the boards are Iaid as specified above. If steam, fumes, or gases are likely to reach the under side of the tin, some good water-proof sheathing-paper should be used. Tarred paper should never be used. No nails should be driven through the sheets.
Flat-Seam Tin Roofing. When the sheets are laid singly, they should be fastened to the sheathing-boards by cleats, using three to each sheet, two on the long side and one on the short side. Two 1-in barbed-wire nails should be used to each cleat. If the tin is put on in rolls the sheets should be made up into long lengths in the shop, and the cross-seams locked together and well soaked with solder. They should be edged in, and fastened to the roof w ith cleats spaced S in apart, and the cleats locked into the seam and fastened to the roof with two 1-in barbed-wire nails to each cleat.
Standing-Seam Tin Roofing. The sheet should be put together in long lengths in the shop, and the cross-seams locked together and well soaked with solder. They should be applied to the roof the narrow way, and fastened with cleats spaced 1 ft apart. One edge of the course is turned up 1in at a right angle, and the cleats are installed. The adjoining edge of the next course is
These suggestions art in accordance with the standard working specifications adopted by the National Association of Sheet Metal Contractors.
Tin Roofs 2003
turned up 13^ in, and these edges are locked, turned over and the scam flattened to a rounded edge.
Valleys and Gutters. These should be lined with IX tin, and formed with fiat seams, the sheets being applied the narrow way. It is important to see that good solder, bearing the manufacturer's name, is used, that it is guaranteed one-half tin and one-half lead, new metals, and that nothing but rosin is used as a flux. The solder should be well sweated into all seams and joints.
Painting. All painting should be done by the roofer. The tin should be painted one coat on the under side before it is applied to the roof. The upper surface of the tin roof should be carefully cleaned of all rosin-spots, dirt, etc., and immediately painted. The approved paints are metallic brown, Venetian red, red oxide, and red lead, mixed with pure linseed-oil. No patent drier or turpentine should be used. All coats of paint should be applied with a hand-brush, and well rubbed on. A second coat should be applied two weeks after the first and a third coat one year later.
Caution. No unnecessary walking over the tin roof, or use of it for storage of materials, should be allowed at any time. Workmen should wear rubber-soled shoes or overshoes when on the roof. Wherever the slope is steep enough the tin should be Iaid with standing seams, which allow for expansion and contraction.
Sizes, Weights, Etc., of Roofing-Tin *
Roofing-tin Is usually furnished in two sizes, sheets 14 by 20 in and 28 by 20 in, packed 112 sheets to the box, Target-and-Arrow tin is furnished in three thicknesses: IC thickness, approximately No. 30 gauge, U. S. Standard; IX thickness, approximately No. 28 gauge, U. S. Standard; 2X thickness, approximately No. 27 gauge, U. S. Standard, etc. Weight per 100 sq ft laid on the roof, about 65 lb for IC thickness.
Covering Capacity of Roofing-Tin
Flat-Seam Tin Roofing. The following table shows the quantity of 14 by 20-in tin required to cover a given number of square feet with flat-seam tin roofing. A sheet 14 by 20 in with 3^ in edges measures, when edged or folded, 13 by 19, or 247 sq in, but its covering capacity when joined to other sheets on the roof is only 12}- by 18j^ in, or 231.25 sq in. In the following table each fractional part of a sheet is counted a full sheet.
* The following tables of sizes, weights, covering capacities and costs are adapted from useful data compiled for the use of sheet-metal workers by the N. k G. Taylor Company, Philadelphia, Pa.
Kidder, Frank E. and Parker, Harry Kidder-Parker Architects' and Builders' Handbook

Sheet metal roofing materials in most common use are copper, zinc, lead and steel or iron plates, galvanized or tin-coated. The specifications for the material and laying of each of these are well standardized and must be closely followed, and the conditions of the guaranty carefully noted.
Fig. 16. Seams in Sheet Metal Roofing

All such roofing, except heavy corrugated sheets, is attached by the nailing of lugs secured in seams of joints (see Fig. 16), to avoid surface perforations; though there is a sheet lead roofing sold in rolls like roofing felt, and laid in similar fashion, with mopped joints. For adequate nailing, the lighter gauge sheet metals are applied in small sheets over matched wood sheathing, covered with good building paper, well lapped and secured. Tin plates are of two standard weights (thicknesses), known as "IX" and "IC." IC is approximately No. 30 gauge (U. S. Standard), and is the weight ordinarily used for roofing. IX is about No. 27 or 28 gauge, and is used for gutter linings, etc. For these purposes (roofing, etc.), the coating is a combination of tin and lead, forming what is technically known as "terne plate" to distinguish it from the "bright tin" (pure tin-coated) used for domestic utensils, etc. Both are indiscriminately called "tin." Tin and terne plate are rated according to the amount of coating,10 to 40 pounds on a given number of plates. The 30- to 40-pound plates are regularly used for roofing, and the 20-pound for tin-clad doors and similar interior work. The maker's mark stamped on each sheet gives (generally) thickness of plate and weight of coating.
Sheet metal on flat roofs and those of low incline is ordinarily laid with flat seams, whereas standing seams are used for roofs inclined about 5 and more. See Fig. 16 (a) and (b). Standing-seam construction is especially suited to materials such as copper, subject to excessive expansion and contraction. Seams of tin are locked and soldered, while those of copper are rendered in white lead putty, except where danger from expansion is nil and soldering is demanded. V-crimped ribs are sometimes used for copper or zinc, and larger ribs of special design are sometimes built over wood cores as shown in Fig. 16 (a). All metal roofing should be laid over good building paper. That under tin should be rosin-sized, since neither tar, asphalt nor graphite should have contact with tin roofing. This applies to both paper and paint.
The first painting of terne and galvanized sheets is customarily done by the sheet metal workers and, for exterior work, includes one or two coats on concealed surfaces. For shop coats, the makers recommend "15-pound red lead to one gallon of raw linseed oil, with not more than Y2 pint dryer," or "white lead, iron oxide, metallic brown and Venetian red." They particularly caution against the use of turpentine or patented dryers in paint used on tin. The use of anything but rosin as a flux in soldering tin is forbidden.
Solder must be strictly "half-and-half," that is, half tin and half lead; and, to prevent the use of scrap, should be in original bars bearing the
imprint of the maker. All terne and galvanized sheets should be painted within three days after being exposed to the weather, but should not be laid nor painted in wet or cold weather. Final coat' should be applied shortly before the work is accepted. The practice of allowing tin to weather until rust spots appear (on the theory of giving better paint adhesion) cannot be too strongly condemned. Such action is sufficient reason for rejection of the entire tin work. The surface should be thoroughly cleaned and all traces of flux removed before painting. Galvanized sheets, being zinc coated, are fess susceptible to injury by weather or acid. The makers recommend the application of an acid solution on exterior galvanized sheets, allowing it to dry for 24 hours before applying the first coat of paint.
Storm water from roofs finds its way to gutters or roof outlets, and is conducted thence by means of leaders and down spouts ("conductors"). Roof outlets are fitted with short spouts opening directly into conductors, or through scuppers in side walls, with extensions into conductor heads. All such connections must be carefully designed and constructed to guard against leakage. In cold climates, all pockets in which water can collect while freezing must have enclosing walls so constructed that the force of expansion in freezing will act against beveled surfaces and be harmless. This applies equally to gutters and to hoppers. The latter should be avoided, since they serve to collect rubbish which tends to choke the outlet. "Roof connections" of standard designs can be had for all the various types and capacities of flat roof drainage. All roof and gutter outlets should be protected with strainers of copper wire or perforated sheet copper; or of galvanized iron, if gutters are of that material. Copper and galvanized iron (or steel) are not used in conjunction, because of the adverse action of zinc and copper on each other.
Gutters are either "standing" (Fig. 17 (a)), "box" (Fig. 17 (b)), or,"hanging"..pendant from the eaves (Fig- 17 (c)).' The latter type is constructed of zinc, hard lead, copper, tin or galvanized sheets; and the other forms have linings of the same, and are sometimes faced with sheet metal. Standing gutters are also formed of galvanized sheets, self-supporting. Gutters or their linings must be evenly sloped from their high points to outlets, and must be well secured and flashed, if built in connection with the roof surface. If of copper, they must have ample provision for expansion and contraction. Hanging gutters should have adequate rigid hangers and brackets, and a rolled outer edge containing a -J-6-inch (or heavier) continuous rod of the same material, to make it stout enough to support the head of an inclined ladder.

August 5, 1929 THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT Page 199
New York Building Congress Standard Specifications
Metal Roof.
59. Metal roofs shall be laid with ribbed seam, standing seam or flat seam as Metal Roofs specified under Part A.
Ribbed Seam:
60. Where ribbed seam roofs are called for, wood ribs will be furnished and placed under another division. This Contractor, however, shall see that the ribs are evenly spaced, truly lined, firmly secured and nails well set.
61. The metal sheets shall be laid in long lengths with the turned up edge free from sides of wood ribs, be secured with y2" x 3" cleats, spaced not more than eight (8") inches apart, nailed to side of ribs and locked to the sheets. The ribs shall be covered with a metal cap locked over the cleats and edges of roofing sheets.
Standing Seam:
62. Standing seam roofs shall consist of long sheets laid with the long edges turned up lj4" on one side and \l/2" on the other secured in place with cleats spaced not more than eight (8") inches apart. The abutting (standing) edges of sheets shall be locked to the cleats and to each other. Cross seams shall be staggered, locked and flattened in the direction of the roof slope and soldered. Standing seams shall not be soldered.
Flat Seam:
63. Flat seam roofing shall have the joints staggered, each sheet secured with \ y2" x lj^" cleats evenly spaced along the edges at approximately eight (8") inch centers. The cleats and adjoining edges of sheets shall be locked together and the seams flattened and soldered. All seams shall be tinned back two (2") inches from the edge before soldering.
Metal Covered Walls.
64. Where walls or surfaces, other than roof, are specified to be covered with Metal Covered metal, the work shall be executed with ribbed, flat seam, standing seam or Walls panelled surfaces as indicated on Contract drawings or noted under Part A.
Ribbed, flat seam or standing seam work shall be executed using methods specified under "Metal Roofs."
65. Cornice and other ornamental metal work shall be accurately bent to the pro- Cornices files shown on detail drawings and reinforced with the necessary straps and angles. Joins and seams shall be interlocked, riveted, soldered and reinforced on the back. Where ornament is indicated it shall be stamped with
dies made to conform to the detail drawings or to models, approved by the Architect.
American Architect Aug. 5 1929


Ed. Note: In 1960 A Guide to American Trade Catalogs from 1744 to 1900, compiled and edited by Lawrence B. Romaine, was published by R. R. Bowker, New York. (See also the review in this issue). The book has chapters on architectural building materials, hardware, stoves and heating equipment, among other subjects. The following extracts cover catalogs about roofing materials from 1850 to 1900.
1850 New York & Liege, Belguim
McCALL & STRONG. (Late Mosselman, agent.) 111. catalog of zinc roofing materials. 8vo., 40pp., wrap.
1853 New York
M0REW00D, GEORGE B. & CO. 111., desc. and priced catalog of galvanized tinned iron and plumbic zinc goods. 32pp., wrap.
1854 New York
LEFFERTS, MARSHALL & BROTHER. Patented galvanized iron for roofs, etc. Tests. 4x7, 49pp., ill.
1857 New York
VIEILLE M0NTAGNE ZINC MINING CO. 111. and priced circular on zinc roofing.
1871 Chicago
1872 Cleveland
GARRY IRON ROOFING CO. 111. catalog pat. iron roofing for all building. Largest producers in the world. 16mo., 20pp., pict. wrap.
1874 New York
NEW YORK SLATE ROOFING CO. George E. Glines patent slate roofing paint, cement, roofs, tests, and list of users. 8vo., 80pp., ill.
c.1875 Delpsburg & Philadelphia
EMPIRE SLATE WORKS. J.B.Kimes & Co. 4 page col. ill. folder of slate mantels, ice boxes, pulpits, pedestals, roofing, flooring tiles, etc.
1880 Minneapolis
MINNEAPOLIS GALVANIZED IRON CORNICE WORKS. Catalog of designs of architectural sheet metal ornaments, cornices, window caps, ventilators, iron, slate and gravel roofing. 4to., fine ills.
Vol. II Nos. 1-2 1970 Page 50

1883 Cincinnati
CINCINNATI CORRUGATING CO. 111. catalog of superior corrugated sheet iron, steel and zinc roofing. 16mo., 16pp., wrap.
1884 New York
JOHNS, H. W. MFG. CO. Est. 1858. 111. catalog of standard asbestos materials for roofs, walls, pipes, etc. 12mo., 48pp., pict. wrap.
c. 1889 New York
----;111. folder of roofing
and coverings. Pict. wrap, in original envelope.
1884 Canton, 0.
SNYDER, T.C. & CO. 111. catalog of improved sheet iron roofings and iron ore paints for roofs. 16mo., 16pp., pict. wrap.
c.1885 Chicago
LLOYD IRON ROOFING & PAINT CO. 111. catalog of corrugated iron and styeet metal roofing in all its branches. 12mo., 32pp., pict. wrap.
1885 Indianapolis
INDIANA PAINT & ROOFING CO. Catalog of rubber roofing, sheathing, paints, marbelized mantels, etc. 8vo.,ill., pict. wrap.
1886 Indianapolis
-----Free booklet on rubber
roofing, slate mantels, etc. 8vo., 40pp., pict. wrap, of mantels.
1886 Cincinnati
SAGENDORPH IRON ROOFING,CORRUGATING & PAINT CO. 111. catalog of roofing materials. 12mo., 32pp., pict.wrap.
1890 Philadelphia
MERCHANT & CO. 111. catalog of roofing plates and tin roofs.
1890 Camden, N. J.
FAY, W. H. Fay's waterproof building manila for roofing. 8vo., 32pp., ill. of dwellings and buildings in many states using Fay's products. Pict. wrap.
1893 New York
NEW YORK IRON ROOFING & CORRUGATING CO. 111. catalog of roofing. 16mo., 10pp., tests, from Pa., Ind., etc.
1895 St. Louis
SOUTHER, E. E. IRON CO. 111. catalog roofing department roofing, siding, ceilings, etc. 7x10, 40pp., wrap.
1896 Salem, 0.
MULLINS, W. H. CO. 111. catalog of architectural sheet metal work, art metal roofing, cornices, crestings and statuary. Plates of statuary for Cotton States and International Exposition, factory interiors, etc. Tall 4to., 172pp., dec. cl.
c.1900 Cincinnati
BARRETT MFG. CO. Mills at Beliot, Wis. Catalog B roofing,.paving and building papers, cardboards, tarred, etc. 8vo., 32pp., ill., wrap.
c.1900 Easton, Pa.
GENUINE BANGOR SLATE CO. Slate and its uses. 2nd ed., 4to., 74pp., ill., wrap.
APT Vol. II Nos. 1-2 19 70 Page 51


being J
the chkaVest and most

Plate Ho. 3.
Iron frame-work of a roof of 30 feet wide, partly covered with straight Corrugated Galvanized Iron. The rafters may be of either Ti 3 X 3, or ~| iron; tie-rods j- and J- inch, with light cast iron strut. The above may be varied according to the size of the building, but. as remarked for the preceding plan, Plate 2, need not be more than one-fourth as heavy in frame as would be required for slate covering.
Rafters are about 10 feet apart, or, if the purlin9 be trussed, then 12 to 15 feet apart.
Purlins 6 ft. 8 in. apart from centre to centre.
Fig. 4 shows a method of securing corrugated sheets to iron purlins, without riveting to the frame of the roof, thus allowing expansion and contraction, without disturbing the sheets.
Fig. 12 shows the side lap of the sheets, with rivet for fastening the sheets together.

Plate No. 4.
A Corrugated Galvanized Iron Roof, of large span, say 60 to 90 feet
This description of roof is adapted to Railroad Depots, and manufacturing establishments, where a fibk-pbook and dubable boof is bo essential. The weight of a square of this description of roof is about 500 lbs.; whilst a slate of square dimensions would be about 1500 lbs. A fact of sufficient importance to invite attention, even were none other to exist. But it must be borne in mind, that the slate roof is not fibe-pboof, and subject to more rapid decay. The magnificent railroad depots, which are to be found upon almost every line, are so substantially built, that, with a fire-proof roof, the companies can well become their own in-suaEEs, and thus save an immense amount of their present out lay.
Fio. 9 Bhows general plan; T rafters, cast-iron struts, round iron tie and tension rods.
Purlins.T iron, fifteen feet apart, and trussed.
Fio. 10.Tranaversed section of rafter, at peak, showing method of fastening with tie rods.
Fio. 11.Different view of No. 10.

Plate No. 5.
showing corrugated iron warehouse.
This style of building is constructed of any length and of breadth up to 80 feet, and designed as a cheap and easy structure. They are just the thing for Raii. Road Sheds, and may be finished with or without sides. No frame work is used except tie rods which are fastened to the flange on a cast iron gutter, to which the sheets are riveted.
( -

26 'i
Plate No. 6. i
slip joint half round gutter.
The wires d d fit into the bead a a, and c fita into the socket i b, which is to be filled with red or white lead. ISo soldering is necessary.
The brackets for supporting the gutter should be galvanized. Fig. 15Stamped Eves' Gutter.
Fig. 14Ridge Cap.

lr citify cirnpil Iron 4ffmPan2t
J j *
(Successors to J. P. STIDHAM & 00.,)
11th and Washington Avenue,
ArcJiilects and Tiuilders of every description of
Iron Fronts, and Trussed Roof Frames ai Co?eri[s,
IRON CORNICES AND FRENCH ROOFS, FOR DWELLINGS. Fire-Proof Floors, for Warehouses & Public Buildings.
|5uiliiijp |ii|iiilicil uiill} |cis of jfvon l^nitts
Special Iron Work supplied to Refineries & Factories.
Contracts taken for the erection, in any part of the country, of Architectural Iron Work, or Structures of any description,
fivf9 I872--4otv___
Architects and Builders of every description of Iron Roofs suitable for Railroad Stations, Gas Works, Warehouses, Workshops, and Fire-Proof Buildings generally.
We woicld -particularly call the attention of Railroad Companies and others to our Ijv&bPB^Sb^f Ibqjv rqqf, being both light and strong, covered either with Galvanized or Painted Corrugated Iron.
We are prepared to contract for Engine Houses and all hinds of Railroad Buildings.
Complete Fsbb-Pbqqf &t"XSl^%l3 constructed in any part of the United States.
We also manufacture @QBivreB9 of GaicVt3JrZB& i&qjv, of any architectural design. isq^f W&SS for Breweries and Malt Houses, including the new ^iSTBA'T Ps&s'Q'gSTEiy 'PzgrB for Kiln Floors, which has given-general satisfaction. Also, Msz,a,&iG Lerrsss for Signs.
Plans and Estimates for Iron Frame Roofs, and all kinds of Iron Work, furnished without charge.


We respectfully solicit the particular attention of Railroad Companies, Architects, and all others who require first-class, substantial buildings, to our Iron Truss Roofs.
After a full experience of many years as roof-engineers, and having abundant facilities for executing contracts for Iron Roofs, we are prepared to receive and execute orders for any specified plan or dimensions. "Wo respectfully point to numerous iron roofs of our construction, as our best references of good workmanship. The dimensions and location of a few of these will be found on pages 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14.
We also manufacture skeletons or frames of iron for any covering which may be required, This includes Galvanized Corrugated Iron, or Painted Corrugated Iron, Slate, or Tin laid on boards. We are prepared to execute contracts for Railroad Buildings of every description, Engine Houses, Machine Shops. &c., &c. We append a list of some of the roofs which we have erected during our business career, all of which have given entire satisfaction.
We do not consider it necessary to give here a detailed description of the roof plates given, as the method of construction speaks for itself in the cuts. As no two roofs are alike, a definite estimate of cost can be given only after personal interview, or correspondence bearing on the contract in question.
The plates give our leading methods of roof construction.
No. 1 represents our independent truss.
No. 2. A trussed arched rafter, covered with curved corrugated sheets.
No. 3. A French truss; skylight attached.
No. 4. A simple arch, formed of curved corrugated sheets, without rafters or trusses of any kind, being merely tied and braced, as shown.
Tho latter style makes a very cheap covering, thoroughly substantial, for any span under 35 feet. We have constructed a number of small spans of this design, which have given entire satisfaction.
Plate No. 3. Shows a locomotive round-house, framed with the independent truss rafter,wc have constructed a number of roundhouse roofs after this design,the roof supported by the outside wall, and a circle of iron columns within. The Illinois Central Railroad, and Raleigh and Gaston Railroad engine-houses, are roofed after this planthe former containing 18, the latter 20 engine-stalls.
Plate No. 4, is from a photograph of the Union Depot Building at Atlanta, Ga.span, 120 feet; length, 352 feet. All the work in this building above the walls, including towers, dormers, cornices, &c., is of our construction. The roof is after the trussed arch design, (plate No. 1,) and is covered with corrugated galvanized sheet iron; the towers are roofed with slate; the rafters in this roof are of curved deck beams, substantially trussed, tied and secured by anchors, purlins of T iron trussedthe principles of strength and durability being curried through the whole structureand weight and resistance of material so balanced, that we feel safe in saying, there is not a more substantial roof covering iu the country. Wc construct any of our frames to carry cither flat or corrugated iron, slate or tin, at option of the buyer.
Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad Company, at Baltimore, engine house, iron covering.
Norfolk and Petersburg Railroad Company, at Norfolk, engine house, iron covering.
Illinois Central Railroad Company, at Chicago, engine house, iron covering.
Illinois Central Railroad Company, at Chicago, machine shop, 75 by 175, iron covering.
Illinois Central Railroad Company, at Chicago, blacksmith shop, 70 by 100, iron covering.

The superior merits of Galvanized Iron Cornices are now well known to architects and builders. It is not, therefore, necessary to Cntcr upon an elaborate description of their merits in order to inform them. But for the sake of presenting these merits more fully, before all those who are interested in buildings, we will briefly point out some things in which they excel all other descriptions of cornices.
From an experience of twenty years wc can testify how gradually, but surely Galvanized Iron Cornices have come into favor. Their popularity is now so wide spread, that in order to answer the many personal and epistolary inquiries which are constantly made to us concerning cost and other particulars, we have been induced to offer to the public a catalogue of a portion of our patterns. The styles, however, arc so numerous, subject, too, to other and newer, and, of course, to increasing improvements on these styles, that it is almost impossible to set them forth in one book.
We claim, first, as a primary merit for Galvanized Iron Cornices, their cheapness, compared with those of stone or cast iron. This alone should recommend them to builders generally, especially when strength and lightness are taken into the account, which can be easily shown.
Durability, as compared with wood, is another merit possessed by our cornices. Driving rains and atmospherical influences will hasten the decay of wooden cornices; but, as our Galvanized Iron Cornices will resist all climatic changes, they possess the merit of durability.
The lightness of the material is another recommendation in favor of Galvanized Iron Cornices. Their pressure on the walls of buildings is comparatively little, which makes them the more easily to be fitted to their places, and more safe and permanent in their positions.
We furnish Galvanized Cornices of any required design, either plain or of the most elaborate description.
Thorough fire-proof floors or ceilings, such as will prevent the spread of the flames from one floor to another, and which will confine the fire to the floor on which it originated, must be acknowledged to be a desideratum in the erection of all buildings, especially of large and public edifices. We now manufacture these ceilings, known as the Gilbert Patent Corrugated Iron Arched Ceilings, under letters patent granted within tho last three years. We have carefully examined into the merits of this valuable ceiling or floor, and have been so convinced of the vast advantages of its peculiar construction that we can confidently recommend it to all architects and builders, and to all interested in building. Wc do this with more confidence, as it has been closely examined by the principal architects and engineers of this and other cities, aud unanimously pronounced a most valuable invention.
The following advantages may be briefly stated in favor of the iron ceiling:
1. It takes fully one-half or more of the weight from the walls of the building.
2. The great strength of the corrugated iron arch enables us to place the beams wider apart than when brick is used, consequently its use will admit of beams of less weight being used, and fewer of them than is neecesary with brick arches.
3. It saves the rods.
4. It saves plastering.
5. There is no lateral pressure against walls.
G. It is more ornamental than the plain brick arches.
These advantages, without adding a word more, are sufficient surely to introduce iron ceilings or floors to uuivcrsal adaptation.
We may just add, that although this method of fire-proof ceiling has been brought to the notice of the public within the last three years, yet large orders have been received by us from all parts of the country, and in all buildings into which these ceilings have been introduced, they have given entire satisfaction, o

Hall of the Franklin Institute,
Philadelphia, Feb. 26, 18G8.
The Committee on Science and the Arts, constituted by the Franklin Institute of the State of Pennsylvania, for the promotion of the Mechanic Arts, to whom was referred for examination a Fire-Proof Ceiling invented hi/ Mr. Joseph Gilbert, report that the nature of the invention is in the use of corrugated sheet-iron, supported upon, and spanning the space between iron beams, the corrugations being so arranged that a series of alternate convex and concave arches extend as ribs and depressions across the space between the beams, thus giving to the sheets vertical stiffness. The sheets are covered with cement, which increases this stiffness and prevents moisture from penetrating downwards to the iron. The sheets may extend straight from beam to beam, or may be arched as is customary with brick or concrete fire-proof floors.
When used as a flooring it is arched so that the top of its cement cover is nearly flush with that of the beams. Any description of floor may be laid on the beams. The intervening space between floor and arch may be filled with concrete, resting against haunches of brick placed next the sides of the beams. The corrugated sheets are secured to the beams (acting thus as ties or braces) by means of cast-iron ledges of suitable shape, resting upon the lower flanges of the beams, and fastened thereto.
It will be evident from this description that the distinguishing feature of the mode under discussion, as compared with other plans of fire-proof floors, is in the substitution of corrugated sheet-iron, covered with cement, for cither brick or concrete arches, or for flat sheets of iron covered with cement.
The following advantages appear to be secured by it:
1st. A considerable reduction in the weight of the floor, which enables the beams to be lighter, and which, from both these causes, reduces the weight to be borne by the walls of the building.
2d. A saving of time in the execution of the work, and in scaffolding for completion of the Building, as each story may be separately progressing without fear of accident, while the walls are laterally strengthened during the course of building,
3d. Some saving in story height may be affected, owing to the
reduced thickness of the arch, without increasing the number of bfeauis employed.
So far as regards its fire-proof qualities, the Committee believe it to be fully equal to either of the modes commonly employed. Possessing the advantages already enumerated, its introduction in lieu of other systems will, in the opinion of the Committee, be governed by commercial considerations, into which they cannot of course enter. There does not appear to be any good reason why its expense should be greater than brick arches on iron beams.
By order of the Committee Wm. Hamilton, Actuary.
Messrs. J. Vaughan Merrick, ~\
Tnos. S. Stewart, > Committee of Examination. Edwin F. Durang, )
The undersigned having examined the merits of the Gilbert Fire-Proof Ceiling," fully endorse the foregoing report of the Committee of Science and Arts of the Franklin Institute of Pennsylvania.
John McArthur, Jr., Architect,
No. 205 South Sixth Street, Philadelphia. John Stewart, Architect,
No. 427 Walnut Street, Philadelphia. Samuel Sloan, Architect,
No. 152 South Fourth Street, Philadelphia. James H. Windrim, Architect,
No. 800 Walnut Street, Philadelphia. John Fraser, Architect,
No. 430 Walnut Street, Philadelphia. George W. Hewitt, Architect,
No. 430 Walnut Street, Philadelphia. Frank Ferness, Architect,
No. 430 Walnut Street, Philadelphia. J. C. Sydney, Architect,
No. 204 South Fifth Street, Philadelphia. Isaac H. Hobbs & Son, Architects,
No. 436 Walnut Street, Philadelphia. George Summers, Architect,
No. 623 Walnut Street, Philadelphia. S. D. Button, Architect,
No. 430 Walnut Street, Philadelphia. Richard B. Osborne, Architect,
Civil Engineer, Philadelphia.

Tho following Sketches or Diagrams will give a practical idea of the manner of using the Corrugated Arched Ceiling:
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7 illustrates two sections of the Corrugated Iron Arches, or part of a finished ceiling, with concrete to the surface of the beams, and the lower flange of the beams enclosed or covered with a galvanized iron casing, which makes a very ornamental finish.
Fig. 1 shows an elevation of this ceiling; two H beams, with corrugated arch between, resting on the lower flanges; inclined bricks at the haunches; the space between the bricks and beams filled with concrete, aud a light layer of concrete upon the surface of the arched plates.
Fig. 2 is a detached sectional view of the same, on a large scale, showing one beam, with parts of the arches, brick haunches and concrete. Fig. 3 is a section across sheet.

Fig. 4.Cells for jails or other purposes, for which these corrugated iron-arched plates are particularly adapted. The cut shows two cells, a single and double arch; the upper cell showing the single arch resting on the walls of the cells, and the lower cell the double arch, using the iron beam.
Fig. G is an end view of the same. Any style of ornamentation applied to suit the purchaser.

Galvanized Sheet Iron Architecture.
To make our catalogue more complete, we append the following plates, Nos. 1G, 17 and 18, to give an idea of the appearance of sheet iron architecture.
Plate No. 1G, gives a view of the dome of the Macoupin County Court House, Illinois, erected by us about three years since, is of iron throughout. Extreme diameter, 45 feet; height from main roof to base of lantern, 65 feet; height from main roof to top of spire, 125 feet. We erected a large amount of ornamental work, both iu the interior pannelling and finish of the rooms, and the interior and exterior of the dome. An examination of the finish of the dome, shows how we apply our ornamental stamped work, being elaborately ornamented with brackets, Corinthian columns, scrolls, mouldings, leaf work, &c, nearly all of which are of galvanized sheet iron, combining the smallest amount of weight with durability.
french roofs, dormers, &c.
Wc are prepared to contract for and construct, French or Mansard roofs of all styles, plain or elaborate, of galvanized sheet throughout, or part sheet and part slate. Nos. 17 and 18 show French roofs with dormers, towers, &c., complete of our construction. It is not necessary that any woodwork should enter into tho construction of this class of architecture, as we can, when desired, back it with a light iron frame, and stiffen where necessary, with light braces, so that it is perfectly practicable to do away with the great objection to the Mansard roof, its liability to fire, as we make them all iron above the walls.
iron fronts.
We are prepared to contract for and erect, in any part of the country, fronts for stores and public buildings, &c., of sheet or cast iron, or in part of each. Our customers find it expedient at times to have a first story of cast iron for strength, the balance of galvanized sheet iron backed with rough brick work, combining lightness and security from fire, with any required design, and at a less cost, considering the durability of the work, than can be produced in any other way.
We have now presented in this volume, as complete an outline of our business as we can. We claim to do a larger class of work thau any other house in the country. We are prepared to construct or supply any material appertaining to iron architecture, to supply sets of beams and rafters for warehouses, or special iron work of any description. We claim that it is of advantage to any builder to be able to manufacture the several items of roofs, cornices, fronts, beams, &c, and to adapt them to each other in the same factory, rather than to divide the job among several manufacturers, trusting to the correspondence of parts when brought together.
We guarantee to make of sheet iron, any style of construction that can be carved in stone or cast, losing none of the advantages of those materials, and gaining some that they have not, such as cheapness, lightness, with a proportionally less cost of transportation, and an equally good, if not better appearance when finished.
By the introduction into our works of greatly improved machinery, we are enabled to produce the most elaborate designs at comparatively small cost. Our house is one of the oldest in the country, having been established now fully 20 years, which gives us the benefit of a very extensive experience iu our business, and a set of operatives, fully acquainted with every detail of their trade, to be acquired only by years of practice, so that wc know our work to be unsurpassed by that of any other firm.

Plate 17

General Offices: BETHLEHEM, PA.
Copyright 193S
Bethlehem Galvanized Sheets are steel sheets uniformly coated with Prime Western Zinc (Spelter). The sheet bars used are made to analyses that will result in sheets with the required physical properties. The proper ductility and workability of the sheet is developed by careful mill practice. The zinc is applied so that a uniform tight coat is obtained. The sheets are finished with a bright full spangled lustre. The rust resistant properties of galvanized sheets are dependent upon the purity, uriiformity and weight of the zinc coating and the composition of the base metal.
Galvanized sheets are used for the manufacture of containers such as drums, pails, garbage cans; metal garages; chickenincubatorsjfeedingtroughs; pans, air conditioning ducts; formed roofing and siding; metal shingles; window frames; eaves trough, conductor pipe, cornices, skylights and numerous other products.
Bethlehem Galvanized Sheets may be obtained in simple open hearth carbon steel, Beth-Cu-Loy (copper-bearing) steel, and Copper-Iron compositions.
Very heavy coatings are apt to crack or peel upon forming thereby lessening the rust resisting properties. Consequently it is important, when ordering, to state the nature of the work which will be done upon the sheets* so that the requirement may be satisfied by the sheets supplied.
Bethlehem Galvanized Sheets are supplied with commercial coatings, tight coatings, extra tight coatings, and heavy and special coatings of zinc as ordered. They are made in gauges from 10 to 31, inclusive, with the maximum rolling limits as given on page 43. A table of bundling weights is given on pages 53 to 59 inclusive.
Bethlehem Galvanized Sheets of open hearth steel are marked with the triangle trade mark. When the sheets are made from copper-bearing steel the Beth-Cu-Loy trade mark is also shown.

4-arm pickler for hot rolled sheets.
then through cold water and finally through hot water. The cold water removes the acid and the hot water removes what traces of acid are left and heats the metal which aids in the rapid drying necessary to avoid rusting. The drying is completed by directing blasts of heated air upon the strip as it comes from the hot rinse tank.
Galvanized sheets are black sheets which have been coated with a thick durable coating of molten zinc (spelter) of approximately one and a half ounces per square foot of surface to provide a protective coating for the steel. After the sheets have been rolled they are carefully pickled, as zinc will not adhere properly to scale nor to an oily or dirty surface. The sheets are kept immersed in the storage tanks, to prevent the formation of rust, until they are required at the galvanizing pot. The pot is of steel construction placed upon a brick foundation so constructed that the pot may be heated by gas or oil fuel. The pot holds a bath or charge of molten zinc into which has been placed the galvanizing machine, consisting of guides, rolls and driving mechanism so arranged that the sheets may be passed through the zinc bath. At the entry end of the pot molten flux floats on the bath. The pickled sheets are given a final hydrochloric acid rinse, to thoroughly rlean the surface, and then are passed through the flux into the zinc bath and emerge upon a conveyor which carries them to a cooling rack wheel and inspection table. Upon cooling, the zinc crystallizes in the form of spangles which have a bright, lustrous, attractive appearance.
through a series of rolls covered with the paint, and a uniform primer coal is thereby applied to each sheet. After leaving the painting machine the sheets pass into a baking oven in which the paint is thoroughly dried. Thii drying results in a firm, tightly adherent paint coat. The paints usualb employed are of red oxide of iron or black asphaltum bases, for rust retard ing upon outside exposure, and grey primer for ceiling stock. Painting act as a rust inhibitor and while not so good as galvanizing, yet it does dela] the action of corrosion.
Sheets are blued by subjecting the hot sheets to exposure to steam Steam oxidizes the surfaces of the sheets and a thin, tightly adherent coa: or film of oxide is formed, which is rust resistant. This is of a practically uniform blue in color. In steam bluing, the steam is introduced into th< annealing boxes while the pack of sheets is hot. Inasmuch as a heavy scale would flake, and thereby destroy the protective qualities of coating, all sheets 24 gauge and heavier must be pickled before being blued.
Cold reduced sheets and hot rolled pickled sheets rust readily. The changes in temperature which occur when sheets are in transit to customers' plants or when in storage, may cause the sheets to sweat and rust, even though wrapped in waterproof paper. Consequently such sheets should be oiled whenever ultimate use permits. This is accomplished by passing the sheets through two rolls covered with absorbent fabric which is kept saturated with a specially prepared oil. This film of oil protects the surfaces from moisture and retards development of rust.
Sheets are carefully wrapped to prevent exposure during shipment.

Inspecting galvanized sheets.
tWI ft 67 MM
i11ii I n

r i
Forming galvanized sheets into rolled roofing.
Bethlehem manufactures many Roofing and Siding Products of galv nized, painted and uncoated sheets. The sheets are rolled and processed develop properties suitable for the application. Only prime sheets are use Careful workmanship and close inspection result in full weights, proper applied tight coatings and accuracy of sizes. Beth-Cu-Loy and simple ca bon open hearth steels are used.
Formed steel sheets are used extensively for roofing and siding becau of their lightness, rigidity and strength. They have the advantage of beii fireproof and of lessening the hazard of damage due to hghtning. They mi be applied easily and at a low cost. _
Bethlehem Stormproof Roofing and Siding Sheets, galvanized only.
Bethlehem Stormproof Adjustable Ridge Roll, galvanized only.
Bethlehem Stormproof Flashings, galvanized only.
Corrugated Sheets, 1}4", 2-,;2H" and 3" corrugations, galvanized or painted.
V-Crimped Sheets, 2-V, 3-V and 5-V Crimped, galvanized or painted. Roll Roofing, single or double seam cross lock, galvanized or painted. Plain Brick Siding, galvanized or painted. Rock-Faced Stone Siding, galvanized or painted. Rock-Faced Brick Siding, galvanized or painted. Plain Ridge Roll, galvanized or painted.
Corrugated Ridge Roll, and 2J4" corrugations, galvanized or painted.
Plain Ridge Cap, galvanized or painted.
Valleys, Formed and Rolled, galvanized or painted.
Flashings, Plain or Corrugated, galvanized or painted.
Details of gauges, sizes and other information will be found on the fo lowing pages.

Bethlehem Stormproof Flashings are supplied for installations in which Stormproof Roofing, Siding and Ridge Roll have been used. They are furnished in Beth-Cu-Loy (copper-bearing) and simple carbon open hearth steel base materials, though it is recommended that the composition be the same as that of the sheets used. Stormproof materials are firrnished galvanized only. Stormproof Flashings are made in 26 to 29 gauge inclusive.
The length of the End Flashing (26 inches, covering width 24 inches) matches the width of the Stormproof Roofing or Siding Sheet; and the other dimensions are as shown. They can be furnished bent up or bent down. The flashing furnished with flat leg bent up is for use with lean-to roof construction.
Side-wall Flashings (Roof Starters and Roof Finishers) are made in lengths of 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 feet, with other dimensions as shown. Can be supplied with zinc coatings heavier than commercial.
Bethlehem 1J4 inch corrugated sheets can be supplied in galvanized, painted, or uncoated form.
The steel base may be simple carbon open hearth or Beth-Cu-Loy (copper-bearing) composition. Dimensions are as indicated in sketches. of cross section.
Gauges: 20 to 29 inclusive.
Lengths: 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 feet.
Widths: Siding Type, standard width, 25 inches, covering 24 inches when lapped one corrugation.
Roofing Type, standard width, 26 inches, covering 24 inches when lapped one and one-half corrugations.
(see sketches below)
in II
(One end down, one end up)
- 24" cover width -- 26" full width -
(Both ends down)
- 24" cover width 25" full width-
Bethlehem Corrugated Sheets of open hearth carbon steel are marked with the triangle trade mark. When the sheets are made from copper-bearing steel the Beth-Cu-Loy trade mark also is shown.
Bundling tables are given on pages 82 and 83.
Number of sheets per square and number of square feet in one sheet are given on page 80.
Standard weights per square are given on page 81.

Bethlehem Plain Ridge Rolls are made of galvanized or painted sheets. The steel base may be simple open hearth or Beth-Cu-Loy (copper-bearing) composition. Style A ridge roll is furnished without a nailing flange, and Style B with a nailing flange. Girths of 6 and 7 inches can be furnished only in sheets of 24 gauge and lighter.
Gauges: 20 and lighter.
Lengths: Up to 10 feet, which we consider standard.
The girth of ridge roll is the width of
Diameter Girth -j l f r
of Roll Style a Stylo b
1" 6" 1" y2" y2
Wi" 7" y2" w w w y2
1 Vi 2" \K" y2" \
VA" 8" .. Vi"
cm 10" 2V2" 2" w i
2V2" 12" 3" 2V2" 3" y2" y2" y2" w y2
3" 14" 3V2"
3" 15" 4" m" y2
3" 18" 5H* 5"
Bethlehem Corrugated Ridge Rolls are made of galvanized or painted sheets. The steel base may be simple open hearth or Beth-Cu-Loy (copper-bearing) composition.
Gauges: 20 and lighter. Lengths: Up to 10 feet.
Dimensions: Girths of 8", 10", 12" and 14", with corresponding lengths "L" of 2, 3, 4 and 5 inches. Diameter of roll, 2 inches.
Corrugations: lM".or 2y2".
Girth 29 2B 26 24 22 20
Gauge Gauge Gauge Gauge Gauge Gauge
7" 420 450 530
CO 480 520 610
10" 600 650 760 960 1,170 1,380
ro 720 780 910 1,160 1,410 1,660
14" 840 910 1,060 1,350 1,640 1,930
16" 960 1,040 1,210 1,540 1,880 2,210
18' 1,080 1,170 1,360 1,740 2,110 2,490
20" 1,200 1,300 1,520 1,930 2,350 2,760
For intermediate girths, use the weight of the next larger girth. Do not accept orders for lighter than No. 29 gauge.

Bethlehem 3-V Crimped Sheets can be supplied in galvanized or painted form.
The steel base may be of simple carbon open hearth or Beth-Cu-Loy (copper-bearing) composition. V-sticks can be supplied when specified. Dimensions are as indicated in sketch of cross section.
Gauges: 26 to 29 inclusive.
Lengths: 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 feet.
Widths: Standard width 25 inches, covering 24 inches when side crimps are lapped.
24- cover width -
25" full width
Bethlehem V-Crimped Sheets of open hearth carbon steel are marked with the triangle trade mark. When the sheets are made from copper-bearing steel the Beth-Cu-Loy trade mark also is shown.
Bundling tables are given on pages 82 and 83.
Number of sheets per square and number of square feet in one sheet are given on page 80.
Standard weights per square are given on page 81.
Bethlehem 5-V Crimped Sheets can'be supplied in galvanized or painted form.
The steel base may be of simple carbon open hearth or Beth-Cu-Loy (copper-bearing) composition. V-sticks can be supplied when specified although not customarily used in 5-V Crimped applications. Dimensions are as indicated in sketch of cross section.
Gauges: 26 to 29 inclusive.
Lengths: 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 feet.
Widths: Standard width 26 inches, covering 24 inches when side crimps are lapped.
24" cover width
26" full width
5-V Crimped Sheets can also be supplied with the same special capillary feature as is used on our Stormproof Roofing illustrated on page 62. This consists of three cross corrugations at the bottom of each sheet which keep the end laps under pressure and make a neat, tight fit.
Bethlehem V-Crimped Sheets of open hearth carbon steel are marked with the triangle trade mark. When the sheets are made from copper-bearing steel the Beth-Cu-Loy trade mark also is shown.
Bundling tables are given on pages 82 and 83.
Number of sheets per square and number of square feet in one sheet are given on page 80.
Standard weights per square are given on page 81.

Bethlehem Roll Roofing can be supplied in galvanized or painted form.
The steel base may be of simple carbon open hearth or Beth-Cu-Loy (copper-bearing) composition.
This roofing is put up in rolls, each roll containing 50 linear feet, thereby having a covering area of one square 100 square feet. The roll consists of 5 sheets 120 inches long with either single or double seam cross locks as specified.
Gauges: 26 to 29 inclusive.
Width: Standard width 263^2 inches, covering 24 inches.
Weights: Weights per roll of 50 feet are given on pages 82 and 83. Weights per square are given on page 81.
Bethlehem Roll Roofing made of open hearth carbon steel is marked with the triangle trade mark. When the sheets are made from copper-bearing steel the Beth-Cu-Loy trade mark also is shown.
Bethlehem Pressed Brick Siding can be supplied in galvanized or painted form. '
The steel base may be of simple carbon open hearth or Beth-Cu-Loy (copper-bearing) composition. Dimensions are as indicated in sketch.
Gauges: 26, 28 and 29.
Size: Standard size is 28 inches by 60 inches, covering 27% inches by 59 inches.
59- cover -- 60- fuu.
Bethlehem Siding Sheets made of open hearth steel are marked with the triangle trade mark. When the sheets are made from copper-bearing steel the Beth-Cu-Loy trade mark also is shown.

Bethlehem Rock-Faced Brick Siding can be supplied in galvanized or painted form.
The steel base may be of simple carbon open hearth or Beth-Cu-Loy (copper-bearing) composition. Dimensions are as indicated in sketch.
Gauges: 26, 28 and 29.
Size: Standard size is 28 inches by 60 inches, covering 27 inches by 59 inches.
Bethlehem Rock-Faced Stone Siding can be supplied in galvanized or painted form.
The steel base may be of simple carbon open hearth or Beth-Cu-Loy (copper-bearing) composition. Dimensions are as indicated in sketch.
Gauges: 26, 28 and 29.
Size: Standard size is 28 inches by 60 inches, covering 27 inches by 59 inches.
59" COVER -- 60" FULL
Bethlehem Siding Sheets made of open hearth steel are marked with the triangle trade mark. When the sheets are made from copper-bearing steel the Beth-Cu-Loy trade mark also is shown.
- 59" COVER -60- FULL
Bethlehem Siding Sheets made ol open hearth steel are marked with the triangle trade mark. When the sheets are made from copper-bearing steel the Beth-Cu-Loy trade mark also is shown.

CARNEGIE-ILLINOIS STEEL CORPORATION Carnegie Building: 434 Fifth Avenue Pittsburgh, Pa. 208 South LaSalle Street Chicago, 111.
TENNESSEE COAL, IRON & RAILROAD COMPANY Brown-Marx Building Birmingham, Ala.
Birmingham, Ala.........Brown-Marx Bldg.
Atlanta, Ga.........Trust Co. of Ga. Bldg.
New Orleans, La..........Maison Blanche.
Boston, Mass............Statler Office Bldg.
Hartford, Conn., 31 FairmontSt., Wethersf'Id. Chicago, III..............208 S. LaSalle St.
Dee Moines, Iowa.......Des Moines Bldg.
Peoria, 111.................102 Bigelow St.
Cincinnati, Ohio.........Union Trust Bldg.
Columbus, Ohio...........A. I. U. Citadel.
Dayton, Ohio........... 1723 Auburn Ave.
Lexington, Ky........460 North Broadway.
Louisville, Ky........4528 West Broadway.
Cleveland, Ohio..........Rockefeller Bldg.
Buffalo, N. Y..........Liberty Bank Bldg.
Denver, Colo.....First National Bank Bldg.
Detroit, Mich........General Motors Bldg.
Toledo, Ohio............Toledo Club Bldg.
Houston, Texas...........Petroleum Bldg.
Dallas, Texas.............Praetorian Bldg.
OfficesContinued Indianapolis, Ind. ... Chamber of Com. Bldg.
Milwaukee, Wis.............Bankers Bldg.
New York, N. Y.............71 Broadway.
Albany, N. Y.................90 State St.
Philadelphia, Pa.....Broad St. Station Bldg.
Pittsburgh, Pa.................Frick Bldg.
Bluefield, W. Va.........2129 Jefferson St.
Parkersburg, W. Va... 1815 Washington Ave.
Warren, Pa...........208 Conewango Ave.
Youngstown, Ohio.. Union Nat'I Bank Bldg. St. Louis, Mo.. Mississippi Valley Trust Bldg.
Kansas City, Mo.......Fidelity Bank Bldg.
Tulsa, Okla...............Philtower Bldg.
St. Paul, Minn____First National Bank Bldg.
Duluth, Minn................Wolvin Bldg.
Minneapolis, Minn..........Security Bldg.
Washington, D. C.. .American Security Bldg.
Baltimore, Md. .609 Mercantile Trust Bldg.
COLUMBIA STEEL COMPANY Russ Building San Francisco, Calif.
LOs Angeles, Cal.....2087 East Slauson Ave.
Portland, Ore.......2345 N. W. Nicolai St.
Salt Lake City, Utah____Walker Bank Bldg.
Seattle, Wash .... 1054 Fourth Ave., South. Also Pacific Coast Distributors for United States Steel Corporation Subsidiaries
Export Distributors United States Steel Products Company New York City
U S S Roofing Ternes
ROOFING TERNES, which are frequently known as Roofing Tin, are made by coating Steel sheets with a mixture of Tin and Lead. Plates coated in this manner by experienced workmen have been known to last over fifty years, and can, therefore, be said to be the most durable roofing product on the market. Our Roofing Ternes are made exclusively from
and stamped with brand and weight of coating. It is perhaps needless to say that our decision to use this alloy was arrived at only after most careful thought and exhaustive research.
The service tests made in the rural districts, in the coke regions, and at the seashore, have convinced us that U S S Copper Steel is far more durable for roofing purposes than regular steel or iron, and we have no hesitancy in recommending it as the best Roofing Terne on the market. It is thoroughly coated, and every process of its manufacture is marked by the exacting care and skill necessary in the production of high grade terne plates.
In the manufacture of our Roofing Ternes the weight of coating is stamped plainly on each sheet. This is an important feature and should be noted by buyers and users.
The name of the producing company will be ad on the side of boxes.
These are carefully made with a U S S Copper Steel base. For all purposes to which light coated ternes are adapted, the brands shown above will be found eminently satisfactory.
These plates are furnished in 8 or 15 pounds coating, as shown in illustration.
It is not to be expected that light coated Ternes, however carefully manufactured, will last as long as the more heavily coated plates, and for this reason we advise that plates of 20 pounds coating or more be used on buildings of the better class.
U S S Ternes measure up to the well-known ;. standards established for plates of these grades [i and coatings.

f \
Tcnneseal Roofing (Type No. 1) is applied in a different manner from that usually employed in laying other forms of V-Crimped Roofing, the latter being frequently laid and lapped at the sides and ends in the same manner as corrugated roofing.
Tenneseal Roofing Sheets are not laid in rows-from left to right or right to left across the roof. Instead, they must be laid in rows from eaves to ridge. In brief, the first Tenneseal Sheet should be applied at the lower left gable end, with the triple cross crimps at the bpttom. Then lay the second sheet above the first, lapping it about 6 inches over the first sheet. Then lay the third sheet above the second, etc., until the first vertical row is finished. After the first row from eaves to ridge is completed, apply each additional row in the same way. This makes an absolutely rainproof roof.
In laying Tenneseal Roofing, there is another important thing to bear in mind, viz., that all nails at the side laps should be driven through the outside overlapping V with an extra nail through the middle crimp at the end laps.
In the case of Tenneseal Sheets no cutting or forming is necessary at the end laps. The Triple Cross Crimps effectively stop end-lap leaks, as they eliminate capillary attraction the cause of most leaks of this nature.
Do not bend the lower end of Tenneseal Sheets down at the eavesjust allow them to I extend about below the decking. To
bend down the lower end of these sheets would close the drain. V-Sticks not required.
Follow the same general instructions for applying Stormseal as given for Tenneseal Roofing. The flat tops to the Vs of this pattern facilitate nailing. Special fittings such as Ridge Roll, V Ridge Capping, and Wall Flashings, are made to fit Stormseal Roofing. |
ROOFING TERNES And Their Application
Roofs constructed with low pitch are made with flat seams, and should preferably be covered with high grade ternes, 20 pounds coating or heavier, 20 x 28 inches. For flat seam roofs, cleats should be used about 6 inches apart, fastened by two 1-inch barbed and tinned roofing nails to the cleat. They should be well covered by the turned end of the cleat, and the seams should be pounded down. Nails must never be exposed.
Steep roofs (not less than 2, or more than 4 inches rise per foot) should be made with standing seams and from sheets 20 x 28 inches, fastened with cleats about 8 inches apart, two nails to the cleat. The nails should be driven into the cleats only, and cleat-end turned over the nail-heads.
The under side of the roofing should be given a coat of good paint before laying.
While it is always cheapest to use the best material, roofing plates with a lighter coating may be used for steep standing seam roofs. IC roofing ternes, in which the base plate weighs about 50 pounds per 100 square feet, are more used than IX ternes, 62 pounds per 100 square feet.
For spouts, valleys, and gutters, heavily coated IX ternes should always be used. It is important to use right materials.
For valleys, spouts and gutters, no other metal than roofing ternes should be used, because the galvanic action produced by different metals coming in contact with each other will cause disintegration under atmospheric influences.
The terne coating of the lighter gauge ehould in all cases be fully as heavy as of the heavier gauge.
Ternes with light coatings may be suitable for some purposes other than roofing, or for roofs of temporary buildings, but for roofs that are expected to last, the more heavily coated ternes should be used.
The use of acid in soldering seams is to be carefully avoided; acid, coming in contact with the metal of the cut edges and corners, where the sheets are folded and seamed together, will cause rusting. No other soldering flux than good rosin or palm oil should be used.
Every roof should be carefully cleaned, and all rosin spots and other detrimental substances should be removed as the tinner's work is being finished. Lumps of rosin left on the roof will melt in the sun, stick to the roof, cause blisters, and prevent paint from adhering.
Workmen on the roof should wear soft soles to obviate injury to the coating.
The sheathing boards underlying the roofing ternes should be laid with tight joints. The ; wood should be well seasoned, dry, and free from resinous knots. It may be advisable to cover the boards with good building paper | before the roofing ternes are laid; no paper containing tar or trace of acid should be used.
When no paper is used, the roofing must in all cases be painted on the underside with good reliable oil paint before it is laid and fastened on the roof. The outside should receive two I' : coats of paint as soon as roof is finished. See I page 140, regarding painting.
132 |

f \
All ordinary sheet metal exposed to the elements should be given a protective coating. Even the zinc coating of galvanized sheets is gradually weathered away, and the application of a good paint, renewed at proper intervals according to climatic conditions, will prolong the useful life of sheets almost indefinitely.
All sheets should be clean, so as to obtain I close contact of paint and metal. Uncoated (black) sheets should be free from loose mill ; oxide and rust, and, if necessary, wire brushed and wiped with turpentine or gasoline. 'Grease ; and oil may be washed off with a suitable solvent, such as naphtha or toluol. Terne coated (roofing tin) is best wiped with benzine, turpentine, xylol, toluol, gasoline, or naphtha to remove the oil film, the last mentioned being especially effective for removing tar. Zinc \ coated (galvanized) is best prepared by simple I exposure to the weather for a few months until j the luster disappears. If necessary to apply j paint to new zinc coated sheets, they may first be brushed with a solution of four ounces of copper sulphate, copper chloride, or copper acetate in one gallon of water, and after drying i again brushed lightly. Better results may be j obtained, if facilities permit, by cleaning with a solution of 200 parts of water, 30 parts trisodium phosphate, and 4 parts of sodium
; hydroxide, all by weight, at 140 to 180 F.. then washing with hot water, followed by etching at room temperature for about one-half minute with solution of 1000 parts water, 200 parts muriatic acid, and 20 parts ammonium nitrate
! all by weight, and then washing and thoroughly
i drying.
The weather should be clear and dry and the j paint preferably applied in the afternoon, es-; pecially the priming coat, as it is essential that the surface be free from moisture. It is preferable to coat the surfaces in laps with fairly i thick priming paint as the sheets are placed in
f \
position. The paint may be applied by brush or spray. The priming coat should be thin enough to fill and wet all parts as too thick a j paint is liable to bridge over depressions and lj joints. The finish coat or coats should be I, thicker, and a total of not less than two coats should be applied, giving time for proper drying between coats. { Paint applied directly to sheet metal should be rust inhibitive, and the priming coat should, therefore, have a basic pigment, such as red lead, lead chromate, or zinc chromatezinc dust and zinc oxide, three or four to one, make I; efficient paint for both priming and finishing, ' especially as primer for zinc coated (galvanized) 1 sheets. These primer pigments effectively neutralize acid corrosive agents, and should be !' protected, in acid industrial atmosphere, by acid-resisting finish coats. Iron oxide paint i is used for priming and has given good service, but much better protection is obtained if it I contain 10 per cent or more of basic or chromate pigment, such as zinc oxide, red lead, or zinc chromate. The pigment for the finish may be j of any good moisture excluder of suitable color. Linseed oil, preferably boiled, makes a good vehicle for the pigment, and excessive dryer ; should not be used. The use of boiled linseed oil or durable mixing varnish as part of the last 1 coat adds to gloss and water resistance. It is j economy to use only the best grades of paint for metal work.
More extensive information may be gained from "Paints for Metal," Institute of Paint and \\ Varnish Research, Washington, D. C.
Number of Gauge Weight per square foot in ounces Weight per square foot in pounds
00 112.5 7.031
9 102.5 6.406
10 92.5 5.781
11 82.5 5.156
12 72.5 4.531
13 62.5 3.906
14 52.5 3.281
IS 47.5 2.969
16 42.5 2.656
17 38.5 2.406
18 34.5 2.156
19 30.5 1.906
20 26.5 1.656
21 24.5 1.531
22 22.5 1.406
23 20.5 1.281
24 18.5 1.156
25 16.5 1.031
26 14.5 .906
27 13.5 .844
28 12.5 .781
29 11.5 .719
30 10.5 .656
31 9.6 .694
32 9.0 .563
33 8.5 .531
34 8.0 .500
"The galvanized sheet gauge is based upon the United States standard gauge for sheet and plate iron and steel; 2.5 ounces per square foot being added to the weight per square foot corresponding to a given gauge number of the United States standard gauge to determine the weight per square foot of the corresponding gauge number of the galvanized sheet gauge. This is a weight gauge for finished sheet regardless of the weight of coating and has been established by custom in the United States."
"The tin-plate gauge is based on pounds per base box. This is an old British unit amounting to 31,360 square inches, or 217.78 square feet, and corresponds to the area covered by 112 plates, each 14x20 incheB. * The symbols noted in the table are inherited from the British industry."
(United States Bureau of Standards Circular No. 391.)
Multiply by
lb. per sq.ft. 16.000
lb. per sq. ft. 217.78
lb. per sq. ft. 3484.4
oz. per sq. ft. .062500
oz. per sq. ft. 13.611 oz. per sq. ft. 217.78
lb. per base box .0045918 lb. per base box 073469 lb. per base box 16.000
and obtain oz. per sq. ft. lb. per base box oz. per base box
lb. per sq. ft. lb. per base box oz. per base box
lb. per sq. ft. oz. per sq. ft. oz. per base box
oz. per base box oz. per base box oz. per base box
.0002S699 lb. per sq. ft. .0045918 oz. per sq.ft. .062500 lb. per base box

1 <
Formed from Black, Painted, or Galvanized Sheets, No. 22 Gauge and lighter. Standard covering width 24 inches. Standard lengths 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 feet. Maximum length 12 feet. Standard board has 4 inch face and depth of H inch.
Formed from Black, Painted, or Galvanized Sheets, No. 24 Gauge and lighter. Standard covering width 24 inches. Standard lengths 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 feet. Maximum length 12 feet. Beads are 3 inches from center to center.
Formed from Black, Painted, or Galvanized Sheets, No. 26 Gauge and lighter. Standard size of sheets, 28 x 60 inches. Size of each brick approximately 2 4/5 x 8 4/7 inches.
Made from Black, Painted, or Galvanized Sheets, No. 26 Gauge and lighter. Standard size of sheets 28 x 60 inches. Size of each brick approximately 2 4/5 x 8 4/7 inches.

' x 36' 3 STALL HORSE BARN plan no. 9 I 30' x 48' CLEARSPAN UTILITY BUILDING plan no. 2
fx 24' MACHINE SHOP & STORAGE plan no. i I 40' x 96' x 17' HAY STORAGE plan no. i
r x 24' 2 CAR GARAGE/UTILITY BLDG. 24' x 36' 2 STALL/TACK Er STORAGE plan no.h
timber framing of standard-or-better lumber, for greater strength Heavy-duty steel roof and wall panels, professionally finished [in a variety of colors
Engineered trusses for large, clear span areas Penta-pressure treated posts and splashboards for long life Bolted construction for improved stress resistance Heavy-duty farm hardwareworks better, longer Maintenance-free for many years
[ecan provide a type and size of building for every shelter job. [owait for costly plans, surveys or estimates. Simply tell us what pi need, and in a matter of days we can erect a building on your te.
x 48' 6 STALL HORSE BARN plan no. 14
Marion County, South and Central Florida:
John Knox Rt. 2, Box 1578 Oklawaha, Florida 32679 Telephone: (904) 236-5608
North Florida and Southern Georgia:
Cal Cook Town and Country Sales
Box 536 Live Oak, Florida 32060 Telephone: (904) 776-1445

Cal Coox To'wa **d Count
So* 5JS iLive Oak, Florid; Tc1ep'htiT>e: I.SQ4J !
Roofing and Siding
Strongpanel is the brand name of an economical, rib-type, galvanized/color-coated steel roofing and siding panel manufactured by the Granite City Steel Division of National Steel Corporation. Strongpanel is easily installed on wood post-frame and all-steel structures, and is readily available through a network of wholesale distributors and retail dealers (see AVAILABILITY, page 8). Strongpanel also has a unique combination of product features and benefits that make it ideally suited for many types of building applications commercial, industrial, municipal, recreational, farm and ranch, and even residential some of which are shown on these pages.
Features and Benef its
"Full-hard", High-tensile Strength
Strongpanel steel is manufactured to ASTM Specification A446, Grade E, which requires "full-hard" structural qualities of 80,000 psi minimum yield point and 82,000 psi minimum tensile strength. This high tensile strength steel and a unique rib-type design combine to give Strongpanel exceptionally high spanning properties for its thickness and weight (see Load Tables, page 6). Compared to competitive steel products, Strongpanel is stronger than ordinary "soft" (annealed, or heat-softened) 29 and 28 gage steel and equal in strength to ordinary 26 gage steel.
Thus, Strongpanel strength provides greater rigidity and load-carrying capacity, plus spring-like resistance to damage during installation and in usage. Strongpanel bears up under pressures of ice, wind and snow loads, and is less apt to vibrate, bend or buckle, or tear at fastener holes during severe weather conditions. Strong-panel also contributes a high degree of diaphragm strength to the lateral stability of a building. Fastened to girts, Strongpanel panels form efficient wall diaphragms that distribute wind loads; fastened to purlins, they form a roof diaphragm that distributes snow loads. This literally helps hold a building together and eliminates or decreases the need for extra structural bracing (see Bulletin BP94).
Board and Batten Beauty
Strongpanel has a distinctive rib design that recreates the classic board and batten look popular since colonial days. Strongpanel 5/8-inch high ribs, spaced 10 inches

center to center, provide this "bold look" that is more architecturally eye-pleasing than old-fashioned corrugated and similar designs. And due to its snug-fitting, tight-nesting design, Strongpanel side laps are hidden and individual panels do not show. Only a continuous, unbroken shadow pattern is visible along a Strongpanel wall.
Weathertight Protection
The Strongpanel rib design permits a free flow of water runoff, and includes a non-leak drain to channel out any water that might be forced into its snug-fitting side lap. Wide 30-inch cover width (32-inch panel width) and long lengths (up to 30 feet) result in fewer side and end laps and a tighter, stronger, neater-looking building.
Quick, Easy Installation
Strongpanel lays flat and nests tightly at side and end laps. A special strip on each main rib positions fasteners to assure correct, neat installation. Strongpanel strength provides a rigid, safe working platform that is comfortable to sit, kneel or stand on and shows no installation abuse. Wide cover width and long lengths speed installation because of fewer panels and rows, less fitting and fastening.
Greater Strongpanel strength-to-weight ratio permits wider nailer spacing; this reduces purlin and girt requirements and speeds framework construction. Strongpanel wide cover width and long lengths mean fewer panels to buy and apply, less loss at side and end laps, fewer fasteners, faster installation. Result: Lower material and labor costs.
Galvanized Durability
Galvanized Strongpanel is G90 Designation zinc-coated, manufactured by the hot-dip process to ASTM Specification A525, for protection against corrosion and years of low-maintenance service life.
Color-Coated Beauty and Durability
Color-coated Strongpanel combines deep, rich, earth-tone colors with board and batten design to present a most attractive appearance for any type building.
Color-coated Strongpanel is currently available in these exterior colors:
Off-white on the Strongpanel interior surface brightens a building interior and protects against condensation damage.
Best of all, color-coated Strongpanel provides extra protection and, thus, even greater durability than galvanized. More than just a layer of paint, this coating is actually a thermosetting, or oven-cured, system of five separate coatingseach of which contributes to the high degree of adhesion, corrosion resistance and surface qualities of the total process. This five-step coating process is the inside story of the long-lasting protective beauty of color-coated Strongpanel:
1. G90 hot-dip galvanized (zinc) coating protects cold rolled steel base metal against corrosion.
2. Zinc phosphate coating
prepares galvanized surface for adhesion of primer.
3. Primer paint coating*
insures adhesion of finish coating and protects against corrosion.
4. Polyester finish paint coating*provides rich, durable surface color and protection.
5. Wax coating adds lustre, protects finish during shipping and storage.
*Primer and finish paint coatings total 1.5 mil thickness or exterior and interior surfaces.
Color-coated Strongpanel carries manufacturer's "I (identification) code numbers on the interior surfa that represent the month, year and coil number w.: the color coating was applied. This traceable ident tion is an extra measure of protection for the user, reminder that Strongpanel quality is backed by Gi City Steel an industry leader for nearly 100 years
A complete line of matching Strongtrim accessory available to trim and finish exteriors of building? with Strongpanel (see page 5).
:n ica-nd a aite
Other Products
Other galvanized steel roofing and siding products available from Granite City Steel Division, upon inquiry, are (A) Heavier gage Strongpanel and (B) 1-1/4 and 2-1/2 inch cor rugated STRONGBARN. Contact your nean National Steel Corporation sales office or representative for details.

STRONGTRIM Accessories
k complete line of over 140 matching galvanized and :olor-coated Strongtrim accessories is available to trim and finish exteriors of buildings built with Strongpanel. This number reflects a manufacturing flexibility that provides for new part design or special dimensional requirements.
Strongtrim is produced from the same "full-hard", high-tensile steel as Strongpanel.Strongtrim also has the
same five-step thermosetting color coating process and is available in the same colors.*
These are some of the most popular Strongtrim accessories. See Catalog BP101 for total current selection (parts may be added or deleted at any time).
'Some parts are not available in full-hard material or in all colors; non-full-hard parts are available in Galvanized and Bone White only.
lidge Roll, Flat
:nd Wall Flashing, TRONGPANEL
36 ommercial Rake
45 Door Jamb Trim
52 Door Track Cover Cannonball


04 Ridge Roll,
06 Ridge Cap, Flat

22 5" x 5" Rake & Corner

07 Ridge Cap,


41 Single Angle
42 Double Angle

sw I >
44 Single Angle

46 J-Shape Trim
47 Door Track Cover 48 Door Edge Trim Cannonball or National
56 (without holes)
57 (with holes) J-Shape Trim
61 (3:12), 62 (4:12) End Cap
75 (1W). 76 (3%6" Door Track Cover-National

Galvanized Steel Thickness Color-coated Steel Thickness Galvanized Weight Color-Coated Weight Moment of Inertia Section Modulus
Design Stress Yield Point Tensile Strength
.0172 inch nominal .0187 inch nominal
78 lbs. per square
79 lbs. per square .007 inch4
+ .0137 inch3 -.0154 inch3 48,500 psi 80,000 psi minimum 82,000 psi minimum
DIMENSIONS Lengths Overall Width Cover Width Side Lap
Maximum Rib Depth Main Rib Spacing
6 through 30 feet 32 inches 30 inches 2 inches 5/8 inch
10 inches center-to-center
Load Tables
PURLIN OR NAILER SPACING (Center to Center in Inches)
18 21 24 27 30 33 36 39 42 45 48 54 60
SINGLE 1 I LOAD Lbs./Sq. Ft. 197 145 111 87 71 59 49 42 36 32 28 22 18
k-i. SPAN DEFLECTION Inches .110 .150 .196 .248 .307 .371 .441 .518 .601 .690 .786 .994 1.23
DOUBLE r i LOAD Lbs./Sq. Ft. 221 163 124 98 80 66 55 47 41 35 31 25 20
1 A 1 SPAN DEFLECTION Inches .052 .070 .092 .116 .144 .174 .207 .243 .281 .323 .368 .465 .574
TRIPLE 1 1 LOAD Lbs./Sq. Ft. 277 203 156 123 100 82 69 59 51 44 39 31 25
SPAN DEFLECTION Inches .082 .112 .146 .185 .228 .276 .329 .386 .447 .513 .584 .739 .913
NOTE: Limiting steel design stress is 48,500 psi. determined in conformance to standard specifications as published in American Iron and Steel Institute "Light Gage Cold-Formed Steel Design Manual."
PURLIN or NAILER SPACING (Center to Center in Inches)
18 21 24 27 30 33 36 39 42 45 48 54 60
DEFLECTION .180 .210 .240 .270 .300 .330 .360 .390 .420 .450 .480 .540 .600
SINGLE SPAN LOAD Lbs./Sq. Ft. 197 145 111 87 69 52 40 31 25 21 17 12 9 20
DOUBLE SPAN 221 163 124 98 80 66 55 47 41 35 31 21
TRIPLE SPAN 277 203 156 123 100 82 69 59 48 39 32 22 16
NOTE: Deflection equals purlin spacing in inches divided by 100. Loads to the left of the heavy line are controlled by a limiting steel design stress of 48,500 psi, determined as stated above.
STRONGPANEL Installation
Strongpanel is formed on a continuous roll-forming machine that moves galvanized and color-coated steel coils through a series of roller dies. This process assures a consistent, uniform cover width that results in close tolerances and tight, good-looking buildings. But these close tolerances also require proper Strongpanel handling and installation, as recommended herein and in Brochure BP41.
Storage and Handling
Prior to installation, galvanized and color-coated Strongpanel should be stored only in a DRY place. Do not store outdoors, nor in any indoor area subject to moisture. Stand panels on end and fanned out at the bottom to provide air circulation, or stack flat in piles on blocks to protect the bottom panels from ground
moisture. In handling color-coated Strongpanel, li and do not slide panels when unpiling.
Roofing Installation
Slope: Minimum roof slope for Strongpanel is 3 in rise per foot. Apply sealant at side laps for less slo
Purlin Spacing: Strongpanel will safely span 24 to inches between roof purlins under normal load conditions (see Load Tables for specific spanning properties).
Side Lap: 2 inches, with lapping rib completely o-drain feature rib.
End Laps: Under 4 inches rise per foot... 12 inch
4 inches rise per foot... 8 inches lap
5 inches or more rise per foot... 6 inches lap
No end laps are necessary on roof lengths of 30 fe. or less.

Eave: 3 inches minimum overhang. Start roofing vertically at edge away from prevailing wind. Because of its side lap drain feature, Strongpanel roofing may be started from either right or left edge.
Round or Arch Roof Installation: Strongpanel is suited for round or Gothic arch roofs. Maximum purlin spacing is 24 inches for a continuously curved nailing surface and best appearance. Minimum curvature radius is 25 feet; for smaller curvatures, sheet metal screws may be needed to close any side lap gaps. If short-length panels are used, minimum end lap is 9 inches. Because of tension caused by curved surfaces, securely fasten boti ends of all panels.
Sid ng Installation
Gii Spacing: 36 to 60 inches (see Load Tables).
Sid Lap: 2 inches, with lapping rib completely over dra n feature rib.
Em Lap: 3 inches panel-over-panel and also over foil dation or splashboards.
Sta siding vertically at edge away from prevailing wii i, from either right or left edge.
Na: s
For est results in nailing Strongpanel, galvanized steel rin or screw-shank nails with flat rubber washers sho Id be used. Use 2-inch or 21/2-inch long nails for bot roofing and siding. Nails should not go completely thri igh purlins or girts, nor should they be overdriven.
Strc lgpanel roofing sho Id be nailed per mdicular to slanted surl ce of special nai' ig strip at top of eacl main rib between indi ited line and rib edgi (see illustrations).
Stro gpanel siding shoi id be nailed perj ndicular to indi ited line centered in tip of each main rib (see illustrations).
Drill Screws
Strongpanel roofing and siding may be applied by use of self-tapping drill screws with sealing washers. For best results, panels should be fastened to purlins and girts at each side lap and 10 inches center-to-center in all flat areas between ribs. Minimum screw spacing may be at side laps and center flat area only, or 15 inches center-to-center. Or, a combination of both methods may be used, by alternating them at every other purlin.
Use lVfc-inch long screws at side laps, along nailing strip farthest away from finishing edge of lapping rib (see illustration A); use lVfc-or-l-inch long screws at flat areas (see illustration B).
Cutting and Shearing
Strongpanel is easier to cut from its interior (bottom) side because of the flatter surface. A power saw, sabre saw, snips, or profile shear may be used. Air- or manual-operated profile shop shears are available from Granite City Steel (see Bulletin BP33); profile field shears are also available.
Color-Coated Strongpanel
Application of color-coated Strongpanel is no different than galvanized Strongpanel. Its coating does not hide its special nailing strip. For first-class appearance, color-coated waffle-head nails or color-coated drill screws should be used.
Power saw cutting of color-coated Strongpanel should be done away from other unused or already installed panels. Place the interior (bottom) surface of the panel UP and cover it with a tarpaulin. This protects the exterior (top) surface from the hot filings and minimizes the chance of damage. Wipe all filings from both surfaces before application. If these cutting precautions are not taken and rust spots develop, naval jelly or auto cleaner/wax may be used to remove them.
Touch-up Paint
Touch-up paint in all Strongpanel colors is available from Granite City Steel (see Bulletin BP96).
Skylights and Windows
Translucent panels with Strongpanel pattern are available for use as skylights and/or windows in a wide variety of colors and opacities from leading manufacturers of these products.
Strips and Sealants
For best results in making a building weathertight, formed filler/sealer strips at roof ridge and eaves should be used. Strips with Strongpanel pattern are available in several materials from leading manufacturers of these products. Butyl rubber sealants are excellent for side lap sealing.
Insulation and Treated Wood
Insulation made of various materials in roll, sheet, spray-on, and blown form is available from leading manufacturers of these products. However, manufacturers' recommendations should be followed to determine if certain insulation materials or types of treated wood are compatible with and thus, may be used in contact with galvanized or color-coated steel.
Failure to comply with these procedures relieves the manufacturer of responsibility for any resultant damage to or deterioration of the product and VOIDS ALL WARRANTIES. THERE IS NO IMPLIED WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR PURPOSE.

Furnish and install STRONGPANEL roofing and/or siding and STRONGTRIM accessories, as manufactured by Granite City Steel Division of National Steel Corporation, or equivalent on wood or steel framing.
Galvanized StrongpanelMaterial shall be .0172 inch nominal thickness, high-tensile galvanized steel. Base metal is structural (physical) quality, manufactured to ASTM Specification A446, Grade' E, requiring 80,000 psi minimum yield point and 82,000 psi minimum tensile strength. Zinc coating is G90 designation, manufactured by hot-dip process to ASTM Specification A525, requiring 0.90 ounce per square total on both surfaces by triple spot test and 0.80 ounce per square foot by single-spot test.
Color-Coated StrongpanelMaterial shall be .0187 inch nominal thickness, high-tensile color-coated (painted) steel. Base metal and zinc coating are the same as Galvanized Strongpanel. Paint coating is thermosetting polyester finish, 1.5 mil total on both surfaces. Color
shall be:_
.(Cocoa Brown,
Mint Gold, Bone White, Evergreen, Rural Red).
Galvanized or Color-Coated StrongtrimMaterial shall be the same galvanized or color-coated thickness as Strongpanel, with base metal and zinc coating manufactured to the same ASTM Specifications. Paint coating is the same as Strongpanel, with matching colors.
The contractor shall furnish all labor, fasteners and equipment to install Strongpanel roofing and siding and Strongtrim accessories according to instructions and recommendations described herein and in Brochure BP41
Strongpanel galvanized/color-coated steel roofing and siding and Strongtrim accessories are available from wholesale distributors or retail lumber and building material dealers throughout the country. Contact the nearest National Steel Corporation district sales office or resident sales representative for the name of a nearby outlet.
National Steel Corporation
District Sales Offices
Park Seneca Office Bldg.
Phone: 704/525-6241
619 Pioneer Bldg.
Phone: 615/266-5748
The Tower
2850 East Golf Road
Rolling Meadows, Illinois 60008
2818 DuBois Tower
Phone: 513/421-1425
100 Erieview Plaza
Phone: 216/523-3000
775 Heritage Square
4835 L.B.J. Freeway
Phone: 214/387-8601
26400 Lahser Road
Southfield, Michigan 48037
Phone: 313/352-3300
Burton Breton Prof. Bldg.
2335 Burton Street, S.E.
Phone: 616/241-6485
Two Greenwich Plaza
P.O. Box 1535
Phone: 203/622-8250
3500 DePauw Boulevard
Phone: 317/293-7600
KANSAS CITY, MISSOURI 8900 State Line Road Leawood, Kansas 66206 Phone: 913/383-121X1 LOUISVILLE, KENTUCKY 40220 3717 Taylorsville Road Phone: 502/459-4333 MILWAUKEE, WISCONSIN 53226 2300 North Mayfair Road Phone: 414/476-1212 MINNEAPOLIS, MINNESOTA 55435 4570 West 27th Street Phone: 612/835-7141 MOLINE, ILLINOIS 61265 Upland Center 1465 41st Street Phone: 309/797-2591
172 98th Avenue
Phone: 415/638-5000
1462 Suburban Station Bldg.
1617 John F. Kennedy Blvd.
Phone: 215/568-5220
910 Chatham Center Office Bldg.
Phone: 412/263-4121
1195 Pierre Laclede Center
7733 Forsyth Blvd.
Phone: 314/726-1325
308 Libbey-Owens Ford Bldg.
811 Madison Avenue
Phone: 419/243-4128
Resident Sales Representatives
ATLANTA, GEORGIA 30326 3445 Peachtree Road, N.E. Phone: 800/438-5143 BALTIMORE, MARYLAND 4030 Woodside Drive Fredricksburg, Virginia 22401 Phone: 703/786-4024
BUFFALO, NEW YORK 302 South Woodside Drive Alden, New York 14004 Phone: 716/937-6360 DES MOINES, IOWA 50310 3800 Merle Hay Road Phone: 515/276-8844 HOUSTON, TEXAS 77024 P.O. Box 19566 Phone: 713/468-5101
MEMPHIS, TENNESSEE 38157 5050 Poplar Avenue Phone: 901/682-9667 OMAHA, NEBRASKA 68144 2007 South 139th Circle Phone: 402/334-1550 PEORIA, ILLINOIS 4617 North Prospect Road Peoria Heights, Illinois 61614 Phone: 309/688-9714
Granite City Steel
Division of
National Steel Corporation
Agri-Building Products Granite City, Illinois 62040
SOUTH BEND, INDIANA 229 Boulevard de la Paix Phone: 219/233-8707 TULSA, OKLAHOMA 7411-1805 South Carson Phone: 918/583-7766
m Md Country Sale*
Box 536 s Oak, Florida' 32060 Pho*ei (904) 77^4%

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