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Silver Springs : from sacred shrine to Wild Waters
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00095965/00001
 Material Information
Title: Silver Springs : from sacred shrine to Wild Waters
Physical Description: Archival
Language: English
Creator: Hardy, Deirdre J.
Publisher: Deirdre J. Hardy
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1977
Copyright Date: 1977
Subjects / Keywords: Silver Springs
Historic preservation
Florida -- Silver Springs
Spatial Coverage: Florida -- Silver Springs
Coordinates: 29.216605 x -82.054274
General Note: AE 678, Fall 1997 Professor F. Blair Reeves
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UF00095965:00001

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Full Text
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Deirdre J- Hardy AE 678, Fall 1977
Prof. F.B. Reeves.
University of Florida

The statistics boggle the mindj
A -| billion gallons of water have poured out of the springhead each day for the last 25,000 to 100,000 yearsi At maximum flow 34,750,000 gals, per hour flow from the spring into the Silver Springs Run and down the Ocklawaha River which is a tributary of the St. John's River and from there into the Atlantic Ocean. This is enough water to supply a city of several million people per dayi
The flow is suoplied by the largest limestone artesian spring outlet in the United States. Two hundred feet in diameter, the soring is fed by five major subterranean "rivers" which flow into
the major spring basin at rates varying from "fast" to "moderate".
The natural filtering process of the water's progression from
rainfall to artesian spring results in a liquid of such clarity
and purity that early visitors felt they were floating in "etherea"
Such reports generated considerable interest- among the scientists
of the day. The first to record his impressions was Dr. Daniel
brinton who in 1856 ranked .Silver Springs with Niagara and the
Mississippi Kiver as the grand hydro-geographical features of the
North American continent.
The water is 99.75$ pure and of such clarity that in 1859 Professor John Le Conte found he could read headline type of the New York Herald when it was sunk 60* deep in the spring. He reported his experiments in a scientific paper read before the American Association for the Advancement of Scienceat the August

SI. # 3
meeting in Newport in 1860, concluding that the purity was due to the composition of the surrounding earth and the clarity (more transparent than chemically pure water) was due to minute quant-
ities of lime which enhance the impression of purity with depth.
But the unique qualities of the springs were recognized long
before the scientists became interested. Anthropological data
collected by Willfred T. Neill in 1958 reveals that the springs
have been inhabited by eight different civilizations during the
last 10,000 years. Ceremonial Mounds dating from that time
reveal the Indians venerated the springs as a shrine to their
water gods for good reason. It was the source of Life. Food
was obtained from the spring shellfish,i turtles and fish -
the water itself and of course, the easily hunted animals who
came to drink there.
When white man first came to the Florida Peninsular, the vicinity of Silver Springs was known as Ocali, a sub-province of the Kingdom of the Sun of the Timucuan Indians. In 1539 DeSoto led his 800 troops into Ocali in search of treasure. He found the village of 600 dwellings deserted, but was convinced by the abundance of food stored in the warehouses that such wealth also indicated mineral treasure must be present. It didn't^ but the Indians convinced him such metals were used by the tribes to the North, so DeSoto 3et off in that direction beginning a series of battles between the Indians and the white man that would not end until after the Second Seminole War in 1842. At that time Arpeika returned to Silver Springs with 70 warriors and their families -the remnants of the Mikasuki Tribe that only twenty years previously had numbered 9,000. In 1845 these Seminoles were evicted when

James Rogers of Baldwin County, Georgia purchased 80 acres of
both undervrater and dry land surrounding the springhead for
|l?25 per acre.1 This event signalled a new era for the springs.
Settlement of Florida followed the waterways and old Indian
trails, thus it is not surprising that Silver Springs now
became a transportation interchange. Goods were pole-barged
136 miles to market in Palatka, a trip which took three weeks.
The 70 mile overland trip from that city to Silver Springs by
stage coach took 15 hours and the cnosen method of travel of
Lady Amelia Murray, one of Queen Victoria's Ladles-in-Waiting,
when in 1855 she visited the springs. She found the trip arduous,
the accomodations primitive, but the beauty of the springs 7
consoling. This was quite a trip for a genlewoman to undertake because the safety of passengers and mail on the stage line was constantly threatened by Seminole uprisings and the line's founder was obliged to ask for a military escort. The line connected Palatka to Tampa travelling via Silver Springs and Ocala. The
post office service begun at the Springs in 1852 still continues.
At tnis time, Ocala, a settlement 6 miles west of Silver Springs
and the county seat of Marion County boasted 3 stores, a Post Office
one small hotel and a court house built of pine poles that served
multiple duty as church, meeting hall, and public library. There
were 12 15 families and the town boasted its own newspaper.
Hubbard L. Hart, the founder of the stage-coach line, had become convinced of the spring's commercial possibilities by the # 4&5 interest snown after publication of the scientist's investigations. So after settlement of the Indian problem in 1858 he began preparation for steamboat service up the Ocklawaha and Silver Run Rivers to the springhead. Although the trip was long(2 nights

and a day) and the vessels primitive with no fancy resort at
the end of the line, still Hart's steamers could hardly accom-
odate the number of sightseers who wanted to make the trip.
Then the Civil War interrupted what seem to have been
halcyon days, at least for a segment of the population, and
tourist growth stopped. Hart's ships were pressed into service
running blockades for the Confederates, chartered at the sum of 11
$200 per day. However, since the Confederate money soon became
inflated thi3 sum was not dasigned to make even the entrepreneur
Hart rich quickly for Castor Oil was selling for $50 per quart
and three bolts of cloth cost $6001 Of Hart's ships only one was to survive the war and th&t was the Silver Spring which did so by hiding out in the spring for which she was named. The spring elso kept safe a rowboat captured from the Federal Troops and hidden underwater until used by the Confederate Secretary of War John Breckenridge. He used it to leave the spring area after staying at the "log cottage hotel" there owned by Hiram T. Mann former member of the Florida General Assembly, as he fled to Cuba At the war's end Hart had to clear the Ocklawaha of the fell trees with which the Union Forces had blockaded t,he river, before he could resume his steamer service. Business grew rapidly and Hart soon built his own hotel in Palatka and established a recruiting office in Boston to encourage tourists. Altnough Hart's ships facilities were meagre, he showered his passengers with attention, good food well served, and side trips to his orange grove. The trip was long but exciting, especially at nighttime when a pine knot fire was lit on top of the pilot house. This was a practical measure to light the ship's way but it amused the passengers by creating an eerie effect of strange

reflections among the trees.
The spring's fame continued to spread thanks to the zesty
travelogues written during the decades after the Civil War by
Harriet Beecher Stowe, Constance Ifenimore Cooper and Sidney
Lanier, the poet. Willaim Cullen Bryant, the Silver-voiced Orator
was another of the famed persons who visited the springs and
helped ensure that by the decade of the Gay 901s thousands of
tourists each year would ride the steamboats to the springs,
for they had gained world-side fame. These were the boom years
for Silver Springs. In 1875 the village had consisted of a' -
wharf, warehouse, turpentine distillery and country store and
tavern. By 1880 a hotel had replaced the log cottage hotel, but
its comforts too seem to have been meagre, for as Lady Duffus
Hardy noted in her book Down South,
"A flight of rough wooden steps from the outside led to the interior, whither we slowly ascended, the wind and rain beating on us as we went."
Lady Hardy found her room much more comfortable than the exterior
had led her to expect, but the food, "leathery slabs of ham"
served only to reinforce the hotel's appearance, especially
when it was found "the thunder had turned the milk sour."
It must have been around this time that the springs is
supposed to have changed hands in a card game when Oliver Howse
lost to Daniel Wilson, for Mrs. Howse is recorded as the proprietor
of a boarding house at the time. Perhaps this was the same establishment as Lady Hardy patronized. A tattered newspaper # 9 photograph exists in the Ccala Public library of a two story frame structure, that was reportedly taken in 1880, but no other documentation was found, except a mention that by 1891 a large hotel was being operated by the Prosky Brothers which was doing

a thriving business. It seems however, to this writer, that this would more likely be the large Silver Spring Inn built by J. Brig-ham Bishop of New York who formed a company with the intention of spending a million dollars to develop the springs as a resort.
A 200 room hotel was erected north of the spring, supplemented
by a two story railroad station at the dockside.
In 1878 a rail line had linked the spring with Ocala, for
the spring acted as Ocala's port at that time. By 1881 a narrow
guage rail line linked Ocala with Palatka and was served by the
Florida Central and Peninsular Railroad. The Silver Spring
Ocala and Gulf Railroad subsequently incorporated into the
Silver Spring and Western which in turn later became the Sea-
board Airline Railroad. Discovery of phosphate deposits in
Marion County in 1839 further reinforced the growing prosperity
of the area which had begun to recover from the depression
following the Civil War. In 1880, Ocala had 803 residents.
Ten years later the number had grown to 2,904 and many important
changes had taken place. The sandy tracks through the woods
had become hard surfaced roads and in 1888 electricity plant was established. To accomodate the many tourists and prospective land purchasers arriving, from the North several hotels were built in Ocala during this decade. The Ocala House Hotel was the largest. Originally a two storey frame structure with a columned porch, it was replaced with a three story brick structure in 1883 of such luxury that each room had its own fireplace. "Unfortunately this structure burned in Ocala's devastating city-wide fire of the week this structure was to open to the public during Thanksgiving, 1883. The structure was rebuilt and opened
in 1884. At the same time the Montezuma Hotel was constructed

also in 1884. Marion County had been diversifying its economy
during this decade but still relied mainly on the hybrid orange*
being developed there.
In 1839 the position Building was constructed to house the
# 15 International and Semi-Tropical Exposition of Ocala, The American & 16
PomologicalSCciety held its 20th Biennial meeting in the building
in February, 1889, exhibiting 92 varieties of oranges and 50
other varieties of citrus. The Wilder Medals usually given to
individuals were given to counties for the first time at this 21
The population of Ocala was now 6000 and the city had been surveyed into wards. Tiiere were 50 businesses, 3 banks, 6 white and 5 colored churches and on the banks of Orange Lake grew the largest orange grove In the world, however, Silver Springs still did not have a first class hotel and the well-to-do tourist who demanded good accomodations still had to travel into Ocala to find it. Tbejre were however, some plans afoot. Some wealthy Northeners, including James Gilfallin, former Treasurer of the United States, had purchased the Ocala House and property at Silver Springs with the intention of enlarging the hotel there "to make Silver Springs the beauty spot of the world." There were to be formal gardens, fountains, casinos, and Venetian Gondolas!
A 100' wide boulevard complete with electric railway was to connest
Silver Springs with Ocala. Unfortunately, this dream did not materialize In quite such grand form. Instead,. JMr. J. Brigham Bishop's Silver Spring Inn and Railroad Station began the Million Dollar investment in 1891 which reportedly enjoyed a thriving business until the "Big Freeze" of February, 1895 destroyed

ed the adjoining orange grove. About the same time the hotel
was destroyed by fire along with the family home of the Howse 23
family. Tha freeze not only ruined the citru s-based economy of
Marion County causing a change to market-gardening, but assaulted
the state's reputation among her Northern neighbours as being a
"Summerland in Wintertime". However, a sufficient niamber still
SI. # 17 visited the Springs to warrant thf construction of the Brown
House Hotel in 1895. This large frame hotel complete with
corner tower was built within a 'stone's throw of the spring"
SI. # 18 and is clearl^ visible in photographic postcards bearing 1908
In 1098 the President of the Silver Springs and Western Railroad operating between the spring and Ocala, H.L. Anderson purchased the springs and surrounding land. A lawyer, Anderson # 19 sued Phillip Morell, who is said to have discovered the principle of the glass-bottom boat at age fifteen, in an effort to prevent Morell from using the railroad wharf at the spring as a landing dock for his passengers. The outcome of this legal dispute is
not known, but by 1903 Anderson was operating his own glass-
bottom boat business in competition.
Then in 3909, Columbus (Ed. ) Carmichael purchased the springhead and surrounding acreage for $3,000. It was Carmichael who installed canopies on the glass-bottomed b:oats and improved the
seating arrangements, but the boats were still powered by oars 26
and men.
In his capacity as one of the leaders of the Republican Party in Florida, Herbert L. Anderson was instrumental in having the Federal Government create the Ocala National Forest in eastern Marion County. President Teddy Roosevelt signed the Proclamation

in 1908 thus ensuring conservation of the largest body of
Sand Pines in the world. By this time'Hubbard Hart's steamship line had competition the Lucas Line and each company's
fastest vessel vied with the other for supremacy in races remin-
iscent of those held on the Mississippi.
As the invention of the automobile and expanding railroad
connections threatened the steamship business the two companies
found themselves in competition with the new owner of the springs -
Ed Carmichael who in 1912 launched the first of his "Daylight Line"
motor cruisers. Powered by powerful internal- combustion engines
Carmichael's double-decker launches could traverse the Palatka -
Silver Springs distance in 12 daylight hours. The fare was now
$15:00 round trip plus 8 % war tax. It was the grim rerlity of
World War I combined with the scarcity of skilled shipyard help
which brought the steamboat era to its end, and the "Hiawatha" and
"Ockeehumpkee" were relegated to the defunct Hart's Line shipyard
30 .
at Hart's Point in Palatka.
While the steamships quietly rotted away in Palatka the spring entered a period of relative calm -- local families enjoyed lazy summer days sliding down .the giant wooden flame into the clear even-temperatured water but the tourists seenedto pass by even though the Silver Springs Transportation Co., provided transportation in double-ended buses guided bv rails to nearby Ocala, which
was situated on a main North-South highway.
In 1920 Ed Carmichael offered to sell the springhead and
surrounding land that he had purchased 10 years previously to
the city of Ocala for $250,000, but the city did not accept the 32
offer. Four years later when they found themselves with competing plans for the development of the springs, W.C. Ray and W.M. David-

son joined forces to lease Carmichael's property for a period 33
of 50 years. Shortly thereafter plans were announced for a
$ 10 million development including a large hotel, 18-hole golf
course and airport. With Ray and Davidson retaining a substantial
interest in the company, it was enlarged by New York Interests
to develop an even larger resort -- two 18-hole golf courses,
and two hotels -- one of which was to be operated by Dr. Eugene
Christian as a sanitorium. A rendering by Architect James Cassle
indicates this structure was to be Meditteranean in style and
lavishly landscaped with appropriate European foliage. Similar grandiose plans were made for the shores of Lake Weir and the Ocala region enjoyed another Real Estate boom similar to the one of the Gay 90's when Marion County land had first been promoted as far away as England by the zealous developers. However, once again the "bubble" burst and the plans for Silver Springs Paradise Resort did not materialize. Instead the site became the colored swimming beach as Ray and Davidson resumed their rights to the lease.35
The depression years saw a gradual re-awakening of the nation' people to the beauty of Silver Springs through a new medium. As Florida vied with Southern California to become the nursery of the movie business, the clear spring water found itself the setting for many films from the Initial underwater newsreel film of Davidson eating a banana to such extravaganzas as Esther William's "Jupiter's Darling'.' The jungle-like surroundings also provided a perfect backdrop to one of the earliest "talkies" Johnny Weismuller's performance as Tarzan. This 2 reel feature really put Silver Springs "on the map" and by 1931 every major film

production company had scouted the location. Its most unusual
use came in 1955 when Howard Hughes decided to premiere his film
"Underwater" starring Jane Russell literally underwater it
was projected underwater on to an underwater screen for an...
audience seated in the spring wearing airlungs!
Ray and Davidson believed their surest path to success lay in advertising lots of it where nobody else competed. This plan resulted in the familiar billboard safety exhortations at every major crossroads in Florida, complete of course with the message "See Silver Springs through Glass-Bottom Boats" Guests at 20,000 motel rooms were also greeted at their doorways by mats which invited them to also visit Silver Springs. But Ray and Davidson's most unusual and original advertising was demonstrated by their attempt during the 501 s to show the residents of Ocala and Marion County how much impact the business ax vhe ^prlng had on the local economy. Accordingly, their employees were paid in silver dollars complete with a small sticker indicating how the coin had come to Marion County. Apart from being a "weighty" method, it certainly drew attention, including that of the F.B.I, who promtly came to Marion County to caution Ray and Davidson
against future use.of the country's coinage as an advertising 37
Acting on the supposition that visitors to natural beauty spots liked them spiced with added attractions, Ray and Davidson sought to diversify the springs. They built a pavilion in 1929,; the first of several buildings clustered around the main basin of the spring. One of these frame strucures with hipped and dormered roof lines must have been the first home of Ross Allen's taxidermy business which he began in 1929. By 1931 he had located himself

in a log structure and established the Florida Reptile Institute including the creation of a zoological area. Allen's business grew as he shipped rattlesnake venom and canned rattler meat
to hospitals and gourmet shops world wide.
In 1935 a tribe of Mikasuki Indians returned to live at the
springs for part of each year. They built themselves a Seminole
village in which to live and work, preparing the crsft objects
which visitors to their compound could purchase. Soon afterwards
the Jungle Cruise boats were added to provide easy access for
those who wished to see some of the jungle-like flora and fauna
along the banks of Silver Run, location of such movies as "Dist-
ant Drums" and "Tarzan."
The Horticultural Society returned to the vicinity of Coala in 1937 when Silver Springs was chosen as the site of their "Golden Jubilee" celebrations complete with an outdoor pageant. That a sufficient number of tourist accomodations was available in the area was a result of the gradual growth of Silver Springs as a tourist mecca during the thirties. The automobile traffic generated by what was one of Florida's few tourist attractions at the time had partially rescued Marion County from the depression slump
for the visitors had required motels, boarding houses and gas
World war II further spread knowledge of the Spring's beauty for service men and women from all parts of the country passed through Florida's military bases and many spent their off duty time enjoying the facilities which had previously been available only to locals or the wealthy who could afford to travel. As stability and affluence returned to the nation after the war, the

service people returned aft, tourists in increasing numbers and
by the early fifties Silver Springs was seen by 750,000 visitors 41
Better service to Ocala's new airport by Eastern Airlines in 1950, stimulated provision of more and better tourist accomodations such as Cordrey's Court and Carmichael's Silver Springs
Court Motel in the neighbourhood of the springs. Silver Springs
Court Motel was built on the site of what is notr the Campground _
operated in conjunction with the Springs.
1950 brought the 25th. Anniversary Celebration of Ray and Davidson's leadership at the Springs and the enlarged and modernizing building program required by the problem of a growing number cf visitors to the springs. Prom the 11,000 who had come to visit in 1924, the number had risen to 800,000 in 1955 when a disastrous fire reduced the buildings around the springhead to ashes. However, in-true 11 show business" fashion the springhead
grounds were open to visitors the next day and the famed glass-
bottom boats running. ^
Ray and Davidson now had an opportunity to enlarge and correlate the supportive functions of the attraction into a new structure. Diversification during the early years of the decade had included an "Early American Transportation Museum", the "international Deer Ranch" and a religious sculpture housed in ten small chapels, "The Prince of Peace Memorial," Since these attractions were housed in separate buildings located at varying distances from the springhead, Victor Lundy of Sarasota, the chosen architect designed a grouping of three buildings on the Spring's North-Western bank to accomodate the functions of boat -dock and landing, gift and souvenir shops and administrative offices, and

Third Annual Progressive Architecture Awards for their designer.
The "international Look" style of the buildings, while typical of the architectural attitude of its time and finely detailed by Mr. Lundy certainly did not fit unobtrusively into its natural setting nor act as a "frame" for nature's wonderworks. Instead it brought the technology of the 3teel world to compete with its surroundings. That Lundy's design makes one uncomfortable in such lush natural surroundings is evidenced by the efforts made by-the current owner to "soften" the "international look" by the addition of cedar and cypress trim to the exterior of the buildings.
In 1962 ABC-Paramount leased the resort from Ray and Davidson
for $7.5 million and aquired an additional 3900 acres of neigh-
bouring land along Silver Run. Under the direction of Louis J. Finske, President of the Florida Division of ABC Inc. site planning changes were made to allow for landscaping and parking improvements, and a new twist was given the old advertising policy. An "educational services division" was inaugurated which provided schoolteachers with free classroom materials designed to help
aquaint Florida's schoolchildren with their natural and historic
47 legacy.
The number of visitors continued to increase. By 1963 the
1.75 million visitors to Marion County were leaving $18 Million
behind them in revenue and it is expected that most of these people
would have visited Silver Springs. Last year, when for the first time, an admission fee was charged to the resort and its park-like grounds a million visitors passed through the gates. Controlled
restaurant. The steel and glass buildings which radiated out from the Spring's perimeter were visually and physically linked to each other by covered walkways and won a Citation in the

access was made possible by the construction of a new parking lot and entry sequence which culminates with a "Main Entrance" gate
designed in ebullient "Gay 90's style by Ron McUann, a Landscape
Architect from Los Angeles. While the sequence of entry spaces is novel and provides one with a heightened sense of arrival, this writer questions the choice of the "Gay 90's" motif. It definitely doesn't blend well with the Lundy design, even though that has been modified, and in fact the points of interface between the two are painful- neither being sensitive to the other. One wonders how the proposed "Gas Light Plaza" approach to the Early American Museum will look when that attraction is moved into the Lundy building which formerly housed the restaurant. Of course, this building is one which received the cedar and cypress treatment, but it still is about as opposite as one can get to the nostalgic atmosphere of the "Gay 90's" One can sympathize with ABC in wishing to return the Springs to its heyday prime but the resulting contrast of styles between the existing buildings and nostalgic "what might have been" is extreme. The stateliness of the turreted Brown i House Hotel and two storied railroad station/docking facility is not brought to mind by the gazebo-ish structures being built.
A more sympathetic feeling for its site is exhibited by the
Reptile Institute built in the late 60'S and designed by the
Atlanta based firm of Brookbank, Murphy and Shields. But one wishes that ABC would choose one design theme and stick to it -- under
construction currently is a new water-fun area designed by Robert
51 which
Goodwin of Jacksonville. There facilities will include a wave-making pool; a children's pool where water will splash out of giant lollipops; and a flume for adult recreation do not continue the "Gay 90's" theme, although they are reminisent of the Fort King

Landing for the Reptile Institute.
One wonders if Mr. Goodwin has seen the photographs of the giant flume enjoyed by the swimmers at the springs during the 20's In comparison, his slide looks tame -- but maybe ABC'O insurance company had some decision making power. To be called "Wild Waters the new facilities will be opened to the public in March, 1978.
No doubt ABC hopes that this new facility will increase the number of visitors, especially of the repeat variety, but this writer feels that the diversification policy originated at this location by'Ray and Davidson needs revision. As Disney World has demonstrated it is possible to build a fun park filled with diversified attractions in a cohesive manner bi t Disney learned in
California that it worked better if his fun-world could separated from competing distractions and that no doubt accounts for the separation of facilities at Orlando, albeit the separation is as innocuous as a body of water, in itself a provider of a recreation facility!
Today, at Silver Springs, too much'distracts from what shculd be the'main attraction" -- the spring itself and the haunting pristine beauty that must have been the spring's glory when it was more fittingly a sacred shrine so many years ago.

1 Richard A. Martin, Eternal Spring (Great Outdoors Press, 1966) pp. l?>-27.
2 Martin, p. 133
3 Martin, p. 27
4 John LeConte, American Journal of Science and the Arts, vol. XXXI, no. 91 Jan. 1861, p.2.
5 Martin, pp45-48
6 Martin, pp52-63
7 Martin, p. 107
8 Eloise R. Ott and Louis Hickman Chazal Ccali Country, (Marion Publishers, 1966) p.52
9 Martin, p. 105
10 Martin, pp. 108-109
11 Marisln, p. 11
12 Ott, p. 84
13 Samuel Proctor, ed. Florida a Hundred Years Ago, (Tallahassee, 1966) My-65-5.
14 Martin, pp. 113-124 .25 Martin, pp. 130-137
16 Ott, p. 106
17 Martin, p. 142
18 Ott, p. 168
19 Ott. pp., 118-119
20 Ott, pp. 126-130
21 The Florida Times-Union, Trade Edition, January, 1890, p.4
22 Ott, pp. 142-148
23 Martin, p. 156
24 Martin, p. 157 and Postal Card Collection, Historic Room Public Library, Ocala.

25 Martin, p. 157
26 Martin, p. 157
27 Ott, p. 169
28 Martin, pp. 143-145
29 Ott, p. 168 and Daylight Tours Pamphlet, (Florida Collection, P.K.Yonge Room, U. of Fla. Library.)1920
30 Martin, pp. 14S-149
31 Daylight Tours Pamphlet, 1924
32 Ott, p. 187
33 Ott, p. 186
34 Eugene Christian, The Story of Silver Springs, (Private Publication, 1925)
35 Ott, pp. 189-190
36 Martin, pp. 159-163
37 Ocala Star Banner, February, 23, 1950 and personal conversation with Ms. Lea Lovell and Ms. Betty Wooten, November, 1977.
33 Carita Doggett Corse, Silver Springs Florida's International Attraction, (1937) and Ott, p. 192
39 Martin, p. 165
i i
40 Ott, pp. 180 & 192
41 Ott, pp. 207-208
42 Ott, p. 212
43 Personal Conversation with Ms. Betty Wooten, November, 1977
44 Ibid.
45 Progressive Architecture, April, 1958 pp. 146-148
46 Ott, p. 224
47 Martin, pp. 165-167
48 Interview with Manager, Marion County Chamber of Commerce, November, 1977.
49 Lovell and Wooten, Per.sonal Conversation, November, 1977,

50 Ibid.
51 Press Release on "Wild Waters", Public Relations Department Florida's Silver Springs, November, 1977.

Christian, Eugene, The Story of Silver Springs. Private Publication. 1925. Located in. P.K.Yonge, Room, U. of Fla. Library.
Corse, Carita Doggett. Historical Romance of Florida's Silver Springs. Private Publication.~T950. P.K.Yonge Colisction
Corse, Carita Doggett. Silver Springs Florida's International
Attraction, Private Publication. 1937. P.K.Yonge Collection.
Martin, Richard A. Eternal Spring, Great Outdoors Press. 166 St. Petersburg, Florida.
Ott, Eloise R. and Louis Hickman Chazal, Ocall Country, Marion Publishers. 1966
Proctor Samuel, ed. Florida A Hundred Years Ago. Tallahasse, Florida Civi}. War Centennial Commission. 1966
Dunn, Hampton, "An Early Florida Landmark", The Tampa Tribune, October 6, 1963
LeConte, John. Speech delivered August, 1360 American Journal of Science and Arts, vol. XXXI, no. 91, January, 1861.
Mitchell, Bradford C. "Paddle-Wheel Inboard" The American Neptune vol. Vll, no. 3, July, 1947
Florida Times-Union, Trade Edition, January, 1890. Jacksonville.
Ocala-Marion County Visitor's Guide, Marion County Chamber of Commerce, 1949
Ocala Star Banner, February, 23, 1950.
Progressive Architecture, April, 1958.
PAMPHLETS (P. K. Yonge Collection, U. of Fla. Library)
Daylight Tours and Nature's Fairyland, publications of Silver Springs Transportation Company, 1912-1925
Ocklawaha and St. John's Navigation Company, 1897 Timetable and Steamer Layout Tour Description.
Description of Silver Springs by Harriet Beecher Stowe, patron.

Frances DeVor, Journalist, Ocala Star Banner December, 1977.
Manager, Marlon County Chamber of Commerce, Ocala, November, 1977.
Lea Lovell and Betty Wooten and interested personnel, Florida1s Silver Springs, Assistants to the Manager, November, 1977.

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