| ||Popular movie themes and chara...|
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||Dedication of the Efrain Barradas Collection of Mexican & Cuban Film Posters
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|Table of Contents
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Special Thanks to
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Associate Dean, Development &Advancement Sam Huang
Public Information Officer Barbara Hood
Special Thanks to
Special & Area Studies Collections Chair Rich Bennett
Special Thanks to
for his additional poster donations
The Efran Barradas Collection of Mexican & Cuban Film Posters: collected & donated by Ramn Figueroa
Caribbean, where Mexico is one of the great cultural centers even today, and even more so in comics, music and films, but they were so naturalized that I was never curious about their country of origin because they seem such a normal part of my world. When I finally made it to Mexico in 1989 I, like so many other people The power of the cultural products of the Cuban revolution in Latin America is undeniable. It is very interesting that as different as the Mexican and Cuban posters are visually, their images are indicative of similar socio Ramn Figueroa, speaking about his collection of posters on the Millsaps College (Jackson, Mississippi) webpage
Collection History Fall 2008: Ramn Figueroa, Associate Professor of Spanish at Millsaps College in Mississippi, donates his personal collection of Mexican and Cuban film posters to the UF Smathers Libraries Popular Culture Collection, in honor of Efran Barradas (LAS/Spanish and Portuguese Studies), his former professor, mentor and friend. movie posters in the United States. February 2009: $4500 mini grant is awarded for conservation, digitization and metadata creation for the collection. Fall 2009: Conservation and digitization of posters is completed. Metadata identifying actors, directors and artists is added.
just moldering under my bed). The collection is named after a professor, Efran Barradas, who not only taught me about academics but also helped me expand Ramn Figueroa
Brief History of Cinema 1890s French film innovators and techniques come to Mexico; soon after the new technology was carried to Cuba 1930s During the Great Depression US movies gain in viewership throughout the Western Hemisphere 1940s World War II draws US efforts to winning the war, thus Mexican film work is revived and regains audience The Cuban and Mexican film industries predate Hollywood!
Brief History of Cinema 1950s and 60s Film production and distribution centered in Mexico spreads rapidly throughout the Caribbean and Latin America In the late 1950s, major studio work from the US and Europe overtakes Latin American markets Cuba creates a national film institute weeks after the January 1, 1959 Cuban Revolution The Institute works to produce films in the realism genre dosed heavily with political themes. Its films go on to find success and artistic acclaim in Latin America and worldwide. Success is here defined as intellectual, not commercial (i.e. box office numbers).
Rosa Carmina (1929 1992) Rosa Carmina was born November 19, 1929 in Havana Cuba. She was a star actress and dancer of the Golden and dance numbers earned her the nickname "Tropical Queen" and helped define the tropical dancer movie genre know as "rumbera" films. Carmina was discovered by the Mexican director Juan Orol after his divorce from fellow rumbera Mara Antonieta Pons. She went on to star in many of his films, including Una Mujer del Oriente and Hombres Sin Alma. 1951 1947 1950 1951 1951
Mara Flix (1914 2002) Born in Mexico in 1914, Mara Flix was one of the icons of the Golden Age of Mexican Cinema. Flix refused to work in Hollywood knowing that she would be typecast result, she never achieved the same level of fame in the United States as she did in Latin America and Europe. She was known, especially in her later years, by the 1954 1953 1960 1954
Mara Flix songs were written about her, including Mara Bonita which has been recorded by Plcido Domingo and Mara de Todas las Maras by Juan Gabriel. Her portrait was painted by Diego Rivera but never displayed because Flix thought it was ugly. 1954 1958 1947 1955
Mara Flix Flix was dressed by designers like Christian Dior, Givenchy, Yves Saint Laurent, Chanel, and Balenciaga. She was also a jewelry connoisseur and had an extensive collection, including the 41.37 carat, "Ashoka" diamond. In 1968, Flix commissioned a serpent diamond necklace from Cartier. The result was an impressive, completely articulated serpent made of platinum and white gold and encrusted with 178.21 carats of diamonds. In 1975, she again asked Cartier to create a necklace for her, this time in the shape of two crocodiles. Since Flix's death, these pieces have been displayed as part of The Art of Cartier Collection in several museums around the world. To pay tribute to the actress, in 2006 Cartier debuted its La Doa de Cartier collection. 1953 1958 1951
Esther Fernndez (1917 1999) Esther Fernndez was born in Jalisco, Mexico in 1917. On screen from the age of 13, Fernndez was a star of Mexican cinema in the 1930s and 1940s. She worked steadily in films until she retired in the late 1950s. In 1992 she made a brief comeback in Los Aos de Greta but ill health forced her to retire once more. Throughout her career Fernndez appeared in over 60 films. 1950 1952 1952
Katy Jurado (1924 2002) On screen in Mexico starting in the 1940s, Jurado also had a significant Hollywood career in the 1950s and beyond. She is perhaps best known internationally for her role as the former lover of Gary Cooper in High Noon It was this role that won her a 1952 Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actress. That same year, she was also nominated in the Most Promising Newcomer category. The accolades continued for Jurado and in 1954 she received an Academy Award nomination, in the Best Supporting Actress category, for her Broken Lance The nomination made her the first Mexican actress to receive such an honor. Jurado also won an Ariel Award (Premio Ariel) in 1954 for her role in El Bruto ; which was directed by Luis Buuel and starred Pedro Armendriz. 1953 1945 1945 1950
Libertad Lamarque (1908 2000) Libertad Lamarque was born November 24,1908 in Rosario, Argentina. Her French Uruguayan father, Gaudincio Lamarque, made a living as a scrap dealer, though in his youth he had been a contortionist. Lamarque's Spanish immigrant mother, Josefa Bouza, was a seamstress. When Lamarque was born, her father was in prison for political dissent, so he suggested naming the baby girl Libertad (Liberty). 1951 1958 1951 1955
Libertad Lamarque Lamarque often fussed over her scripts and at times changed the ending to keep her character alive and well. Legend has it that she was forced out of Argentina by rival radio actress/singer and first lady Evita Pern, before she went to Mexico. While in Mexico, Lamarque made more than 40 films and recorded 180 songs. At the height of her career, the volume of fan mail she received rivaled that of her Hollywood counterparts. In fact, Lamarque had to hire a staff to tend to the mail. Lamarque's fame extended well beyond Mexico and Argentina. She found a following in many Latin American countries, including Chile, Puerto Rico, Cuba, Venezuela, the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras. In 1947 she was invited to perform at New York City's famed Carnegie Hall. 1953 1954
Mara Antonieta Pons (1922 2004) Born in Cuba in 1922 Mara Antonieta Pons was one of the most notorious rumba dancers of her times. She later emigrated to Mexico City and became a popular movie actress during the Golden Age of Mexican Cinema. Her co stars and dance partners include Pedro Armendriz and Tin Tan. Her sensuous dancing can be seen in movies such as Mara Cristina and Siboney directed by her husband Juan Orol; who also directed Una Mujer del Oriente 1957 1954 1951
1950 1943 Mara Antonieta Pons Pons was one of a half dozen stars whose extravagant costumes and dance numbers earned them the nickname "Tropical Queens" and helped define the tropical dancer movie genre known as "rumbera" films. After making Mexico her home for more than 60 years, Pons died there in 2004. 1946 1949
Dolores del Ro (1904? 1983) Dolores del Ro was born in Durango, Mexico but grew up in Mexico City. After meeting Hollywood director Edwin Carewe, del Ro was invited to the United States; where she made her Hollywood debut in 1925. Within a few years she was a leading lady, starring in such films as What Price Glory? and Bird of Paradise Over the next several decades del Ro worked primarily in Mexico, for top directors such as Fernando de Fuentes and Roberto Gavaldn. She won three Ariel Awards for Best Actress for her roles in Las Abandonadas Doa Perfecta and El Nio y la Niebla. She was also nominated for La Otra and La Casa Chica. Although she first achieved stardom in Hollywood, Dolores del Ro is remembered as one of Mexico's most famous and elegant actresses. in Flaming Star (1960). 1948 1951 1943
Ninn Sevilla (1926 ) Born in Cuba in 1926, Ninn Sevilla is a Cuban born actress and dancer who made her film debut in Mexico in 1946. In the late 1940s and early 1950s she was one of the most popular screen performers, mostly in dramas with music like the classic Aventurera directed by Alberto Gout (who made six pictures with Sevilla). Sevilla was among the first to introduce traces of Santera in her dances and to acknowledge the presence of African elements in her Caribbean themed films. She rapidly became a rumbera icon yet by the late 1950s her movie career was in decline, due to the changing tastes of the public. She made a successful comeback in 1981, with Noche de Carnaval ; for which she won a Best Actress Ariel. Ninn Sevilla is still acting today, although mostly in telenovelas. 1957 1953 1955 1953
1941 Pedro Armendriz (1912 1963) Pedro Armendriz was born May 9, 1912 in Mexico City to a Mexican father and American mother. He grew up in Texas and went on to earn a degree from California Polytechnic State University. After finishing his studies, Armendriz moved back to Mexico to work in the railroad industry. There he was discovered by the director Miguel Zacaras while star in hundreds of movies in Mexico, the United States and Europe; 1944 1950 1944
Pedro Armendriz (1912 1963) Before his death in 1963, Armendriz was diagnosed with cancer. He is one many people, including John Wayne and Susan Hayward, whose cancer is believed to have been caused by radioactive exposure, while in Nevada filming The Conqueror His last film was the James Bond thriller From Russia with Love opposite Sean Connery. actor as well. Like his father, he has appeared in many Spanish speaking and English speaking roles including the 1989 James Bond film License to Kill 1953 1951 1954 1957 1958
1993) Better known as Clavillazo in the entertainment industry, Antonio Espino was born August 13, 1910 in Mexico. He began appearing on the stage in Mexico City in the mid 1930s, using nicknames like "El Chumiate," "Clavos," and "Clavillo," before finally settling on "Clavillazo." After struggling to achieve stardom for many years, he became one of the most popular screen comedians of the latter half of the 1950s. Clavillazo starred in a significant number of films and hosted a hit TV show. In most of his pictures he wore his stage costume, a baggy coat and an odd, pointed cap. He was known for his exaggerated hand gestures and a 1954 1956 1956 1959
Pedro Infante (1917 1957) Pedro Infante was born on November 18, 1917 in Sinaloa, Mexico. He worked as a carpenter before embarking on a singing career in the late 1930s. In the early 1940s Infante made his Mexican film debut. 1944 1951 1951 1951 1946 1952
Pedro Infante (1917 1957) Pedro Infante is perhaps the most famous actor and singer of the Golden Age of Mexican Cinema. Along with Jorge Negrete and Javier Sols, he was an idol throughout Mexico. Infante died in a plane crash in Mrida, Mexico on April 15, 1957. 1952 1954 1954 1955
(1916 2003) Born in Mexico City on January 25, 1916, Martnez was better known in the entertainment world as Resortes. He began his career as a member of the circus and made his motion picture debut in 1946. Resortes appeared in more than 50 Mexican films and many television series throughout his career. He was nominated for a prestigious Ariel Award in the Best Actor Category for his role in the 1956 film El Rey de Mxico 1957 1954 1956?
Adalberto Martnez Chvez Although he was known primarily for his talent as a comedian, Resortes was also an accomplished dancer. famously by the American pop star Michael Jackson). 1951 1955 1955 1965
Jorge Mistral (1920 1972) Jorge Mistral was born Modesto Llosas Rosell in Spain in 1920 to a Puerto Rican father and Spanish mother. He became a star in the 1940s, sharing the screen with Dilin. By the end of the 1940s he was a popular romantic leading man. Mistral appeared in over 80 films throughout his career. He allegedly died from a self inflicted gunshot wound while living in Mexico in 1972. 1954 1957 1952 1947 1955?
Ricardo Montalbn (1920 2009) Ricardo Montalbn was born in Mexico City on November 25, 1920. As a teenager he moved to Los Angeles to live with his older brother Carlos Montalbn, who was pursuing a career in show business as an actor and dancer. The younger Montalbn later returned to Mexico to care for his mother. Spanish language movie business. After nearly a dozen or so films, he was on the verge of stardom in Mexico when MGM took an interest in him and he on his best known role; that of Mr. Roarke, the star of Frustrated by Hollywood's portrayal of Mexicans, he helped found the image building Nosotros organization in 1970; a Los Angeles theatre based company designed for Latinos working in the industry. 1944 1954
1973) Born in Mexico on September 15, 1915, Valds was better known as Tin Tan. He was a multi talented actor, singer and comedian. Tin Tan often wore the pachuco style of dress and used its slang in many of his movies; making the language of the Mexican American pachucos famous in Mexico. The term pachuco refers to the subculture of young Mexican men, usually in the southwestern United States, who dressed extravagantly and spoke their own slang filled Spanish. 1952 1957 1959 1954 1952
For added dramatic effect, director Jos Bolaos shot this 1966 film in black & white.
Ral de Anda (1908 1997) Ral de Anda was a was a circus equestrian rider and performer in Mexican rodeos (charrera). He had small roles in 1930s Hollywood Western films as an extra. Later in life, de Anda directed over 40 films and served as writer and/or producer on countless others. Several other family members also had careers in cinema including his sons, actor Rodolfo de Anda and director Raul de Anda Jr. 1951 1956 1975
Luis Buuel (1900 1983) Buuel was a Spanish born filmmaker who acquired Mexican citizenship and worked in Mexico, France, Spain and the United States. His films have been nominated for many awards including the Golden Palm (Cannes Film Festival), Premio Ariel, and two Oscars. He is often considered the father of cinematic Surrealism. 1954 1953 1951 1950
Fernando de Fuentes (1894 1958) Fernando de Fuentes was born in Veracruz, Mexico on December 13, 1894. He studied Philosophy at Tulane University in New Orleans. De Fuentes pioneered the use of subtitles in order to show foreign films in Mexico. His film career spans many genres from drama, comedy, horror and historical to classics and documentaries. 1950 1952 1946
Juan Orol (1897 1988) Juan Orol was a leading director during the Golden Age of Mexican Cinema. He was born in Spain and in 1917 emigrated to Mexico. He served as producer, director, screenwriter and editor on almost all his movies. His second wife was legendary rumbera dancer/actress Mara Antonieta Pons. 1946 1952 1960
Juan Orol Orol was a fan of Hollywood's gangster films and stars like James Cagney, Edward G. Robinson, and Humphrey Bogart. This led him to be the principal promoter and Orol was also one of the promoters of the "Cine de Rumberas" during the Golden Era of cinema in Mexico. 1948 1954 1947 1946
Artists / Designers
Eduardo Muoz Bachs (1937 2001) Born on April 12, 1937 in Valencia, Spain, Bachs moved to Cuba with his parents whose work was influenced by Polish posters. His loose and whimsical approach to illustration later transferred to his poster work. He designed his first poster, in 1960, for the Instituto Cubano de Arte e Industria Cinemtografica (ICAIC, Cuban Institute of Cinematic Art and Industry). Although he worked briefly at the Comisin de Orientacin Revolucionario (COR, Commission of Revolutionary The ICAIC was founded shortly after the Cuban revolution to produce and promote Cuban films. It has a silkscreen workshop to produce posters for all films made in Cuba, as well as foreign films shown in Cuba. 1967 1972 1970 1973 1975
Eduardo Muoz Bachs (1937 2001) Bachs was the most prolific of all Cuban poster artists. His work has been exhibited in museums and galleries throughout the world. He has had several solo exhibitions and his work is held in the permanent collections of several major museums. 1975 1976 1976 1978 1981 1989
Popular Movie Themes and Characters
Lucha Libre (Wrestling) Occasionally, pop culture characters appeared along side historical figures, such as Pancho Villa, in Mexican films. Rafael Baledn film as well as several other non wrestling themed movies.
Love/Romance 1954 1955 1952 In movies around the world, many films have a romantic component as a subplot or side story. The films presented here feature a romantic central plot between the characters.
Music & Dance 1957 1956 1946 The musical film is reminiscent of a stage musical. Song and dance are woven into the storyline, in order to advance it or lend additional insight or information. While performers often treat their musical numbers as if there is a live audience watching. Many of the stars of the "Cine de Rumberas," such as Mara Antonieta Pons, Rosa Carmina, and Ninn Sevilla, were featured stars of musical films during the Golden Age of Mexican Cinema.
Religion 1945 1945 1945 1952 Since the early days of movies, religious, spiritual or historical references have appeared in films. Often times these references were made in the popular language of the movie producing country in order for the masses to easily understand and relate to the film. Presented here are three different posters for Mara Magdalena (Mary Magdalene), a biblical story which has been re told many times in cinema.
Comedy 1968 Seen in some of the first silent movies, comedy is one of the oldest genres in film. Comedies often feature lighthearted stories with no intent other than to amuse. The 1960s film Cazadores de Espas seen here, plays on the popular superspy theme of the time. Yet its portrayal of secret agents is more humorous than serious; featuring musical numbers and go go dancers, similar to the 1990s American film trilogy Austin Powers. 1959
Melodrama Melodramas tend to be formulaic productions, where the plot, characters and outcomes are easily identified. In addition, the characters, their development and interactions are highly stereotyped. Melodramatic films often revolve around some type of crisis which features exaggerated and/or simplified emotions and actions. The posters seen here display the exaggerated emotions of the storylines. 1950 1953 1950
The Ariel Award (Premio Ariel) The Ariel Award recognizes excellence in Mexican Cinema by the Mexican Academy of Arts and Sciences (Academia Mexicana de Artes y Ciencias Cinematograficas). It has been awarded since 1947 and is considered the most prestigious award in the Mexican Film Industry.
Ariel 1951 Pedro Armendriz (nominated, Best Actor) Roberto (nominated, Best Original Story)
Golden Ariel (Ariel de Oro) 1952 Roberto Gavaldn Ariel 1952 Best Picture Arturo de Crdova (Best Actor) Alex Phillips (Best Cinematography) Roberto Gavaldn (Best Director) Charles L. Kimball (Best Editing) Luis Spota (Best Original Story) Francisco Marco Chillet (Best Set Design) Rodolfo Benitez (Best Sound)
Ariel 1953 nominated, Best Picture Alfredo B. Crevenna (nominated, Best Director) Arturo de Crdova (nominated, Best Actor) Edmundo Bez & Dino Maiuri (nominated, Best Adapted Screenplay) Anglica Mara (Best Performance by a Child)
Ariel 1958 Best Picture Pedro Infante (nominated, Best Actor) Alicia del Lago (nominated, Best Supporting Actress) Julio Aldama (nominated, Best Supporting Actor) Alex Phillips (nominated, Best Cinematography) Ral Lavista (Best Musical Score)
Ariel 1958 Abraham Gelbser (Best Performance by a Child) Freddy Fernndez "El Pichi" (nominated, Best Youth Actor) Jaime Jimnez Pons (nominated, Best Youth Actor) Julio Alejandro (nominated, Best Original Story)
The Efran Barradas Collection originals are curated and housed in the UF Smathers Libraries Belknap Collection for the Performing Arts
The complete Efran Barradas Collection of Mexican & Cuban Film Posters is available online at www.dloc.com
Project Curators Richard Phillips UF Latin American Collection Jim Liversidge UF Popular Culture Collections Lourdes Santamara Wheeler UF Digital Library Center
We would like to thank the following departments and individuals for their support Bess de Farber & the Smathers Library Mini Grant Program John Freund & the Smathers Library Preservation Department Laurie Taylor & the UF Digital Library Center UF Center for Latin American Studies UF Spanish and Portuguese Studies Department Hernn Vera Mara Rogal Martn Sorbille Antonio Tovar David Pharies Philip Williams
Special Thanks to Library Administration Dean Judith Russell Senior Associate Dean John Ingram Associate Dean, Development & Advancement Sam Huang Public Information Officer Barbara Hood
Special Thanks to Howe Society of the University of Florida Special & Area Studies Collections Chair Rich Bennett
Special Thanks to Efran Barradas for his additional poster donations and inspiration