• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Letter of transmittal
 Main






Group Title: 63d Cong., 1st sess. Senate. Doc. 146
Title: Panama canal
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00095940/00001
 Material Information
Title: Panama canal message from the President of the United States, transmitting a report by the Commission of fine arts in relation to the artistic structure of the Panama canal
Series Title: 63d Cong., 1st sess. Senate. Doc. 146
Physical Description: 15 p. : plates, folded maps, folded plans, folded diagrs. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Commission of Fine Arts
French, Daniel Chester, 1850-1931
Donor: unknown ( endowment ) ( endowment )
Publisher: G.P.O.
Place of Publication: Washington
Washington
Publication Date: 1913
 Subjects
Subject: Art -- Panama -- Canal Zone   ( lcsh )
Lighthouses -- Panama -- Panama Canal   ( lcsh )
Buoys -- Panama -- Panama Canal   ( lcsh )
Construction -- Panama Canal (Panama)   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Panama
 Notes
General Note: Read, referred to the Committee on interoceanic canals, and message only ordered to be printed July 29, 1913. Ordered reprinted with the report of the Commission of fine arts and accompanying illustrations August 5, 1913.
General Note: Daniel, C. French, chairman.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00095940
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06229646
lccn - 13035779

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Title Page
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 4
    Main
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
Full Text


63D CONGRESS IST SESSION
APRIL 7-DECEMBER 1, 1913


SENATE DOCUMENTS


VOL, 10


WASHINGTON : : GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE :: 1913









63D CONGRESS SENATE DOCUMENT
1st Session i No. 146





PANAMA CANAL







MESSAGE FROM THE

PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES

TRANSMITTING

A REPORT BY THE COMMISSION
OF FINE ARTS IN RELATION TO
THE ARTISTIC STRUCTURE OF
THE PANAMA CANAL












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JULY 29:, 91j.-Read, referred G ; o io nitti-aonTinteroceanic Can'al ;nd
*,.*"- message only ordered to be printed
AUGUST 5, 1913.-Ordered reprinted with the report of the Commission of
Fine Arts and accompanying illustrations


WASHINGTON
1913







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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.


To the Senate and House of Representatives:
I transmit herewith a report by the Commission of Fine Arts,
containing their recommendations regarding the artistic character
of the structures of the Panama Canal, made in pursuance of the
authority contained in section 4 of the act of Congress to provide
for the opening, maintenance, protection, and operation of the
Panama Canal, and the sanitation and government of the Canal Zone,
approved August 24, 1912.
WOODROW WILSON.
TmH WHITE HOUSE, July 89, 1913.
8


703294














THE COMMISSION OF FINE ARTS,
Washington, D. C., July 26, 1913.
The PRESIDENT,
The White House.
SIR: The act of Congress approved August 24, 1912, entitled "An
act to provide for the opening, maintenance, protection, and opera-
tion of the Panama Canal and the sanitation and government of the
Canal Zone," contains, under section 4, the following provision:
Before the completion of the canal the Commission of Fine Arts may make
report to the President of their recommendation regarding the artistic charac-
ter of the structures of the canal, such report to be transmitted to Congress.
In pursuance of the above authority and on the urgent request of
the Isthmian Canal Commission, the Commission of Fine Arts, find-
ing it impossible for all the members to visit the Isthmus without
undue delay, sent there a committee consisting of the chairman, Mr.
Daniel C. French, sculptor, and the vice chairman, Mr. Frederick
Law Olmsted, landscape architect. This committee sailed from
New York for Colon on February 4, 1913, diligently examined the
work and plans of the Isthmian Canal Commission, conferred with
the chairman and with many others engaged upon the work, and
returned to New York on February 27. The report of this committee
was submitted to and discussed by the entire commission and forms
the basis of the following report:
The canal itself and all the structures connected with it impress
one with a sense of their having been built with a view strictly to
their utility. There is an entire absence of ornament and no evi-
dence that the aesthetic has been considered except in a few cases as
a secondary consideration. Because of this very fact there is little to
find fault with from the artist's point of view. The canal, like the
Pyramids or some imposing object in natural scenery, is impressive
from its scale and simplicity and directness. One feels that anything
done merely for the purpose of beautifying it would not only fail
to accomplish that purpose, but would be an impertinence. In such
a work the most that the artist could hope to do would be to aid in
selecting, as between alternative forms of substantially equal value
from the engineering point of view, those which are likely to prove
most agreeable and appropriate in appearance.

GENERAL APPEARANCE OF COMPLETED CANAL.

At the risk of rehearsing general descriptions of the canal with
which Congress is familiar, it seems worth while to call attention to
the chief visual characteristics that will be presented by the com-
pleted work. (See Exhibit No. 1, general map of completed canal,
from report for 1912 of Isthmian Canal Commission.)






PANAMA CANAL.


In approaching from the Atlantic the first land to be seen is a
stretch of mountainous shore at the left of the steamer's course;
this is skirted at a distance of several miles for a few hours before
the low shore near the canal entrance comes into view ahead. The
first sign of the canal work to catch the eye will be a low lighthouse
just behind the left-hand end of a riprap breakwater 2 miles long,
which reaches out diagonally from the flat wooded shore of Toro
Point on the right. (See Exhibit No. 2, map from report for 1911
of Isthmian Canal Commission showing project for lighting and
buoying Panama Canal and approaches, and Exhibit No. 1.) It is
possible that an additional breakwater, also having a terminal light-
ouse, may be built at the left of the harbor entrance, which would
provide a nearly symmetrical and effective entrance. The course of
vessels in approaching is not far from the axis of the straight chan-
nel which extends from the end of the Toro Point breakwater up the
5-mile length of Limon Bay and is continued into the flat land at its
head as a visible canal. Through the bay this channel is to be
marked by pairs of buoys. (See Exhibit No. 2.) On the right the low
wooded bay shore is about 2 miles distant. On the left, a mile and
a half inside the breakwater light, a point occupied by the towns of
Colon and Cristobal projects within three-fourths of a mile of the
straight channel. The end of this point facing the ocean is con-
spicuously occupied by the rather long three-story mass of the new
hotel. (See photograph, Exhibit No. 3.) To the left is palm foliage
with a brownstone church and wooden hospital buildings and quar-
ters for railroad employees. Behind is the uninteresting wooden
town of Colon, and farther to the right is Cristobal, which together
present to the bay a utilitarian water front, part shabbiness, part
aggressive commercialism.
At the head of Limon Bay (see photograph, Exhibit No. 4) the
canal as a visible object begins. The bank on the left is somewhat
in advance of that on the right; both are very low and occupied by
a scrubby jungle rising into larger trees behind and at a distance
into wooded hills. The canal is 500 feet wide, with a few feet of
cleared ground on either side to be kept open for surveying and main-
tenance work. For a distance of a mile the line is straight and in
direct continuation of the buoyed channel through the bay; then it
bends slightly to the right and disappears from view. The vista
along the first reach of the canal terminates 2 miles beyond the bend
in the wooden houses of the town of Gatun, occupying hills some 150
feet high, crowned by a large black steel water tank on stilts silhou-
etted against Ihe sky. This tank, which is nearly on the axis of the
canal, should be incased in concrete, so as to form a solid tower,
permanent in appearance and in fact. The exact axis is marked by
two range lights on concrete lighthouse towers, one right in the town
of Gatun. These are not at present very conspicuous, but will prob-
ably be so painted as to bring them out sharply as an aid to naviga-
tion, thus further emphasizing the long, straight vista.
The first bend in the canal takes place just where it makes a long,
diagonal crossing with the narrower old French canal, and where
also the cut enters the higher ground of the Mindi Hills. These are
"hummocks from 10 to 50 feet in height. The deepest cuts are about
opposite each other at a point about one-third of a mile beyond the





PANAMA CANAL.


bend. Small beacon lights are planned to be placed at the edge of
the water on each side of the canal exactly at the bend and at certain
ether points. (See Exhibit 2.) From the bend the canal makes a
straight run of a mile across low, flat ground to the Gatun Locks, a
broad, low, symmetrical mass of concrete and steelwork, the axis of
which coincides with that of the canal approaching it, and the length
of which is a little over a mile.
All the concrete, except such as may be kept light in color by paint
or other surface applications, is rapidly discolored in the climate of
Panama to a mottled, blackish green, and the steelwork is to be
painted the dark battleship gray.
The Gatun Locks, like those at Pedro Miguel and Miraflores, will
form a sort of promontory projecting from the flat irregular hills
and embankments which retain the water behind the locks. The total
width occupied by the two locks side by side, with the central pier
separating them and the side walls with their towing tracks, etc., is
about 360 feet. Outside of these on each side is to be a flat earth space
100 feet wide or more, sloping just enough to drain the surface water
away from the lock. This is intended for use as a wharf for the
handling of material to be loaded on or unloaded from vessels when
passing through the lock, and for other purposes. At the outer edge
of these flat spaces the ground is to descend in steep banks. Each
pair of locks, of which there are three at Gatun, will thus form a sort
of raised terrace nearly 600 feet across and about 1,000 feet from
front to rear, and the next higher pair of locks will rise from it with
a transverse terrace bank some 30 feet in height. The top of the lock
masonry itself does not step up architecturally from one pair of locks
to the next, but rises by an ogee slope so as to enable the towing
engines to climb from level to level.
Beyond the Gatun Locks, for 23 miles through Gatun Lake, there
will be nothing that looks like a canal. So much of the shores (see
photograph, Exhibit No. 5) as are within close view of the channel
are generally steep and beautifully forested. There is a distressing
fringe of dead trees rising from the water everywhere along the
shores. In the opinion of the engineers most of these trees are likely
to rot off at about the water line in the course of two or three years;
but, as the water level will fluctuate several feet, it seems probable
that at least the stubs of numberless snags will continue to show above
the surface much of the time for a great many years. As very little
of the timber was marketable, the cost of clearing the forest before
flooding was felt to be too great to justify removing it except from
the navigable channel itself. This is much to be regretted.
The high bold hills around the lake make many of the distant
views very beautiful. The only canal structures in the lake section
are the aids to navigation-lighthouses, small range lights, and tri-
pods-all made of reenforced concrete, and nearly all open to criti-
cism as to details of appearance. Most of them are completed, and
it is too late to modify the designs.
Occasionally, toward the upper end, as the lake narrows down, the
edges of the channel show above the water surface as straight red
bluffs where projecting points have been cut through. Where the
channel departs from the flooded Chagres Valley the latter is barred
off by a railroad bridge, and the banks of the canal cut are at first






PANAMA CANAL.


so low that the transition is much less striking than where the canal
leaves Limon Bay.
The Culebra Cut section, extending 8 miles from this point to
Pedro Miguel Locks, is uniformly 300 feet wide, in a series of straight
reaches with slight angles between. The raw banks rise very irregu-
larly both as to height and as to rate of slope. Rarely clifflike, they
will generally become covered with vegetation, and look not very
strikingly different from natural steep hillsides. Altogether the
boldest and most striking feature immediately along the line of the
canal is at the point of deepest cut, through the continental divide,
where the rocks on both sides happen to be a hard trap which stands
very steep, and is safe from the breaks and slides which occur else-
where along the cut. The highest point of the cut, begun by the
French, is on the left side some 447 feet above the water of the canal.
At Pedro Miguel there is one pair of locks essentially similar to
those at Gatun. From this point the 2 miles to Miraflores Locks are
through another lake, much smaller than Gatun but of the same
landscape character, with irregular shores not at all canal-like in ap-
pearance. Two pairs of locks at Miraflores connect with the sea-
level canal on the Pacific side, which runs through flat land to the new
port of Balboa, now under construction. There are striking hills on
both sides at some distance from the canal. At Balboa, on the left
as one approaches the Pacific, a hill called Sosa comes close to the
canal with just a margin of navy-yard shops and docks between.
These shops promise to be rather ugly, but are so far advanced that no
material changes could be made in the plan. Turning to the left
around Sosa HIill the canal passes out through the bay among very
interesting islands, with bold headlands to the right.
There is no point on the Pacific side at which there is so distinct
at beginning of the visible canal as at the head of Limon Bay on the
Atlantic side.
SPECIFIC SUGGESTIONS.

The following specific comments and suggestions were, at the re-
quest of the chairman of the Isthmian Canal Commission, submitted
informally to him by our committee either while on the Isthmus or
by subsequent correspondence, in order that they might be made
directly effective so far as they commended themselves to the respon-
sible authorities.
1. ATLANTIC END OF THE CANAL.

The lighthouse at the end of the breakwater, the first structure that
will be seen by one approaching from the sea and the most conspic-
uous structure north of the Gatun Locks, if carried out as shown in
plans accompanying the report of the canal commission for 1912,
would not make as favorable or striking an impression as would be
desirable. (See plan and section for light and fog signal from report
for 1912 of Isthmian Canal Commission, Exhibit No. 6.)
It was recommended to Col. Goethals that the design of this light-
house should be restudied, and the architect of the Canal Commis-
sion has developed a design which meets the approval of this com-
mission. (See Exhibit No. 7.)






PANAMA CANAL.


2. CRISTOBAL.

The town of Cristobal consists largely of the quarters of canal
employees, standing in a coconut grove planted by the French and
facing on the bay. The town terminates in the De Lesseps house
with a statue of Columbus in front of it. Cristobal is being com-
pletely inclosed with wharves upon which it is planned to erect con-
tinuous sheds, entirely cutting off the view of the town from the
water. (See Isthmian Canal Commission plan Cristobal coaling
plant and docks, Exhibit No. 8.) It will make the town more agree-
able to live in and will enhance the appearance from the bay if the
space now open at Dock 15, between the end of the present shed of
Dock 11 and the southeast end of Dock 16, immediately opposite the
statue of Columbus, can be kept permanently open and free from
sheds. The desirability of this is undoubted if it is found to be
practicable.

3. ENTRANCE FEATURE.

The commission is impressed with the desirability of marking with
some dignified architectural feature the point at the Atlantic end
where the canal enters the land, sharply accenting the transition from
the buoyed channel in the open bay to the canal proper, and marking
a definite entrance. This impression is strengthened by the fact that
the plan for the lighting of the canal (see Exhibit No. 2) shows at
this point a pair of lights for which the design of the beacons already
in place at the Pacific entrance would probably be used (see photo-
graph. Exhibit No. 9, and plan of beacon from report for 1912 of
Isthmian Canal Commission, Exhibit No. 10). Structures of this
kind certainly would not accomplish the desired effect. Unfortu-
nately the shores here are very low, and it was learned that they are of
so loose a formation that they are at present worn back by the water
several feet a year, so that anything built here would be in danger of
finding itself surrounded by the sea within a few years. It was
stated, moreover, that there would be serious foundation difficulties
on account of the deep soft mud. We understand, however, that if
the other breakwater, which is projected opposite the present one, is
built this erosion at the head of the bay will probably cease. In that
case it certainly would be advisable to determine the exact conditions
as to foundations at this point since rock was encountered at a depth
of from 20 to 40 feet at several points in the vicinity in dredging the
canal, and, if the foundation difficulties are not too serious, to erect
a monument in the form of a lighthouse specially designed for the
purpose at either side of the canal, approximately in the positions
now marked for beacon lights 1 and 2. (See Exhibit No. 2.)
If it is found to be impracticable to mark this point monumentally,
we would recommend that beacon lights 1 and 2 be reduced to low
structures comparable with the illuminating buoys used to mark the
channel through Limon Bay. We would further recommend for con-
sideration the possibility of building lighthouses or some other form
of monument at the first high solid ground encountered in entering
the canal from the Atlantic, at the Mindi Hills, where the Gatun
Locks first attract attention. The chairman of the Isthmian Canal






PANAMA CANAL.


Commission, who expressed doubts as to the practicability of build-
ing anything of importance at the locations of beacon lights 1 and 2,
suggested this point as preferable. The bend in the canal would
throw any pair of monuments erected on the highest of these hills off
the axis in approaching from the sea. This is unfortunate, but it
could perhaps be obviated by erecting the structures on artificial
mounds exactly at the angle.

4. GATUN LOCKS.

(a) Lighthouse.-We advise the filling of the arches on the two
sides of the lower portion of the present lighthouse'on Gatun Locks.
(See photograph, Exhibit No. 11.) We feel this would improve the
design.
(b) Grading.-The tentative plan for grading seems good. Sug-
gestions for minor modifications and for possible locations of avenues
of trees on either side of the locks were furnished the chairman of
the Isthmian Canal Commission.
(c) Lighting fixtures.-At either side of all the locks at Gatun,
as well as at Miraflores and Pedro Miguel, are to be erected concrete
electric-light standards, already cast, with reflectors of a very peculiar
shape for lighting the locks. We recommended that the external
form of the fixtures should be changed to a more agreeable design.
It was the intention to make these fixtures of concrete, but we sug-
gested executing them in sheet copper, which would permit a less
heavy-looking design, and we believe would be decidedly preferable.
(d) Control building.-The designs for the control building which
is to be erected on the central pier of the locks were not susceptible of
much change at the time they were submitted to our committee, since
all or most of the steel for this building was then being fabricated,
and in any case the design was closely controlled by operating re-
quirements and the location of tracks, manholes, and other structures
which were in place before the architect was consulted. One of the
requirements, however, laid down by the Canal Commission for this
building will be so generally insisted on elsewhere that the resulting
appearance is very important. We refer to the extremely broad
overhang of the roof demanded because of the climatic conditions.
We have urged upon the architect of the Canal Commission that
where such excessive projections are demanded the pitch of the over-
hanging part of the roof should be flattened by a curve beginning
nearly over the plane of the wall in order to lighten it and distin-
guish it from the roof proper covering the mass of the building.
(e) The desirability of a change in the steel water tank at Gatun
has been referred to above. (See p. 6.)
Most of the suggestions in regard to the Gatun Locks apply with
modifications to the other locks.

5. ENTRANCE TO THE CANAL FROM THE PACIFIC.

It seems at first to be desirable that the entrance to the canal from
the Pacific should be marked in a manner somewhat similar to that
proposed at the Atlantic end. Unfortunately the conditions near this
entrance, particularly on the east side, will not admit of this treat-






PANAMA CANAL.


ment. The shore at this point is occupied by docks and coal storage
with which any extraneous structure would come in conflict. More-
over, there are points of interest as one approaches the canal from the
Pacific with which it would be unwise to attempt to compete by any
structure built for artistic reasons alone. The shore itself, with its
rugged range of mountains, is inspiring, and the islands guarding
the entrance are interesting in the extreme. The islands to the south
really will guard the entrance, as three of them are to be occupied
by forts with heavy guns. The second one, Perico, is most unusual
and picturesque. Naturally a wooded mound, rising abruptly out of
the sea, the top has been flattened for a fortress, and a spiral road-
way encircling the island leads up to it from the causeway which
connects this island with its neighbor, Naos, and thence with the
mainland. In our opinion, the only place upon which a monument
might be erected would be on the small round hill at Point Farfan,
which rises directly from the water at the entrance to the canal, and
is symmetrical in form. It would, however, be difficult to erect any
structure here that would not appear to be forced unless it were a
lighthouse, and the plan for lighthouses and beacons does not pro-
vide for a light on this eminence. All things considered, we are not
prepared to advise adding any structure to those already projected
at the south end of the canal.

6. THE ISLANDS OF NAOS, PERICO, CULEBRA, AND FLAMENCO.
These islands, referred to above, are, as already stated, connected
with each other and with the mainland by dikes or causeways. (See
photograph, Exhibit No. 12.) One of these causeways between East
Balboa and Naos is about 3:- miles in length, and as it may come to
be a favorite drive for the people of Panama it has been proposed
to plant it with trees throughout its entire length. If the trees were
planted near enough together to shade the road effectively they
would completely shut out from the ships entering or leaving the
canal the view of the city, which at present is very attractive. They
might also disturb the effect of the long low straight line which the
causeway now makes and which is a striking note in the picture,
and they would tend to make the shore continuous with the island,
and thus destroy the effect of its being an island. We therefore
doubt the wisdom of such tree planting. It may be possible to plant
groups of trees, presumably palms, near the ends of the causeway
without impairing its effect and the impression of Naos Island.
This should be carefully considered. The same arguments apply to
the dike connecting Naos and Perico, though not to the same extent.

7. PERMANENT TOWNS.
After the completion of the canal the work of maintenance and
operation will require the residence of a considerable permanent
population of employees on the Canal Zcne. It is expected that these
will be concentrated at five centers. Four of these are now occupied
by the construction force, and at these it is proposed to utilize the
present quarters, as far as available, with such gradual replacements
and changes as may prove necessary. These are: (1) Cristobal and
Colon, chiefly for those concerned with the port, with the sea-level






PANAMA CANAL.


section of the canal on the Atlantic side and with the Panama Rail-
road; (2) Gatun, chiefly for those working at the Gatun locks,
spillway, power plant, and features auxiliary thereto; and (3) Pe-
dro Miguel, and (4) Miraflores for those working at the locks of
those names. At the Pacific end of the canal the new town of Balboa
is to be created, containing the general administration offices and
provision for those working in them in the navy-yard shops and
docks, and in connection with the port and the sea-level section of
the canal.
A tentative preliminary plan for the town of Balboa had been pre-
pared by the architect of the Canal Commission and was discussed
with him by the committee at length upon the ground. The control-
ling feature of the plan is the administration building. The site for
this was selected by the Canal Commission upon the hill, about 100
feet high, forming a spur on the northwesterly side of the imposing
mass of Ancon Hill, which lies directly between the old city of
Panama and the canal. (See general map of Balboa terminals Trom
Report for 1912 of Isthmus Canal Commission, Exhibit No. 13.)
The plan showed the main avenue of the town on the lower ground
extending from this site (.t the existing road between the base of
Sosa Hill and the site of the navy-yard shops, the axis of the admin-
istration building coinciding with that of the avenue. Even from
the height of the lofty terrace of the administration building the
view of the canal when looking down the avenue would be cut off by
the roofs of the navy-yard shops, and the actual terminus of the vista
would be a foundry, set at an awkward angle with the town and
backed by a decidedly unattractive series of other shop buildings.
The architect agreed with the committee as to the unfortunate
orientation of the main axis, and after considering other alternatives
it was decided to recommend a general preliminary plan embodying
the following features (see diagrammatic plan kindly furnished by
the architect, Exhibit No. 14) :
The administration building to be placed, as previously planned, on Lone
Tree Hill, but facing directly toward the knoll on the southeasterly side of Sosa
Hill, with its court open to the northerly breeze.
The main avenue of the town to be placed on this same axis, to be flanked by
the public buildings of the town, connected so far as practicable by continuous
arcades, which would serve both as porches and as covered sidewalks; the
avenue to be not less than 120 feet wide between buildings, with an open parked
vista in the center, flanked by n row of trees on each side shading the roadways,
which would be next to the arcaded sidewalks.
The quarters for employees in the shops to be arranged along the slopes of
Sosa Hill above the southwesterly end of the avenue, on curvilinear roads fol-
lowing the contours of the hill :is far back as the topography of the hill allows,
and to extend southward on the high part of the dump as far as may be neces-
sary-the space between the drainage ditch and the present low level of the
tracks across the dump to be reserved for this purpose.
The quarters for the employees in the administration building to be arranged
In a similar informal manner on the slopes of the Ancon Hill to the eastward
and northeastward of the administration building.
The quarters for silver employees in the shops to be located south of Sosa
Low Hill.
The trolley tracks from Panama to be carried on the south side of Sosa Hill
from about their present terminus at the drainage ditch through the end of
the space reserved for silver employees to the navy-yard boundary.
This recommendation met with the approval of the chairman of the
Isthmian Canal Commission. In submitting it, however, the com-






PANAMA CANAL.


mittee pointed out that the general plan had as yet received practi-
cally no study in respect to the location and grades of the roads upon
the hillsides and the arrangement of the quarters thereon, and but
little as to the placing of the individual public buildings along the
main avenue.
Further, the committee explained, as set forth in their memoran-
dum to the chairman, that the quality of the final result, both in
matters of practical convenience and especially in matters of appear-
ance, will depend upon the proper handling of the innumerable
details which can not be shown on the general plan even more than
upon the quality of the general plan itself. Neither the Commission
of Fine Arts nor any paid professional advisor at a distance can
safeguard the work in regard to these details, which in the total will
make or break the artistic and practical success of the town. They
are always dependent upon the local executive organization and are
peculiarly so where the work is isolated and has to be pushed rapidly.
Practical experience in somewhat similar work undertaken for
public institutions and for companies engaged in the business of pro-
ducing and selling residential properties on a large scale, where the
attractiveness of 'the whole community is the principal commercial
asset, clearly indicates the importance of certain points in the organi-
zation for handling such work. One is that the town must be re-
garded as a single job which stands or falls as a whole, and that
every feature in it should be, as far as practicable, controlled by a
single compact organization devoted solely to that purpose and
capable of exercising a wise discretion as to matters of appearance.
Special parts of the work, such as electrical and mechanical equip-
ment, can and generally must be delegated to other organizations
working in collaboration with the office in charge of the town work
as a whole, but other parts can be successfully handled only under
the direct and complete control of that office.
On the architectural side, whether buildings are erected by outside
contractors or by an executive building department run by the or-
ganization itself, as is often the case with land companies, and
whether the original designs of the buildings are furnished by out-
side architectural offices or by the local architectural department of
the organization, it is vital to success that all the details of construc-
tion, no matter how trivial they may seem, should be settled and car-
ried out under the authoritative inspection of somebody of artistic
skill. It is impossible, even were it not too extravagantly costly in
time and money, to prepare plans and specifications so complete and
detailed as to make it safe to do without such watchful artistic over-
sight over the details of execution. Innumerable unforeseen ques-
tions constantly arise requiring almost instant decision which offer
two or more alternatives of nearly equal practical merit but very
different artistic value."
It is to be noted that the Canal Commission has an architectural
department, under the direction of Mr. A. 1W. Lord, who prepares the
general drawings in New York, with an assistant architect, Mr. M.
Schiavoni, selected by him, in charge of the office at the Isthmus,
where the working drawings are prepared. There is as yet no or-
ganization for the design and supervision of the outside work in con-
nection with the town and kindred matters. In the discussion of






PANAMA CANAL.


these matters with the chairman of the Isthmian Canal Commission
the committee found that it was his intention to establish a municipal
department to have charge, in collaboration with the architectural
department, of the design, execution, and maintenance of the public
work other than buildings, including streets, sewers, water supply,
public grounds, and the grounds surrounding the quarters or resi-
dences in the new permanent town of Balboa. The municipal de-
partment would also have charge of the alterations and improvements
to be made in such of the existing towns as are to be permanently
retained. It is understood that he intended to organize this depart-
ment by appointing a chief and, as first assistant, a municipal engi-
neer and a landscape architect. He asked the assistance of the
committee in securing competent men for those positions, and they
submitted to him information in regard to a considerable number of
possible appointees.
8. MARINE RESERVATION.

Adjacent to the town of Balboa a large reservation has been set
apart for the permanent quarters of a detachment of marines. There
are to be erected several barracks, each housing 150 men, a number of
officers' quarters, and other buildings, together with a large parade
ground. The situation selected for the barracks and officers' quarters
is a very commanding terrace on the westerly side of Ancon Hill,
at a height of about 175 feet. The design of the buildings, and in
fact everything that is to be done within the marine reservation, is
entirely out of the hands of the Isthmian Canal Commission, and will
be determined by the naval authorities, but Col. Goethals suggested
to the committee to confer with the officer commanding the marines
on the Isthmus. with a view to considering these improvements with
those in the town of Balboa. The committee had a very interesting
and satisfactory interview with that officer, who explained the needs
of the post, and expressed a deep interest in its appearance and in
securing harmony between these improvements and those of the town.
Hle explained, however, that the matter was now out of his hands, and
urged that the Commission of Fine Arts confer with the naval
authorities at Washington upon the subject, which we have expressed
our entire readiness to do.

9. ARMY POST.

Col. Goethals further stated that a reservation is to be set apart for
a large Army post, but that the location is not yet determined.

10. COMMEMORATIVE MONUMENT.

The Commission of Fine Arts believe that a memorial record of the
building of the canal should be made in the form of an impressive
inscription upon a great monumental surface at some point of promi-
nence; and a careful examination of the whole length of the canal
led to the choice for this purpose of the east wall at the point of
deepest cut, 492 feet, at the continental divide. While the size and
design of this monument should be the result of careful study, we are
inclined to believe that it should be approximately 100 feet in height






PANAMA CANAL.


and somewhat more in width; that it should be severely simple in
design; that the lettering should be done in Roman V-shaped letters
large enough to be easily read by normal eyes across the canal; and
that the material should be concrete applied as a massive facing to the
irreaularly fractured trap rock of the cliff.
We strongly recommend this and regard it as one of the most im-
portant matters to be considered.
We suggest also the possibility of marking the highest point of
canal excavation on Gold Hill immediately over the proposed inscrip-
tion with some form of monument. This should be considered care-
fully by the designer of the principal monument.
Respectfully submitted.
THE COMMISSION OF FINE ARTS,
By DANIEL C. FRENCH, Chairman.

0


.........
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EXHIBIT No. 3.


COLON. NEW WASHINGTON HOTEL.


EXHIBIT No. 4.


ATLANTIC APPROACH. ENTRANCE OF THE CANAL INTO THE LAND AT HEAD OF
LIMON BAY.

























EXhIBIT NO. 5.


GATUN LAKE. DEAD TREES ALONG SHORE.












EXmIBIT No. 9.


4S,
r2;


PACIFIC APPROACH. BEACON OPPOSITE BALBOA.








EXhmBIT No. 11.


GATUN LOCKS. LIGHTHOUSE ON THE LOCKS.



























Exmiiwr No. 12.


BREAKWATER CONNECTING CULEBRA ISLAND WITH PERICO ISLAND. CITY OF
PANAMA AND ANCON HILL IN DISTANCE.










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M- MAP SHOWING Paose' c. IDaFb
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S" avoenado I.
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Senate Doc. No. /-; 63d C


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ISTMMIAN CANAL COMMISSION
DEP .RWTENT Or CONSTRUCTION A.ND CheirNCtRING



LIGHTING AND BUOYING CANAL
GENERAL PLAN OF BEACON FOR ACETYLENE GAS
AND ELECTRIC LIGHTS FOR PACIFIC DIVISION


AftCj S. 9501

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Senate Dec. No. 116 ; 63d Cong., 1st Sess.


,lection AA


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Vr ITI CAL .5ECTION THROUGH C-AL35o


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ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION
DEPARTMENT Or CONSTRUCTION AND iGWN.ERING
OMCC OW TnG ASSISTANT CiE P RIOSti*ef
cuLCaRA. CANAL mZo

MAP SHOWING PROPOSED PROJECT


LIGHTING AND BUOYING
PANAMA CANAL AND APPROACHES


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4810


Senate Doe. No. 1l6 ; 63d Cong., slt Seas.


c


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ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION
>/ DEPARTMENT OF CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING
OFFICE Or ASSISTANT TO THE CHIEF ENGINEER
CULEBRA. CANAL ZONE

GENERAL PLAN OF BALBOA TERMINALS


3000


SCALE

AUGUST 31,1:





Submitted

Assistant to the Chief Engineer.


COROZAL


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PLAN cir WATCH-ROOM.


ISTI1M/IAN CANAL COMMISSION
DEPARTMENT O01 CONSTRUCTION AND MNGINErRING
orricr ofr Tiir SSISTANT CIIIF NGIFIcrR
CULEBUA, CANrtl. ADONC

LIGHTING AND BUOYING CANAL
....WEST BREAKWATER LIGHT AND FOG SIGNAL
VERTICAL SECTION AND FLOOR PLANS


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Senate Doc. No. /16 ; 63d Cong., Ist Sess.


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Senate Doe. No. /6 ; 63d Cong., Ist Sess.


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Senate Dec. Me. g; 63d Cong., slt Seas.


rTIiAN 'OFV TR


ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION-
OFFICE OF AUSTIN W. LORD. ARCHITECT
345 FITTH AVE., NEW YORK CITY
DATE L HIGBTIN kBUOYING lO--
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