• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Cover
 Front Matter
 Main






Title: Belize coastal threat atlas
CITATION PDF VIEWER THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00095908/00001
 Material Information
Title: Belize coastal threat atlas
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Burke, Lauretta
Publisher: World Resources Institute
Place of Publication: Washington, D.C.
Publication Date: May, 2005
Copyright Date: 2008
Edition: DRAFT
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00095908
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:

PDF ( 9 MBs ) ( PDF )


Table of Contents
    Cover
        Cover
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
Full Text
























/1
\(3

















StrrW\ JBTFS V .sf "-t
P ; 'p*'-,,..- --bl o a ... f
. ,t-'Elli ^


opuiMon ICRAN


WORLD hG Si
RESOURCES
WWF


:1 : fQ i M l NI ino V
F.1 mann F.>, F ii ~iriFns


L- 1' NLP
: -r: i)









Belize Coastal Threat Atlas


The Belize Coastal Threat Atlas and the Belize Coastal Data CD
are products of the Reefs at Risk in Belize project.

The Reefs at Risk in Belize project is implemented by the World
Resources Institute (WRI) in collaboration with many partner
organizations in Belize. A list of collaborating organizations is
included on the back cover.


Acknowledgments

The Belize Coastal Threat Atlas would not have been possible
without the encouragement and financial support provided by the
Oak Foundation through the Reefs at Risk Belize project.
Financial support for the analysis of threats along the
Mesoamerican reef was provided by the US Agency for
International Development (USAID) and the United Nations
Foundation through the International Coral Reef Action Network
(ICRAN) Mesoamerican Reef (MAR) project.

The World Resources Institute (WRI) gratefully acknowledges
the many partner organizations and colleagues who contributed
to this project Belize Audubon Society, Belize Biological
Diversity / Belize Tropical Forest Studies (BTFS), Belize
Fisheries Department, Belize Forest Department, Belize
Meteorological Department, Coastal Zone Management
Authority and Institute (CZMAI), Friends of Nature, Green
Reef, Hol Chan Marine Reserve, ICRAN Mesoamerican Reef
Project, Land Information Center, The Nature Conservancy,


Toledo Institute for Development and Environment, Toledo
Association for Sustainable Tourism and Empowerment,
University of Belize, Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS),
World Wildlife Fund (WWF), and World Bank/GEF
Mesoamerican Barrier Reef Systems Project.

WRI would like to give special thanks to the following
colleagues in Belize: Melanie McField (WWF) and Janet Gibson
(WCS) for their contribution to the concept and design of the data
CD and Atlas; Sergio Hoare (WCS) for editing all the datasets
from the threat mapping workshops; Shalini Cawich (WWF) for
work on the hotel and tourism data, and for helping to organize
the coastal GIS workshop in Belize City; Jan Meerman (BTFS)
for the generous provision of many datasets; and Emil
Cherrington (CZMAI) for organizing and providing a wealth of
base datasets for Belize.

Lauretta Burke, Jon Maidens
World Resources Institute









Reefs at Risk in Belize: Improving the
information base for better management of
coral reefs


Coastal ecosystems of Belize are threatened by both local threats
(coastal development, pollution, sediments, overfishing) and
broader scale threats (transboundary sediment and pollution, coral
bleaching, coral disease). Pressure on the reefs will continue to
grow as development increases, but better management can help
reduce the threat and protect these valuable ecosystems in order to
maintain their sustainable use.

The Reefs at Risk in Belize project was developed to improve
access to information on coral reefs in Belize in support of better
management of coastal resources.

Information available on threats to and condition of coral reefs in
Belize is limited and uneven, but is improving. Several Belizean
NGOs have done assessments of resources within selected marine
protected areas, and have detailed information for these areas.
During 2004, the Wildlife Conservation Society, Belize Audubon
Society, Coastal Zone Management Authority and Institute and
World Wildlife Fund held a series of threat assessment and
mapping workshops where coastal resource users (stakeholders)
and scientists mapped known threats to coral reefs in Belize. One
workshop was held for each of the four major reef systems the
Belize Barrier Reef, Glover's Reef, Lighthouse Reef, and
Turneffe Atoll.


These detailed assessments and "expert mapping" of
threats have been complemented by an analytical
approach implemented under the Reefs at Risk in Belize
project. Reefs at Risk Belize is centered on the use of a
geographical information system (GIS) to visualize and
analyze the relationship between human activities
(pressures) and coral reef health. The project has
developed a series of standardized indicators of human
pressure on coral reefs from coastal development and
marine-based threats and from land-based sources of
sediment and pollution. The analysis of land-based threats
includes a watershed-based analysis for all watersheds
discharging along the Mesoamerican barrier reef region.
This atlas provides an opportunity to compare modeled
estimates of threat with those derived from expert opinion.









Belize Coastal Threat Atlas Contents


The Belize Coastal Threat Atlas includes fifteen maps, beginning
with maps on coastal habitats and marine protection, to provide
an orientation to coastal resources and management in Belize.
Next are a series of national-extent maps on threats to coral reefs
from fishing pressure, coastal development, agricultural runoff,
marine-based threats, and natural disturbances. Mapping of
threats by local stakeholders and scientists during the workshops
are denoted as "expert mapping." These include maps of fishing-
related threats, coastal development, and agricultural runoff
Threat estimates modeled under the Reefs at Risk analysis
(coastal development, agricultural runoff, and marine-based
threat) are denoted as "modeled." The atlas concludes with
detailed maps of threat to each of the five reef systems in Belize.
These maps reflect the three or four key threats identified by local
stakeholders and scientists at the threat assessment and mapping
workshops.


Maps


1. Coastal Bathymetry and Coral Reefs of Belize
2. Coastal Habitats of Belize
3. Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) of Belize
4. Fishing Pressure on Coral Reefs in Belize Expert
Mapping
5. Coastal Development Threat in Belize Expert
Mapping
6. Coastal Development in Belize Modelled Threat
7. Threat from Agricultural Runoff Expert Mapping
8. Agricultural Runoff Watersheds and Modelled
Sediment Delivery
9. Marine-based Threat in Belize Modelled
10. Threat from Natural Disturbances Coral Bleaching,
Coral Disease and Hurricanes
11. Northern Belize Barrier Reef Key Threats from
Expert Mapping
12. Southern Belize Barrier Reef Key Threats from
Expert Mapping
13. Glover's Reef Key Threats From Expert Mapping
14. Lighthouse Reef Key Threats From Expert Mapping
15. Turneffe Islands Key Threats From Expert Mapping

















































20 0 20 40 Kilometers
,r I


Map Projection: UTM, Zone 16, NAD1927


Coastal Bathymetry and Coral Reefs

of Belize

Stretching for 250 km along the entire length of the Belize, the country's reef complex
is the second largest continuous reef system in the Western Hemisphere,
extending from the northern end ofAmbergis Cay to the Sapodilla Cays in the south.
The barrier reef system encloses approximately 6,000 sq km of lagoon and includes
over 1,000 cays. The lagoon is 20 to 40 km wide and only a few meters deep in the
north, deepening to 50 m towards the south. Throughout the reef lagoon there
are numerous patch reefs. Reef growth along the Belize mainland is limited by
fluctuations in salinity and high turbidity and nutrients. Some fringing reefs occur
in the far south between Placencia and Punta Ycacos, but have low species richness.

Three atolls lie east of the barrier reef, separated by deep water: Tumeffe Islands,
Lighthouse Reef, and Glover's Reef. Wave exposure plays a key role in
shaping reef communities and development, both between atolls and within the
atolls (on windward versus leeward reefs). In addition, a major influence on
the barrier reef structure is the wave energy after attenuation by the atolls.




S Urbanized Areas Bathymetry (m)
Coral Reefs -7000- -5000
Patch Reefs -5000- -3000
Shallow Reefs -3000 -2000
Spur and Groove -2000 -1000
-1000- -500
S Administrative Districts -500 -200
I Belize Maritime Boundary -200 --100
L National Borders -100 0


Data Sources: Coral reef data from Belize Biodiverstiy Mapping Service (Belize
Ecosystem Map, 2004) and CZMAI, 1997 (for Glover's Reef); Bathymetry
from WRI, 2004; Administrative Districts for Belize from CCAD (www.ccad.ws).


Reefs at Risk in Belize
A collaboration between the World Resources Institute, Belize Coastal Zone
Management Authority and Institute, and many other partner organizations in Belize.
Datasets available on the Belize Coastal Data CD
(email datacen@coastalzonebelize.org for more information).



















































20 0 20 40 Kilometers
,r I


Map Projection: UTM, Zone 16, NAD1927


Coastal Habitats of Belize

Coral reefs, mangroves and sea grass all contribute to the rich biological diversity
of Belize. Mangrove forests grow in the intertidal range, lining a considerable
extent of the coastline of Belize. Further offshore, groups of flowering plants known
as seagrasses form extensive "meadows" over soft sediments. Mangroves and
seagrasses bind soft sediments, facilitating coral reef development in areas that might
otherwise have too much silt for coral growth. All three habitats are very biologically
productive and play significant role in the health of many finfish and shellfish fisheries
by providing spawning and nursery habitat and nutrients for many species. Seagrass
also provides important feeding areas for manatees and sea turtles. Like coral reefs,
mangroves protect coastal communities by stabilizing sediments and
preventing shoreline erosion. In turn, coral reefs buffer wave impacts, helping to
minimize erosion of soft sediments that mangroves and seagrasses need to grow.








Coastal Habitat
Mangrove
Seagrass
Coral Reefs
SAdministrative Districts
SNational Borders
| Belize Maritime Boundary


Data Sources: Coral reef data from Belize Biodiverstiy Mapping Service (Belize
Ecosystem Map, 2004) and CZMAI, 1997 (for Glover's Reef); Mangrove and
seagrass data from Belize Biodiverstiy Mapping Service (Belize Ecosystem Map,
2004, http://biological-diversity.info) Administrative Districts for Belize from
CCAD (www.ccad.ws).


Reefs at Risk in Belize
A collaboration between the World Resources Institute, Belize Coastal Zone
Management Authority and Institute, and many other partner organizations in Belize.
Datasets available on the Belize Coastal Data CD
(email datacen@coastalzonebelize.org for more information).







Marine Protected Areas of Belize
Belize is richly endowed with highly diverse and valuable coastal resources, but
many areas are threatened by human activities. Considerable effort has been
directed towards coastal management and developing a system of marine
protected areas in Belize. The legal and institutional policy framework for managing
coral reefs is in place, and MPA management is a mix of both government (either
the Fisheries Department or the Forest Department) and NGOs. The Belize Coastal
Zone Management Authority and Institute (CZMAI) was established in 1998 as a
model of integrated coastal management for the region, and the country's system
of 13 MPAs is well established, with almost all under active management. In
addition, there are 11 Species Aggregation Sites (SPAGS) that have been
declared marine reserves, several of which fall partially within existing marine
reserves. Seven of these sites have been declared World Heritage sites and all are
world renowned for spectacular marine life.

Belize has the legal and institutional policy framework to manage coral reefs,
but may lack the long-term funding for enforcement and monitoring of the extensive
system of MPAs. There is considerable reliance on international support, with some
support originating from the Protected Areas Conservation Trust (PACT) which
is funded through a portion of visitor departure taxes. A regional financing
mechanism, the Mesoamerican Reef Trust Fund, has been established from the
environmental trust funds of Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, and Mexico, and
a major aim of this fund includes sustainable financing of MPAs. Over the
last ten years, major support for Belize's MPAs has come from the GEF funded
"Coastal Zone Management Projects" for which funding ceased in 2004.
Future support (political and financial) for CZMAI is in doubt, which will inhibit
effective management of the precious coastal resources of Belize.


Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)
General Use | Administrative Districts
SNo Take National Borders
S Coral Reefs Belize Maritime Boundary


20 0 20 40 Kilometers
TE, i I


Map Projection: UTM, Zone 16, NAD1927


Data sources: Marine Protected Areas with no take zones from Coastal Zone
Management Authority and Institute, 2004.

Reefs at Risk in Belize
A collaboration between the World Resources Institute, Belize Coastal Zone
Management Authority and Institute, and many other partner organizations in Belize.
Datasets available on the Belize Coastal Data CD
(email datacen@coastalzonebelize.org for more information).

















































20 0 20 40 Kilometers
TN, i I


Map Projection: UTM, Zone 16, NAD1927


Fishing Pressure on Coral Reefs in

Belize Expert Mapping
Fishing is a mainstay for many coastal communities in Belize, but overfishing,
illegal fishing, and fishing with inappropriate gear (e.g. concern about gill netting
at river mouths) threatens the natural resources base that supports near
shore fisheries. Fishing in Belize is mainly artisanal and carried out in inshore
waters inside the barrier reef and three offshore atolls. Fishing methods
include diving for conch and lobster, spearfishing, use of lobster traps and
'shades', fish traps and weirs, hand-lining, gillnetting, and shrimp trawling.
Target species are mainly the spiny lobster, queen conch, reef fish, and coastal
or inshore pelagics. Several of the larger grouper and snapper species, from
areas spanning several hundred square kilometers, congregate at known localities
once or twice a year to spawn in vast numbers (known as spawning
aggregations or SPAGs).

Local stakeholders and scientists participated in four expert workshops evaluating
threats to the four major coral reef systems in Belize. All four workshops
identified some type of fishing pressure as one of the most important threats
to those reefs. Overfishing (fishing above sustainable levels; at increased
effort), illegal fishing (fishing outside of allowed areas and time periods, such
as inside Species Aggregation (SPAG) sites or conservation zones), and
poaching (unlicensed fishing) were identified as threats to the fishery resources.
Along the Southern Barrier Reef, shrimp trawling was also identified as a key
threat to benthic habitats that support fisheries, such as coral reefs and seagrass beds.

Overfishing Illegal and Overfishing
Moderate Severity Moderate Severity
SSerious Poaching / Illegal Fishing
Gill Netting Isolated Intense
SSlight to Moderate Less Intense Very Intense
SModerate to Severe Moderate Severity Serious
Trawling
SSevere
Data Sources: Fishing pressure maps based on results from four "Belize Threat
Assessment and Mapping" workshops. Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) for
Glover's Reef; Belize Audubon Society and WCS for Lighthouse Reef; CZMAI,
Tumeffe Islands Coastal Advisory Committee, and WCS for Turneffe; and World
Wildlife Fund (WWF) and WCS for the Barrier Reef.

Reefs at Risk in Belize
A collaboration between the World Resources Institute, Belize Coastal Zone
Management Authority and Institute, and many other partner organizations in Belize.
Datasets available on fhe Belize Coastal Data CD
(email datacen@coastalzonebelize.org for more information).

















































20 0 20 40 Kilometers
,r I


Map Projection: UTM, Zone 16, NAD1927


Coastal Development Threat in Belize

- Expert Mapping

Belize is endowed with a beautiful and highly productive coastal environment.
Mangroves, seagrass and coral reefs support valuable finfish and shellfish fisheries
and attract hundreds of thousands of tourists each year. Many coastal areas, both
along the mainland and on atolls, are developing rapidly. Development can impact
coastal ecosystems through removal of coastal habitat (such as mangroves),
dredging (which obliterates submerged habitat and affects nearby reefs and seagrass
beds), runoff from construction sites and roads, and discharge of sewage and grey-water.
Coastal development was identified by local stakeholders and scientists at
expert mapping workshops as a key threat to coral reefs on Turneffe and Lighthouse
Atolls, and along the Belize Barrier Reef. The threat from coastal development is
particularly high along the northern Belize Barrier Reef, near Belize City, and
near Placencia.



Development
Moderate Severity Coral Reefs
t S Administrative Districts
Mod / High Severity Belize Maritime Boundary
High Severity i National Borders
Dredging
= Medium Threat
C High Threat
R Highest Threat
Mangrove Clearing
5 High Threat
SMedium Threat
SRecently Cleared (5 Years)

Data Sources: Coastal development threat maps based on results of "Belize Threat
Assessment and Mapping" workshops Belize Audubon Society and Wildlife
Conservation Society (WCS) for Lighthouse Reef; CZMAI, Turneffe Islands Coastal
Advisory Committee, and WCS for Turneffe; and World Wildlife Fund (WWF) and
WCS for the Barrier Reef.

Reefs at Risk in Belize
A collaboration between the World Resources Institute, Belize Coastal Zone
Management Authority and Institute, and many other partner organizations in Belize.
Datasets available on the Belize Coastal Data CD
(email datacen@coastalzonebelize.org for more information).
















































20 0 20 40 Kilometers
,r I


Map Projection: UTM, Zone 16, NAD1927


Coastal Development in Belize

- Modeled Threat

This map shows threats to coral reefs from coastal development evaluated through
spatial modeling of threat based on the location of population, infrastructure and
tourism development. Threats to coral reefs from coastal development were also
evaluated through "expert mapping" by local stakeholders and scientists
(shown on previous map, "Coastal development threat in Belize expert mapping").
These approaches are complementary, with the expert-based approach capturing
local perception of priority threats, and the modeled approach identifying areas that
merit closer examination for potential management intervention.

Poorly managed coastal development can threaten coral reefs through dredging,
land reclamation, mining of sand and limestone, dumping of spoils, and runoff
from roads and construction. Sewage discharge is also a growing threat to coral
reefs, as coastal communities expand. Tourism is an important driver of coastal
development, with over 240,000 tourists and 850,000 cruise ship visitors in
2004, and tourism projected to grow at 6 percent per year. Threats to reefs from
coastal development in Belize were evaluated on the basis of distance to human
settlement (ranked by size), ports, airports, and tourism centers. Coastal
development threat was identified as threatening to coral reefs along the Northern
Barrier reef and on parts of the three atolls. Threat was also identified near Belize
City and Placencia, but not reaching out to the reef.


S Urbanized Areas Administrative Districts
Reefs by Coastal Development Threat Belize Maritime Boundary
SLow National Borders
Medium
High
Coastal Development Modeled Threat
I Low
I Medium
High

Data Sources: Modeled threat to coral reefs from coastal development from the
"Reefs at Risk in Belize" analysis, World Resources Institute (WRI), 2005.

Reefs at Risk in Belize
A collaboration between the World Resources Institute, Belize Coastal Zone
Management Authority and Institute, and many other partner organizations in Belize.
Datasets available on the Belize Coastal Data CD
(email datacen@coastalzonebelize.org for more information).

















































20 0 20 40 Kilometers
, I


Map Projection: UTM, Zone 16, NAD1927


Threat from Agricultural Runoff Expert

Mapping

Agricultural activities in watersheds draining adjacent to the Mesoamerican
Reef system, which includes the Belize Barrier Reef, contribute increased
sediment and pollutants from fertilizer and pesticide application. Increased nutrients
from fertilizer runoff promote growth of algae at the expense of coral reefs. Runoff
of pesticides and other chemicals can be toxic to both coral and fish. Excessive
delivery of sediment to coastal waters can smother coral. Cultivation of bananas,
pineapple, citrus, oil palm and sugar cane in Honduras, Guatemala and Belize
was identified by local stakeholders and scientists at a threat assessment workshop
as a key threat to coral reefs in the southern Belize Barrier Reef.


Data Sources: Threat from agricultural runoff based on results of "Belize Threat
Assessment and Mapping" workshops. World Wildlife Fund (WWF) and
Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) for the Barrier Reef. Rivers from CZMAI, 2005.

Reefs at Risk in Belize
A collaboration between the World Resources Institute, Belize Coastal Zone
Management Authority and Institute, and many other partner organizations in Belize.
Datasets available on the Belize Coastal Data CD
(email datacen@coastalzonebelize.org for more information).


Agricultural Runoff
Low to Moderate Severity
Moderate Severity
SMajor rivers
Coral Reefs
SAdministrative Districts
SBelize Maritime Boundary
SNational Borders
















































20 0 20 40 Kilometers
,r I


Map Projection: UTM, Zone 16, NAD1927


Agricultural Runoff Watersheds and

Modeled Sediment Delivery

Agriculture and other land use activities far inland can have an adverse impact on
coral reefs through the increased delivery of sediment and pollution to coastal
waters. Watersheds are an essential unit for analysis, since they link land areas
with their point of discharge to the sea. A watershed-based analysis of
land-based sources of pollution (LBS) was implemented at 1-km resolution
to develop a preliminary estimate of this threat. This analysis incorporates land cover
type, slope, soil characteristics, and precipitation in order to estimate relative erosion
rates for all land areas. These estimates are then summarized by watershed, allowing
for estimation of relative sediment delivery at the river mouths, which is being used
as a proxy for both sediment and pollution delivery. Sediment plumes were estimated
on the basis of relative sediment delivery and distance from each river mouth.
Areas of elevated sediment threat are large, reaching reefs off of Punta Gorda,
the Sapodilla Cayes, and many segments of the Belize Barrier Reef. This modeling
of threat from agriculture produces results similar to those from the expert mapping of
threat from agricultural runoff.



Relative Sediment Delivery Threat from Land-based Sources -
by Watershed Modeled
SLow Low
SI Medium
I High
High L National Borders
Reefs by Land-based Sediment Major rivers
Threat
S Low Belize Maritime Boundary
Medium
High

Data Sources: Modeled threat to coral reefs from watershed-based sources of
sediment and pollution from the "Reefs at Risk in Belize" analysis, World Resources
Institute (WRI), 2005. Watershed boundaries from the "Reefs at Risk in the Caribbean"
analysis, WRI, 2004. Rivers from USGS, HYDROlk, 2000.

Reefs at Risk in Belize
A collaboration between the World Resources Institute, Belize Coastal Zone
Management Authority and Institute, and many other partner organizations in Belize.
Datasets available on the Belize Coastal Data CD
(email datacen@coastalzonebelize.org for more information).






Marine-based Threat in Belize

- Modeled

Marine-based activities threaten coral reefs through pollution from ports, oil
discharge and spills, ballast and bilge discharge, dumping of garbage, and
direct physical impacts from groundings and anchor damage. Threats to coral
reefs from marine-based sources of pollution were evaluated on the basis of
location of ports and shipping lanes, the location of dive centers, and volume
of cruise ship visitation. Cruise ships are a significant source of
pollution in the Caribbean. A typical cruise ship generates an average
of 8 mt (2,228 gallons) of oily bilge water and 1 mt of garbage each day.
Belize had an estimated 850,000 visitors from cruise ships in 2004,
more than three times the number of land-based visitors. The volume
of cruise-ship tourism has increased by a factor of 25 in the last five years -
from 34,000 in 1999 to an estimated 850,000 in 2004.


20 0 20 40 Kilometers
,r I


Map Projection: UTM, Zone 16, NAD1927


Data Sources: Modeled threat to coral reefs from marine-based threats from the
"Reefs at Risk in Belize" analysis, World Resources Institute (WRI), 2005.

Reefs at Risk in Belize
A collaboration between the World Resources Institute, Belize Coastal Zone
Management Authority and Institute, and many other partner organizations in Belize.
Datasets available on fhe Belize Coastal Data CD
(email datacen@coastalzonebelize.org for more information).


Reefs by Marine-based Threat
Low
Medium
High
Threat from Marine Sources Modeled
SLow
Medium
= High

A Ports
Administrative Districts
Belize Maritime Boundary
SNational Borders

















































20 0 20 40 Kilometers
,r I


Map Projection: UTM, Zone 16, NAD1927


Threat from Natural Disturbances Coral

leaching, Coral Disease and Hurricanes

Coral bleaching and coral disease were identified as important threats to coral reefs
by local stakeholders and scientists at the expert mapping workshops. There were
over 80 observations of coral bleaching in Belize between 1995 and 2004, with most
observations during the 1998/99 El Nino/La Nina. Incidence of coral bleaching will
further increase with rising ocean temperature. Many coral diseases have been
observed in Belize, though Black Band, White Band, and White Plague appear
to be the most common. Factors causing increased incidence of disease are unclear.
Pathogens that cause disease are more easily transported in our globalized world;
disease might be more common in areas stressed by other pressures, such as pollution,
or after coral bleaching. Coral bleaching and coral disease are two major threats
to coral reefs in Belize, that are very difficult to control.

Several of Belize's reefs have been affected by repeated and/or coinciding events
in recent years. Widespread bleaching took place for the first time off
Belize in September 1995, when bleaching occurred throughout the Caribbean. In
the autumn of 1998, the reefs were again disturbed by a mass bleaching event, with
some individual colonies bleaching more than 90 percent, over large geographic areas.
The same year Hurricane Mitch, a Category 5 storm, impacted much of the
coast when reefs experienced battering waves for several days. Bleaching caused
catastrophic coral loss in Belize's lagoonal reefs, while the hurricane caused
widespread coral destruction in fore reefs and outer atoll reefs. Then, Hurricane Keith
followed in 2000 and Iris in 2001. These storms had different paths, intensities, and
impacts but they both reduced coral cover at a number of locations.
Coral Disease
A Obs. of White Plague Disease Coral Reefs
Obs. of White Band Disease i Administrative Districts
A Obs. of Black Band Disease i Belize Maritime Boundary
Coral Bleaching National Borders
Low Severity
Moderate Severity
Severe

Data Sources: Reefbase, Coral Beaching Dataset, download from
http://www.reefbase.org on 1 May 2005. Disease data from UNEP-WCMC, 2000

Reefs at Risk in Belize
A collaboration between the World Resources Institute, Belize Coastal Zone
Management Authority and Institute, and many other partner organizations in Belize.
Datasets available on fhe Belize Coastal Data CD
(email datacen@coastalzonebelize.org for more information).
















































10 0 10 Kilometers


Map Projection: UTM, Zone 16, NAD1927


Belize Barrier Reef (Northern) Key

threats from Expert Mapping

Local stakeholders and scientists at a threat analysis and mapping workshop for
the Belize Barrier Reef identified coastal development, dredging and overfishing
as key threats to the Northern section of the Barrier Reef. Coastal development was
identified as a threat along most cayes (from Ambergis Caye to Belize City and
further south. Dredging was also identified as a threat in most of these areas.
Overfishing was identified as a threat in the far north (along the Mexican border)
and in the central portions of the Belize Barrier Reef. Gill netting was identified as
a threat at several river mouths along the mainland.


Data Sources: Threat maps based on results of "Belize Threat Assessment and Mapping"
workshop hosted by World Wildlife Fund and Wildlife Conservation Society for the
Barrier Reef. Workshop report available on the Belize Coastal Data CD (see below).

Reefs at Risk in Belize
A collaboration between the World Resources Institute, Belize Coastal Zone
Management Authority and Institute, and many other partner organizations in Belize.
Datasets available on the Belize Coastal Data CD
(email datacen@coastalzonebelize.org for more information).


Overfishing
Moderate Severity
Gill Netting
= Slight to Moderate
Dredging
\ Moderate Severity
Development
Moderate Severity

Coral
Administrative Districts
SBelize Maritime Boundary
National Borders








































. .
. . . . . .i.:;
... .. ;.;;H;;T

.. ...


... ......'. ...;;iiiiii

.. . .
nm


10 0 10 Kilometers
SI I


Map Projection: UTM, Zone 16, NAD1927


Belize Barrier Reef (Southern) Key

Threats from Expert Mapping


Local stakeholders and scientists at a threat analysis and mapping workshop for
the Belize Barrier Reef identified runoff from agriculture, illegal fishing, coastal
development, and shrimp trawling as key threats to the Southern section of the Barrier
Reef. Runoff from agriculture sends nutrients and pollutants into nearshore waters
and threatens reefs, particularly in the far south of the Belize Barrier Reef. Illegal
fishing, primarily by Hondurans and Guatemalans, often conducted at night, threatens
large areas in the South. Shrimp trawling was identified as a threat in a large area
near the central portion of the Belize Barrier Reef, and gill netting as a threat along
several portions of the mainland coast. Coastal development and dredging
were identified as threats in isolated areas of the mainland coast, particularly
near Placencia and on a few cayes.





Development Agricultural Runoff
?/ Mod / High Severity Low to Moderate Severity
Dredging .Moderate Severity
N Moderate Severity
Gill Netting Coral
R Moderate to Severe
Trawling i Administrative Districts
E Severe Belize Maritime Boundary
Poaching / Illegal Fishing National Borders
Isolated
Less Intense
Intense
Very Intense


Data Sources: Threat maps based on results of "Belize Threat Assessment and Mapping"
workshop hosted by World Wildlife Fund (WWF) and WCS for the Barrier Reef.
Workshop report available on the Belize Coastal Data CD (see below).


Reefs at Risk in Belize
A collaboration between the World Resources Institute, Belize Coastal Zone
Management Authority and Institute, and many other partner organizations in Belize.
Datasets available on fhe Belize Coastal Data CD
(email datacen@coastalzonebelize.org for more information).

















































Map Projection: UTM, Zone 16, NAD1927


Glover's Reef Key Threats from


S Coral Bleaching Resilience Expert Mapping
F Lowest Local stakeholders and scientists at a threat analysis and mapping workshop for
Low Glover's Reef identified coral bleaching, physical damage from recreation (anchors
SMedium and snorkelers), and overfishing (both local and non-local fishers) as key threats
Higher to the reef.
SHighest
Resistance to Coral Bleaching
Lowest In evaluating the threat of coral bleaching, areas of high through low resistance and
Lowe high through low resilience were mapped. High resistance areas are less likely to
Medium bleach because of depth, openness and faster water movement, which makes
High them less likely to heat up. High resilience areas are more likely to recover quickly
Highest because of factors promoting recovery, such as availability of coral larvae. At
o Glover's Reef, patch reefs in the lagoon have both low resistance (shallow with
S a_____low flushing) and low resistance (limited inflow of larvae.) Reefs on the western
side of the lagoon were identified as having high resistance to bleaching, while
reefs on the eastern side were identified as having only medium resistance, but
having the highest resilience (due to availability of larval recruits.) An area in the
northeast, near a gap in Glover's Reef, was identified as having very high
resistance and resilience.

In addition to the overarching threat of coral bleaching, poaching and other
types of illegal fishing were identified as threats to many sections of Glover's Reef.
Physical damage from anchors, diving and snorkeling was identified as a
threat along the western and southern portions of Glover's Reef. Although not
Portrayed in a detailed map, runoff from farms and aquaculture was also identified
as an important threat that needs to be monitored.
Anchor and Snorkel Damage
Severe
Poaching / Illegal Fishing
Slight
Moderate Severity
S Serious

SCoral

Data Sources: From a "Belize Threat Assessment and Mapping" workshop for Glover's
Reef, hosted by the Wildlife Conservation Society in February 2004.

Reefs at Risk in Belize
A collaboration between the World Resources Institute, Belize Coastal Zone
Management Authority and Institute, and many other partner organizations in Belize.
5 0 5 1 Ki te Datasets available on the Belize Coastal Data CD
5 0 Kilometers (email datacen@coastalzonebelize.org for more information).


j .*..
















































5 0 5 Kilometers
Map Projection: UTM, Zone 16, NAD1927


Lighthouse Reef Key Threats from

Expert Mapping

Local stakeholders and scientists at a threat analysis and mapping workshop
for Lighthouse Reef identified overfishing, illegal fishing, development of cayes,
and physical damage from recreation (anchors and snorkelers) as key threats to
Lighthouse Reef. Illegal and over-fishing were mapped as the most pervasive
threat to Lighthouse Reef. Poaching was identified as a moderate threat in the Blue
Hole and South Point No-Take areas. Development was identified as a
threat on Northern Two Caye, Sandbore Caye, and Philips Long Caye. Damage from
boat propellers and groundings were identified as a threat along approaches to the
Blue Hole. Anchor damage by fisherman and tourist boats were mapped as a threat
along many sections of the atoll, while damage from tourists was mapped at the Blue
Hole, and near the three cayes.






Development
High Severity
Poaching / Illegal Fishing
Moderate Severity
Boat and Anchor Damage
SAnchor Damage by Fishermen
SAnchor Damage from Tourist Boats
i Boat Groundings / Propeller Damage
STourist Damage (in Water)
Illegal and Overfishing
Moderate Severity
Coral Reefs
SAdministrative Districts


Data Sources: From a "Belize Threat Assessment and Mapping" workshop for
Lighthouse Reef, hosted by Belize Audubon Society and Wildlife Conservation
Society in October, 2004.

Reefs at Risk in Belize
A collaboration between the World Resources Institute, Belize Coastal Zone
Management Authority and Institute, and many other partner organizations in Belize.
Datasets available on fhe Belize Coastal Data CD
(email datacen@coastalzonebelize.org for more information).














































10 0 10 Kilometers

Map Projection: UTM, Zone 16, NAD1927


Overfishing
Moderate Severity
F Serious
Coral
Administrative Districts


Turneffe Islands Key threats from

Expert Mapping

Local stakeholders and scientists at a threat analysis and mapping workshop for
Tumeffe Atoll identified unsustainable fishing (overfishing and illegal fishing), and
coastal development (mangrove clearing, dredging, and overdevelopment) as key threats
to the atoll. Overfishing was identified as a pervasive threat of moderate severity
on the western side and high severity in the lagoon and at several spawning sites.
Development, particularly mangrove clearing and dredging were identified as threats
across the atoll, but were both rated as highest risk on the eastern side.









Mangrove Clearing
SHigh Threat
SMedium Threat
SRecently Cleared (5 Years)
Dredging
SMedium Threat
High Threat
SHighest Threat
Coral





Data Sources: From a "Belize Threat Assessment and Mapping" workshop for
Tumeffe Atoll, hosted by the Costal Zone Management Institute and
Authority and Wildlife Conservation Society in September 2004.

Reefs at Risk in Belize
A collaboration between the World Resources Institute, Belize Coastal Zone
Management Authority and Institute, and many other partner organizations in Belize.
Datasets available on fhe Belize Coastal Data CD
(email datacen@coastalzonebelize.org for more information).




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs