• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Acknowledgement
 Abstract
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Overview of Savannah
 The Savannah College of Art and...
 Literature review
 Methodology
 Results
 Discussion
 Conclusions
 Works referenced
 SCAD campus map
 SCAD holdings
 Demographics -- Chatham County
 Chatham County economic base
 Broughton Street merchant...
 Broughton Street use maps
 Residential study area -- demographic...
 Residential study area -- statistical...
 Wallin Hall study area map
 Cuyler-Brownsville study area...
 Signature page






Group Title: city as campuscanvas
Title: The city as campus/canvas
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00095996/00001
 Material Information
Title: The city as campus/canvas a case study of the Savannah College of Art and Design as a scattered site college campus
Physical Description: vi, 142 leaves : ill. (chiefly col.), maps ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Randall, Kelly
Donor: unknown ( endowment ) ( endowment ) ( endowment ) ( endowment )
Publisher: Kelly Randall
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2000
Copyright Date: 2000
 Subjects
Subject: Urban and Regional Planning terminal project M.A.U.R.P   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Kelly Randall.
Thesis: Terminal project (M.A.U.R.P.)--University of Florida, 2000.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (leaves 98-102).
General Note: Printout.
General Note: Urban and regional planning terminal project
General Note: Project in lieu of thesis
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00095996
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 002684584
oclc - 46428144
notis - ANF1855

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
    Acknowledgement
        Page ii
    Abstract
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Overview of Savannah
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    The Savannah College of Art and Design
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Literature review
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
    Methodology
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
    Results
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
    Discussion
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
    Conclusions
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
    Works referenced
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
    SCAD campus map
        Map 1
        Map 2
    SCAD holdings
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
    Demographics -- Chatham County
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
    Chatham County economic base
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
    Broughton Street merchant survey
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
    Broughton Street use maps
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
    Residential study area -- demographic comparisons
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
    Residential study area -- statistical analysis
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
    Wallin Hall study area map
        Page 143
        Page 144
    Cuyler-Brownsville study area map
        Page 145
        Page 146
    Signature page
        Page 147
Full Text





THE CITY AS CAMPUS/CANVAS:
A CASE STUDY OF THE SAVANNAH COLLEGE OF ART AND DESIGN
AS A SCATTERED SITE COLLEGE CAMPUS














By
Kelly Randall






A PROJECT PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2000






ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


Many people have helped and encouraged me tremendously during the past two years,

and I would like to start off by thanking my parents, Marty and Jean Randall, for their support

and love. My sisters and brothers and their various spouses are next in my heart, and I thank

them for their love, and for letting me know that they would never stop razzing me if I didn't

manage to finish! My thanks especially goes to Mike and Norma for all they've done for me over

the last two years. My nieces and nephews are always with me, and I especially want to thank

Ben for deciding he wanted to follow in my footsteps and become a city planner (even though

I'm not sure he knows exactly what that means). This is a constant reminder to be the best

planner I can, because it's not just a job it's his future.

I am ever grateful to my thesis committee, and especially my Chair, Dr. Ruth Steiner, for

your patience with my many "one little" questions, and for your guidance through the research

process. The faculty of the Department of Urban and Regional Planning receive my thanks for

the education they have provided me, both through their courses, and through their stories.

Through their willingness to share their experiences, they've taught me much more than I ever

could have learned from books alone.

And finally, I would like to thank Lisa Braner, Chris Mettler, Jeni Morris, Marcy Akel

and Sandra Joseph for their encouragement, their advice, and the technical knowledge they

haven't hesitated to share with me. I couldn't have done it without them.






Abstract of Project Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial

Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Urban and Regional

Planning



THE CITY AS CAMPUS/CANVAS: A CASE STUDY OF THE SAVANNAH COLLEGE OF
ART AND DESIGN AS A SCATTERED SITE COLLEGE CAMPUS


By

Kelly Randall

August 2000


Chairperson: Dr. Ruth Steiner
Major Department: Department of Urban and Regional Planning


The Savannah College of Art and Design (SCAD) utilizes a scattered site campus design

that is highly unusual in the United States. SCAD's campus includes 45 residential,

administrative, classroom, library and studio buildings serving over 5,000 students. These

buildings, primarily renovated 19th century schools and industrial buildings, are located

throughout Savannah's two-square mile Landmark Historic District and Victorian Historic

District. Many claims are made regarding the scattered site campus form, and its effects on the

communities surrounding the buildings. These claims include increased neighborhood and

commercial revitalization through the adaptive reuse of so-called "white elephants"; less stress

on infrastructure and transportation systems; and increased safety for all residents of the city.

This paper uses the case study method to look at two areas where SCAD has located a

residential neighborhood and the city's primary downtown retail street in order to determine

the impact that SCAD has had on each.






Analysis of property value data in residential comparison neighborhoods shows a direct

impact on property values due to the location of SCAD in a neighborhood. Merchant interviews

conducted on Savannah's primary downtown shopping street show that SCAD's effects there

have been more indirect, and are currently unquantifiable. This paper discusses the implications

of higher education institutions with scattered site campuses on community revitalization efforts,

as well as the generalizability of this model to other environments and types of universities.









TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter 1: Introduction..................................... ............................ 1
Traditional University Campuses... ................ .................. ... .......... 2
The Savannah College of Art and Design............... .......... ......... ...... 4
Effects on the Savannah Community....... ....... ......... ... ................ 6

Chapter 2: Overview of Savannah........................................................ 10
H istory..... ........... ......... .... .. .. ..... .. ...................... 10
The Historic Preservation Movement........ ....... ............... ... ........... 14
Savannah as a Livable City...................... .. .. ... ... .......... ..... 16
Dem graphics ................. ........... ......... ............... .. 22
Economic Base........ ................................ ......... .......... 24
Politics and Planning Regulation........................... ............ 26

Chapter 3: The Savannah College of Art and Design............................... 28
History.................................................... 28
Dem ographics......................... ................... 30
Campus Development ....... .................................... 31
Student Services ... ... ...... ...... ............ .. ....... ...... ...... .... .. 40

Chapter 4: Literature Review......................................................... 43
Traditional Campus Planning ..... .................. ...... ...... ........ 43
Issues in Campus Planning..... .......... ... ........................ 49
Coherence ................ .................. . ........... ........... 49
Transportation... ...... .... ........................ ........... 50
Building Types and Uses ......................... ... ....... ........ 51
Student Demographics ............. ............................. 53
Technological Im pacts....... .... ... ................................. 54
University-Community Relations ............ ...... ..................... ............ 55
Revitalization ............................ ... .. ... . ... .. ........... .. 58
Retail Composition.................... ... .............. .. ............. 59
Residential Revitalization ........................ ..... .. ... ...........6..... 60
Role of the A rts .................. ..... ............ ... ... ... ........................ 62
Role of Schools .................. ............. ...... ..... ... ........ .... 65
Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design.................................. 66
Summary .................................... .......... ...... ....... .......... 68


v









Chapter 5: Methodology.................................................................... 70
Literature Review .................................................. ................ 70
Interview s ............................... ........... ..... ...... ...... ..... ........ 70
Case Studies............... ...... .................... ............ ..... 71
Broughton Street... ........ ................... ... ............................ 71
Wallin Hall ...................... ... ......................................... 72
Property Value Data....................... ........................................... 75
GIS Data Collection and Mapping ................................................. 76
Statistical A analysis .................... .................... ...... ........... ......... 77

Chapter 6: Results............................................... ....................... 78
Adaptive Reuse.................. ................................................. 78
Residential Revitalization ......................................................... 80
Commercial Revitalization....................................................... 83

Chapter 7: Discussion...................................................................... 86

Chapter 8: Conclusions........................................ ..................... 92
Recommendations for Further Research.................. ..... ........... 96

Works Referenced...................................................................... 98

Appendices......................... ...... .......................................... 103
Appendix 1.1: SCAD Campus Map.................................................... 103
Appendix 1.2: SCAD Holdings..................................................... 104
Appendix 2.1: Demographics Chatham County ............... ............. ...... 115
Appendix 2.2: Chatham County Economic Base Data ............. .............. 120
Appendix 5.1: Broughton Street Survey......................... ................ 124
Appendix 5.2: Broughton Street Use Maps .............. ...................... 132
Appendix 5.3: Residential Study Area Demographic Comparisons................ 137
Appendix 6.1: Residential Study Area Statistical Analysis ................. ....... ... 141
Appendix 6.2: Wallin Hall Study Area Map............................................ 144
Appendix 6.3: Cuyler-Brownsville Study Area Map ............................. 146








Chapter 1

Introduction



Savannah, Georgia. The name is meant to be drawled in the slow, soft cadence of coastal

Georgia, a breathy, sighing sound. To say it quickly does it an injustice, lacking the invocation

of moss-draped live oaks curving over brick and cobblestone streets, of squares filled with

monuments to the long-dead heroes of the South, and of gracious nineteenth century mansions of

stone and brick. It's a charming city, genteel and quirky, where the pace of life was, until twenty

years ago, calm and slow, characterized by a smooth surface and unseen, roiling undercurrents,

much like the river sliding by at the foot of the Bay Street bluffs.

The city was isolated from the great rushes of development after both World Wars I and

II, by both a cultural unwillingness to change, and a physical location well off the mainstream of

American transportation systems (Morrison, 1979). It was not until a century after General

Sherman's Christmas presentation of the city to President Lincoln at the end of the Civil War

that Savannah again came to the forefront of America's collective cultural consciousness. John

Berendt's bestselling book and the resulting movie, Midnight in the Garden of Good and Evil,

brought both publicity and tourists to the city in hordes, and contributed greatly to the rebirth of

its economy.

However, as well-known and as evident as the effects of Midnight (as it is commonly

known) may be, there is another, even more powerful institution at work on the city. The

Savannah College of Art and Design (commonly known as SCAD) has affected Savannah's

social, cultural, physical and economic environment to a degree that no one could have or would

have predicted twenty years ago.








In 1979, Richard and Paula Rowan, an Atlanta couple, settled on Savannah for the

location of a new tertiary institution for art and design education. They had long felt the lack of

such an institution in the Southeast, and felt that Savannah had the atmosphere and culture that

would attract students and allow such a school to flourish. They, their 7-member faculty and 70

students took over and renovated a building in the heart of Savannah, directly on the city's main

north-south commercial thoroughfare, and facing one of its famous squares. The former city

armory became the center, both literally and figuratively, of the college's campus, as the school

expanded to its current 45 buildings scattered over a two square-mile section of historic

Savannah.

The purpose of this work is first to attempt to empirically determine the effects that

SCAD has had on the city of Savannah's residential and commercial neighborhoods. We will

then discuss the ability of this model to be utilized for commercial revitalization purposes in

other cities and with other types of colleges and universities.



Traditional University Campuses Anglo-Saxon and European Models

The Rowans' conscious choice to create a scattered site campus flew in the face of

traditional American campus planning, which called for, and continues to call for, campuses on

the model of England's great college towns of Oxford and Cambridge, and of the enclosed

quadrangle forms characterizing their college buildings. (It must be noted that the administrative

composition of American universities is different from English universities, and that the

definitions of colleges and universities are different in the United States than in much of the rest

of the world. For the purposes of this paper, when discussing American institutions of higher

learning, the words "college" and "university" are used interchangeably. In addition,








"American" refers to the United States; other countries in North or South America will be

referred to by name.) American college campuses are exemplified by the land-grant institutions,

which tend to be pastoral, and characterized by separate buildings set among open greenswards

(Dober, 1992; Turner, 1984). Even among suburban and urban institutions, campus buildings are

generally oriented towards, and interact with, each other. Any physical relationship with the

town or city in which they are located tends to be incidental, and for the most part, there is a

conscious effort to isolate and close themselves off from the city. The university is traditionally

inwardly oriented, physically, socially and culturally. Even universities located in the center of

major metropolitan cities tend to be separated from their adjacent communities. In the words of

one scholar researching town and gown issues, "Universities reside in communities, but often

have distinct, antagonistic interests from those of their neighbors" (Mayfield, Hellwig and

Banks, 1999, p. 864). In addition, Daniel Coit Gilman, the founding president of Johns Hopkins

University in Bethesda, said that the entire purpose of the university was to insulate scholars

from the turmoil of the city (Bender, 1998, p. 17).

The first American colonial colleges, starting with Harvard, followed from the Anglo-

Saxon tradition of isolation of students, which will be discussed further in Chapter 4. They

located in suburban or rural areas, walling themselves, either literally or figuratively, off from

their surrounds. In the four centuries since, campus planning has followed much the same route.

Of course, there are exceptions truly open urban campuses such as New York University or the

new downtown campus of the University of Texas at San Antonio that are physically and

socially involved in their respective cities. And there has been a recent movement for other

universities to become involved in their communities through service learning and outreach

programs, and through physical revitalization programs as well. However, these are relatively

3








recent developments, and born of a necessity to make the neighborhoods adjacent to the

university safe and attractive they are not, for the most part, an integral part of the universities'

missions.

In contrast, the founders of the Savannah College of Art and Design chose a route rooted

more in the continental European tradition of campus planning, where the university is less a

separate entity from the community than a part of it. Europe's oldest universities were founded

in the hearts of her major cities, as in the example of Paris's Sorbonne, and continued to locate

there throughout their subsequent growing periods. As a result, their buildings tend to be

scattered throughout regions of the city, divided by departments, and students commonly travel

from one neighborhood to the next to take courses. Additionally, most students live either at

home with their parents or in apartments shared with other students, not in the dormitory

arrangements more common in the United States and Britain. New university campuses in

Europe are often modeled on these ancestral universities. Occasionally, as in the example of

Belgium's Louvain-le-Neuve, the need for a new university means the development of a new

town, incorporating not only the university, but also residences, businesses and industries for

residents not affiliated with the school.



The Savannah College of Art and Design

The Savannah College of Art and Design occasionally attempts to make a connection

with the British tradition of campus planning by comparing their growth around a Savannah

square with Oxfordian quadrangle models. However, SCAD's campus and the ways in which

students live and interact should be more closely compared to the European model, rather than

the British or American models. The growth of the campus has been organic, with the school








taking over empty institutional, commercial, industrial and retail buildings in the city's

Landmark and Victorian Historic Districts as the need for space and their financial constraints

allowed them to. Examples of their expansion policies can be seen in Appendices 1.1, a campus

map, and 1.2, an inventory of SCAD's buildings. The school has reused abandoned train sheds

and warehouses as design laboratories, motels as dormitories, and elementary schools as

classroom and studio spaces. With a few exceptions, notably the industrial buildings traditionally

known as the Neil-Blund complex, which SCAD calls the Mid-Town campus, and which they

hope to have operational as a computer art complex by 2002, the buildings are all located within

a two square-mile block of downtown Savannah. This proximity, and the lack of parking spaces

in the city, makes it easier to move about by foot, bicycle or bus than by car, and encourages

most of the students and faculty to live in the downtown area.

For their first decade, the growth of SCAD's campus was fairly easy, as the school was

relatively small and the city had a large stock of empty buildings. Even though they expanded

from 71 students in 1979 to 2,400 in 1994, most of this growth took place in the early 1990s.

Throughout the 1980s, the school was able to take over buildings at their leisure, and to provide

students with the opportunity to participate in their renovation as a type of "living lab/studio".

The school's growth and its affects will be discussed in greater detail in Chapter 3; suffice it to

say, however, that SCAD has experienced meteoric growth in their second decade, expanding

from 1994's population of 2,400 students to over 4,500 in 2000 almost doubling in only 6

years. The school is under tremendous pressure to renovate buildings and to get them into use.

SCAD's facilities manager states that their fiscal year begins in August, and that is when many

of their real estate purchases are made. Design Works, Inc., SCAD's in-house design and

construction company, is often expected to then have the buildings ready for use by the time the








school year starts in September. This means that students are no longer able to participate in

most renovations and that part of the "living studio" experience has been lost.



Effects on the Savannah Community

An additional effect of the school's rapid growth is that real estate prices for the city's

"white elephants" (which are SCAD's specialty) have risen dramatically, primarily because the

sellers realize that the school provides a demand for them, where there once was none.

Correspondingly, the school's population growth has led to a greater demand for housing from

both students and faculty. Because the buildings are scattered throughout the city, and not

centralized, students and faculty also live throughout the city, choosing to locate close to the

buildings where they have most of their classes. Not only are they renting many of the

affordable apartment units in these neighborhoods, but they also purchase houses and

commercial buildings that can be converted to loft and studio spaces. This affects not only the

school and its population, but the rest of the community, as well for revitalization and

gentrification often go hand in hand.

The direct effects on Savannah's real estate market are only one part of the story,

however, and perhaps the most tangible part. The other part is that the presence of SCAD and its

students in the downtown area have created what author Roberta Brandes Gratz (1989) refers to

as "a living city". Proponents of the school claim that the students have created a safer city,

through their presence on the streets at all hours of the day and night, along with the school's

own Campus Safety Patrol, which acts as a secondary police force. Claims have also been made

that SCAD has increased the cultural and social life of the city, through numerous art

performances and exhibitions open to all residents and visitors. The art and culture opportunities








now available in Savannah draw a new type of "foot-loose" migrant wealthy retirees, childless

professionals, and entrepreneurs seeking a place to start a business, buy a winter home, or

telecommute to their offices in the north.

Students and faculty patronize restaurants and shops close to their buildings and

residences, often located in marginal areas, and pump much-needed dollars into neighborhood

economies. And many students have stayed in the area after graduation, opening businesses of

their own in the downtown area. And although all of these may occur with the development of a

traditional college campus, in Savannah, it may be theorized that the growth of a scattered site

campus has had less of an impact on the city's infrastructure. Because of the location of the

buildings, housing and transportation problems have been dispersed around the city, rather than

clustered in one neighborhood. With adaptive reuse of older buildings, the school taps into

existing sewer, potable water, and transportation infrastructure, rather than requiring additional

facilities.

Finally, the school's growth has fueled the growth of Savannah's new economic force -

tourism. Quite simply, because of SCAD, there are few parts of the downtown that are perceived

as not safe or attractive, allowing visitors to feel comfortable wherever they go. And the school's

influence on the art, music and theater scene has attracted wealthy art patrons from around the

world, including some who choose to buy and renovate second homes in the historic districts. In

addition, the Economic Development Authority states that there have been corporations that have

chosen to locate in or to be involved in Savannah because of the presence of the school and the

diversity and vibrancy it brings to the city.

There is no doubt that the merger of SCAD and Savannah has worked to bring about the

city's rejuvenation, even with some negative gentrification issues and growing pains.








It remains to be seen whether "city campuses", or scattered-site campuses reusing older

buildings, can be successful in other cities to bring about the same type of revitalization that has

occurred in Savannah. There are aspects of both SCAD and Savannah that are unique, and which

allow the merger to work with minimal governmental assistance. These will be explored in

Chapters 2 and 3.

In Chapter 4 of this work, the literature regarding several aspects of scattered site

campuses, including relationships of universities with their communities, the principles of Crime

Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED), and the factors of successful revitalization,

will be reviewed. The claims made about SCAD's effect on the Savannah area will be explored

in greater detail in Chapters 6 and 7, and in Chapter 8, we will synthesize the benefits of

scattered site campuses, along with those elements necessary for one to succeed.

The results of this study will provide proof that SCAD does have pronounced effects on

residential neighborhoods, although the effects on commercial strips are less obvious. Review of

the literature of revitalization and of the anecdotal and statistical evidence of the presence of

SCAD and its students, and the power it has to draw additional residents and visitors who are not

affiliated with the school, will show that, in Savannah at least, the scattered site campus approach

is working to the benefit of all. It is important not to lose sight of the fact, however, that this

study looks at neighborhood revitalization in a time of extreme economic prosperity. There has

been renewed interest in downtown on the part of those with money and power all over the

country, not just in Savannah, during the 1990s. While SCAD is unique, similar revitalization

work based on commercial strip rejuvenation, heritage tourism, an arts focus, and historic

preservation efforts is occurring, and is successful, in many American communities. Some of








what is being attributed to SCAD's presence may simply be a function of a market cycle, which

is returning investment to the inner cities.

It remains to be seen whether the scattered-site, adaptive-reuse model would be viable in

a different environment, and a less-ebullient economic climate. This work suggests that it could

and would be successful in a variety of urban areas, and housing a variety of educational

institutions, including branches of major universities, part-time undergraduate and graduate

programs, and specialty colleges. The most likely duplication of SCAD's model in the near

future will be SCAD itself deciding to branch out into another city, a very possible scenario.

However, the results of this paper show the possibilities for scattered site campus buildings to

contribute to neighborhood revitalization. Combined with the growing concern about suburban

sprawl in this nation and an increasing trend towards preservation of historic and cultural

amenities, it is very possible that educational facilities planners, as well as city officials and

planners concerned about the well-being of their community, will pick up the idea of the

scattered site campus and apply it to a new campus sometime in the very near future.








Chapter 2

Overview of Savannah



History

Savannah is a fascinating place to outsiders, one that they can admire and study, but may

never truly understand. Founded in 1733 by a consortium of English noblemen, Georgia was an

experimental colony, where those of England's poor who were willing to emigrate, work hard,

and uphold democratic ideals were given a chance to better themselves and their families. It was

a very paternal concept, led by General James Oglethorpe, known to many of the colonists as

"Father", although better known today as the planner of Savannah's famous grid of boulevards

and squares. For the colony's capital, Oglethorpe chose a spot on the south side of the Savannah

River, about 10 miles from the Atlantic Ocean, where the river makes a half-moon, and the river

bank is a high bluff, with flat, level ground stretching for several miles. Each freeholder was

granted fifty acres of land, which included a 60 by 90-foot lot within the city walls for a house.

The city was divided into four wards, each of which included a square for recreation and defense,

and four large "trustees' lots" for public buildings (Morrison, 1979). Figure 2.1 is a copy of the

city plan from 1769 showing clearly the division of land into streets, squares, and residential and

public lots.

Originally, Savannah was to first become self-sufficient in matters of food, shelter and

clothing, and then to produce an export good in the form of silk to compete with the China trade.

In the spirit of reformation, and perhaps to keep the colonists from slacking off on their duties,

the founders outlawed slave ownership.








However, as with many utopian schemes, Georgia as an experiment soon foundered on

the rocks of individualism, lack of preparation, and a general failure to meet the overly high

expectations of either the colonists or the founders. Labor was expensive, few of the colonists

had experience in agriculture, and the silkweavers brought over to start the silk trade proved to

be recalcitrant. Cotton, rice, indigo and lumber were Savannah's mainstay during the 18h

century. Producing these products, especially cotton, in any great amount in those days required

large amounts of cheap labor, however, and with the competition working slaves in the fields,

Georgians could not compete with hired or indentured labor only. So, when Oglethorpe, the last

obstacle, returned permanently to England in 1743, Georgia turned to slavery. When Eli

Whitney invented the cotton gin in 1793, at a plantation very close to Savannah, the cotton

industry in the U.S. boomed. The city, as the trading port for much of Georgia, became one of

the most important centers for the nation's cotton trade, a role that sustained it for over 80 years

(Morrison, 1979; O'Toole, 1992).

Until the Civil War, Savannah's role as the cotton trading and exporting center of the

Southern United States meant a booming economy. The results of that 100 year long influx of

capital can be seen today in the magnificent mansions of the Historic District, the modern

designation for the pre-1850s city. The common lands to the south of the historic city were

owned by the government, and as the city grew, governing officials ensured that Oglethorpe's

plan of squares and wards was carried out faithfully. By 1860, all of these common lands were

consumed by a mixture of commercial, institutional and residential lots (Morrison, 1979).














Figures 2.1-2.4: Savannah's Growth Patterns







i. \N -, S /xIkN -N.AiW























-ilk

W" ImW m a L-
1L~~ Zr!


















Z~~1., LW 7z
__l


















-' ~ ... -. .... .







i.7 -







S u. o s19 71
* .1.


Souc Thrs19.1


~ZL
V~- A 'AL





----- .ntz
;LPL-j e,. -~- r... 'we.1 us ..'%-





W= 4- 'W- r-- I- _
pr--J



t*-c= cii-r 0~- J~~i'- 'In'- C
~~r- ra CT-Cb~=L C777,i









Rl


I.



(-J I _



I-:I =---LI

A ~-~


Ij .-








Savannah was spared the plight of many of the other southern cities that had to rebuild

after they were burned by General Sherman's "march to the sea" at the end of the Civil War.

However, it was not spared the economic ravages of the war and the loss of the livelihoods of

many of its residents. The end of the war and the resulting emancipation of the slaves also meant

that large numbers of unskilled and semi-skilled blacks migrated to the city in search of

opportunity. The newcomers, along with Savannah's native freed slaves, lived on the outskirts

of the historic district, in such new black towns as Beach Institute and Cuyler-Brownsville.

Some, like Beach Institute, were barely a block from the homes of wealthy whites, while others,

like Cuyler-Brownsville, were located in industrial areas along the railroad tracks. Both were

characterized by wooden-framed houses on small, often irregular lots, interspersed occasionally

with the larger, more ornate homes of professional, middle-class blacks, including the doctors,

lawyers and shopkeepers who served the black community.

For a century after the Civil War ended, Savannah and its surrounding areas suffered

S- 4 much the same fate as many other cities in the

south. Out of the way of general commerce,

but with an asset in the form of its port

facilities, the city survived but did not truly

prosper. Residents lived on old money, import

and export business (including oil refineries),

government subsidies in the form of military
Savannah in the early 1930s or at least Robert
Redford's version of it. The filming of The Legend o facilities, and the natural resources of the
Bagger Vance.








surrounding areas, including kaolin clay mines and pine plantations. There was enough growth

that the city kept expanding around its historic core, first with the development of the Victorian

District, a strip of wooden houses in typically ornate Victorian styles, many of which were built

as multi-family structures, with anywhere from two to six units, intended for working families.

Later developments were outside of the original boundaries of the common lands, and were

subdivided from private plantations, so Oglethorpe's plan of squares and boulevards was not

followed, although city officials did mandate a straight grid pattern of streets for many years. A

third ring of mixed housing grew up around that in the early part of the 20t century, with a

mixture of middle class and upper middle class houses, mostly occupied by whites fleeing the

historic city. The white flight continued in the years immediately preceding and following

World War II, when large neighborhoods of bungalows were built on the southern side of the

city. As was the case in so many of America's cities during this time, this movement left the

center to low-income blacks and large businesses. Eventually the city stepped in to begin urban

renewal of the historic area, and this is where Savannah's story begins to differ from many

others.



The Historic Preservation Movement

In 1955, the Federal-style Isaiah Davenport House was scheduled for demolition. Fed up

with the wholesale destruction of historic buildings, seven wealthy Savannah women the "little

old ladies with blue hair and tennis shoes" of legend formed the Historic Savannah Foundation

(HSF). HSF managed to cobble together enough private funds to buy the Davenport House and

restore it as their own headquarters. They then proceeded to embark on a unique and highly








successful program of saving old buildings. It began with an authoritative survey of Savannah's

approximately 2,000 historic buildings north of Gaston Street. HSF then established a revolving

fund that allowed them to purchase threatened buildings and resell them to sympathetic restorers,

shackling the new owners with deed restrictions allowing only rapid restoration of the buildings,

and preventing speculation. In the past forty years, since HSF began their work, almost all of the

buildings in the heart of the city have been restored, and are now occupied, many by descendants

of the same families that fled in the earliest part of the century. Savannah now has one of the

country's largest historic districts, which encompasses the entire heart of the city all 2,000 of

the surveyed buildings.

The preservation movement has been largely responsible for an economic rebirth for the

city and the region, as well. The first new industry to arise was the renovation and rehabilitation

of old buildings, which created a corps of skilled contractors and tradesmen in the area. The

renovation industry has also attracted an unusual number of artisans, architects, designers and

associated professionals. This was a factor in the Rowans' choice to locate SCAD in Savannah,

since it meant not only a skilled workforce for their renovation efforts, but also that such a

culture of artistry would make it easier to attract students and faculty.

The second industry to grow primarily from the preservation movement is the booming

tourism industry. Prior to the 1960s, Savannah was fairly off the beaten track. Although it is

only 20 minutes from 1-95, there was little to draw travelers into the center city. However, as the

old buildings were renovated, and as the city became known for its beauty, authenticity and

charm, a strong heritage tourism industry grew up. Tourism was also given a boost by the 1994

John Berendt novel, Midnight in the Garden of Good and Evil, and by the movie of the same








name. In 1996, the Savannah Convention and

Visitor's Bureau estimated the annual number of

- visitors to the city at over 5.3 million and visitor-

generated jobs at 20,532, with a total visitor-

generated payroll of $388 million. The new


The new convention center, as seen from River Georgia International Maritime Trade and
Street. Photo by author.
Convention Center, and adjacent Westin Hotel and

Resort, on Hutchison Island, directly across from Savannah's riverfront, seek to increase this

tourism-related economy with one of the largest convention centers on the southeastern coast.



Savannah as a Livable City



Savannah has many of the characteristics of what urbanists are now calling "livable

cities". Transportation in the downtown part of the city is not

focused on cars (although the modern rings of development tend

to be much more auto-oriented), and alternative forms of

transportation are commonly used. There are usually people on

the streets in downtown for much of the evening and early

Morning, making it an uncommonly safe area to walk, exercise

Sor travel in. The city is very clean and well-kept, with a regular

schedule of street cleaning and maintenance making it seem very
SCAD student Jen Privett walks
down a typical Savannah street
on her way home from class.
Photo by author.








tidy. And, although center city residences are becoming more and more expensive, the

population living downtown is still characterized by a mix of income, age and education levels.

The greenery and open spaces, in the forms of Oglethorpe's squares and of the Victorian

District's Forsyth Park, make it seem less congested and more shaded than it may have been

otherwise. It is a mark of prestige in Savannah to live on, or very close to, one of the squares.

The city's schools also have a good reputation, and there are five institutions of higher learning

in or near the city, including historically black Savannah State, Armstrong Atlantic State, and

SCAD. The economic boom of the past decade means that the city's economy is healthy and

fairly varied, with the port, tourism and the military base all playing large roles.

However, the city's very livability and financial success have fueled growth, which never

comes without a price. There are three policy areas in particular that the city has sought to

address in the past decade. The first is a lack of safe, affordable housing; the second a deficit of

large parcels of land for redevelopment; and the third is a shortage of parking space downtown

and the resultant transportation issues. The demand for historic buildings for primary residences

for Savannahians and second homes for visitors, as offices, bed-and-breakfasts and restaurants

and shops means that real estate prices have skyrocketed. There are few unrestored buildings in

the historic district, and those that remain generally sell for over $300,000. It is not uncommon

for fully restored homes in the historic district to sell for over a million dollars, or for restored

properties in the Victorian District to be priced at several hundred thousand dollars. While there

are unrestored houses in the Victorian District available for $50,000-70,000, these tend to need a

great deal of work. The historic preservation guidelines under which they must be renovated add

to the costs, frequently pricing them outside the reach of lower-income residents. Students at








SCAD, Savannah State and Armstrong -Atlantic tend to absorb many of the affordable rental

units in the less-dangerous neighborhoods closer to the city. SCAD students and their parents

have also begun purchasing houses in these areas and renovating them. This has left low-income

minorities with the option either to move towards the outskirts of the city, where there is less

availability of public services and less access to jobs, or to live in more dilapidated housing

closer in. These factors have also drastically reduced the ability of low-income residents to

purchase or maintain their own home.

Today, there are primarily four organizations working towards affordable housing

provision in Savannah: Habitat for Humanity, Neighborhood Housing Services (NHS),

Community Housing Services Agency (CHSA), and the city housing division. In addition, the

Savannah Housing Authority and the Chatham County Housing Authority provide public rental

housing. Each of these agencies has a niche within the affordable housing market. Habitat for

Humanity concentrates on single-family homeownership outside of the historic districts for very-

low-income residents. NHS also concentrates on single-family homeownership, but has been

inactive for a period of time now. The city housing division provides a number of services, but

largely focuses on rehabilitation for homeowners and rental units.

CHSA is a subsidiary of the city housing division, which provides rehabilitation

assistance and financing to developers with rental properties in the city's several historic

districts, including the Victorian District and the Cuyler-Brownsville historic district. CHSA is

probably the most active of these development programs, and is responsible for the majority of

new units in the downtown area. However, several of the developers involved with this program

have indicated that there are no guidelines on what type of residents they must seek out, except








that they must be below a certain percentage of the region's median income. This means that

they are free to target student residents, and they prefer to do so.

The second issue that Savannah's revitalization has brought to the forefront is that of a

shortfall of land for redevelopment in the downtown area. The preservation guidelines for

downtown make it fairly difficult to redevelop property in this area, and while aggregation of lots

is acceptable (although difficult), new building footprints are very carefully controlled to fit into

the historic 60 foot massing of the city blocks. The city's Historic District guidelines firmly state:

With the exception of a very few number of tall buildings and a very few
number of short buildings (except in the Beach Institute area), Savannah is a
city of two to four story structures. The insertion of taller buildings into this
broad, regularized, and internationally recognized framework is an act of great
significance and one that should be both minimized and predictable. There
should be a plan either for their inclusion in appropriate settings or for their
exclusion. They should not 'pop-up' here or there, whatever the social or
economic rationale for their existence (e.g., elderly housing or hospitals or
economic development). Most of these uses can be accommodated in lower
rise high density schemes. Those that cannot should exist either on the fringes
on the Historic District or in specified locations. (p. 44)


While this control helps keep the scale and historic feel of the Landmark District, it also means

that the city's ability to lure new corporations or to encourage expansion of existing businesses

in the downtown is compromised. According to one source, there is one lot left in the Historic

District that will allow high-rise redevelopment, and most real estate specialists in downtown

properties speculate that the property will eventually be developed into a hotel complex, rather

than a new office building (Sundrla, 3/2000).








In addition, SCAD's successful expansion means that there are few large buildings left in

the Landmark Historic District that may be used for commercial purposes, affecting the city's

ability to attract new retail stores to this area. Broughton Street is one of the best examples, as

the department stores that used to serve the low-income minority residents who came there by

bus to shop and work, are slowly being pushed out. The City Market complex, an upscale

entertainment and shopping center on the western end of the street, has grown and expanded in

the last two years, according to plan. Meanwhile, SCAD is taking over the eastern end of the

street, with four major new buildings, including the Jen Library, Trustees Theater, and Norris

Hall. For several decades, as Broughton Street has declined, the retail composition of the street

has been comprised largely of businesses marketing to low-income, primarily minority,

consumers. These include low-end clothing stores, short-term lenders and pawn shops, and stores

selling Afro-centric gifts and art. According to Lise Sundrla of the Savannah Downtown and

Renewal Authority (SDRA), landlords along Broughton Street are no longer renewing long-term

leases for these businesses, and have begun charging higher rents in the hopes that they will

leave. As Banana Republic and the GAP open on Broughton Street in the next few months, the

expectation is that more national chain stores, like Tower Records, will soon be coming to

Savannah, and that they will want to locate near the others.

To address this, SDRA has been charged with the redevelopment of a strip of currently

marginal properties along the western edge of the city, between Montgomery Street and Martin

Luther King Jr. Blvd. This is a historically railroad-oriented industrial and residential

neighborhood, which includes the traditionally black town of Cuyler-Brownsville. SDRA hopes

to move many of the displaced businesses from Broughton Street to this strip, as well as to








encourage some of the commercial and retail businesses unable to find large-enough parcels of

property downtown to locate in this area. The problem, according to both Lise Sundrla of SDRA

and Kate Firebaugh of SCAD, is that the two entities do not coordinate with each other. SCAD

already occupies several buildings along this corridor, and has targeted it for further expansion.

The schools' Neal Blun, or Mid-town Campus, complex is located at the southern end of the

Montgomery Street-MLK Blvd. strip, and their main design studios, and residential complex are

at the northern end, making the remaining inexpensive, but historic buildings along MLK a

natural focus for SCAD's growth.

The third challenge facing downtown Savannah is that of parking and transportation.

According to the city's parking study, they are currently facing a 1,936 space deficit and expect a

2,685 space deficit by 2005 (Brown, 1999). The city's Historic District Guidelines state that:

Land values in Savannah's downtown commercial areas have passed the
threshold value whereby it is less expensive to acquire land, clear it, and
provide surface parking than to build structured parking. Thus an increase in
commercial activity will result in an increase in the demand for parking
garages. This is not to say that developers with underutilized structures in a
weak market won't continue to seek tax and operating cost benefits through
demolition of existing structures and conversion to surface parking or that the
expansion of institutional or commercial uses in or adjacent to residential
neighborhoods won't exert pressure for assemblage and surface parking in
those neighborhoods. They will. (p. 91)


The city is planning to restore one of the historic squares on which they built a parking garage

during the heyday of urban renewal, a move that will assist in restoring the Oglethorpe plan's









"-CAT SUtrruL


Source: Chatham Area Transit Agency eight loop around the central business district, also

reaching the nearest large grocery store, located a few blocks south in the Victorian District.

Riders can get on and off as much as they like for free, attracting a ridership of tourists, students,

and downtown workers and residents. Development and transit officials have also discussed

building parking garages further out of town and running park-and-ride service into the historic

district, although there has been no action taken on this at this time.


Demographics


Racial Breakdown


100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%


Chatham


U.S.


M Hispanicorigin
(of any race)
* Other race

O Asian or Pacific
Islander
O American Indian,
Eskimo, or Aleut
* Black

o White


Source: 1990 U.S. Census. See Appendix 2.1 for details


According to the U.S.

census, in 1990 the total population

of the Savannah Metropolitan

Statistical Area was 242,622, of

which 63% were white, 35% black,


integrity, but will add a 500-space deficit to their

parking problem. To address this, there has been a

move towards alternative transportation, including

encouraging pedestrianism, bicycle use, and public

transportation. The Chatham Area Transit Agency,

in addition to running traditional bus service, also

runs the CAT Shuttle, a minibus that makes a figure-









and 2% Asian and Hispanic. This represents a greater minority population than the United States

as a whole in this period, with a black population proportionately almost 3 times that of the

nation. In addition, the proportion of the population of other races, including Asians and

Hispanics, is significantly lower than in the United States.

As in many Southern cities, Savannah's people also tend to be less educated than in the

Education Chatham County a Less than 9th grade nation generally, with 4%
n 9th to 12th grade, no diploma
12% 6% 9% n High school graduate fewer college graduates. It is
5%, 18% Some college, no degree
g* Associate degree significant that 14.5% of


Bachelors degree
Graduate or professional degree


Source: 1990 U.S. Census. See Appendix 2.1 for details Chatham County's students are

in private schools, compared to 9.8% nationally, indicating a lack of confidence in the county's

school system among those who can afford to place their children in private schools.

Median incomes were lower than the nation, while the poverty rate was higher. The

median household income for Chatham County in 1989 was $26,958, while median household

income for the United States was $30,056. Per capital income for Chatham County was $12,759,

while in the U.S. it was $14,420. Almost 17% of Chatham County's population lived in poverty

in 1990, as compared to slightly over 13% for the U.S.

B Less than $5,000
Poverty Levels Household Incomes 5.000 to $9,999
'- -".'. 0 10,000 to $14,999
0 0 3% 2%1% 9% 0 $15,000 to $24,999
15 00 13% 10% $25,000 to $34,999
1o 0005bk *I1Chatham 91 B "
500 US. 18% 50000 o $74,999
0 001 0 $75,000 to $99,999
000%1 199%
Total in 18 and 65 and 16% $100000 to $149
poverty over over I $150,000 or more

Source: 1990 U.S. Census. See Appendix 2.1 for details


31%








However, on the plus side, Savannah's population is young in 1990, 70% of the

population was 44 years old or younger, with 27% of the total under 18. Only 12% were 65 or

older.

Additional demographic data on the Savannah Metropolitan Statistical Area, including

Labor Force Status, Poverty Status, Race and Sex can be found in Appendix 2.1 under the

heading "General Demographics: Chatham County, Georgia".



Economic Base

According to an analysis of the U.S. Census Bureau's "County Business Patterns" reports

for 1992 and 1997, the economy of Chatham County relies on several export industries (the data

supporting the following conclusions are outlined in Appendix 2.2). The first is the city's port

activities. This category includes trucking and warehousing and water transportation, as well as

a large portion of the heavy construction and transportation services industries. Associated

activities such as petroleum refining, electric, gas and sanitary services, and chemical processing

also indicate point-of-transfer industries associated with the port, as may the presence of Union

Camp's paper processing facility.

The second largest export economy is associated with the construction and renovation

industries, including the presence of larger percentages than nationally of general contractors,

special trade contractors, real estate agents, building materials suppliers and home-furnishings

stores. However, these figures are misleading, as most of this activity is actually associated with

the strong preservation movement, natural community growth during a boom economy, and the








tourist industry. With the exception of that portion associated with incoming retirees and the

wealthy, and the tourist industry, very little of this construction activity is true export activity.

The third major export industry is the tourist industry itself. Economists define tourism

as an export industry because it brings money into the community. Savannah shows activity in

hotels and other lodging, eating and drinking places, general merchandise stores, apparel stores,

amusement and recreation, and museums (reflecting the history-focused nature of the tourist

industry). A portion of this activity may also be associated with the presence of the over 4,000

employees of Hunter Air Force Base. Another may be associated with Savannah's position as

the major service and luxury goods provider for a large hinterland, consisting of much of

southeastern Georgia and coastal South Carolina, including the wealthy resorts of Hilton Head

and Jekyll Island.

The changes in the basic ratios of Chatham County's export economy show signs of

slowdowns in the primary industries. Heavy construction and real estate have both dropped off

markedly, and there has been a decrease in special trades contractors, indicating a slowing of the

renovation/construction economy. Several of the region's largest manufacturers have decreased

the number of employees on their payrolls, including the stone, clay and glass and paper

industries. There has been a decrease in employment in water transportation, trucking and

warehousing services, and communications, indicating either increased automation in the port

facilities or a slowing of the shipping sector of the region's economy. The tourist industry

continues to grow faster than the national average, as indicated by growth rates of 4% and 11%

in the basic employment of hotels and eating establishments. Several of the area's growth








industries, including transportation equipment, chemicals and petroleum, and electric and gas,

are in areas of national reduction in employment.

It seems that the face of Savannah's economy is changing, and in much the same way as

the United States on the whole. Higher paying manufacturing and shipping jobs are giving way

to lower-paying jobs in the service sector, with grave implications for real wages, education

levels, and the demand for government services. While the economy is currently healthy,

problems can be anticipated in the future, especially if there is a nationwide economic downturn.


Politics and Planning Regulation

Politically, Savannah seems to be at a turning point. Until recently, the city was

controlled by what several interviewees referred to as "Old Savannah", the wealthy Anglo elite

descended from the city's antebellum population. This segment has been characterized, both in

the media and by residents interviewed for this thesis, as anti-growth and responsible in great

part for the stagnation of the city during the first three-quarters of the 20th century. Today,

however, Savannah has a liberal African-American mayor, and as of November 1999, an

African-American majority sits on the City Council. This represents a tremendous shift, both

politically and culturally, for the city, and for their relationship with SCAD. The new

administration seems to be less regressive, and is also willing to direct more city funding and

resources towards the city's marginal areas, such as the far eastern and western edges of the city,

traditionally the most industrial and poorest regions.

The focus of former political administrations was on the center portion of the city, from

the Landmark District southward to the wealthy suburbs. That focus, along with "old








Savannah's" reticence towards changing the status quo of the culture and economy of the city,

resulted in the strict preservation guidelines for the Landmark District (Stiles, 1999; Adler, 1999;

Reiter, 1999). While guaranteeing quality renovations, these guidelines often make it difficult for

would-be building rehabilitators without sufficiently deep pockets to undertake a project, and can

easily work to maintain the status quo in downtown Savannah.








Chapter 3

The Savannah College of Art and Design


History

Richard and Paula Rowan founded The Savannah College of Art and Design in the quaint

city of Savannah in 1979, much to the initial dismay of its long-time residents. They began with

one building, Poetter Hall, the former city armory building on Madison Square, in the heart of

the Landmark Historic District. They renovated it themselves, with assistance from their faculty,

70 initial students, and the local chapter of the American Institute of Architects (AIA). From all

accounts, the AIA was the only semi-official or official body to support their endeavor. Old

Savannahians were wary of a new institution in their midst, especially one that specialized in art

students, whom they saw as a breed apart. One Savannah native put it this way: "When they first

came in, twenty years ago, people were kind of afraid of them, with the different colored hair and

tattoos and everything." This same source, however, also points out the turnabout in residents'

attitudes over the past two decades: "But they're great students and they work hard, and they've

done wonders for the city" (Hutton, 4/28/00). Lee Adler, the leader of Savannah's historic

preservation movement over the past thirty years, and a prominent national figure in the

preservation community, has gone so far as to say, "I would hate to think what downtown

Savannah would be without SCAD" (as quoted by Applebome, 8/23/92).

The Rowans were both educators in Atlanta when they decided to start a college. Neither

has any career experience in art or art education Paula Rowan was a teacher, and Richard was

an administrator with the Georgia Department of Education when they decided to pack up and

move to Savannah. According to articles in the school's own newspaper, the Georgia Guardian,

they had looked at several other types of colleges before deciding that the southeast's lack of a
28








major art school, and the environment and building stock of Savannah would mesh together

perfectly into an art school. Although some may not see this lack of art education background as

an issue, it has played a part in SCAD's sometimes-turbulent history, as the Rowan's critics

claim that the educational purposes of the college have been subverted in favor of the business

aspects (Applebome, 8/23/92). The college's co-founders are also relatives of the Rowans -

Paula Rowan's mother and father, the Poetters, have been members of the administration, as are

her sister and brother-in-law, the Afifis.

Today, the administrative status of the school is somewhat murky; legally, it is a non-

profit tax-exempt educational facility. However, the Rowans and Mrs. Rowan's family are very

much in control of the school, and make the majority of the decisions Richard Rowan served as

President for twenty-one years, while Paula was provost; they have now been promoted by the

Board of Trustees to Chancellor and President, respectively. In 1992, a scandal rocked the

school, in which the Rowans were charged with mismanagement, and critics stated that the

college was basically a business run for the purposes of enriching the family that controls it. That

year was marked by the abrupt dismissal of several faculty members and trustees who had been

critical of SCAD's administration, as well as the first development of both a student government

association (the United Students Forum) and faculty senate. Both of these organizations came out

of grassroots movements, and neither was supported by the administration. As well, several

explosive devices detonated near the school's buildings during the Spring of 1992. None caused

major damage or injuries, but one bomb, exploded on the day of commencement, resulted in the

cancellation of that year's graduation ceremonies.

After these events, SCAD was investigated by both the Southern Association of Colleges

and Schools, and the National Architectural Accrediting Board, both of which affirmed their

29








accreditation status. However, the American Association of University Professors voted to

sanction SCAD based on issues of academic freedom and tenure. The sanction, in place to this

day, pertains to the dismissal of twelve professors during the events of 1992, as well as to the

status of professors at the college. SCAD faculty members are in the unusual position of having

no tenure; all contracts at the school are year-to-year, and there is little recourse to appeal in the

event of dismissal. In addition, the college's policy is that there are no more than 20 students in

any class, which means that professors are expected to teach five classes each quarter, and "to

raise money, generate favorable publicity and recruit students as well as teach" (Applebome,

8/23/92).

SCAD's publicity and admissions machine is formidable, and some charge, unethical.

Although these charges have not made headlines in several years, there have been accusations

made in the past that the school misrepresents its programs and facilities to prospective students.

There are also reports that the admissions office reports higher average SAT and GRE scores

than are actually achieved by the student body, and that although reports state that only around

45% of applicants are accepted, the truth is that any student who can afford to pay is admitted.

These accusations should be taken with a grain of salt, however, as they were leveled against the

college by apparently disgruntled former students and faculty, and have never been proven.



Demographics

Today, SCAD claims to have an enrollment of over 4,500 students in 18 academic

programs, most offering both undergraduate and graduate degrees. The majors include

architectural history, architecture, art history, historic preservation and interior design. Other

offerings include fashion, fibers, graphic design, illustration, photography, painting and product

30








design. In addition, the school offers majors in media and performing arts, video/film, metals

and jewelry, and has rapidly expanding computer and sequential art departments. According to

admissions literature, students come from all 50 states, and over 80 foreign countries.

Approximately 15% of the student body is comprised of students from overseas, and the school

recruits heavily internationally. They offer a variety of services to international students, and

according to one tour guide, remain on the quarter system, rather than semesters, so that

international students have time to return home for Christmas breaks.

Approximately 1500 students, or a little over 30%, live in SCAD residential buildings,

including dormitories or apartments; with the school's expansion, they are building their first all-

new building, a dormitory expected to house approximately 400 additional students. This

building will be located behind Eichberg and Kiah Halls, near the current dorm complexes of

Weston and Dyson Houses.

For extra-curricular activities, SCAD offers NCAA Division Ill-level sports teams, as

well as several intramural or club sports. They also produce their own newspaper and television

program, broadcast over open circuits to the entire Savannah region.



Campus Development

As stated earlier, the Rowans founded SCAD in the old Savannah City Armory, later

Preston Hall, now Poetter Hall. At the time, Richard Rowan said that he was attracted to

Savannah because:

The downtown area is architecturally fascinating. Nothing dwarfs anything
else. You can still walk the streets of Savannah and enjoy your stroll. But it's
not such a small town that it's boring, or such a big town that it's
overwhelming; it's just right. In Atlanta you could go for weeks and never see
31








anyone you knew on the street. I like the idea of walking outside and waving at
people I know. (as quoted by Keller, 1979)


An inventory of all of the buildings occupied by the college is provided in Appendix 1.1,

along with a current map of the campus. The following maps (Figure 3.1), show the school's

physical development from 1980 through 1997. It is difficult to see the map of Savannah

underlying them, but the left-hand boundary of all four maps is Martin Luther King, Jr.

Boulevard, with the Savannah River at the top and Forsyth Park, Gaston Street on the bottom.

The street on the right-hand side is East Broad Street, which marks the western edge of the

historic city.

Although expansion to the south, beyond Gaston Street, is not shown, these maps show

the expansion of SCAD's campus, and the rapidity of its development. The bulk of the building

purchases took place in the five years from 1988 through 1992, a period when, the school's

facilities manager says, "If our president stood in front of a building for too long, rumors started

flying around that he was going to buy it." (Firebaugh, 5/2/00) In 1985, the school owned only

its original building, Poetter Hall, plus Harris Hall, purchased in 1983, and Drayton Street

Station, purchased in 1985, but not renovated to this day. As of the year 2000, the school owns

45 buildings around the city.








Figure 3.1, The Growth of the Campus:
IS --


ghton Stree

thorpe Stre



iriton Street









yStreet -

ughton Street

thorpe Street


iton Street


et II . i-

'-4


-- 0
*0 ea


*_


cjp

.sS
-x U


,- ii.


7: .


*7L F



0*:


B:

0'

S-


I-I


I- _







7- -- 7


I
Mg ?
, ,I I
i55
r2 ;
m


i
m


C
-d
>


33


Source: Thors, 1997.


r


r
*


C-


i








Henry Hall, one of Savannah's obsolete elementary schools, was purchased in 1986, and

then no more buildings were bought until a rush of purchases in 1988. It was in August of 1988

that the college bought Anderson, Wallin and Barnard Halls, three more obsolete elementaries,

and also added Kanter Hall, a natural choice adjacent to Poetter Hall, and the North and South

train sheds on Martin Luther King Jr., Blvd. In September of that year, they purchased Charlton

Hall for their administrative offices, and were donated Bell House, Charlton's carriage house.

In 1989, SCAD bought Norris and Habersham Halls, their first foray into the northeastern

corer of the city, and then purchased the two diners as campus eateries near Henry and

Anderson Halls. They also purchased the Trustees Theater and West Bank, both of which

remained vacant until recently. The diners, the theater and West Bank were all part of a

controversy over the school's tax exemption status that will be discussed shortly. Norris Hall was

the catalyst for another controversy involving the school and the local preservation community.

Savannah's historic preservation guidelines state that any changes to a the appearance of a

historic structure must be approved by the Historic Preservation Commission (HPC). Shortly

after its purchase as a classroom building, SCAD applied to the HPC for permission to paint the

building pink, and were denied. Not long after, over a weekend, Norris Hall was painted pink,

much to the disgust of the HPC. Although the local papers do not report how the controversy was

resolved, it appears that an uneasy truce was reached. The building is still pink, but in an article

in Historic Preservation in 1992 (two years after this incident), a local preservationist stated that

part of the school's problems with the community resulted from the fact that "until about two

years ago, 'the college would do its work without going through all the required review

procedures"' (Dean, 1992).








In 1990, Oglethorpe House, their first motel-style dormitory, and the adjacent Orleans

Hall, a former garage, were added to the campus. The Oglethorpe House purchase utilized $4.4

million in state-authorized revenue bonds. At the time, several residents and prominent officials

in Savannah came out to the required public hearing to support the school. The testimonials

given at that hearing include statements from the Chamber of Commerce that SCAD had

replaced a vacuum created by the removal of Armstrong-Atlantic State University and two

hospitals from the downtown area. In addition, Lee Adler, the director of the Juliette Gordon

Low Birthplace Museum, local realtors and restaurant owners all spoke out in favor of the bond

issue (Vaughn, 1990).

That same year, Bergen Hall, another automotive building was purchased, after a

rezoning decision by the Metropolitan Planning Commission that meant the school would not

have to add additional parking spaces (Homans, 8/8/90). It was in 1991 and 1992 that the bulk

of the school's buildings on Martin Luther King Jr. Blvd. were purchased, including Eichberg

and Kiah Halls, next to the City of Savannah's Visitor's Center, and Ex Libris, the bookstore

across the street. Hamilton Hall, the first building in the old port-related industrial district near

the river, was also added in 1991.

Perhaps because of the unrest and rumored financial difficulties of the 1991-92 academic

year, and its subsequent lawsuits, only two buildings were added in 1993 Briney Hall, which is

still not renovated, and Casey House, the college's bed and breakfast facility. It wasn't until 1995

that another round of transactions added Pulaski House (which had been leased as residences for

a decade before its purchase), Corbin Hall, the Georgia Guardian building, and Keys Hall.

Another riverfront building, Alexander Hall, the Jen Library, Propes Hall, and the additional two

motel-style dormitories, Weston and Dyson Houses were purchased in 1996 and 1997.

35








Although many prominent residents of Savannah have expressed their support for the

college, their relationship with the city has not always been rosy, however. In February and

March of 1996, the Chatham County Board of Assessors met several times to discuss the tax

exemption status of several of SCAD's buildings, and the meetings got quite heated. At that

time, SCAD's buildings were valued at $13.1 million, with $12.2 million of it tax exempt, saving

the school $244,000 in property taxes in 1996 alone. The issues revolved around SCAD's

buildings that were either vacant and/or dilapidated, or were not strictly used for education

purposes, including the diners, bed and breakfast inn, and bookstore. The then-vice chairman of

the Board of Assessors accused the college of making promises to rehabilitate buildings like the

old Weis (now Trustees) Theater in order to receive tax exemptions, and then of leaving them

empty for years. SCAD rebutted by arguing that even empty buildings serve a valid educational

purpose for their historic preservation and architecture students by serving as a laboratory for

them (Wilber, 2/2/96). Eventually, the tax exemptions were granted after SCAD had fully

renovated the buildings in question.

The school had two additional run-ins with the local community during the 1990s.

Downtown residents came out at one point to block a text change to the parking ordinance that

controls development in the Historic District, requesting that SCAD not purchase or build in

residential areas of the city. The residents stated that it would be preferable if the school would

concentrate their growth on West Broad Street, Broughton Street and the motel area under the

Talmadge Bridge. Although refusing to not purchase residential properties that fit their criteria,

the college has actually complied with these requests reasonably well, making several purchases

on Broughton Street, and utilizing the motels in question as their Weston House and Dyson

House dormitories.








The newest complex of buildings, the Neal-Blun (or Midtown Campus) buildings, were

purchased in 1999, and are expected to be fully restored and occupied by the computer art

department by 2002.

It is difficult to say when each of these buildings were fully renovated and put into action,

as SCAD has only recently begun to keep comprehensive records of such things. Until recently,

however, it seems that they were allowing one to two years or more for the permitting and

renovation process, which indicates that the majority of the buildings purchased in the late 1980s

were actually put into service in the early 1990s, and so on. It should also be noted that the

school has typically been very free with their assignment of departments to buildings, moving

departments frequently as the need for space warrants. This is a positive indication of the

general flexibility of older buildings, many of which, like Keys Hall (first a residence, then

offices, then a television station), had already gone through several incarnations before SCAD

even took them over. Additionally the college continues to lease space in several buildings,

including the Scottish Rite temple, where administrative offices and The Gryphon Tearoom are

located, and Forsyth House, an apartment-style residence for male students.

Although it seems that the actual campus development was based more upon the

availability of buildings and the school's financial status at the time they became available,

SCAD has won several prestigious awards for the "design" of their campus. These include

Honor Awards from both the National Trust for Historic Preservation (NTHP), and the American

Institute of Architects (AIA), as well as awards from the Georgia Trust for Historic Preservation

and the Art Deco Societies of America (for their preservation of the Streamliner Diner). Their

nomination for the AIA's Honor Award in Urban Design plays up ties in SCAD's design to








traditional Anglo-Saxon campus design, comparing a Savannah square with the quadrangle of

Queens College, Oxford (Figure 3.2).

The entry then goes on to say that the way in which SCAD has created "nodes" of

buildings around several of the squares mimics the effects of an Oxfordian quadrangle:

The idea of a continuum is central. Just as Oxford's colleges became life
supporting entities within a pre-existing fabric, so does the College in
Savannah. The fundamental difference is that Savannah's system of squares
and wards extend the quadrangle relationship beyond a private experience to
wholly integrate the school as a civic entity (Thomas, 1997).


The graphic of Madison Square (Figure 3.3), on which many of the college's first

buildings were located, and which they consider the heart of the campus, shows this relationship

of the College with the square. It is clear that SCAD attempts to make a connection between

their physical development and traditional design, even as they break off this connection in order

to purchase the large industrial buildings outside of the historic district, like the Neal-Blun

complex, that are necessary for their continued expansion.






Figure 3.2, Comparison of an Oxfordian quad with a Savannah square:


4'" MTHE i
,(, QiLS COLLECT ( .j
i- IL,

___. .. ..! ... .

'- 1 '.-
,. 1 ,- I -; ,^




"the private quad":
(Queens College, Oxford)


l i e j 'Y J -.,/.
if .. : Ta u yg yI H



PERCIV AL

Sip
[0WAi R"D. -

tf i .. + 1. . .
_________ LI if Zii




"the public quad":
(Percival Ward, Savannah)


Source: Thorns, 1997.


Figure 3.3, Madison Square:


1: .ii /-
L _ _i! / .-
ti `

. --- ; (';


r 1 -.
4=t~
]-; ' '<'
._^ *' t _________


(.- "- --;
N H OrM-^ ^ cytve \


Source: Thors, 1997.

Source: Thorns, 1997.








Student Services

Because of the scattered nature of SCAD's campus, some of the services offered to their

students, although common to most colleges and universities, take a different form. The most

relevant of these are transportation considerations and the campus security precautions.

Although Savannah is an extremely

walkable city it takes approximately 20 minutes

to cross the historic district from one side to the

other in any direction SCAD provides regular bus

service between campus buildings and the


dormitories. They also allow 30 minutes between

classes instead of the customary 15 to 20, which is

sufficient for most students to get between

buildings when necessary, especially since

departments are divided by building.


While undergraduates are required to take a

series of traditional educational core courses,

including writing, math, science and foreign

language studies, as well as a series of art

foundation courses, they are the only students who

seem to have any difficulty getting between

SCAD offers a variety of transportation buildings. In order to assist freshmen and
services. Photos by the author.








sophomores with their schedules, the foundation courses in the liberal arts are held in one

building, Barnard Hall. Foundation courses in art studies, such as painting, sculpture, and

photography, are held in another building, not in the buildings in which these departments are

housed.

The remainder of the upper-class undergraduates and the graduate students generally

have most of their classes in one or two buildings, depending on their course of study. Most

students, once they are settled in Savannah, choose to live near their primary building, when at

all possible, and to walk or bicycle to classes. Several students, when asked about lock-up

facilities for bicycles at the different buildings, laughed and said, "Well, isn't that what the

parking meters are for?" This is a telling comment, indicative of the parking situation in

Savannah, which creates incentives for students to ride their bicycles, rather than drive. There are

few non-metered parking spaces in the city center, and the meter attendants are seemingly

everywhere. SCAD does have some parking spaces for their buildings, especially at those in the

far covers of the historic district. But even at buildings like Alexander Hall, in the industrial

district under the 1-17 bridge over the river, and Anderson Hall, one of the buildings farthest out

in the Victorian District, parking is still scarce, and students must purchase parking decals in

order to park there.

From 9 p.m. to 6 a.m. daily, after the

buses stop running at night, and before the

runs resume in the morning, the Campus

Safety Patrol provides rides for students to

and from academic buildings and dormitories.


Campus Safety patrols regularly at night, and provides
emergency rides during the day. Photo by author.








According to SCAD, "a campus safety force patrols all the college facilities and the surrounding

community by foot and by automobile." Security guards are also stationed in all SCAD

buildings 24 hours a day, a measure probably made more necessary by the nature of art students,

who will occupy their studios until late at night. Not only does the campus safety force protect

students, but residents of downtown have also indicated that they feel safer, as well. Lisa

Sundrla of the Savannah Downtown & Renewal Authority states: "Personally, I live and work on

Broughton Street, and with the library there now, I've never felt safer. The students are back and

forth all night, as is the campus safety patrol, and the noise of footsteps is actually comforting. I

know they're there."








Chapter 4

Literature Review


There has been very little academic literature published in English about the role of

academic institutions, especially those taking a scattered-site campus form, in community

revitalization. The most likely cause of this lack of research is that, until the recent growth of

downtown campuses for major institutions, there have been few universities of this type in

English-speaking countries. For this reason, the literature review for this paper has concentrated

on several tangential areas that have an impact on the subject matter. The first of these is the

growth of the European and Anglo-Saxon campus planning traditions, and how these traditions

have affected American campuses. The second focus is on the environmental, social, and

physical issues inherent in campus development, including the use and reuse of buildings. The

third is on the relationship of campuses to their adjacent and surrounding communities, and the

recent shifts in thinking about the physical and social collaboration between the two. The fourth

segment of this literature review looks at factors in successful downtown and residential

revitalization, including the role of education, arts and culture, and commercial mixes. The fifth

focuses briefly on the principles of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED),

and especially on the concept of "eyes on the street" and of the 24-hour city.


Traditional Campus Planning

In his doctoral dissertation entitled The New University Environment: A 20e Century

Ideal, Ar-Rifai identifies three types of universities: the Continental, the English college, and the

North American campus. In the Continental European model, colleges (places where both

students and teachers lived and studied) were scattered throughout the city, but tended to be








clustered in a few regions. The colleges were, according to Ar-Rifai, "an integral component of

urban life with a precise relationship and unique character within the city" (p. 34). Some college

buildings had shops on the ground floor to provide income for the university, tying them even

more closely to their surrounding community. Two major qualities characteristic of, and

responsible for, development of a vital university were the vitality of the urban setting, and a

poly-functional environment. Ar-Rifai states that, "streets and open spaces became the

university's meeting places and channels of communication and exchange" (p. 37), drawing

others in the community into the discussions and lives of the students. The poly-functional

environment consisted of mixed-use buildings and complexes, including shops, classrooms, and

living and meeting spaces. It was also important that buildings could and frequently did change

use over time, alternately becoming libraries, living spaces, classrooms, and social spaces.

Scholars studying the growth of universities argue that they have long been associated with

cities, beginning in fairly large cities in Europe because of need for both support services and for

enough of an agricultural surplus to allow students to live fairly inexpensively (Hyde, 1988).

Thomas Bender writes that:

The Anglo-American tradition, based on the model of Oxford and Cambridge
and nourished by an Anglo-American tradition of anti-urbanism, is a major
deviation from the central theme of the history of universities. Since their
inception, they have been identified with cities, sometimes second-order
cities, but often those great cities that dominate the political, economic and
cultural life of nations (Bender, 1988, p. 3).


European universities continue to use a scattered-site model for new branches or for

entirely new universities. Some of the newest have attempted to incorporate new universities into

the city by building a city around a planned university. One example of this is the University of
44








Cergy-Pontoise in France; another, better known, example is that of Louvain-la-Neuve, outside

of Brussels, Belgium. In the 1960s, the French-speaking portion of the University of Leuven was

split off from the main university, which was located in Flemish-speaking northern Belgium. The

planners decided to build an entirely new city, into which the university would be incorporated.

They were attempting to avoid the "campus-ghetto", located outside a city, and saw the new city

and its spaces as a meeting place. The town was to be developed as an experiment in social

construction, new transportation methods, and human scale of new cities. It was to be dense,

with mixed land uses (all land was leased to keep control in the hands of the university and out

of the hands of speculators) all within a one-kilometer radius of the centrally located

underground rail station and parking structures. The planners stated that they were "trying to

reconstruct the atmosphere of old Italian medieval cities" (Woitrin, 1998, p. 79).

A Canadian example, and the North American university most comparable to the

situation of the Savannah College of Art and Design is Concordia University in Montreal.

Concordia absorbed the YMCA's Sir George Williams College, and maintains it as a separate

campus from their primary campus, located in the suburbs of the city. Sir George Williams

rented or built space in their downtown Montreal neighborhood wherever it was available, often

sharing buildings with restaurants, offices and retail spaces. Buildings are scattered over twenty

city blocks; most front directly onto the street and lack outdoor space. The "motley" collection of

buildings includes a converted garage/auto dealership, warehouses, row houses, a nightclub,

apartment buildings, and several floors in modern high-rises.

This physical imprint causes the university to be an integral component of the
urban fabric, rather than a well-defined and separate precinct. Its buildings
comprise a strong street presence; it is an important player in the real estate
market due to the fact that a large proportion of its space is in rented premises
45








and much of this is relatively footloose and can be moved around to follow
attractive lease arrangements (Barlow, 1998, p. 158).


Barlow has identified several externalities associated with Sir George Williams' College unusual

form, including benefits to surrounding commercial establishments, including restaurants, bars

and copy shops; street congestion; a loss of business during university events and student

activities; and the vulnerability of students and faculty to urban crime. However, he also says

that the university has become an essential part of the environment in downtown Montreal, and

goes on to make the analogy that universities, like Concordia, with an urban mission have

"doors" for access instead of "gates" for exclusion.

The second type of university that Ar-Rifai identifies is the English college, typically

located in and dominating small towns. The college, exemplified by Oxford and Cambridge

(often abbreviated Oxbridge), is autonomous, and the lives of the students and teachers are

mostly isolated from those of the townspeople by physical, social and cultural barriers. In his

masterful Campus: An American Planning Tradition, Paul Venable Turner also discusses the

English or Anglo-Saxon university model. He says that the Oxbridge colleges were initially

enclosed because of monastic precedents, but also because of the enclosure enabled the wardens

to both control the behavior of the students and to protect them from the townspeople during

times of extreme strife. Starting in 1826 with the University of London, England also eventually

developed a model of civic universities for the technical and vocational training of middle-class

students, whom mostly lived at home with their parents (Ar-Rifai, 1983; Rothblatt, 1988). Ar-

Rifai states that these universities "consisted mainly of large-scale modest buildings... scattered

widely across the city" (p. 47).








The third type of university identified by Ar-Rifai is the North American master-planned

campus, separated from the community that houses it. Although Ar-Rifai only touches on this

briefly, Turner provides an in-depth analysis of the development of the American ideal from the

English model. He points out that "campus" is a word derived from the Latin for "field", and

was first used to describe Princeton's very rural setting in the late 1700s. It has gradually come to

mean the whole of a university's complex of land and buildings, but the term's origin is

significant in its indication of the pastoral conception of the American institutions.

This ideal [of separate buildings set in park-like open space] is so strong in
America that even those schools located in cities, where land is scarce, have
often gone to considerable expense or inconvenience to simulate a rural
spaciousness (Turner, 1984, p. 4).


Scholars have proposed reasons for this that tend to be more cultural than pragmatic,

although Turner does state that colleges were seen as having a parental-substitute role, and so

located themselves in the country and/or suburbs to be away from the "vices" and temptations of

the city. He also says this is why students were clustered in dormitories so that they could be

watched over and protected. Early on, the only American colleges that tended to be located in

urban areas were Roman Catholic institutions, whose "educational traditions were generally

more European than Anglo-American" (Turner, 1984).

Even as America's cities grew, and many of the older traditional institutions, like

Columbia and the University of Pennsylvania (PENN), originally located on the outskirts of the

city, found themselves in increasingly dense, and often, socially and economically distressed,

neighborhoods, they continued to isolate themselves from their surroundings. In The Campus as

a Work ofArt, Thomas Gaines writes that most successful urban campuses are planned as








wholes, and their buildings turn their backs on the street. Although they can be entered from the

street, the primary focus of these universities, like Columbia and PENN, is on the quads and

plazas in the center of the block. They often isolated themselves socially as well as physically,

with few official forays into their adjacent communities until a combination of economic and

cultural factors forced them to participate in the lives of these neighborhoods in the late 20O

century. These changes and the resulting outreach efforts will be discussed later in this chapter.

In contrast to the traditional universities, a second type of urban institution grew up after

the Civil War, as America became increasingly urbanized, and as the benefits of higher

education became apparent to more of the middle class. Most of these were civic universities

preparing students for professional and technical practices, on the model of the German

institutions, which gained a large following in the U.S. in the late 19h century. According to

Turner,

These schools were generally in cities. They purposely provided no
dormitories and took no official interest in their students' extracurricular lives.
And their physical planning made little attempt to create an integrated pattern
to distinguish the school from the rest of the city (p. 163).


These, then, were the main models for today's metropolitan university, designed more to provide

vocational training for the middle classes than the traditional liberal arts education exemplified

by the Oxbridge and Ivy League colleges.









Issues in Campus Planning


Coherence The Nature of the Campus

Three of the most important writers on the nature of the university campus, Turner,

Gaines and Dober, argue that one of the most important factors in creating a viable campus is

coherence, an aesthetic sense that the campus is a "place", a community of scholars.

The American campus possesses qualities and functions different from those
of any other type of architecture or built environment. One of its most
important qualities is a peculiar state of equilibrium between change and
continuity. As a community, it is like a city complex and inevitably, subject
to growth and change and it therefore cannot be viewed as a static
architectural monument. But it is not exactly a city; it requires a special kind
of physical coherence and continuity. The planners of recent decades who
advocated treating the campus like any urban entity... ignored the special
nature of the college and university (Turner, 1984, p. 304).


A good campus consists of a group of harmonious buildings related by
various means (such as arches and landscaping) that create well-proportioned
and diverse urban spaces containing appropriate furnishings (Gaines, 1991, p.
2).


These authors argue that a physically coherent campus can help instill a sense of social

community among its students, and that this is an essential quality in American campuses. It

would be difficult on a scattered-site campus such as SCAD's to create an environment where

students can interact with each other on an informal basis. SCAD addresses these difficulties

through the use of student lounges in each building, and through dining facilities such as the two

antique diners where primarily students eat. In addition, they provide extracurricular activities,








including field trips, socials, service opportunities, and inter-collegiate and inter-mural sports

that help students get to know each other, and to feel a part of the SCAD community.


Transportation

One of the recurring themes in the development of new campuses in the 20th century has

been transportation. In the United States, this has meant campuses oriented towards automobiles,

with acres of parking surrounding the main buildings, which are oriented towards the parking

lots, rather than the pedestrian walkways between them, much like the University of South

Florida in Tampa.

The automobile became a principal factor in postwar campus planning,
especially at schools with a high proportion of commuting students. For the
first time, problems of vehicular access, parking and traffic congestion
became serious concerns of the planner (Turner, 1984, p. 267).


A 1997 study of the University of Akron, Ohio showed that 53% of the university's

commuter students drove 10 miles each way, while 24.2% drove more than 21 miles each way.

(Smith, Gauld and Tubbs, 1997) Modem American commuter schools target students who are

committed to living with parents or spouses, or who have full-time jobs which cause them to

locate their homes in relation to the workplace, not the university. They are less likely to

participate in extra-curricular activities or to spend free time at the university than traditional

students. Smith and her colleagues argue that education should be provided in proximity to

where these students are committed to living.

New European and Canadian urban universities are similarly oriented towards the

commuter student, but tend to focus more on mass transit than on the needs of the automobile.








The University of Quebec at Montreal was built in 1979 around an underground subway station.

Phase I of the university complex incorporated shops at street level into the buildings in order to

maintain the urban fabric (Junca-Adenot, 1998). A scattered site downtown campus could take

advantage of the existing transportation infrastructure within a city better than a traditional new

campus on the outskirts could. In larger cities, like Portland, Atlanta, or Seattle, new light-rail or

express bus services could even be planned with a campus in mind. The university buildings

could be interspersed with shopping and residential facilities in graduated densities, centered

around the rail or bus station, allowing both students and other residents to live within walking or

biking distance of the station and the university.



Building Types and Uses

Modern educational methods and equipment, especially in the physical sciences, have

resulted in increasingly specialized building types. Architects and planners, as well as educators

acknowledge that the life span of modern buildings seems to be shortening, and this reality,

along with decreased budgets, results in buildings that are not meant to last the hundreds of years

that older buildings have spent in usefulness.

Viewed comprehensively, architectural concepts and styles visible in the
panorama of college and university buildings, within one lifetime, seem to
have an ever-shortening life cycle. Response to functional requirements is one
cause, adjustments in institutional missions another, fashions a third (Dober,
1996, p. 49).


This is not always the case, however. The national historic preservation movement, along

with economic realities that sometimes make it less expensive to rehabilitate older buildings for








classrooms, living or office spaces than to build anew, have caused a rethinking of the utility of

older buildings. Turner points out that during the economic recession of the 1970s, planners

became much more conscious of reuse of older buildings, and much less likely to recommend

tearing them down. The corresponding growth of the preservation movement may have also

affected this shift in thought.

Adaptive reuse of older buildings that originally served a purpose other than education

(often, old factories or institutions) as new university facilities seems to be more common among

the European countries than in the U.S. This is perhaps due to the relative difficulty and cost of

obtaining suitable large parcels of undeveloped land in Europe, versus the United States. In

developing their expanded university campuses, Greece has split their old universities by faculty

and subject matter among different islands, choosing to reuse older buildings because they could

be assured that they were suitable to the architecture and climate of the area (Renwick, 1998).

The new university at Lyons, France, is located in refurbished tobacco factory buildings.

University officials there have stated that the university "transforms the city with its university

life. Cultural activities stimulate economic development and give dynamism to residential

development" (Chauffray, 1998, p. 58).

However, other campus design practitioners have expressed reservations about the reuse

of older buildings, pointing out that variations in building temperature and humidity, which can

be extremely injurious to modem computers and laboratory equipment, are much harder to

control in older buildings (Hardman, 1998).

Adaptive reuse of buildings may be more suitable for some types of facilities than others

- however, SCAD's experience proves that this is a viable and cost-effective alternative to

completely new buildings.










Student Demographics

The numbers of Americans seeking higher education opportunities grew astoundingly in

the 20th century, and continues to skyrocket. In 1900, 1% of Americans attended college; in

1994, 57% of 18-24 year olds attended college (Edwards and Marullo, 1999). And this figure

does not include the millions of older, non-traditional students returning to college to complete

their degrees or to obtain a graduate degree. These numbers will continue to skyrocket, both in

percentages and in actual numbers, and American universities will continue to grow to

accommodate them. In 1992, there were 3,587 accredited colleges and universities in the U.S.

They enrolled 12 million students annually, and employed 2 million faculty and staff (Dober,

1992). More colleges and university branches are opening each year, as existing universities find

that they have reached capacity.

As the costs of higher education also grow, along with the student population, the

demographic profile of students changes. A 1997 study at the University of Akron showed that

50.9% of freshmen lived at home with their parents, spouse or partner, while another 37.2%

lived off-campus with friends or roommates (Smith, Gauld and Tubbs, 1997). Smith, et. al,

argue that services should be provided where these students live. Many new types of educational

programs have developed because of these changes in student demographics. Among them are

undergraduate programs for non-traditional students, which provide college credit for life and

work experience, such as that offered by Eckerd College in St. Petersburg. Another type of

graduate program for the new student are weekend MBA programs, which are designed for

professionals, who can work during the week, and take classes one weekend a month. A third is

the short-term residential program, also usually designed for professionals, in which most work

53








is done over the Internet or through the mail, and students only meet on their campuses for two

to three weeks each semester, or sometimes, each year. A fourth are mobile educational

programs, which travel to their students, holding classes wherever the majority of their market is.

These programs are all designed to allow students to live and work at a distance from the

institutions at which they pursue their education. A scattered site campus could help these

programs, as well as traditional universities and community colleges to locate themselves in their

markets those communities where students live and/or work, allowing them to reach campus

more easily, and to spend more time there.



Technological Impacts

The nature of education has changed in the past several decades, as technological

changes, including television, personal computers, and the Internet have impacted the methods of

delivering education tremendously. Today, as student populations continue to grow and

education budgets fail to keep pace, educators are having to resort to ever more innovative means

of providing lectures, materials and services to students. Among these methods are television

broadcasts and on-line courses.

Cyberschool... is a fusion of computer-interactive classroom methodologies,
traditional classroom practice, advanced multi-media programs, and distance
learning... It is a response to the need to teach more students without
additional resources in terms of the number of faculty and classroom buildings
(Blythe, 1997, p. 43).


Correspondingly, the physical facilities needed to support the new educational methods has

impacted campus design and planning.








The current practice of distance education is transformed as students both on
and off campus take advantage of courses designed with the flexibility to meet
diversified needs. Physical adjacency to classrooms, labs and libraries
becomes less important than electronic access to these resources (Blythe,
1997, p. 45).


Renwick (1998) states, however, that most experts do not believe that the face-to-face contact of

the traditional campus will disappear with the development of distance learning, but that new

means of educational delivery will only supplement traditional means. Scattered site campuses

would allow a fusion of technological delivery methods and traditional teaching. Video labs and

conferencing centers, as well as ethernet-equipped computer laboratories could be located in

outlying buildings, making them easily accessible to students who may not have the time or

inclination to commute to a traditional campus.



University- Community Relations

In discussing the relations between the population of Paris and the University of Paris in

the early 13th century, Ferruolo tells of the extreme protections given to the scholars by the

French king in 1200 against violence by the citizens of the city. He then ponders why the king

should have been so willing to give them protections and immunities in order to keep the

university in the city:

One at once thinks of the economic impact of having three to four thousand
masters and scholars resident in the city, most of them despite all the
complaints we hear of poverty receiving adequate funds from their
families, from church prebends, or even from teaching to pay high rents and
to buy food, wine, clothing and other supplies from the city's merchants and








artisans. The schools were an important source of revenue to the citizens of
Paris and, in turn, through taxation, to the king (Ferruolo, p. 32).


Take out the references to Paris, the king, and the church, and this could be any university town

in the 21st century, faced with the difficulties inherent in having a large group of "foreigners"

with little allegiance to their city or region dominating the economic life of the city. Citizens of

the city may not completely approve of the students or their actions, but they usually appreciate

the economic benefits of having the university in their area, acknowledging that many of the jobs

in the region are directly or indirectly tied into the university.

Scholars of modem university-community relations continue to acknowledge the tension

inherent in such relationships: "Traditionally, relationships between institutions external to the

community and impoverished neighborhoods have been characterized by distrust and suspicion"

(Kreutziger, et. al, 1999, p. 829). Conflicts come from a variety of sources, including pressures

on the housing stock from students, a social tension derived from socioeconomic differences

between the university population and the community residents, and conflicting interests in land

use matters. Although there were isolated attempts by universities to reach out to their

surrounding communities throughout their history, many scholars maintain that the real

breakthrough in relations came during the social unrest of the 1960s. In The Urban University in

America, Berube argues that protests by students in the '60s were based on three main charges.

First, that urban universities were economic barriers to the urban poor and low-income students

who sought college credentials for employment. Second, that during expansion periods,

universities often uprooted the urban poor without regard to their welfare (also Marcus, 1999).

And third, that universities and their faculty were responsible for maintaining the status quo in

their delivery of urban policy studies to government and established institutions.
56








In response to these charges, and in a pragmatic move to ensure their own safety within

the often-marginal neighborhoods in which they found themselves, urban universities began to

develop the urban mission: to educate the poor, establish good relations with the community, and

develop unbiased urban research programs (Berube, 1978; Weinberg, 1999). The past thirty

years have seen the growth of several different types of outreach programs, among them service

learning, whereby residents of a neighborhood determine the concerns of their neighborhoods

and the best means of addressing them. Faculty, staff and students are then assigned and paid by

the university to assist them. The United States Department of Housing and Urban

Development's Community Outreach Partnership Centers (COPC) program provides grants to

university staff to assist them in reaching out to their communities with services, technical

assistance, and research (Kreutziger, et. al, 1999; Mayfield, et. al, 1999; Forrant and Silka,

1999).

Other universities, such as Howard in Washington, D.C., Trinity College in Hartford, and

Yale in New Haven, Connecticut, are taking more active roles in the revitalization of their

surrounding communities. Yale has partnered with the city on a program to redevelop

commercial areas adjacent to the campus, not only participating in the purchase, redesign and

construction of the physical structure of the streets, but also assisting merchants and

entrepreneurs with technical and marketing assistance (Charles, 1994). The University of

Pennsylvania purchases rundown houses in their West Philadelphia neighborhood, rehabilitates

them, and then sells them to faculty and staff at less than market rates plus subsidizes down

payments and closing costs. The school has also hired neighborhood residents to serve as roving

"safety ambassadors", equipped with training and walkie-talkies, as well as helping to arrange

the construction of a new elementary school, a supermarket and a cinema (Marcus, 1999). In

57







1992, faced with slipping enrollments (partly because of the presence of serial killer Jeffrey

Dahmer in their neighborhood), Marquette University in Milwaukee spent $50 million dollars to

purchase, renovate, or demolish and rebuild 115 properties in its community. Although these

drastic actions were not without repercussions, crime in Marquette's neighborhood is down 50%,

and applications are at an all-time high (van der Werf, 1999).

These are just a few examples of how universities in urban settings have attempted to

repair their relations with their communities, and the communities themselves. They've

mobilized their academic knowledge, their money, and their influence to revitalize their cities,

partly out of a sense of responsibility, but largely out of a sense of self-preservation.



Revitalization

Most planning and development practitioners will concede that successful revitalization

of a city or town of any size relies on a multitude of factors. Among these are the variety,

availability and accessibility of shopping in the downtown region and a variety of safe and

affordable housing options. Those who choose to live in America's inner cities, or even in the

downtown of smaller towns, are searching for something that they feel is not available in the

suburbs. For some, this is access to public transportation, or an easy commute to the office. For

many, however, it is access to cultural opportunities that the suburbs lack, or the unique charm

and character of old houses and neighborhoods. This section of the literature review will focus

on five areas around which community revitalization revolves; retail composition, residential

revitalization, the role of the arts, the role of education, and historic preservation.








Retail Composition

Theories on the retail composition that will make downtown competitive with suburban

malls vary greatly. Some practitioners argue that the same marketing and retail mix rules that

apply to malls should apply to the downtown retail strip as well (Duany, et al., 2000; Tyler,

2000). Duany argues for centralized management and joint advertising and merchandising, key

components of the National Trust for Historic Preservation's Main Street Program. The NTHP's

Main Street Program enlists one or more staff persons to help coordinate business recruitment,

marketing, and facade and street improvements, primarily on historic downtown Main Streets.

(Tyler, 2000) In addition to the facade restoration that is an integral part of the Main Street

approach, Duany argues for strategic placement of anchors at a distance from parking, and for

location of similar businesses or accessory businesses close to one another (so called "retail

clustering"). Tyler states

a primary strategy should include encouraging the right mix of businesses.
Local policy makers should promote browsing, shopping, retail stores, and other
functions which encourage the leisurely use of the downtown, reestablishing it
as a focus of community life (Tyler, 2000, p. 175).


Although few downtown advocates would disagree with the prospect of making

downtown a center of city life again, some take issue with the means by which many planners

and development officials mean to do so. A focus of business district redevelopment in the 1980s

and 1990s has revolved around getting national chains to locate downtown. Roberta Brandes

Gratz argues that this is the wrong approach. National chains, she concedes, may help entice

consumers downtown with familiar goods and prices, but too many of them can have a

deadening effect on the downtown. Too many chain stores can cause a distinctive downtown like








Savannah's to lose the "sense of place" that brings others from far away to experience the

differentnesss" of it. In addition, chains can stifle local entrepreneurship. "If the aim is to rebuild

downtown America," Gratz writes, "the local economy counts the most and locally-owned

businesses are the backbone of Main Street (p. 45)."

Savannah is at a challenging place in its downtown rejuvenation process. Their primary

retail streets are on the upswing, with an increased interest in locating downtown by local and

regional stores, but also by national chains. Banana Republic, the Gap and Starbucks Coffee

have all signed contracts to locate in renovated buildings on Broughton Street. Typically, these

chains are on the forefront of what may be called the "urban retail pioneer movement" other

stores, such as Tower Records, can be expected to follow quickly. While this is met with great

excitement by Broughton Street's existing small up-scale merchants, it could prove a danger to

the character of the street.


Residential Revitalization

In the 1960s and 70s, Americans began reversing the decades-old trend of flight to the

suburbs by the upper and middle classes. Duany, citing William Kraus, says that the

revitalization of older neighborhoods in America's inner cities follows three stages:

The market segment that pioneers difficult areas is the "risk-oblivious": artists
and recent college graduates. These are followed by the "risk-aware": yuppies;
and finally by the "risk-averse": the middle class. (Duany, 2000, p. 171)


Although there is little scholarly literature on the "urban homesteaders", as the first pioneers into

marginal or risky neighborhoods are often called, newspapers and magazines, especially in larger

cities, are full of their stories. Author Gregory Sholette says that,

60








through advertisements and press releases, land developers, speculators and
even the [New York] city government described low income neighborhoods
such as Hell's Kitchen and the Lower East Side as "untamed territories" where
upwardly mobile white renters were called upon to serve as "trail blazers" or
"urban pioneers (Sholette, 1997).


Authors studying the "back-to the-city" movement of the 60s and 70s argue that, as much as low

housing prices, it was the cultural mix of African-Americans, Asians and Latinos that drew the

original pioneers. Acting in reaction to their sterile childhoods in the suburbs, urban

homesteaders, mostly artists and the young, were willing to overlook safety issues and crumbling

buildings, for the vitality of city life (Shollette, 1997: Brown, 2000). Duany states that urban

pioneers "cherish their edgy self-image and eschew iconography that smacks of middle-class

contentment (Duany, 2000, p. 171)." In order to encourage pioneers to the inner cities, he says,

Cities must be prepared to bend the rules a little. Zoning that prohibits housing
in commercial and industrial areas often largely empty and therefore
affordable must be replaced with a mixed-use classification. The on-site
parking requirement can be waived, as pioneers can be expected to park on the
street, if they own cars at all.... The BYOS (bring your own sheetrock) unit
should be legalized, and developers should be able to get certificates of
occupancy for apartments that are habitable but as yet unfinished (Duany, 2000,
pp. 171-2)


The demands of the second wave of migrants to the inner cities, the yuppies (or the "risk-

aware") are different from those of the first wave of artists. The second wave seeks more

comfortable, already established buildings, offering the amenities they are used to from the

suburbs. They also seek safety, or at least a perception of safety, open space, and retail amenities.








The yuppies are as likely to move to the city for the shortened commute as for access to nightlife

and cultural amenities.

The third wave generally consists of wealthy empty-nesters and retirees, already

financially established, who are seeking the culture and excitement of the city, as well as a

release from the burdens of maintaining a large house in the suburbs. In a recent article in

Preservation magazine, Ben Brown discusses the increased likelihood that the new wave of

inner-city dwellers would revitalize smaller cities, such as Charleston, West Virginia, Durham,

North Carolina, or Savannah. He also says that these migrants are as likely to live in converted

offices over downtown retail shops, old factories, renovated hotels or converted warehouses, as

in houses. According to Brown, this trend makes gentrification of poor neighborhoods a moot

issue.

Savannah has seen the progress of all of these populations. SCAD students and faculty, as

artists, are more likely to occupy poorer areas of the city, acting as the "urban pioneers", and

renovating the neighborhood enough that the second wave of yuppies will move in, and

eventually the third wave of wealthy second-home buyers. However, in a different scenario from

that which Brown describes, SCAD has already taken over the possible loft spaces in much of

Savannah's old industrial buildings, leaving only houses as an option. While this provides a

benefit to home owners in the form of increased property values, it also causes gentrification of

older neighborhoods, and displacement of some poor and elderly residents.



The Role of the Arts

More and more frequently, cities and towns of all sizes are looking to the arts to provide a

much-needed boost to their sense of identity, their nightlife and their economies. Arts programs

62








aimed at rejuvenating inner cities range from the very small, such as murals painted by high

school children, to the very large, as in multi-million dollar performing arts centers and

museums.

High school art teacher Pamela Smith of Troy, Alabama, summed up the power
of a mural project:
The mural project inspired the Mayor of Troy and downtown merchants to start
a city "Revitalization Committee". The committee, composed of merchants,
community leaders, a group of my best art students, and myself, meets twice
each month to discuss ideas, draw up plans and make decisions.


The students drew the buildings around the town square and rendered them with
new colors and facelift changes to give owners a preview of what their
buildings could become. As a result, businesses on two sides of the town square
in the older downtown area have been completely renovated with new paint,
awnings, and unique signs. A restaurant and a coffee shop now have night hours
which have brought people back to the downtown area in the evenings for social
interaction. The town square has come alive (Smith, 1997, p. 35).


Smith goes on to say that the experience has brought her students into the mainstream of

community life, and has given them and the town's officials an acceptance of significant roles

for youth in the community, dispelling the sense of isolation and alienation of suburban youth.

Troy has hit upon one of the backbones of the NTHP's Main Street Program aesthetic appeal -

and found a less expensive way to implement it by using young artists instead of professionals.

Although this may seem a small example, it is telling in that the power of the arts to

affect every type of community cannot be underestimated. At the other end of the arts spectrum,

major new performing arts facilities and museums are the backbone of community revitalization

efforts in large (and small) cities all over the country. The Massachusetts Museum of Moder Art
63








opened in several old factory buildings in a small town in the Berkshires in the late 1990s, and

has been drawing crowds of tourists and media ever since. Similarly, new modem art museums

opened in a rundown building on the Thames River in London and in a depressed part of Bilbao,

Spain in the last few years, and have attracted similar crowds, and needed revenues.

The New Jersey Performing Arts Center in Newark opened in 1997, and attracted

800,000 patrons in its first eight months. As of 1998, four new restaurants, a new baseball

stadium, and an adjacent riverfront esplanade were being constructed, and two hotel chains were

considering new hotels nearby. Corporations seeking space in downtown Newark have cited the

presence of the arts center as a factor in their decision to relocate, and attitudes toward the city

by wealthy suburbanites have improved (Strom, 1999). Cleveland has found that their newly

renovated theater district generates $2.20 for nearby businesses for every $1.00 of theater tickets

sold (Austin, 1998).

In his study of America's growth areas, Hot Towns, Peter Wolf says that

More than ever before in America, migration is targeted towards places where
inhabitants can enjoy art, music, literature, theater, and all the other enriching
fare provided by cultural organizations. Traditionally considered non-essential
to town growth, in the competition among places for fifth-migration participants
today, quality cultural organizations and programs provide communities with a
distinct edge, as corporate relocation experts will tell you. So will retirees
looking for a place to spend the winter or a place to move to. Entrepreneurs who
envision an energetic, agreeable future for themselves, their children, and their
employees seek to supplement the ordinary with the promise of the arts (Wolf,
1999, p. 212).


This supports the anecdotal evidence from Savannah, in which numerous planning

officials have stated that one of SCAD's biggest effects on the city is to provide the artistic and
64








cultural amenities that were previously lacking. These amenities, including concerts, art exhibits,

and theater performances, bring people to visit and to live in the city that otherwise would never

have considered it. In addition, the small art projects that students have contributed to around the

city, including murals, building renovations, and such programs as the Savannah Sidewalk Art

Festival (during which participants literally draw on the sidewalk), lend a vitality to the city that

sets it apart from other small southern cities with the same environmental attributes.



The Role of Schools

Local schools are an essential ingredient in urban revitalization. Common sense says that

only with good local schools will families with children move into the inner cities. Duany argues

that consolidated school districts, allowing the cities to share in the resources of the suburbs, are

the first step towards improving inner city schools enough for the middle class. If consolidated

districts are not possible, however, he argues for the creation of magnet schools, charter schools,

and the encouragement of parochial schools anything that will set inner cities schools apart

from those in the suburbs.

Roberta Brandes Gratz takes a different approach towards schools and their ability to

affect real change in the community. She chooses to focus on the ability of institutions of higher

learning, like SCAD, to bring new life to their neighborhoods. However, she says that schools,

whether elementary through high school, or colleges and universities, play an essential role in

their communities. Schools, she says,

Provide a broader, more diversified benefit to a downtown than any new,
unneeded convention center or sports stadium. And educational institutions
provide some needed stability for a downtown during economic downturns.
Students are a constant, even during recessions. (Gratz, 1998, p. 258).
65










Duany agrees: "the long-term health and diversity of a city is ultimately tied closely to the

quality of its schools (Duany, 2000, p. 172)."



Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED)

Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design, commonly called CPTED by

practitioners, is a passive approach to crime prevention involving a careful survey and redesign

of neighborhood elements. The point is to increase the chance that a criminal might be observed

in committing a felonious act or, at the very least, to increase the perpetrator's perception that

they might be observed. Many of CPTED's principles are applied directly to individual

buildings, such as increasing sight lines from windows to potential target areas or controlling

access to private spaces. Territoriality also plays an important part, extending the responsibilities

of a building's occupants or a neighborhood's residents into the streets or public spaces so that

there is a sense of ownership over them and the activities that occur there. Two of CPTED's

principles that are most relevant to SCAD's presence in Savannah are surveillance (real or

perceived), and activity generation. Surveillance and activity generation are both part of the

"eyes on the street" concept forwarded by Jane Jacobs in 1961. In her seminal work The Death

andLife of Great American Cities, Jacobs argues that neighborhood activity levels,

diversification of building usage, pathway utilization (life on the streets), and population density

are very important factors in crime deterrence. All of these elements play into the number of

people on the street and the likelihood that they are paying attention to what is happening around

them, and will act on any suspicious behavior.








In addition, studies have shown that lighting, the presence of vacant and/or vandalized

buildings, and the behavior of other occupants of the streets all play into the public's perception

of the safety of an area (Wilson and Kelling, 1982; Valentine, 1988; Lewis and Maxfield, 1980;

Brower, et. al, 1983; Greenberg, 1986). In his work on women and fear, Valentine states that:

When a woman is beyond her local environment she makes judgments about
her safety... from cues she receives about social behavior from the actual
physical surroundings. For example, signs of incivility such as vandalism,
graffiti and litter suggest inappropriate or threatening behavior is possible or
permitted, whereas signs of care such as neat, litter-free streets suggest the
opposite. (Valentine, 1998)


Pablant and Baxter applied these concepts of density, civility and surveillance to school

vandalism and found that:

1. Schools with low vandalism rates will be characterized by a higher level
of aesthetic appeal and maintenance of the properties, while schools with high
vandalism rates will be characterized by lower aesthetic appeal and inadequate
upkeep."
2. Schools with low vandalism rates will be surrounded by highly diverse
and active neighborhoods with high habitation density and land coverage,
while schools with high vandalism rates will be surrounded by less active
neighborhoods with lower habitation density and land coverage.
3. Unimpaired visibility of school property will function as a deterrent to
vandalism, such that high visual accessibility of school property by neighbors
and passersby will be found to be associated with low vandalism rates, while
the reverse will characterize schools with high vandalism rates (1975, p. 272).


SCAD's choice to locate in downtown Savannah would seem to be an unconscious use of

CPTED principles to protect both the school and its students, and, peripherally, other residents
67








and users of the downtown area. Following the logic of the crime prevention literature, the reuse

and maintenance of otherwise vacant buildings adds an additional presence to the urban fabric of

the street, and prevents passersby from feeling that the buildings, and therefore the

neighborhood, are unsafe. Residents and visitors are more likely to occupy the street, and to take

interest in the events of the street, leading to decreased opportunities for unobserved criminal

activities.



Summary

As stated earlier, there is little literature on scattered-site, adaptive reuse campuses along

the model of SCAD. One example, written up by Ottolenghi and Palazzo, does seem to sum up

the benefits that proponents of scattered site campuses cite as the best reasons for it. La Sapienza

is Rome's oldest state university, with over 186,000 students in three branches. The oldest

branch was a "city within a city", with no room for expansion. New buildings were placed or

occupied without consideration to their relationship to the university as a whole. The second

branch of the university was built outside the city "at heavy ecological cost" (p. 90). The

research facilities of this new campus are too isolated from the city, compelling the use of

automobiles and preventing socialization by students. Integration between students and the

adjacent community was far from successful.

Learning from this experience, La Sapienza's third branch was developed in the early

1990s in an older, declining neighborhood in the heart of Rome. Empty school buildings from

the 1920s, and vacant industrial plants and warehouses were adapted to the university's needs.

The campus was planned around existing bus and rail connections, and outdoor space, including

sports fields, was created using the under-maintained local parks, which would be shared with

68








the neighborhood's residents. Although the branch is only beginning to get off the ground,

planners anticipate that it will reunify the neighborhood, providing new economic opportunities

for residents, and the services that the university will provide to them. Ottolenghi and Palazzo

(1992) state:

The new settlement pattern does not concern only physical planning: the
University opens onto the City through a set of activities which include trade and
services, catering, facilities for sports, performances, exhibitions, [and] leisure
facilities, but also advisory agencies, libraries and language labs open to the
public (p. 93).








Chapter 5

Methodology



In compiling the data and references reviewed for this study, several different methods

were used. They included a review of relevant scholarly and anecdotal literature, City of

Savannah and quasi-governmental documents, and the literature of the Savannah College of Art

and Design. Additional research methods included interviews with relevant parties in Savannah,

analysis of census and tax assessors data, and GIS mapping. All methods are outlined below:



Literature Review

Reference materials for the City of Savannah, the Savannah College of Art and Design,

and the topics covered in the literature review were obtained from the Internet, and the books and

periodicals of the University of Florida library. In addition, during several research trips, the

materials of the Georgia Historical Society, Armstong-Atlantic State University, the Savannah

College of Art and Design's Jen Library, and the Savannah Public Library proved helpful. The

Savannah Downtown Renewal Authority was also of great assistance, providing copies of both A

City of Streets and Squares: Savannah Design Guidelines for the Historic District and the

redevelopment plan for Martin Luther King, Jr., Blvd.



Interviews

Interviews were conducted with a variety of sources, many of whom proved helpful in

providing both background material and specific data regarding the growth of SCAD and its

effects on Savannah's urban fabric, society, and economy. Sources included Kate Firebaugh,

70








Design Group Manager for SCAD; Lee Adler, a leading preservationist; Darrell Daise and

Marsha Verdree of the City of Savannah Departments of Housing and Community Development,

respectively; and David Saussey, Chatham County Commissioner for District 5. Others

interviewed included Beth Reiter, Savannah's Preservation Officer; Lise Sundrla, Executive

Director of the Savannah Development and Renewal Authority; and William E. Stiles, property

developer. In addition, Marlborough Packard, Chair of SCAD's Historic Preservation

Department, Terry Harrelson, Revenue Collector for Chatham County and Jim Hutton,

Development Facilitator for the City of Savannah, proved extremely helpful in answering

questions and directing research efforts.



Case Studies

The case study areas (Broughton Street, and a comparison of the Sister Court and Cuyler-

Brownsville areas) were selected for several reasons, outlined below:



Broughton Street

Broughton Street is Savannah's primary commercial street. SCAD classroom buildings

are located on both the far eastern and western ends of this strip, and the Jen Library and

Trustees Theater were opened on Broughton in 1998. The type of retail characterizing the street

is currently undergoing a shift, from the fairly low-end clothing stores and short-term loan

facilities that were its primary occupants, to a mixture of higher-end clothing, restaurants, and

home furnishing stores. In order to determine the proportion of this shift that SCAD's presence

on the street has caused, a site survey of the entire street was conducted. Randomly selected

merchants were queried as to the length of time their business had occupied that location,

71








whether they anticipated moving in the near future, and what effect SCAD had on their business

or decision to locate there. The results of this survey are provided in Appendix 5.1, headed Case

Study Data, and Appendix 5.2, Broughton Street Survey Maps.



Wallin Hall

Wallin Hall is located in the Sister Court neighborhood of Savannah, a part of the

Victorian Historic District. The building was an elementary school until it was purchased from

the Chatham County Board of Education by SCAD in 1988, as part of a package deal with four

other historic structures. Wallin Hall was selected to be the subject of a case study into the

effects of SCAD on residential land values for several reasons. First, it is one of the furthest of

SCAD's buildings from the Landmark Historic District, and is therefore isolated from the effects

of the tourism industry. Second, it is isolated from other SCAD buildings by several blocks,

helping to prevent overlapping effects. And third, the Cuyler-Brownsville neighborhood made a

fairly good comparison to the area around Wallin Hall, being nearby and free from any direct

:-. SCAD effects, with a similar housing stock, and similar

demographics.

S. r." Figure 5.1, to the left, shows the locations of the

Stwo study areas, in relation to the downtown area. The

S* ." Landmark Historic District, considered Savannah's

S downtown core, is at the top of the map, while Forsyth

.. Park, which marks the edge of the Landmark District,

Locations of the Residental Study Areas. and the beginning of the Victorian District, is the long

rectangle in the center of the city grid. The primary

72








study area consists of 593 parcels within a 4-block radius of Wallin Hall (for ease of description,

this will be known as the "Wallin Hall Study Area"), and is on the right-hand side of the map in

Figure 5.1. The second study area, to the left (or west) is to be known as the "Cuyler-Brownsville

Study Area", and consists of 841 parcels in a 4-block radius of the intersection of 37h Street and

Martin Luther King, Jr., Boulevard. The 4-block radius was selected because four of Savannah's

city blocks are approximately one-quarter mile, a distance well within that range that studies

have indicated people will walk to reach work, school, or services. Analysis of demographic and

housing stock data from the 1990 United States Census shows that the areas, while not identical,

are fairly similar:

The population of the Wallin Hall area is 84% black, while Cuyler-Brownsville is

99.4% black. Chatham County overall is 35% black.

The per capital income level in the Wallin Hall area is $6,606; Cuyler-Brownsville's

per capital income is $5,473. Compare this to $12,759 for Chatham County.

The houses in both are older, with 51.8% of the Wallin Hall area's housing stock

dating from before 1939, while 45.7% of Cuyler-Brownsville's housing stock does.

In the Wallin Hall area, 79.5% of housing units are renter-occupied, while in Cuyler-

Brownsville, 74.9% of units are renter-occupied. This is compared to Chatham

County, in which only 44.9% of units are rentals.

Additional data comparing the two study areas is provided in Appendix 5.3. It should be noted

that this data was compiled from all the census block groups of which even a small part is in the

study area. In the case of Cuyler-Brownsville, there are seven block groups which included part

ofthe study area; in Wallin Hall, there are five. Additionally, the data is ten years old, dating

from the 1990 census; unfortunately, 2000 census data is not currently available. It would be

73








interesting to note the changes in demographics that have taken place in these study areas over

the past decade, but it is not possible, given the deadlines for this work.

Housing and planning researchers also must look at the other factors involved in property

values when performing any analysis on a neighborhood. Among those are the presence and

quality of schools, access to shopping, the presence of community institutions, and access to

transportation systems. It has been determined that the housing stock and demographics of the

two study areas were similar in 1989, prior to SCAD's rehabilitation and occupation of the

school now known as Wallin Hall. It is important, though, to look at the other differences and

similarities between the two neighborhoods, and to determine whether any major changes have

taken place in either study area, in relation to these other factors, that may have affected the

property values:

Both Cuyler-Brownsville and Wallin Hall have similar access to schools, and the

quality of their schools is rated fairly similarly by the Chatham County School Board.

It should be noted that the high school which students in the Wallin Hall study area

attend is located within the study area, making it within walking distance. However,

this school has been in the same location since 1989, so should not significantly affect

differences in property values.

The Wallin Hall study area is cut from north to south by Abercor Street, which has

been extended since the 1960s to the south to form Savannah's main modem

shopping district strip, on which all of the city's major malls are located. However,

this shopping area does not begin until two miles further along Abercom.

Additionally, a new Kroger shopping center was constructed during the 1990s,

approximately 10 blocks north of the Wallin Hall area. However, the relative

74








distances of these shopping amenities out of walking distance makes the two to

eight additional blocks that residents of Cuyler-Brownsville would travel to reach

them irrelevant.

* In reference to transportation systems, it would seem that Cuyler-Brownsville would

be more attractive to those who travel frequently, as the western edge of the study

area is approximately one-quarter mile from an entrance to a freeway-style access

road to 1-16. With the exception of the Abercorn Street Extension, Wallin Hall does

not have easy access to any major automobile transportation systems. Both

neighborhoods are served with similar bus access to the central business district.

* Both the Wallin Hall study area and the Cuyler-Brownsville area have a mixture of

historically minority, poor areas, and of wealthier, traditionally white areas. However,

the proportion of the Wallin Hall area that was middle-class (as evidenced by larger

lots and a slightly better housing stock) is greater than the proportion of Cuyler-

Brownsville dedicated to the middle-class. The reverse is also true that larger areas

of Cuyler-Brownsville are historically low-income minority areas, with smaller lots

and a poorer quality housing stock. This may make the area around Wallin Hall more

desirable to middle-class residents wishing to move closer to the city.

* The second edge that Wallin Hall would seem to have over Cuyler-Brownsville is the

presence of a greater number of community institutions in its midst. The Georgia

Infirmary, a non-profit hospital specializing in long-term elderly residential care, as

well as a high school and the main city library, are all within the Wallin Hall study

area. Although both neighborhoods are served by a similar number of churches, those

in the Wallin Hall area seem to be wealthier, larger, and better established. St. Paul's

75








Episcopal Church, especially, has done a great deal of rehabilitation work in the area,

including developing senior housing and affordable housing through the CHSA

program. However, all of these institutions were established prior to 1989, meaning

that their effect on property value increases over the past decade should be minimal.



Property Value Data

The property values for 1989 and 2000, as estimated by the Chatham County Tax

Assessor, for each parcel in these study areas was obtained from the Tax Assessor's Office.

Values for 1989 were collected from microfiche records held in the Chatham County records

office in the Chatham County Courthouse. Values for 2000 are available from the Tax

Assessor's public access website at http://www.chathamcounty.org. The Tax Assessor's office re-

appraised all properties in the study areas in spring of 2000, so there is no time lag on the recent

data. In addition, data on sales dates and prices through 1997 for all parcels in both comparison

areas was collected from the Chatham County Tax Assessor's Office through the Savannah Area

GIS (SAGIS) system. A brief comparison of the sales prices with the Tax Assessor's estimated

market values indicates that the Tax Assessor's data is fairly accurate and that, for the most part,

they were within a few thousand dollars of the actual market value. It must be noted that parcels

belonging to the City of Savannah, educational facilities, churches, and hospitals are tax-exempt

and were not re-appraised between 1989 and 2000, and therefore will have a property tax

increase of 0%. However, as these are often the most highly priced parcels in the study area, their

effective elimination from the statistical analysis prevents positive skewing towards higher

median values and standard deviations. Additionally, any parcel for which a 1989 or 2000 record








does not exist (due to a parcel split or merger) was treated as if there had been no property value

increase or decrease during that period, effectively removing them from the statistical analysis.



GIS Data Collection and Mapping

Essential Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data was obtained from the website of

the Savannah Area GIS organization (SAGIS). This website is located at http://www.sagis.com.

The data included the Chatham County Tax Assessor's database for 1997, and the related

mapping systems in ArcInfo. These mapping files were downloaded into ESRI's Arcview 3.1,

linked to the relevant database files, and processed.



Statistical Analysis

Descriptive statistics of the demographic and case study data was obtained utilizing

Microsoft's Excel spreadsheet software. Inferential statistical analysis was performed using

SPSS statistical analysis software. Paired sample t-tests were performed comparing Cuyler-

Brownsville with the Wallin Hall Study Area the results will be outlined in Chapter 6 of this

work.








Chapter 6

Results



Many claims have been made regarding the impact of the Savannah College of Art and

Design on the economy and urban fabric of the city of Savannah, and especially on its

Landmark and Victorian Historic Districts. It remains to be seen how each of these claims,

often made by SCAD itself or by its supporters, stands up to analysis. This chapter will

outlined the claims made by SCAD and the methods utilized to review each of these assertions.

A full discussion of the results and their implications will be provided in Chapter 7.



Adaptive Reuse

One of the claims made by many of SCAD's supporters is that it provides an

opportunity for the rehabilitation and reuse of the city's "white elephants" large older

buildings that have outlived their original purpose. This is undoubtedly true, as the college has

taken over 45 buildings scattered throughout the city, many of which were vacant until the

school took them over. These buildings include former institutional, industrial, and residential

properties, including some which were donated to the college in recognition of their ability to

make an impact on their neighborhood. Many residents feel that it would have been difficult to

find new industrial or residential uses for these structures, given the limitations of older

buildings. A university or college, like SCAD, however, has greater flexibility than most

offices or industries in their use of space, as classrooms, athletic facilities, libraries, design

studios, and administrative uses can often be fit into the varying spaces that older buildings

have to offer. Some examples of the adaptive reuse process are the Jen Library, a state of the








art library and computer lab retrofit into a large department store; the Eichberg Train Sheds,

design studio, classroom and computer labs fit into railroad warehouses; and Alexander Hall,

where the second story storage loft was subdivided into 100 square foot cubicles as studio

space for graduate students. Other examples are the reuse of motels as dormitories, a power-

generation station as a video production lab, and a radio station as administrative offices.

Although these buildings are all well-suited for their use as SCAD facilities, it is

difficult to see how they would be attractive to many other modem uses, as they are generally

extremely large, need a great deal of structural work, and tend to be in marginal areas of the

city. SCAD has been able to work around these limitations and create successful facilities from

them.

Additionally, many of these buildings, especially those that were former industrial uses,

like the train sheds or the Neal Blun cabinetry factory, are brownfields sites. The liability and

precautions associated with potential pollution on those sites would frequently be enough to

deter any buyer who may need to do serious structural work on the buildings, or who may seek

to redevelop the property. However, since SCAD is able to simply retrofit the interiors without

doing significant structural work, or having to disturb the soil, they are able to take over the

buildings without many of the impediments that other potential purchasers would face.

Some critics, however, have questioned the benefit to the city of having these structures

removed from potential commercial or industrial uses that would generate tax revenue for the

city. In particular, when the Weston and Dyson House properties, combined worth $2.5 million

in 1997, were purchased for use as dormitories, some residents decried their removal from the

city's tax rolls. Others were quick to point out that even though they were modem buildings,








they were actually "white elephants", having never been very commercially viable in the first

place, given their location under the Talmadge Bridge.

While it does not seem that SCAD has yet begun encroaching upon Savannah's stock

of commercially, residentially or industrially viable structures, there is a question as to how

much longer this will be true. If the school continues to expand at their current rate, they may

very well start to prey upon buildings that have been slated by the city for other redevelopment

uses uses that would provide the city with property and sales tax revenue.



Residential Revitalization

Many SCAD supporters also claim that the presence of SCAD's buildings and students

increase investment in marginal neighborhoods. Paula Rowan, one of the founders of SCAD,

contends, "People are fixing up buildings around our buildings; our buildings are large

centerpieces. So, as they go, the rest of the neighborhood goes" (quoted in Dean, 1992). One

of the biggest claims made by SCAD supporters, like planner Robert Brandes Gratz, is that

SCAD's buildings are numerous dispersed anchors for revitalization, seeding the whole city

(Gratz, 1998). Interviews with residents and city officials by the author indicated that there is a

widespread belief that students and faculty members frequently purchase houses or to locate

themselves in the neighborhoods immediately adjacent to SCAD buildings. The belief among

informants is that property values around SCAD buildings are rising, and that the location of a

college building is largely responsible for those raises. Kate Firebaugh, the manager of

SCAD's Design Group (their in-house rehab contractors) indicates she believes that, since

SCAD purchased the Neal Blun complex one year ago, property values in the area have almost








doubled. This has occurred even though SCAD does not plan to occupy the complex until

2002.

This attribution of rising property values to SCAD is difficult to prove, but a case study

of the area around one college building, Wallin Hall, was conducted. The reasons for choosing

Wallin Hall, and its comparison neighborhood, Cuyler-Brownsville, as well as the means of

selecting a sample and obtaining data on property values in the areas, are outlined in Chapter 5

of this paper. The relevant data can be found in Appendix 5.4. Analysis of the data yielded the

following:

Mean property values within a four block radius of Wallin Hall have increased from

$46,992 in 1989, to $89,739 in 2000 an average increase of 90%.

Mean property values in the comparison neighborhood of Cuyler-Brownsville have

increased from $26,349 in 1989 to $37,808 an increase of 43%.

A t-test comparing the Cuyler-Brownsville neighborhood's property value

increases with those of the Wallin Hall area returns a t-test statistic of 7.788, far

more than the 1.96 needed to prove statistical significance. (See Appendix 6.1 for

more details.)

Figure 6.1, to the left, shows the mapping of property

Value increases in the area of Wallin Hall. The SCAD

building itself is the bright yellow building in the center.

The darkest colors represent the greatest gains in terms of

property values, while the lightest colors reflect little or

-- no gain. It should be noted that many of the large parcels

Wallin Hall Study Area. See Appendix in this area are owned by the Georgia Infirmary, including
6.2 for map with legend.








the parcels immediately beside and above Wallin Hall, and therefore are tax exempt, and will

show no net gain or loss in property value. It is significant to note, however, that the greatest

concentration of high property value increases is in the area below Wallin Hall, and that they

typically taper off the farther the property is located from the Hall. A larger map, with a

legend, is available in Appendix 6.2.

In contrast, Cuyler-Brownsville has several areas in which property values have not

increased at all. In part, this is due to the renewal efforts of the city housing office discussed in

the Methodology, and to the resultant demolition of several dilapidated houses. However, this

demolition has affected very few parcels, and cannot explain the discrepancy between property

value increases in the Wallin Hall area and those in Cuyler-Brownsville.

Figure 6.3, to the left, shows the mapping of

.i property values in the Cuyler-Brownsville study area.

Note the concentration of the highest property value

increases to the right (east) side of the neighborhood,

Nearest to the Wallin Hall Study area. Again, a larger

map with legend is available in Appendix 6.3.


Cuyler-Brownsville Study Area. See A third point which must be made regarding
Appendix 6.3 for legend.
the differences between Cuyler-Brownsville and the

Wallin Hall area is that both were once proud of their local elementary schools, which served

as a focal point for the community. Note the two large light-pink parcels in the top left of the

Cuyler-Brownsville map. These show the location of the Florance Street school, which was

valued in 1989 at $577,400, very similar to the value placed on the school which became

Wallin Hall (valued in 1989 at $658,000). The Florance Street school was sold to a private

82








party for renovation, but has since suffered from disuse and disrepair. In 2000, it was valued at

$156,000 and the properties around it did not see the same type of value increase that those

around Wallin Hall did.

The positive and negative repercussions of the changes in property values caused in

large part by SCAD's presence in the Wallin Hall neighborhood will be addressed further in

Chapter 7.



Commercial Revitalization

Other SCAD supporters have claimed that SCAD's presence and the combined buying

power of the school, students and faculty has positively affected the commercial health of the

downtown business district. SCAD owns 13 buildings on downtown Savannah's three main

commercial streets, Martin Luther King Jr. Blvd., Bull Street and Broughton Street. These

buildings house several of the school's most important functions, including the admissions

office, the library, the design studios, and the bookstore. Their dormitories are, at most, three

blocks from any of these streets. That the school has some effect on the commercial vitality of

these streets is a reasonable assumption the question is how much of an effect they have.

Informants from the school have pointed to the recent rebirth of Broughton Street as a

shopping destination as a function of SCAD's presence in the city and on the street. To test the

claim that the school has had a major impact on the street, a random survey of merchants was

conducted. The results of this survey, and maps of the properties are included in Appendices

5.1 and 5.2. Of the 142 possible street-level establishments along Broughton Street from MLK

Jr. Blvd. on the western end to East Broad Street on the eastern end, 81 are occupied as retail

or restaurant establishments (including short-term loan facilities). Thirty-five possible








establishments are empty buildings or lots or are undergoing renovation or rehabilitation at this

time. This figure represents a vacancy rate of almost 25%, which is fairly high. The number of

those buildings that are currently under renovation, however, indicates that much of this

vacancy rate could very well be due to the changing nature of Broughton Street's retail

composition. The remaining 26 units are professional offices (including attorneys or doctors

offices), institutional uses such as SCAD's library and theater, or residential properties.

Short informal interviews were conducted with 46 of the 81 occupied retail

establishments along the street, asking how long they had been in that location, and how they

felt that the school and its students had affected their business and the area. Of these, only six

merchants stated that they received over 50% of their business from students. Three of these

opened within the past 10 months, including a futon store which opened a second location

downtown in order to attract more student business; a retro clothes and piercing store; and a

clothes and music catering to the club scene that opened next to Norris Hall. The others were

a 2 year-old bicycle shop; an art supplies store that opened ten years ago; and, oddly enough, a

century-old high-end shoe store. Three additional merchants, all restaurants and/or nightclubs,

said that they received 20-30% of their business from students. A few more restaurants, copy

shops and framing shops said that they received some business from students, but not a

significant amount.

The obvious conclusion from these interviews is that, if SCAD has had an impact on

Broughton Street, it has not been from the amount of business that an influx of students has

brought. However, the recent growth in student-oriented businesses could indicate a growing

trend among merchants to locate downtown in order to attract more students.








Respondents were also asked how they thought SCAD and its students had affected

Broughton Street as a whole. While many were reluctant to state that SCAD's presence had

had an impact on their own business, some did discuss the overall impact, stating that it had

been overwhelmingly positive. Many hire students as employees, and say that they provide an

excellent source of reliable workers. Others point to the fact that otherwise vacant buildings are

occupied and that the sheer physical presence of the students and faculty adds a vitality to the

street that attracts others who are more likely to spend money. Most agreed that the state of

Broughton Street was, in the words of one merchant, "pretty desperate" as recently as 1995.

One merchant, who had been on the street for 20 years, went so far as to say that the "students

single-handedly cleaned up the street so people will come back down here." The owner of the

Savannah Tea Room stated that when she renovated her building in 1996, her architect and

many of her subcontractors were SCAD alumni who had stayed in Savannah to work in the

restoration industry. Another former SCAD student opened an art gallery and framing shop on

the street in 1997.

A further discussion of the retail ramifications of SCAD's presence on and near

Broughton Street is contained in Chapter 7 of this paper.








Chapter 7

Discussion



We have set out to answer two questions in this work. First, what effect has the

Savannah College of Art and Design had on the revitalization of Savannah's Historic Districts?

Secondly, how might this model of a scattered site campus be used in other cities?

The evidence presented from the case study of the Wallin Hall neighborhood, along with

the anecdotal evidence and the literature showing that artists and students tend to be on the

leading edge of the urban homesteading movement, suggests that the presence of SCAD and its

over 5,000 students and faculty members has had an impact on the city's residential

neighborhoods. Property values and investment in the Wallin Hall area have increased

dramatically, while the Cuyler-Brownsville neighborhood, which was comparable to it only a

decade ago, has remained stagnant. These effects could come from a variety of sources

associated with SCAD, including an increased perception of safety. The investment and

maintenance which SCAD puts into Wallin Hall would also seem to indicate to current or

potential residents a willingness to invest in their neighborhood. Studies have shown that well-

kept buildings and yards can be contagious, spreading from one neighbor to the next, as each

seeks to capitalize on increasing property values. The third factor increasing property values

around Wallin Hall could be a very real desire on the part of students and faculty to live within

walking distance of the SCAD building in which they will spend most of their time, or within

walking distance of of a stop on SCAD's private bus route, which will allow them to access all

other classroom buildings easily. The map of the study area in Appendix 6.2, showing the








concentration of increased property values in the areas nearest the Hall, would seem to indicate

that this is true.

However, there are downsides to the increasing property values caused by SCAD, as

well. Critics have pointed to the rising rents in the Historic District and the Victorian District as

negative effects of the influx of temporary and permanent residents that the school brings. There

is no doubt, given the interviews conducted with developers and property managers, that SCAD

students are desirable tenants for low-rent apartments, even those subsidized by the city to

provide housing for low-income residents. In addition, realtors have confirmed that prices for

apartments in the downtown have outpaced general rent increases. In the early 1990s, rents in the

downtown area were far less than in the outlying suburbs; the reverse is true today, causing many

lower- and moderate-income residents to move into the suburbs.

Many in the minority community have lauded SCAD for the economic development

opportunities that it has brought to some marginal communities. W.W. Law, the President of the

Savannha-Yamacraw Branch of the Association for the Study of African-American Life and

History, has said that SCAD "is the most important thing that's happened in the inner-city

historic area in the last decade and a half." (quoted in Dean, 1992) Bill Stiles, an African-

American developer in the Cuyler-Brownsville neighborhood, agrees, stating that he tries to

intermix students with low-income tenants in his properties, because they take better care of their

apartments, bringing the appearance of the whole place up. One important factor in the

relationship between SCAD and the minority community also involves the rising property values

witnessed in the Wallin Hall neighborhood as the values rise, the owners of these properties,

many of them minorities, receive the benefits of increased equity in their homes. In addition,

proponents claim that students provide an important market for entrepreneurs in the

87








neighborhoods in which their buildings are located, although little empirical evidence is

available to support that claim.

This leads to the impacts of SCAD on the commercial vitality of the city. The

conclusion to be reached, at least in the case of Broughton Street, is that while SCAD's presence

does lend activity to the street, the student and faculty population does not seem to have a large

impact on the economic health of the individual businesses located on the street. Broughton

Street is currently undergoing a shift in the retail composition of the street, as evidenced by the

recent leasing of two rehabilitated retail spaces to GAP and Banana Republic, and the opening of

a Starbucks Coffee. Of the national chains, these stores are the ones that tend to be on the

forefront of the return to downtown, and their presence in Savannah will likely herald the

emergence on the scene of other national chains. The clothing outlets also tend to target students

and younger consumers, an indicator that SCAD's presence could very well be affecting their

location decisions. However, it is likely that the attraction of Broughton Street at the current time

is the tourist economy and the general economic health of the area, rather than SCAD and the

buying power of its students.

It could be argued that the very presence of the students on the street creates, in CPTED

terms, eyes on the street, and creates a perception of safety that draws others (Kraus' "risk-

aware" and "risk-averse") to Broughton Street to shop. Anecdotal evidence seems to indicate that

there is a perception that the downtown streets are safer because of SCAD's presence, and the

fact that their buildings are open 24-hours every day. Tourists, residents and employees of SCAD

have all indicated that they feel that the streets are relatively safe, and that there are only a few

sections of the downtown area that are not safe to go in at night. However, this may only be a

perception, and not reality, as the city's crime rate has, in contrast to national trends, risen over

88








the past year. Savannah's Creative Loafing magazine refers to crime in the area as "Savannah's

little secret". It is difficult to determine exactly what the causes of this crime wave may be,

although Creative Loafing credits much of it to apathy on the part of the city's leading residents.

In fact, the city's former police chief resigned in December of 1999, citing a lack of support from

the city for the measures needed to fight crime.

It seems that the school has not had an actual impact on crime in the city. Reiterating

CPTED principles put forth in Chapter 4 of this work, however, many security practitioners

argue that the perception of increased safety may actually be very effective in reducing crime.

The presence of additional "eyes on the street" in this case, those of SCAD students and

security personnel makes others feel secure enough to venture into the downtown area at night,

as well, increasing the activity on the streets, and reducing opportunities for unwitnessed crimes.

This will be true in both residential neighborhoods, like Wallin Hall, and on commercial streets,

such as Broughton Street.

Although it has been determined that SCAD's positive effects on Broughton Street tend

to be indirect, there is one negative impact that may be occurring that must be addressed. In his

work on retail composition, Duany says that American shoppers will "turn around and head back

to their cars rather than walk past fifty feet of blank wall (p. 168)." The presence of the Jen

Library on Broughton Street, then, could have serious repercussions for the commercial vitality

of the eastern end of the street. As the Maas Brother's Department Store, the library's pictures

windows would have been filled with displays that drew shoppers along the street from the main

intersection at Bull Street (see map in Appendix 5.2), and helped bring them to the shops on the

eastern side of the building, which takes up an entire city block. Today, however, the picture

windows are usually shielded by blinds, and where they are not, they give a glimpse of nothing

89








more exciting than chairs and shelves of books. This, in part, may help explain the lack of

activity on the eastern end of the street retail uses stop just about at the Jen Library. If they are

truly interested in the commercial health of Broughton Street, the school should consider

utilizing these picture windows to display students' artwork, which will draw visitors along the

building, and to the other side. Alternatively, the city should plan simply to make this end of

Broughton Street residential in nature. These units, whether houses or multi-family, should

appeal to residents who would like to be close to the street's retail and restaurant services, but

farther from the noise and traffic than the lofts on the western end of Broughton would offer. As

well, they could be marketed to SCAD students working at Norris Hall, at the intersection of

Broughton and East Broad.

One final claim made by SCAD supporters, which should be briefly discussed, is that its

scattered site campus form puts less stress on traditional transportation systems. Anecdotal

evidence is the primary support for this claim. A more comprehensive study of the transportation

and living patterns of SCAD students and faculty would be needed in order to determine exactly

how the school's effect on Savannah differs from that of more traditional campuses. However, it

is intuitive that the transportation patterns must differ, in that very little parking is provided for

students and faculty, and parking is already in short supply for the city as a whole. Students must

walk, bike or take SCAD's buses or public transportation in order to reach their classes or to run

errands, as the lack of parking makes traveling by automobile less of an option, and Savannah's

compactness makes the alternatives more attractive. This leads to an assumption that a scattered

site campus would be more successful in larger cities than Savannah when confined to a

neighborhood. In Savannah, it works because, even when walking, students who live in the area

will rarely have to travel more than 20 minutes between campus buildings (the length of a walk

90








across many university campuses). If commutes between residences and classes became longer

than this, even if by car or train, it is likely that a scattered site campus would be unpopular and

inconvenient to students and faculty. In cities like Philadelphia, for example, a scattered site

campus should be confined to a neighborhood about the size of Savannah's downtown area a

little more than a mile across.

The second question, that of whether or not SCAD's scattered site campus could (or

should) be duplicated in other cities, will be addressed further in Chapter 8. However, it should

be stated that the evidence of this work indicates that such a campus model could be utilized by

cities of all sizes, and by a variety of types of educational facilities. The benefits to other cities

are numerous:

increased investment in the inner cities (both residential and commercial);

adaptive reuse of white elephants;

a stimulation of their art and cultural scenes which will bring others to the city;

increased perceptions of safety on the part of current and potential residents and

workers;

an improved image for the city, on the part of residents, visitors and potential

residents, that is based on culture and an interest in learning as well as aesthetics;

and, finally, revenue from the presence of students and faculty that is more stable than

most industries.

These are impacts that any city would be excited to have, and indeed, that most planners and city

officials are seeking. They would be worth subsidizing and encouraging the development of a

scattered site school, whether it is one of the new types of short-term or mobile educational

programs, a community college, or the downtown branch of a major university.

91








Chapter 8

Conclusions



The Savannah College of Art and Design's scattered-site campus, was utilized by the founders as

a means of saving money during their early years. However, this type of piecemeal campus

development could serve as a model for the growth of new college and university campuses.

SCAD is, in essence, a partnership between a city and an institution of higher learning, from

which both can, and do, benefit. Savannah has received a new, "clean", industry, one with a

growing population of both consumers and employees, and a tremendous economic impact on

the city. Lee Adler may have been only slightly exaggerating when he said in 1992,

The headlines would be bigger than [they were at the beginning of] World War
II if the head of Savannah's development authority announced tomorrow that he
had brought in a new industry that had almost three thousand people
contributing a hundred million dollars a year to the city, and that it would
renovate more than thirty large buildings in the downtown (quoted in Dean,
1992).


Most cities are looking for exactly that type of industry, and despite the problems

associated with universities and their populations, are more than eager to have a new institution

of higher education locate in their community. However, the majority of new campuses locate on

the outskirts of the city, choosing a traditional campus design. Problems associated with this type

of campus are numerous, including the need to develop expanses of new land, the extension of

new infrastructure to the location, and the expansion of generally under-funded transportation

systems to cover the needs of faculty, staff and students. Additionally, development on the urban

fringe will inevitably lure new development, as apartments and houses are built for the new
92








population, and support services in the form of restaurants and shopping centers crop up around

the new campus. Current residents and retail establishments are lured out of the downtown and

older suburbs to the newer area, compounding both the problems of sprawl, and the decline of

the inner-city.

Meanwhile, the new institution is faced with the costs of building an entire campus at one

time, including residences for students, a library, classrooms, and athletic facilities. They also

must create an infrastructure of roads, sewers and water treatment systems on the campus itself,

and maintain this infrastructure in perpetuity.

Contrast this with the growth of the Savannah College of Art and Design. The city has

received the benefit of a new institutional presence in the downtown area, filling a vacuum left

by the withdrawal of the historic institutions. Old buildings, which otherwise might have stood

vacant for many years, until they fell down or were torn down, are reused, allowing them to keep

the historic fabric which has attracted a booming tourist economy. New money is pumped into

marginal neighborhoods, as housing in the downtown area becomes more attractive to a greater

mix of residents, and a population of 5,000 students and faculty provide a market for downtown

merchants. And the city's utilities and transportation providers, rather than having to pay for new

infrastructure on the outskirts of the city, are able to receive funds from utility fees for the

school, and from increased property values, that allow them to upgrade the existing

infrastructure.

In return, the college is allowed to grow at its own pace, acquiring buildings as the school

grows, and space is needed, and able to determine the best use for any given building as it is

acquired. They are freed from the need to maintain a campus, and the expenses for infrastructure,

and physical plant staff and equipment that a campus entails. Although SCAD does not utilize

93








the city's bus system for inter-campus transportation, other universities with scattered sites could

do so. A model program would be the partnership of the University of Florida and Gainesville's

Regional Transit System, which allows students to ride for free in return for a portion of the

student fees.

In addition, in the case of SCAD, based in a very attractive city, the fact that the campus

is the city sets them apart from other art schools, or even other small colleges. They are able to

attract students because of the surrounding communities and the unique features of Savannah.

Other cities with less attractive downtown may need to find another feature that will set them

apart for the college population, or to attract a less traditional population. A junior college or a

branch of a major university could locate downtown in order to attract business workers to their

classes, as well as traditional students.

There are several elements that, from the Savannah perspective, would seem to be

important in sustaining a college or university in a scattered site setting. First is the ability to

traverse the city fairly easily, making it not overly difficult to get from one building to another.

Multiple transportation options would be essential, and should include buses, trains or trolleys,

walking and bicycling. Campus buildings should be within a fairly compact area, such as

Savannah's two square-mile historic districts.

The second element would be a stock of large commercial, industrial and residential

buildings that can be converted into other uses fairly easily, and for which there is little other

demand. A tight real estate market would make creation of a new campus out of rehabilitated

buildings prohibitively expensive in comparison with developing an all-new campus. As

SCAD's experience shows, the buildings used for the new campus can be in fairly marginal areas

of the city, as long as they are not overly isolated. Adequate security measures should be taken,




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs