• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Cover
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 Acknowledgements
 Executive Summary
 Main






Title: Coastal capital : Belize, the economic contribution of Belize's coral reefs and mangroves
ALL VOLUMES CITATION PDF VIEWER THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00095906/00001
 Material Information
Title: Coastal capital : Belize, the economic contribution of Belize's coral reefs and mangroves
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Burke, Lauretta
Cooper, Emily
Bood, Nadia
Publisher: World Resources Institute
Place of Publication: Washington, D.C.
Publication Date: 2009
Copyright Date: 2009
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00095906
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:

PDF ( 1 MBs ) ( PDF )


Table of Contents
    Cover
        Cover
    Front Matter
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
    Acknowledgements
        Page iii
    Executive Summary
        Page iv
        Page v
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
Full Text





Working Paper


Coastal Capital: Belize
The Economic Contribution of Belize's Coral
Reefs and Mangroves

EMILY COOPER, LAURETTA BURKE, and NADIA BOOD


Suggested Citation: Cooper, E., L. Burke, and N. Bood.
2009. "Coastal Capital: Belize. The Economic Contribution of
Belize's Coral Reefs and Mangroves." WRI Working Paper.
World Resources Institute, Washington DC. 53 pp. Available
online at http://www.wri.orq/publications
















World Resources Institute
10 G Street, NE
Washington, DC 20002
Tel: 202-729-7600
www.wri.org
January 2009


WORLD
RESOURCES
INSTITUTE


0









WRI Working Papers contain preliminary research, analysis and findings. They are circulated prior to a full peer
review to stimulate discussion and feedback and to influence ongoing debate. Most WRI working papers are
eventually published, following a full peer review and revisions.


Project Partners


This project would not have been possible
without the financial support of the Oak
Foundation, the Netherlands Ministry of
Foreign Affairs, SwedBio, the Campbell
Foundation, and the MacArthur Foundation.


WRI


TheJohn D. and CatherineT. MacArthur Foundation


The Campbell Foundation


Ontwikkelings
samenwerking

Neterand Ministry or
Development Cooperutlon







WWF


WIDLF


The Coastal Capital project was implemented in
collaboration with the Belize office of WWF-Central
America.

Many other partners in Belize also provided data,
reviewed the analytical approach and results, and
guided outreach. These include:

Armeid Thompson,
Association of Protected Areas Management
Organizations (APAMO),
Belize Audubon Society,
Belize Department of the Environment,
Belize Fisheries Department,
Belize Forestry Department,
Belize Hydromet,
Belize Tourism Board,
Caribbean Community Climate Change Center
(CCCCC),
Emil Cherrington,
Friends of Nature,
Galen University,
GreenReef,
Hol Chan Marine Reserve,
Melanie McField,
The Nature Conservancy (TNC),
Protected Areas Conservation Trust (PACT),
Toledo Association for Sustainable Tourism and
Empowerment (TASTE),
Texas A&M University
Toledo Institute for Development and Environment
(TIDE),
University of Belize,
Venetia Hargreaves-Allen,
Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS)


iAdjhjdd pPnm[0ach
[tip Sulgdlh 2irri.i; i~l-Hirh


OAK
FOUNDATIO










Table of Contents


A cknowledgem ents............................ .............................................................. ii
Executive Summary...................................................................................... iii
1. Introduction ..................................................................................................... 1
A. Belize's Coral Reefs and Mangroves: Status and Threats............................... 1
B. Marine Conservation in Belize............................................................ 2
C. Economic Valuation A Brief Introduction.............................................. 3
2. M ethods............................................. ......... ............................ .................. 4
A. Coral Reef and Mangrove-Associated Tourism........................................... 4
B. Coral Reef and Mangrove-Associated Fisheries........................................ 5
C. Shoreline Protection......................................................................... 6
3. R esults..................................................................................................... 9
A. Belize Tourism Profile and Valuation Results.............................................. 9
B. Belize Fisheries Profile and Valuation Results........................................... 13
C. Belize Coastal Profile and Shoreline Protection Results................................. 16
D. Summary of Results............................................................................. 19
4. Marine Protected Areas in Belize................................................................... 20
A. MPAs and MPA Financing in Belize..................................................... 20
B. Case Study: Glover's Reef Marine Reserve................................... ........... 21
5. Conclusions and Recommendations................................................................ 23
6. R eferences......................................................... ........................................... 25
7. Appendix 1: Technical Notes and Data Sources..................................... .............. 28
A. Reef- and Mangrove- associated Tourism.................................... ............ 28
B. Reef- and Mangrove-associated Fisheries.................................................... 36
C. Reef- and Mangrove-associated Shoreline Protection................................... 38
8. Appendix 2: Glover's Reef Case study: Technical Notes and Sources............................ 45
9. Appendix 3: MPA Financing Table................................................................. 49


List of Tables

Table 1 Economic Contribution of Reef- and Mangrove-associated Tourism.................... 12
Table 2 Economic Contribution of Reef- and Mangrove-associated Fisheries..................... 15
Table 3 Extent of Reef or Mangrove Protected Shoreline ............................................. 16
Table 4 Annual Value of Shoreline Protection Services Provided by Coral Reefs & Mangroves 19
Table 5 Economic Contribution of Coral Reefs & Mangroves to Belize: Summary of Results 19
Table 6 Tourism and Fishing Revenues Associated with Glover's Reef Marine Reserve........ 21










Acknowledgments


This project would not have been possible without the help and support of many individuals and
organizations in Belize. The Belize office of the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) was our primary partner on
the project. Nadia Bood (WWF) is a co-author on this report, and was also an invaluable resource on the
ground. We would like to also thank Pilar Flores, Shalini Cawich, Lucy Hawkes, and others in the WWF
office during our two years of visits to the country.

We would like to extend special thanks to Melanie McField of the Smithsonian Institution, who served as
a local expert and all-around source of advice and expertise for the project. Janet Gibson and Robin
Coleman of the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) spent many hours advising us on the Glover's Reef
assessment as well as on the national level valuation, and the exceptional fieldwork WCS has done over
the years allowed us to profile Glover's as a case study. Many other individuals from NGOs in Belize,
including BAS, TIDE, the Southern Environmental Association (SEA), Hol Chan, Greenreef, and TNC
dedicated time to attend workshops, provide expert feedback, and work with us on MPA-level analyses.
Armeid Thompson provided invaluable support administering the MPA financing survey.

Many staff at the Belize Fisheries Department (including James Azueta, Isaias Majil, Ramon Carcamo,
and Jaime Villanueva) provided data and advice for the fisheries analysis. Lloyd Enriques, Hampton
Gamboa, Raymond Mossiah, and other current and former staff at the Belize Tourism Board (BTB)
provided a wealth of data and guidance on the tourism sector in Belize. A number of representatives of
the Department of the Environment and the Forestry Department contributed to expert workshops and
were actively engaged in the project. Leandra Cho-Ricketts and Elma Kay (University of Belize)
provided valuable advice and also connected us with their students. Nayari Diaz (UB / PACT) applied our
tourism valuation method to Turneffe atoll. Julie Mueller and Marion Caytano (Galen University), and
Venetia Hargreaves-Allen (Imperial College) provided advice and support on several components of the
economic valuation methodology. Rachel Graham (WCS), Jack Nightingale, and Adrian Vernon provided
additional background information and advice on the project. Ramon Frutos and Dennis Gonguez of the
Hydrometeorology Office, Carlos Fuller (CCCCC), Will Heyman and Chris Houser (Texas A&M), and
Sean Paddy (Trinidad Institute of Marine Affairs) provided valuable guidance on the shoreline protection
analysis. Emil Cherrington (CATHALAC), Temilola Fatoyinbo (WRI), and Wilber Sabido and Marcelo
Windsor (Belize Forestry Department) provided essential spatial data for the shoreline protection
analysis.

Yvette Alonso (APAMO) provided feedback and advice on Marine Protected Areas in Belize, and
connected us to many of the MPA co-managing organizations in the country. We are also grateful to
Valdemar Andrade of PACT for his valuable advice and support throughout the project. In addition to
generously funding our work on the Belize project, we would like to thank Imani Fairweather-Morrison
of the Oak Foundation for her advice and support throughout the project.

At WRI, we thank the many staff who assisted with fundraising, administration, and communication of
results, including Richard Waite, Janet Ranganathan, Craig Hanson, Beth Bahs-Ahern, and Elsie Velez-
Whited. The methods and content of this report also benefitted tremendously from review by Jeffrey
Wielgus, Craig Hanson, Janet Ranganathan, Polly Ghazi, Janet Gibson, Melanie McField, Venetia
Hargreaves-Allen, and Hyacinth Billings.










Executive Summary


Coastal and marine ecosystems provide vitally important goods and services to Belize. The country's coral
reefs and mangrove-lined coasts provide critical protection against erosion and wave-induced damages from
tropical storms. They have supported artisanal fishing communities for generations, and, more recently, they
stand at the center of a vibrant tourism industry, drawing snorkelers, divers and sport fishermen from all
over the world. Belize also boasts the longest barrier reef in the Western Hemisphere, part of the
biologically rich Mesoamerican Reef complex, stretching from Mexico to Honduras.

Despite their importance, these benefits are frequently overlooked or underappreciated in coastal
investment and policy decisions. Unchecked coastal development, over-fishing, and pressures from
tourism threaten the country's reefs and mangroves. Additional threats of warming seas, fiercer storms,
and other climate-related changes loom on the horizon. The government, NGOs, and private sector in
Belize have begun to recognize the importance of coastal ecosystems to the economy. Nevertheless, as
this paper demonstrates, the amount currently invested in protecting Belize's coral reefs and mangroves is
very small when compared to the contribution of these resources to the national economy.

Economic valuation assigns a dollar value to the goods and services provided by ecosystems, giving
policy makers an important tool with which to set priorities and improve decision-making around natural
resources. This study assesses the economic contribution of just three out of the many culturally and
economically valuable services provided by reef and mangrove ecosystems in Belize. Even within this
narrowed scope, this study finds that the country's coastal resources are extremely valuable. Thousands of
tourism and fishing jobs rely upon the health of reefs and mangroves, and millions of dollars in coastal
property rely upon their invisible protection. Investing in the maintenance and enhancement of these
benefits or at least preventing their continuing rapid loss is thus an important investment in the health
and sustainability of Belize's economy.

The Value of Marine Protected Areas

Working with local partners, WRI also assessed the economic contribution of several of Belize's Marine
Protected Areas (MPAs). The country's MPAs system, widely hailed as an example of forward thinking
in marine conservation, consists of 18 protected areas managed primarily by the Fisheries and Forestry
Departments in collaboration with local non-governmental organizations (NGOs). The parks are an
important draw for divers, snorkelers, and sport fishermen, and contain no-fishing areas that, when well-
protected, help to maintain stocks of key commercial species.

MPAs in Belize generate economic benefits well beyond the amount invested in their protection.
Approximately 115,000 visitors were recorded by MPAs in 2007, spending an estimated US$17 million on
accommodation, recreation, food, and other expenses on days that they visited a reserve. Actual spending
may be up to 30 per cent higher as visitor numbers to most of the reserves is significantly under-recorded.

Our economic analysis indicates that reef-related tourism and fisheries at just one park Glover's Reef
Marine Reserve contributed an estimated US$4.9 to $7.3 million per year to the national economy. By
comparison, the Fisheries Department is allocated roughly US$100,000 per year for each of the MPAs
that it manages. Management levels at most of Belize's marine parks fall well below those needed to keep
reefs healthy and attractive to visitors over the long-term. The economic and environmental benefits
provided by these parks may not prove sustainable without greater investment in management.

Key Findings:










In total, the value of reef- and mangrove-related fisheries, tourism, and shoreline protection services in
Belize is estimated to be US$395-$559 million per year. Mangroves provide an estimated US$174-
$249 million of this total, some independently, and some through their supporting role for nearby coral
reefs. As a reference point, Belize's GDP totaled US$1.3 billion in 2007.

Tourism: In 2007, reef- and mangrove-associated tourists spent an estimated US$150-$196 million
on accommodation, reef recreation, and other expenses (equal to 12-15 percent of GDP).
Sport fishing and diving high-value industries that are heavily dependent upon reef and
mangrove health earned US$30-$37 million in 2007. Belize's cruise industry, by
comparison, contributes only US$5.3-$6.4 million in reef- and mangrove-related taxes and
revenues to the country per year. The negative environmental impacts of cruise tourism
disproportionately affect coastal and marine areas, while these areas reap very little
economic benefit from the industry.

Fisheries: Fishing is an important cultural tradition, as well as a source of food and livelihood for
many coastal Belizeans. Economic benefits from reef- and mangrove-dependent
commercial fisheries are estimated at between US$14-$16 million per year. Belize's
fisheries are threatened by over-fishing, especially of desirable finfish such as grouper
and snapper, as well as by the loss of healthy coral reef and mangrove habitat.

Shoreline Reefs and mangroves protect coastal properties from erosion and wave-induced damage.
Protection: Emergent reefs, such as the Belize Barrier Reef, can mitigate over % of wave energy.
Belize's coral reefs provide an estimated US$120-$180 million in avoided damages per year.
Coastal mangroves offer protection worth an additional US$ 11-$167 million per year.


Actions Needed:
As these resources become increasingly threatened, it is critical to recognize the value they provide, and
to incorporate these values into decision-making. It is in the long-term economic interest of Belize to:
* Invest in management, monitoring, and compliance. The government has taken an important first
step by reinstating the Coastal Zone Management Authority and Institute (CZMAI). Now, it needs to
invest in CZMAI and other science-based efforts to expand monitoring activities and assess the state
and use of coastal resources. Additional resources for tightening and enforcing fishing regulations are
also badly needed.
* Plan and implement development sensibly. The government needs to enforce existing land-use and
development regulations in the coastal zone. Minimizing the loss of mangroves along the shoreline
will be increasingly important, as they provide critical habitat and protect the coast from storms.
Longer-term tourism and development strategies should incorporate the ecosystem services provided
by coral reefs and mangroves. For instance decisions on development permits, sewage and waste
disposal regulations, and the balance between cruise and overnight tourism should all include
consideration of potential impacts on the flow of benefits from coastal resources.
* Increase support for Belize's MPA system. Belize's MPA system is among the best in the world,
but it is suffering from uneven funding and management. To avoid a continuing decline in the health
of coral reefs and fish populations in MPAs, Belize should increase overall investment, improve fee
collection, strengthen monitoring and enforcement efforts, and establish a permanent source of
funding to support the valuable MPA system. Strategic planning at the system level is also needed to
address disparities and gaps in the current structure.







Coastal Capital: Belize


1. Introduction

Coral reefs and mangroves provide a wide range of commercial and non-commercial benefits to human
society. These benefits, or "ecosystem services" include: habitat for commercially valuable fish,
recreation and tourism, and protection from coastal erosion and wave-induced damage. Coral reefs in
particular also have high conservation and cultural value. They harbor vast biodiversity with unknown
potential uses, and spark the imagination of millions of people who rarely visit them. Reefs, mangroves,
and seagrasses are also part of an interconnected system, each playing a critical role in supporting the
health of neighboring habitats, and of important fish species.

In the island nations of the Caribbean, many of these ecosystem services are of high value and critical
importance to both local and national economies. In Belize and elsewhere, coral reefs and mangrove-lined
coasts provide critical protection against erosion and wave-induced damages from tropical storms. They
support artisanal fishing communities, and drive vibrant tourism industries, drawing snorkelers, divers
and sport fishermen from all over the world.

Despite the varied and high value benefits that they provide, however, the region's coastal mangroves
have been lost to development at an astonishing rate, while the extent and health of Caribbean coral reefs
have declined dramatically in recent decades. Both habitats continue to be threatened by human activities,
and the ecosystems benefits they provide remain overlooked or underappreciated in coastal investment
and policy decisions. Threats include unchecked coastal development, over-fishing, and pressures from
tourism. Climate related threats including warming seas and fiercer storms also loom on the horizon.

The decline of coral reefs and mangroves has led conservationists and, increasingly, policy-makers in
Belize and across the region to look more closely at how the degradation of these resources will affect
those who depend upon them. For example, fish populations, including commercially valuable sport-
fishing species and colorful reef fish, will diminish if they lose mangrove nursery habitats. Coastal
properties will become increasingly vulnerable to storms and erosion, and reef-related tourism will suffer.

This study is part of the World Resources Institute's Coastal Capital project in the Caribbean. The project
aims to provide decision-makers with information and tools that link the health of coastal ecosystems with
the attainment of economic and social goals. The shoreline protection valuation, for instance, evaluates
potential avoided damages afforded by coral reef- and mangrove-related storm protection. It also serves
as a tool for coastal planning by identifying coastal areas which are vulnerable to storm damage. WRI and
its local partners use the results of these studies to identify and build support for policies that help ensure
healthy coastal ecosystems and sustainable economies.

A. Belize's Coral Reefs and Mangroves: Status and Threats

Belize, home to only 300,000 people, is well known for its marine and terrestrial biological diversity.
Sitting in the heart of Central America, this small country boasts the longest barrier reef in the Western
Hemisphere, extending approximately 280 km along its Caribbean coast and covering approximately
1,400 km2 (McField and Bood 2007). The barrier reef complex includes a variety of reef types (barrier
reef, lagoon patch reefs, fringing reefs, and three off-shore atolls) and ecologically linked habitats
including mangrove forests, seagrass beds, estuaries, and numerous small islands or cayes. Island and
coastal mangroves (within 1 km of the coast) cover approximately 400 420 km2 of the country.

Two of Belize's major industries-tourism and fisheries-rely heavily upon coastal mangroves and coral
reefs, and the majority of its population and valuable real estate lies along coastal areas that are sheltered







Coastal Capital: Belize


by these habitats. These and other benefits to Belizeans make effective management of these resources a
critical priority.

Belize's reefs and mangroves are facing a number of threats, including over-fishing, pollution,
deforestation, sedimentation, increased population in coastal areas, and weak (or weakly enforced) inland
and coastal development and management legislation. Extreme natural events, including hurricanes and
coral bleaching events, have severely impacted the country's coral reefs. Recent studies suggest that
Belize's reefs have not recovered from the synergistic impacts of 1998 when mass coral bleaching and
damage from Hurricane Mitch led to losses in coral cover of 50 percent or more on some reefs (Kramer
and Kramer 2000). A 2006 survey of 140 reefs throughout Belize found that live coral cover has declined
from a level of 25 30 percent in the mid-1990's to an average of 11 percent (McField and Bood 2007).

More recently, coastal development has led to significant losses in mangrove cover, particularly near
Placencia (Bood 2008) and Belize City on the mainland, as well as Ambergris Caye and other offshore
cayes. Marine dredging in sensitive areas such as the Pelican Cayes has led to smothering of reefs and
damage to nursery habitats in surrounding mangroves and seagrass beds (Melanie McField personal
comm.). Belize's reefs are also increasingly facing some of the common problems of overuse.
Overcrowded snorkel and dive boats and haphazardly thrown boat anchors can result in abrasion and
breakage of coral, especially at highly visited sites.

Overfishing is also a growing problem. Little is known about how many fish are caught on Belize's reefs
each year. Local sales outside of the Fishermen's Cooperatives go unrecorded, and many fish caught in
Belize are landed and sold in neighboring countries. However, recent surveys as well as anecdotal
evidence suggest that local fishermen are landing less desirable food fish, such as barracuda, in increasing
numbers, suggesting that snapper and grouper numbers are dwindling. A recent study of fishing at
Glovers Reef found that barracuda and parrotfish were the most frequently landed fish (Gibson and Hoare
2006). This represents an even more worrying trend, as parrotfish and other herbivores play a critical role
regulating the growth of macroalgae. Algal growth, especially if fed by excess nutrients from the land,
will out-compete corals for space on the reef when these grazers are not present.

Climate change represents a growing threat in terms of both human and ecological impacts. Rising sea
temperatures have increased the frequency of mass bleaching events and disease incidence on reefs,
resulting in significant coral mortality. Belize's reefs have already been considerably impacted by mass
bleaching events in 1995 and 1998, both of which coincided with elevated sea temperatures and calm
seas. Ocean acidification caused by rising atmospheric carbon dioxide levels may hinder coral growth and
regeneration going forward (Orr et al. 2005). Sea level rise and increased storm intensity also pose a
particular threat to coastal populations, which will make the buffering role played by coral reefs and
mangroves increasingly important as climate change intensifies.



B. Marine Conservation in Belize

Marine Protected Area System Marine conservation efforts and monitoring programs in Belize have
grown significantly over the past two decades. The number of designated Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)
has grown to 18, covering approximately 250,000 ha. of marine area (McField et al. 2008). MPAs are a
useful tool for addressing a number of threats to coral reefs, particularly those related to tourism,
development, and over-exploitation of commercial species. Unfortunately, some of Belize's MPAs
remain paper parks, and the majority lack sufficient funding and staff to effectively enforce fishing
regulations and monitor use of the reef. Greater and more reliable funding is needed for the system to
function as it was intended.







Coastal Capital: Belize


Managing coastal development sustainably While coastal development is an important part of economic
growth, unchecked clearing of mangroves in recent years has led to serious concerns about the loss of
services this habitat provides. In 2008, the newly elected government enacted a temporary moratorium on
mangrove clearing inside MPAs. In another encouraging sign, discussions on how to revamp and enforce
the national mangrove legislation were underway at the time of this study. These are important first steps
in managing Belize's coastal environment, and-along with the re-instatement of the Coastal Zone
Management Authority and Institute-suggest that Belize may soon move towards a comprehensive
strategy for managing sustainable development in its coastal areas.

Fisheries R g,,, /, in, Overall, Belize has fairly strong fisheries regulations, including size limits and
closed seasons for the most heavily exploited species. No-fishing zones in some MPAs also help to serve
as replenishment areas. However, there is inadequate financial support to enforce these regulations
effectively, and there has been a trend-hopefully soon to change-of decreasing government financial
support to the Fisheries Department. Regulations to protect top predators as well as critically important
herbivores (parrotfishes, tangs, and surgeonfish) are also needed, as over-fishing threatens the delicate
ecological balance on the reef. Equipment bans on spear fishing in MPAs, and on shrimp trawling, would
also help maintain the health of Belize's fisheries.

Science and monitoring Belize has a strong history of marine research and monitoring, particularly
compared to many other countries in the region. It also benefits from an active NGO community with
considerable scientific expertise. Policymakers and regulatory agencies need biological and
socioeconomic information on the status of coral reef and mangrove habitats, as well as the potential
impacts of existing and future threats to their health. Further investment in monitoring and research to
inform good management should be a priority.



C. Economic Valuation -A Brief Introduction

Many of the activities that damage marine ecosystems-over-fishing, dredging, and discharge of sewage
near reefs, among others-occur because an individual or group seizes an immediate benefit, without
considering the broader and longer-term consequences to society. Economic valuation analyses attempt to
quantify the value of the array of goods and services provided by these ecosystems. By providing a
clearer picture of the importance of these goods and services, and placing a dollar value-even a "rough"
estimate-on them, economic valuation can help to facilitate more sensible, far-sighted decision-making.
It can help policy-makers to understand (and publicize) the benefits of investing in conservation and
enforcing development regulations. Valuation can also help these same decision-makers to identify
winners and losers under current practices as well as from future management and development decisions.
For example, a straightforward analysis shows the hotel industry to be a major beneficiary of healthy
coastal ecosystems. However, in many areas, hotels also place major stresses on these resources. The
environmental impacts of unsustainable tourism and development threaten both the livelihoods of local
reef users and the future of reef-associated tourism itself. An economic valuation can lend support to
efforts to require coastal hotels to compensate for mangrove clearing and commit to better sewage
treatment. These and other efforts may help to protect a hotel's existing investment in coastal real estate.

There are many different methods for estimating the economic value of natural resources, many of them
developed by academics for localized studies. However, economic valuation is increasingly being applied
in the public sector, and with links to decision-making and policy applications in mind. Most famously in
Bonaire (Dixon et al 1993), but also in other places with significant tourism, "willingness to pay" surveys







Coastal Capital: Belize


have been used to assess the value that tourists place on the experience of visiting coral reefs or other
natural resources. The results of these surveys are often used to set visitor fees, helping to finance
protected areas.

Valuation studies can attempt to estimate the Total Economic Value (TEV) of an ecosystem, or they can
identify and evaluate only a subset of the goods and services that an ecosystem provides. Total Economic
Value includes both use values-such as food production (consumptive), tourism (non-consumptive), and
indirect services like shoreline protection (regulating)-and non-use values, such as the value humans
place on the knowledge that a resource exists, even if they never use it (existence value).

All of the above approaches attempt to estimate the value, or wellbeing that society gains from an
ecosystem. A more basic approach is to examine the amount of economic activity (or "impact") an
ecosystem service generates in the local economy (Pendleton 2008). This involves looking at the
revenues, taxes, and jobs generated by an activity information that is especially useful for national and
local decision-makers who are faced with questions around restricting development or investing in efforts
to protect a threatened resource. These decisions are typically made without knowing the economic losses
that could result from degradation of natural resources.

Although economic valuation is a useful and potentially powerful decision-making tool, users should
always bear in mind the high degree of uncertainty in most valuation studies, and should pay attention to
the methods used, assumptions made and the caveats attached to the results.'


2. Methods

This study is part of the World Resources Institute's Coastal Capital project in the Caribbean. The
economic valuation method used is adapted from the methodology designed for this project and applied in
two pilot sites, St. Lucia and Tobago. For a full description of the original method, see Burke et al. 2008. A
copy of the detailed current methodology is available on the WRI website at:
http://www.wri.org/project/valuation-caribbean-reefs.

We do not attempt to capture the Total Economic Value of coral reefs and mangroves, but instead focus
on three critical goods and services provided by these resources in the Caribbean: tourism, fisheries, and
shoreline protection. These services were chosen because they can be assessed using publicly available
data, allowing the study to be repeated in the future by local NGOs or decision-makers. By limiting the
analysis to three services, this study underestimates the total value of these resources. What it does
provide is a snapshot of the economic activity generated by reef- and mangrove-dependent tourism and
fisheries, and an estimate of losses in coastal property that could result if the protective function of these
habitats declines. The results can be easily explained to policy makers and integrated into decision-
making. It also leaves room for further studies to build on these estimates by assessing the value of other
goods and services provided by coral reefs and mangroves.

We use 2007 as the base year for all prices, visitation, fish catch, and land value data in Belize.

A. Coral Reef- and Mangrove-associated Tourism




1 For a more thorough discussion of economic valuation techniques, applications, and strengths and weaknesses, please refer to
pages 3-6 in Burke et al. 2008.







Coastal Capital: Belize


The value of coral reef-and mangrove-associated tourism was calculated by estimating gross revenues and
taxes from marine recreation as well as revenues from accommodation and other tourist spending on days
spent using coralline beaches, reefs, or mangroves. This method assesses the current economic contribution
of reef- and mangrove-related tourism in Belize.2 This produces an underestimate of the tourism value of
reefs and mangroves, because we omit consumer surplus (the additional welfare a consumer enjoys beyond
what he or she has paid for the service). The focus of this study is the combined value of reef- and
mangrove-associated tourism, rather than the independent contribution of each habitat. For a rough estimate
of the reef/mangrove breakdown, see Box 1.

The most difficult step in the tourism analysis is determining what portion of total "tourist days" should be
attributed to use of mangroves and coral reefs. In the Belize study, we use published accommodation
statistics for each region of the country to tell us where tourists spend their time, and then use local expert
opinion to estimate what percent of "tourist days" for each region should be attributed to marine recreation.
For example, we estimate that one percent or fewer tourists visit reefs or coastal mangroves on days that
they are staying in the inland district of Cayo. By comparison, we count 100 percent of tourism on Caye
Caulker as reef- or mangrove-associated.

We calculate accommodation and "other spending" by tourists on reef and mangrove-associated days using
published room rates and information on typical tourist spending patterns in Belize. Revenues from marine
recreation and beach use are calculated separately based on estimates of tourist activities from the Belize
Tourism Board (BTB 2007) and average activity prices for 2007. Finally, we calculate revenues from reef
and mangrove use by cruise tourists, utilizing a similar "activity survey" to determine the number of cruise
tourists that participate in marine recreation during their visit to Belize (BTB 2008a). For a full discussion of
the data, assumptions, and calculations for all of the tourism components, please see Appendix la.



B. Coral Reef- and Mangrove-associated Fisheries

The value of coral reef- and mangrove-associated fisheries was calculated by estimating gross revenues
from commercial fishing and processing activities. The valuation focuses on fisheries that depend directly
on coral reefs or mangroves for at least a portion of their life-cycle, including snappers (lutjanidae),
groupers (serranidae), parrotfish (scaridae), squirrelfish (holocentridae), and lobster (panularius argus).
Positive or negative changes in coral reef health will impact fisheries productivity and total fisheries
revenue as a result. Because these are highly interdependent habitats, our principal assessment looks at
the total fisheries value associated with both reefs and mangroves in conjunction. For a rough estimate of
the independent contributions of mangroves and coral reefs to the fisheries industry, see Box 1.

We break commercial fisheries revenues in Belize into three categories: a) export sales through the
Fishermen's Cooperatives, b) local sales through the Fishermen's Cooperatives, and c) all other local fish
sales (direct sales to restaurants, market sales, and subsistence use). The Fishermen's Co-ops provide data
on all sales, making revenue estimates for the first two categories straightforward, but no one is collecting
data on local sales outside of Co-ops at this time. As a result, we had to rely on other studies and local
expert opinion to supply an estimate for the third category of fish sales (See Appendix 1, Section B).


2 Gross revenue is used in this study for several reasons: We are interested in assessing the economic contribution of reefs and
mangroves at the national level. At that scale, gross revenues serve as a good indicator of the economic activity generated by
these resources. We were also limited by data availability: little-to-no information was available on operating costs for either the
fisheries or tourism sectors in Belize. Gross revenue is still an underestimate of the total value of coral reefs and mangroves,
because it does not include an estimate of consumer surplus. A survey-based assessment of consumer surplus from reef- and
mangrove related tourism would be a useful compliment to this study.







Coastal Capital: Belize


In addition to fish production, or catch, we also estimate the value added through fish processing. In the
case of exports, this value is included in the sale prices from Co-ops. A small amount of local fish
cleaning at landing sites is also included in the estimate. This study examines the economic benefits
accruing to Belize, so it does not count any revenues earned by people fishing in Belizean waters, but
landing and selling their catch in neighboring countries. For a full discussion of the data, assumptions,
and calculations for all of the fishery components, please see Appendix 1, section B.

Limitations

Both the fisheries and the tourism analyses are limited by the quality and availability of data for the study
site. This methodology was designed to utilize existing data in order to increase its replicability and
transparency. However, where data are poor or scarce, we have had to rely upon the grey literature and
expert opinion to fill in the gaps; where there was uncertainty around particular variables, we applied a
sensitivity analysis, typically using values between +/- 20 percent of the original estimates. Although
these are relatively rough estimates, they do provide important insight into the often overlooked economic
contribution of reefs and mangroves in the fisheries and tourism sectors.

It is also important to keep in mind that the analysis of the economic contribution of reef- and mangrove-
associated fisheries and tourism is a snapshot of current levels of use. It does not take into account
whether these resources are being used at a sustainable level and does not address the damage that
overcrowded dive sites, inadequate waste treatment, and fishing at current levels may be doing to the
reefs and mangroves. Similarly, this study does not assess the potential value of sites that are currently
protected but not heavily used, especially for tourism. With an assessment of the sustainable level of
visitors that a protected area or a dive site can support, it would be possible to conduct a similar analysis
of the potential revenues the site could draw in the future.


Box 1: Distinguishing Reef and Mangrove Values

Coral reefs and mangroves are highly interconnected habitats, physically supporting each other and providing
habitat for fish species. For example, mangroves filter sediment and pollutants from coastal runoff, supporting the
clean water favored by corals. Many species important to fisheries and tourism rely upon both mangrove habitat and
coral reefs for a portion of their life-cycle.
This study did not directly evaluate the independent contributions of mangrove and coral reef habitats to the
fisheries and tourism sectors, but assessed their collective value. To produce a rough estimate of the breakdown by
habitat, we examined the proximity of mangroves to coral reefs across Belize to estimate the portions of fisheries
and tourism values that a) rely exclusively on coral reefs, b) rely exclusively on mangroves, and c) depend upon
both. We estimate that US$60-78 million of Belize's annual tourism revenue stems from the presence of healthy
mangroves. Approximately US$15 to $19 million of that total comes from tourist spending associated with
mangrove-dependent activities, such as manatee tours and sport fishing, while the remaining $45 $59 million is
attributed to supporting services (including nursery habitat) provided by mangroves that grow in close proximity to
reefs. Coral reef-associated tourism not supported by nearby mangroves earns an estimated US$90 $117 million
per year; in addition, reef-based tourism contributes $45 $59 million that is supported by mangroves (mentioned
above). The combined value of reef- and mangrove-associated tourism is approximately US$150 196 million per
year (see the Results section, below); revenues are only counted once, regardless of whether they are associated with
one or both habitats.
For the fisheries sector, we assessed which fish species were primarily reef dependent, mangrove dependent, or
depended heavily on both habitats, and allocated fisheries revenues accordingly. We estimate that mangroves
contribute approximately US$3 to $4 million in fisheries value per year, while reef-based fisheries provide US$13 to
$14 million per year .The combined value of reef and mangrove-associated fisheries is US$14-16 million. Again,
revenues are counted only once, even if a fish relies upon both habitats during its life cycle.







Coastal Capital: Belize


WRI's shoreline protection analysis differentiates between the protection provided by mangroves and reefs from the
outset. Mangroves play an especially important role in buffering against storm surge and reducing erosion. We
estimate that Belize's mangroves contribute US$111 $167 million in avoided damages per year. Coral reefs
provide $120 $180 million in protection. These values are independent of one another, and can be added together
for a combined value of US$231 $347 million per year.

Estimated Coral Reef and Mangrove contributions to the economy (million USD)*
Coral Reefs Mangroves Combined Contribution
Tourism 135- 176 60-78 150-196
Fisheries 13- 14 3-4 14- 16
Shoreline Protection 120 180 111 167 231 -347
*Mangrove & reef fisheries and tourism values are not additive, as they include revenues that rely on both habitats.


C. Shoreline Protection

A methodology for valuing the shoreline protection services provided by coral reefs was developed
jointly by the Institute of Marine Affairs (IMA) in Trinidad and Tobago and WRI for application in the
Eastern Caribbean. This method has been revised and adapted for application in Belize. In particular, the
method has been modified to factor in the role of the atolls and the offshore barrier reef in mitigating
wave energy, as well as to allow for explicit evaluation of the role of mangroves in protecting shorelines.

A modified "avoided damages" approach is used to estimate the value of this service along coastal
segments protected by coral reefs or mangroves. This involves estimating the likely economic losses (in
property value) to a coastal area from a given storm event, both with and without the reefs and mangroves
present. This difference represents the "avoided damages" owed to the presence of reefs and mangroves.
The approach developed by WRI and IMA has a geographic information system (GIS) analytical
modeling component as well as an economic component. This method was selected because reliable
estimates of the cost of replacement by manmade structures are limited, making estimation of value
difficult. The avoided damages approach has the additional benefit of producing analytical results which
support informed coastal planning and development.

The methodology involves five steps, which are implemented within a GIS:

* Identify land which is vulnerable to wave-induced erosion and storm damage. Vulnerable lands
were defined as those within 1 km of the coast which are lower than the combined height of the storm
surge and wave height expected during a 25 year storm event (5 m in the case of Belize).3 Storm
surges can easily intrude 1 km inland, so this distance is conservative. Storm surge and wave height
estimates can be adjusted to include predictions of future sea level rise, or for changes related to
projected changes in storm regime. "changes related to projected changes" is confusing. Can we re-
phrase?

* Identify coastline which is protected by coral reefs or by mangroves. In general, the methodology
defines coastal land as "protected" by coral reefs if it lies within 100m of a fringing reef, or is
enclosed by a barrier reef. In Belize, where the barrier reef and coral atolls occur far from the


3 Data on predicted storm surge and wave height come form: Organization of American States (OAS). 2002. Atlas of Probable
Storm I rr, i in the Caribbean Sea. Online at: hiil 1 i. ..i. ,,-//CDMP/document/reglstrm/index.htm.







Coastal Capital: Belize


mainland coast, these reef structures still provide some attenuation of waves reaching the mainland.
These features also protect the many cayes found within the barrier reef. Shoreline with windward
facing coast, in areas enclosed by the barrier reef or in the "wind shadow" of a reef or atoll, is
classified as "protected" by coral reef. Shoreline within 50 meters of mapped mangrove is classified
as protected by mangrove.

* Estimate the relative stability of the shoreline based on a range of physical factors. The relative
stability (resistance to erosion) of each shoreline segment was evaluated based on the integration of
up to nine physical factors.4 The factors are: coastal geomorphology; geology; coastal protection
(such as protection by an atoll or a sea wall); a coral reef index (which integrates reef type, continuity
and distance from shore);5 wave energy; frequency of hurricane events (by category); coastal
elevation; coastal vegetation; and presence of damaging anthropogenic activities, such as sand
mining. Each individual factor can range in value from 0 to 4 (with 4 being the highest stability). The
nine factors and their associated values are provided in Appendix Ic, Table 2. The relative stability of
the shoreline is calculated by taking the average of all factors for which data are available for the
entire study area.6 The sum of these factors (FACTORSUM) is used as the basis for comparison of
the relative contribution of coral reefs and mangroves to shoreline stability.

* Determine the share of shoreline stability which is attributed to coral reefs or to mangroves.
The share of shoreline stability contributed by coral reefs or mangroves was estimated by virtually
"removing" the coral reef or the mangrove from the map and recalculating the sum of factors
contributing to the stability of the shoreline.7 The sum of the factors from the shoreline stability
estimation (above) is compared to the similar sum with mangroves or reefs removed and the
percentage difference is calculated. For example, if the seven factors for which data area available
sum to 24, but only sum to 18 with mangroves "removed", mangroves contribute a 25 percent share
to the protection of that segment of shoreline.

* Estimate the "damages avoided" due to the presence of coral reefs (or mangroves) based on the
value of property (land and built structures) in vulnerable land protected by coral reefs (or
mangroves). Property values for both undeveloped and developed properties in vulnerable areas
across the study area are needed. Average property values for distinct locations are required (ideally
differentiated between land adjacent to the coast within 100m and further inland). Values are
summed as follows (once for coral reefs and once for mangroves):
The average property value in areas classified as vulnerable (based on the 25 year storm event),
and classified as protected by a coral reef are multiplied by the share of coastal protection
attributed to coral reefs (for the nearest shoreline segment).


4 As comprehensive data are not always available for all nine factors, one should include as many factors as possible (above a
bare minimum of 5).
5 Within the coral reef index, higher protection values are associated with reefs which are close to shore, reefs which are
continuous rather than interrupted, and with emergent reefs such as the barrier reef or the windward side of an atoll as compared
with patch reefs. A nomogram developed by Chris Houser of Texas A&M University was used to establish the critical thresholds
for reef distance offshore. The nomogram links wave heights with wind speed and fetch length (distance wind blows over open
water) to allow estimation of the wave heights possible given the reefs proximity to the shore. (See Appendix Ic, figure 3).
6 Where data are missing for some locations, data can be filled in based on best assumptions for the area, as to not have to drop
the entire factor from the analysis.
7 In the case of coral reefs, the coral reef index variable is reset to one. Where mangrove covered atolls are present, the factor
reflecting coastal protection structures is halved, reflecting the possibility that some mangrove-covered cayes could persist for
some period even without the coral reefs (a generous, conservative assumption). Mangroves are similarly "removed" by resetting
the coastal geomorphology factor (from 2 for mangrove) to the category of the nearest non-mangrove category, and resetting the
coastal vegetation factor (from 4 for mangrove) to the average value for all other coastal vegetation (1.2, which is between the
wetland and shrub categories). See the factor table (Table 2) in Appendix Ic.






Coastal Capital: Belize


The sum of these values is then multiplied by 4 percent (the probability of the 25 year storm event
occurring in a given year). This reflects the "damages avoided" due to the presence of coral reefs
in an average year.

Notes and Limitations

This innovative methodology provides a useful means for evaluating potential avoided damages afforded
by coral reefs and mangroves, as well as providing an aid to coastal planning by identifying coastal areas
which are vulnerable to storm damage. This method can also support planning for adaptation to climate
change by considering future scenarios of sea level rise, storm regime changes, and associated changes in
storm surge and wave heights. These scenarios can be introduced by adjusting the elevation used to define
"vulnerable lands."

Implementation of the shoreline protection valuation requires detailed data on coral reef and mangrove
locations and coastal elevation (these are the most important), a variety of data sets on coastal
characteristics, as well as expertise in GIS. The method compares wave-induced damage with and without
coral reefs / mangroves present. It does not estimate the protection value which might be lost during the
gradual degradation of a coral reef. Such a nuanced analysis would require scenarios of reef degradation
over time, coupled with estimates of the reduced wave mitigation associated with the reef at different
stages of degradation.

There are inevitably uncertainties associated with a multi-stage modeling approach designed to emulate
complex physical processes. In addition, few data are available specifically on wave-induced storm
damage, making the calibration of the model difficult. To reflect the uncertainty surrounding these
estimates, ranges (such as +/- 20 percent) were established around the central estimates.


3. Results


A. Coastal Tourism Profile

Belize is a major ecotourism destination, particularly in comparison to other countries in the Caribbean. A
large percentage of visitors seek out and value healthy ecosystems, and-as this study shows-almost
two-thirds of these visitors come to see the country's mangroves, reefs, and coralline beaches.

Belize is renowned as one of the premier dive destinations in the region. It boasts the largest barrier reef
in the hemisphere, as well as the world famous Blue Hole and other well-known dives off of three coral
atolls. The lucrative yachting and liveaboard sector depends heavily on divers, and thousands of tourists
flock to Placencia each spring to dive and snorkel with the whale sharks that come to feed on reef fish
spawning aggregations off Gladden Spit. The Belize Tourism Board's Visitor Expenditure and Motivation
Survey (VEMS) from 2006 found that 27 percent of visitors to Belize went diving at least once. In terms
of sheer volume, snorkeling dwarfs every other visitor activity in Belize (BTB 2007).The same survey
found that 59 percent of overnight visitors snorkeled at least once during their stay. Finally, Belize is
famous for its sport fishing, an activity that relies upon the health and delicate relationship between
mangroves, seagrass beds, and coral reefs along the country's coast. A recent study estimated that
recreational fishing for bonefish, permit, and tarpon contributes US$25 million a year in direct spending
to the Belizean economy (Fedler 2008).

In addition to underwater activities, kayaking and wildlife tours are also popular with tourists. Birders
come to see the red-footed boobies, egrets, spoonbills, and other birds native to Belize's coastal







Coastal Capital: Belize


mangroves, and thousands of tourists take manatee tours each year. Kayak rentals and trips have become
increasingly popular.

Belize has also been more successful than other countries in the region at creating local jobs through the
tourism industry. Jobs in tourism account for roughly 15 percent of the workforce (Statistical Institute of
Belize 2008), while the wider "tourism economy"-sectors that directly or indirectly support tourism-
employs 29,000 people, or 26.6 percent of the workforce (WTTC 2008). Many local fishermen work part-
time as fishing guides, helping to provide alternative employment during the closed seasons for lobster
and conch; others have switched to leading wildlife tours or dive and snorkel trips full time (Deidrich
2006). Belize has very few of the all-inclusive resorts that dominate the tourism industry in places like St.
Lucia and the Dominican Republic. As a result, tourists eat, visit, and buy souvenirs from primarily
Belizean-run establishments. In the coastal areas, reef- and mangrove-related tourism is the lifeblood of
much of the local economy.

Belize's diving and sport fishing industries in particular attract tourists who are willing to spend
considerable sums, and are far more sensitive than the average tourist to the condition of coastal and
marine habitats. If the permit, bonefish, and other prized fishing targets disappear, the anglers who spend
thousands of dollars for catch-and-release fishing in Belize's waters will go elsewhere. So will divers who
choose Belize over other Caribbean countries because of the quality of its reefs. Unfortunately, Belize's
reputation as a premier destination for these coastal recreation activities is threatened by the rapid decline
of reef health in the past decade and the clearing of coastal mangroves in sensitive areas. It is a critical
time to take stock of the benefits that these resources bring to the economy and to protect the tourism
industry by taking steps to maintain their health.



Tourism Valuation Results

Accommodation

Approximately 250,000 overnight tourists visit Belize each year, staying for eight days on average (BTB
2008b). Many spend time both inland and on the coasts. Using BTB's accommodation statistics and local
expert opinion, we estimate that roughly 64 percent of all "tourist days" can be attributed to visitors using
coral reefs, coralline beaches, or mangroves during their stay (see Appendix 1 for more detail). In
addition to tourists on land, this total includes 6,800 10,000 people who charter yachts or stay on
liveaboard boats for most of their stay (BTB 2008d). In total, tourists spend between $56.3 and $75.4
million on accommodation per year for reef- and mangrove-associated nights.

Reef and Mangrove Recreation

Some visitors come to Belize exclusively to dive or fish, and many others will participate in more than
one marine recreation activity during their stay. With very little information available on the number of
dives, snorkel trips, and other reef- and mangrove-related activities engaged in by tourists in an average
year, we used the Belize Tourism Board's 2006 Visitor Expenditure and Motivation Survey (VEMS) to
estimate the percent of visitors that participated in these activities at least once during their stay. To
account for uncertainty in the estimates of reef-and mangrove recreation, and to produce a more
conservative estimate of reef use, we vary visitor recreation estimates by 20 percent, using the VEMS
figures as the high end of ranges in participation. For example, we estimate that between 22 and 27
percent of visitors dive, and 47 to 59 percent snorkel. We then use expert opinion and other studies of
marine recreation in Belize to produce rough estimates of the average number of dive, snorkel, fishing,







Coastal Capital: Belize


and wildlife viewing trips taken per person, keeping in mind that many visitors go on only one trip, while
others spend a full week in the water. In total, reef- and mangrove-associated recreation earns an
estimated $37.5 to $46.5 million per year in gross revenues (see Appendix 1 for more detail).

Coralline Beaches

Coral reefs and mangroves play an important supporting role in building and maintaining the white sand
beaches that line the cayes and parts of the coast of Belize. Reefs are important not only as a source of
sand, but also for their role in reducing wave energy and creating calm waters desirable for swimming. A
beach represents a dynamic equilibrium between accreting and eroding processes, and the protection
afforded by a reef is an important part of this dynamic.

The value of beaches is included indirectly in this study in that we consider beaches an important part of
the attraction for major coastal destinations such as Placencia and San Pedro. White sand beaches play an
important role in the decision of many tourists to stay in these locations, and most coastal tourists spend at
least some time at the beach. We count accommodation and other spending of all tourists in these
locations, even though they may not be directly visiting the reef every day.

Other Spending

In addition to accommodation costs and direct spending on marine recreation, we count "other tourist
spending" on reef- and mangrove-related days as revenue associated with the use of these resources. This
study estimates that reef- and mangrove-associated tourists spend $31.8 to $44.7 million per year on
expenses such as food, transport, and non-reef-related entertainment (See Appendix 1 for further detail on
this calculation).

Cruise Tourism

Belize has a significant cruise tourism industry. Although cruise visitation has leveled off over the last few
years, construction of a new docking terminal has begun, so this figure could rise again in the future. In
2007, there were over 620,000 cruise visitors to Belize. Of these, only a very small portion engaged in
coastal recreation. The vast majority of cruise tourists head inland for tours of the rainforest, cave tubing,
and Mayan ruins-attractions that most other cruise stops do not offer (BTB 2008a). As a result, of the
relatively small amount of revenue per person that comes into the country from cruise tourism, an even
smaller portion flows to coastal communities.

Only 10 percent of cruise visitors engage in reef- or mangrove-related activities (including snorkeling,
diving, wildlife viewing, etc.) (BTB 2008a), bringing an estimated $4.6 to $5.7 million in revenues and
another $0.6 to $0.8 million in head and sales taxes to the country. Hence, while the negative impacts of
cruise tourism affect coastal and marine areas disproportionately, these areas reap very little economic
benefit from the industry.


Taxes, Fees, and Service Charges

For the purposes of this analysis, we consider taxes on reef- and mangrove-based tourism to be a benefit
to the economy and the country of Belize. Taxes have been deducted from gross revenue where necessary
in the sectors above, but we add them back into the estimate of reef and mangrove tourism value.







Coastal Capital: Belize


This study finds that between $11.6 and $15.2 million in General Sales Tax was collected on reef- and
mangrove-associated spending in 2007. Another $6.0 million in departure tax and cruise head taxes were
collected from reef- and mangrove-associated tourists, as well as $1.2 million in Marine Protected Area
(MPA) fees. We also conservatively estimate $0.7 to $0.9 million in service charges, typically a 10 percent
charge added at some of the higher-end hotels.


Value of Reef- and Mangrove-associated Tourism

Total tourist spending associated with coral reefs and mangroves in Belize is estimated at approximately
$150 $196 million per year (see Table 1 below). In addition to direct economic impacts in the tourism
sector, there are additional impacts on the economy from spending by reef- and mangrove-associated
visitors (see Box 2). These "indirect" impacts are not included in an economic valuation, but would be
included in an economic impact assessment.

Table 1: Economic Contribution of Reef- and Mangrove-associated Tourism
Gross Revenues
Tourist Expenditure Categories ($US million/year)
Reef/Mangrove-associated Accommodation $56.3 75.4
Reef/Mangrove Recreation
Diving $20.1-25.1
Snorkeling $10.1- 12.6
Sport Fishing $7.2 8.5
Other $0.2 0.3
Other Visitor Expenses $31.8 44.7
Cruise Tourism $4.6 5.7
Taxes and Fees $19.6 23.4
Total Direct Impact $149.9 195.7


Box 2: Indirect Economic Impact of Reef- and Mangrove-associated Tourism

Impacts on the wider economy from spending by reef- and mangrove-associated visitors include a variety of factors
such as food purchased by visitors may be sourced from local farmers and fuel used for transportation purchased
from local fuel distributors. In an economic impact assessment, it is possible to estimate the magnitude of these
indirect (or "secondary") impacts using a tourism multiplier. A multiplier of 1.6, for example, represents 60 cents of
additional impact for every $1 in direct tourist expenditure. The size of the multiplier is influenced by the portion of
goods and services used in the tourism sector that is produced domestically, such as linen, beverages, food, dive
equipment, and construction materials. If no published multiplier exists for the study site, a multiplier (or range)
from a similar economy can be used to get a ballpark figure, but these estimates should be treated with caution.

We do not assess indirect economic impacts in the economic valuation results, but are including a ballpark estimate
here. It is important to recognize the wider ripple effects in the economy of the ecosystem services provided by coral
reefs and mangroves, even if precise numbers are not available. We were not able to find either a general economy
or sector-specific multipliers published for Belize, and instead relied upon rough multipliers used in the recent
literature (see Appendix 1). Because of the large amount of uncertainty in creating and applying multipliers as well
as the lack of a reliable estimate for Belize, we chose to go with a very conservative multiplier, which may
underestimate indirect impacts considerably.







Coastal Capital: Belize


B. Commercial Fisheries Profile

Belize's commercial fisheries sector is primarily made up of small-scale artisanal fishers. Almost all fishing
is done in the shallow waters off the barrier reef and the three atolls (FAO 2005). All of the major
commercial species rely on reefs, mangroves, or the sandy flats and seagrasses of the lagoon protected by
the outer reef. Seafood products remain one of Belize's primary exports, with lobster and conch representing
the bulk of wild exports, both in production and revenues. Belize had over 2,000 licensed fishers and 650
registered boats in 2006, and fishing continues to play a significant role not only economically, but as a food
source and part of the culture in coastal communities. Approximately 300 fishermen-representing 15
percent of the country's licensed fishermen, and a larger proportion of active, full-time fishermen-come
from the northern village of Sarteneja. Here the majority of adult men are full-time fishermen, spending
weeks at a time fishing sites up and down the Belize coast. In Sarteneja, fishing remains a family-oriented
activity, where boys begin working on the family boat straight from school (Kishore et al. 2006).

Over-Exploitation

There are a number of indications that the major finfish species are overexploited in Belize. A 2007 study
found a drop in catch per unit effort and landings per boat for the mutton snapper fishery at Gladden Spit
(Graham et al. 2007). All the fishermen interviewed for the study described a decline in catch and fish size
over the past decade. Another study, of fish catch in Glover's Reef Marine Reserve during 2007, found that
barracuda and parrotfish were the most frequently landed species (WCS 2008). The more desirable snapper
and grouper species fell much further down on the list, suggesting that populations of these key commercial
species are declining in this area. Lobster and conch production, after dropping from peaks in the early
1980s, have held relatively steady at between 0.4 and 0.7 million pounds for both species in recent years
(FAO 2005, Belize Fisheries Department 2008). Some researchers argue that this may be primarily a result
of increases in total effort and the expanded reach of the industry, and that declining yields of individual
fishers as well as decreasing size of conch and lobster suggest that these stocks are also overexploited
(Huitric 2005). Belize has a five month closed season for lobster, lasting from February through June of
each year, and a three month closed season for conch, beginning in July. Although the Fishermen's
Cooperatives will not accept out of season or undersized catch, the common practice of selling directly to
restaurants and hotels (or over the border in Honduras and Guatemala) provides an easy market for illegal
catch (Heyman and Graham 2000, Vernon 2007). The fisheries department is also insufficiently funded
to enforce fishing regulations effectively across Belize's entire marine area.

The official catch numbers reported to FAO each year come through the five Fishermen's Cooperatives.
Because all local sales outside the Co-ops go unrecorded, fisheries experts in Belize estimate that total


By applying a multiplier range of 1.2 to 1.4 to total reef- and mangrove-related tourist expenditure we estimate
between US$26.1 and $68.9 million per year in indirect economic impacts. When added to direct tourist
expenditures, this sums to a total economic impact of $175.9 to $264.6 million for 2007.

An economic valuation attempts to capture the value society places on an ecosystem service (also known as
'willingness to pay'); this can be approximated by measuring gross or net revenues associated with a service, or
broadened to include consumer surplus as well (see footnote and text on page 5 or the full methodology at
htp %\\ \ .wri.org/project/valuation-caribbean-reefs). The concept of 'value' does not, however, include secondary
impacts on the economy. As a result, indirect impacts are mentioned here, but not included in the final valuation
results.







Coastal Capital: Belize


fish catch may far exceed recorded catch (Gillett 2003). Finfish sales are almost entirely unrecorded,
since they are almost exclusively sold in local markets (the Co-ops did not find them profitable to
process). The discrepancy may have become more pronounced as coastal tourism has grown over the past
fifteen years, dramatically increasing the number of coastal hotels and restaurants that fishermen can
choose to sell to directly.



Fisheries Valuation Results

The Fisheries Department does not systematically collect catch or landings data for the country at this time.
The best available information comes from the Fishermen's Cooperatives. The Co-ops provide data to the
Fisheries Department on total catch, total exports, and total export revenue by major fish type. Using this
information as a starting point, we divided the fisheries sector into three categories: (1) export sales through
cooperatives, (2) local sales through cooperatives, and (3) all other local sales (further divisible into local
market sales and direct sales to hotels and restaurants). Export sales are the biggest source of revenue for the
fisheries industry (see Figure 1). We believe that the Co-op data on exports and local sales are relatively
good, but have little to no information on local sales outside of the cooperatives.

Figure 1: Breakdown of Commercial Fish Sales in Belize

Commercial Fish Sales


Co-op local sales
7%
Other local sales
1800




Co-op export sales
75%





Exports and Local Sales by Cooperatives

Using the data provided by the fisheries department, we divided Co-op sales into exports and domestic
sales. Export revenues were reported at $11.3 million for 2007. Less than 20 percent of the fish and
shellfish processed by the Cooperatives is sold domestically; lobster head meat and conch fillet are sold
domestically in relatively small amounts, and around 60,000 pounds of fish fillet are sold locally through
the Co-ops. We use a rough estimate of average local sale price per pound (broken down by lobster,
conch, finfish) to estimate that domestic Co-op sales earned approximately $1.0 million in 2007. Total
Co-op sales (local and export) for 2007 are estimated at $12.3 million (see Appendix lb, Table 11). This
total includes the value added from any processing done at the cooperative plants. It was difficult to
accurately separate out production and processing revenues in Belize, so the two are presented together as
total revenue.







Coastal Capital: Belize


Other Local Sales

As noted above, Co-op sales represent only a portion of total fish sales in the country. Many fishermen
sell a portion of their catch to local markets, directly to hotels and restaurants, and to family and friends.
There is very little information currently available on these sales, so we relied on expert opinion and
published surveys of local fishermen to estimate that, averaged across the country, fishermen sell 15
percent of lobster, 5 percent of conch, and 95 percent of the finfish they catch to buyers outside of
cooperatives (i.e. to local markets, restaurants, etc.). Using the average local sale price for 2007 (averaged
across the year), we estimate that local sales of reef- and mangrove-associated fish earn $1.9 to $3.5
million in gross revenues per year.

Fish Cleaning

On-site fish cleaning plays a very small role in Belize's fisheries industry; most of the fish sold outside of
Cooperatives are sold unprocessed or are processed by fishermen for a minimal fee. The value of cleaning
and processing of fish for export and local sale through the Cooperatives is captured in the Co-op sale
prices, above. To estimate the value of local fish cleaning, we designed a survey with WWF-Belize to
gather information on average earnings and hours worked by fish cleaners at four major landing sites. We
very conservatively estimate that local fish cleaning (cleaning outside of the Cooperatives) brings in
$80,000 to $120,000 in gross revenues per year (see Appendix lb for more details).

Value of Reef- and Mangrove-associated Fisheries

We estimate that total revenues from the fisheries industry (production and processing) fall between $14.2
and $15.9 million per year. Of this total, $11.2 million comes from exports, and the remainder from in-
country sales through Co-ops, local markets, restaurants, and informal sales.


Table 2: Economic Contribution of Reef- and Mangrove-associated Fisheries
Gross Revenues ($US million
Fisheries Sector Categories per year)
Co-op Sales
Exports $11.2
Local Sales $1.0
Other Local Sales $1.9 -$3.5
Local fish cleaning $.08 to $.12
Total Direct Impact $14.2 $15.9


Limitations
This assessment of the economic contribution of Belize's fisheries sector understates the actual value of
Belize's reefs and mangroves for two key reasons:
1. Revenues from fish that are caught in Belize's waters but landed and sold in other countries are
not counted as an economic benefit to Belize.
2. Limited information is available on the extent of local fish sales, especially to restaurants and
hotels in Belize. Some of these sales also include illegal and out-of-season catch that is sold under
the radar. The decline in catch for most species in recent years also makes this number difficult to







Coastal Capital: Belize


estimate using historical catch levels. This study produces a ballpark estimate that is purposefully
conservative in order to avoid inflating the valuation results.

In addition to these limitations, it is important to note that this assessment provides a "snapshot" of
fisheries revenues at the current level of extraction. There are many indications that this level of use
may not be sustainable, in which case future value may be less due to declining yields. Better
collection of local catch and sales data is essential to monitor and inform the sustainable management
of Belize's fisheries.



C. Shoreline Protection

The "damages avoided" due to reductions in wave-induced erosion and storm damage attributable to coral
reefs and mangroves was evaluated using the five-step process described in the methodology section (see
pages 7-9). Technical details and data sources are included in Appendix 1, section C.

1) Identify land which is vulnerable to wave-induced erosion and storm damage. Land vulnerable to
wave-induced erosion and storm damage was defined as any land within 1km of the coast which has
an elevation of 5 m or less. This elevation was selected based on the wave height and storm surge
predicted for a 25 year storm event. Using this definition, 693 sq km of land was classified as
vulnerable. This constitutes about 3 percent of the total land area in Belize, and 87 percent of land
within 1 km of the coast.

2) Identify coastline which is protected by coral reefs or by mangroves.
a) Coral Reefs. Coral reef location, fetch (the distance wind blows over open water) and
shoreline orientation were considered in defining the shoreline protected by coral reefs.
Shoreline on the windward facing coast, which is enclosed by the barrier reef or the "wind
shadow" of a reef or atoll, was classified as "protected" by coral reef. About 70 percent of the
coastline of Belize-66 percent of the mainland coast and 72 percent of the cayes-was
classified as protected by coral reefs.
b) Mangroves. Data on the current extent of mangroves in Belize are imperfect. This analysis
made use of three data sets on mangroves in Belize (see technical notes) and focuses on land
within 1km of the coast. We estimate there are between 400 and 420 sq. km of mangrove
within 1km of the coastline of Belize (including all cayes). Coastline segments within 50m of
a mangrove were classified as protected by mangrove. Using this definition, half of the
mainland coast is sheltered by mangroves, as are three-quarters of the offshore islands
(cayes).
c) Combined. Over 35 percent of the mainland coast is sheltered by both reefs and mangroves,
as is over half of the shoreline of the cayes (see table 3 below).


Table 3: Extent of Reef or Mangrove Protected Shoreline
Reef- Percent Reef and
Coastline protected Percent Mangrove- protected mangrove- Percent
length coast protected protected by protected protected
Location (km) (km) by reefs coast (km) mangroves coast (km) by both
Mainland 518 342 66% 260 50% 189 37%
Offshore 1,288 928 72% 972 75% 690 54%
Total 1,805 1,270 70% 1,232 68% 879 49%







Coastal Capital: Belize


Note: Coastline is very detailed, so the analysis may exaggerate the coastline of cayes.

3) Estimate the relative stability of the shoreline. Data were available for seven of the nine factors
which influence the relative stability of the shoreline: coastal geomorphology, geology, coastal
protection by structures (atolls or sea walls), the coral reef index (reef proximity, type, and
continuity), hurricane frequency, coastal elevation, and coastal vegetation. Data were not available for
wave energy or presence of damaging activities, such as sand mining. Data sources and details on the
analysis can be found in Appendix 1, section C.

The seven factors influence the stability of the shoreline over different scales. Coastal
geomorphology, geography, and storm regime operate over broad scales (i.e. do not vary much over
short distances). Coral reefs and atolls protect broad swaths of the coastline, but this protection varies
with the reef characteristics, including distance from shore. Mangroves offer vital protection in the
fairly localized areas where they are present. This results in a patchwork of relative stability of the
shoreline. Relative shoreline stability is high in areas with mangroves and coral reefs close to the
shore, such as in Turneffe Atoll. It is also high in areas well protected by multiple lines of defense,
such as an atoll and the Belize Barrier Reef off some cayes.


4) Determine the share of shoreline stability attributed to coral reefs or mangroves. By evaluating the
relative shoreline stability both with and without reefs present, we are able to isolate the share of
shoreline stability contributed by coral reefs. Where reefs protect the shoreline, they can contribute
between 12 and 40 percent of the shoreline stability. The share is very high along all of the cayes in
the outlying atolls, such as Turneffe Atoll, and along Ambergris Caye (See map 1 below).
Map 1 Shoreline Protection by Coral Reefs


Coral Reef Contribution
to Shoreline Protection (%)
Not protected
) '10-20%
S/ 20 24%
/I. 24- 26%
S26 30%
/ 30-40%
Coral Reefs




- .x ..







Coastal Capital: Belize



A similar approach is used to evaluate the role of mangroves in protecting the shoreline. Where
mangroves are present, they contribute between 10 and 32 percent of shoreline stability (see map 2).
Mangroves are vitally important to the stability of the shoreline of cayes throughout Belize, as well as
along many segments of the mainland coast.

Map 2 Shoreline Protection by Mangroves


5) Estimate the average annual "damages avoided" due to the presence of coral reefs or
mangroves, based on the value of property in vulnerable land protected by coral reefs or
mangroves. Property values were collected through internet searches for both developed and
undeveloped properties in Belize during 2007 and 2008. These were differentiated based on whether
they were adjacent to the coast (first 100 m inland) or further inland, and based on locale to arrive at
these average property values. Coastal property values in US$ per sq ft ranged from US$22 for San
Pedro to US$15-16 for Caye Caulker and Placencia, to US$2 for properties along the coast in remote
areas. Properties more than 100 m from the shore were often about half the value of properties right
on the shore. The values reflect average values for land and built structures (when present).

Avoided damages were calculated separately for coral reefs and mangroves. For each area mapped as
"vulnerable" (based on the 25 year storm event), the property value for that area was combined with
the degree of shoreline stability provided by coral reefs (or mangroves) for the nearest coastal
segment to estimate the potentially avoided damages due to the presence of the coral reef (or
mangrove). The sum of these values was then multiplied by 4 percent (the probability of the 25 year
storm event occurring in a given year) to arrive at an average annual value. A range of +/- 20 percent
was incorporated to reflect uncertainty around these estimates.


Mangrove Contribution
to Shoreline Protection (%)
Not protected
!s 10-20 %
/20-24%
S//24 26%
) ,A/26-30%
S30 -40%
Coral Reefs
,


I,

2







Coastal Capital: Belize


The shoreline protection services from coral reefs in Belize are valued at between US$120 180
million per year in potentially avoided damages through reduced erosion and storm damage.

Mangroves within 1 km of the shoreline are estimated to contribute between US$111 167 million
per year in potentially avoided damages. Mangroves within 1 km of the coast8 provide shoreline
protection services with an average annual value of US$2,775 $4,000 per ha per year (US$1,125 -
1,600 per acre per year).

Table 4: Annual Value of Shoreline Protection Services Provided by Coral Reefs and Mangroves
Central Estimate Range (reflects uncertainty)
Coral Reefs US$150 million US$120 180 million
Mangroves US$139 million US$111 167 million


Summary of Results


SOur mapping suggests that there are between 400 and 420 sq km of mangroves within 1 km of the coast.


Table 5: Economic Contribution of Coral Reefs and Mangroves to
Belize: Summary of Results (millions USD per annum)

All figures are for 2007
Reef- and Mangrove-associated Tourism
Accommodation 56.3 75.4
Recreation $37.5 46.5
Other Spending $31.8 44.7
Taxes and Fees $19.6 23.4
Cruise Tourism $4.6 5.7
Tourism Value $149.9 195.7

Reef- and Mangrove-associated Fisheries
Co-op sales (lobster, conch, finfish) $12.3
Local sales (est.) $1.9 3.5
Fish Cleaning $.08 to 0.12
Fisheries Value $14.2 15.9

Shoreline Protection
Annual value of protection by coral
reefs $120- 180
Annual value of protection by
mangroves $111- 167
Potentially Avoided Damages $231 347

Annual value of the three goods and
services combined $395 559







Coastal Capital: Belize


4. Policy Application: Marine Protected Areas

The Marine Protected Area (MPA) system of Belize is well known and widely hailed as an example of
forward thinking in marine conservation. The system consists of 18 protected areas managed primarily by
the Fisheries and Forestry Departments in collaboration with local NGOs. Belize's MPAs are an important
draw for divers, snorkelers and sport fishermen, and contain no-fishing areas that, when well-protected, help
to maintain stocks of key commercial species.

In 2007, Belize's MPAs recorded approximately 115,000 visitors. Even accounting for some repeat visitors,
this is a remarkable share of Belize's total 250,000 overnight visitors for that year (very few MPA visitors
come from the cruise lines). In addition, MPA managers note that a significant portion-sometimes as much
as 30 percent -of visitation goes unrecorded. Using our reef- and mangrove-associated tourism findings,
above, we estimate that the average reef-related visitor spends approximately US$150 a day. This translates
into approximately $17 million in tourist spending on accommodation, food, and other expenses on days
that people visited a reserve. Indirect economic impacts, such as tourist spending on transportation and food,
contributed an additional $3.5 to $6.9 million to the economy. By comparison, the Fisheries Department
allocates roughly US$600,000 per year to its five co-managed reserves, while the Forestry Department uses
mainly MPA fees to fund marine park management (See Appendix 3).

Unfortunately, the current financing situation is not sustainable. At most MPAs, management levels fall well
below what is needed to keep reefs healthy and attractive to visitors over the long-term. Visitation,
investment, and management levels vary widely across the system. Many MPAs rely heavily on grant-based
funding that may not be reliable from year to year. Staff, fuel, and equipment limitations make it difficult to
curb illegal fishing and monitor visitation in most of the reserves. If the condition of the reefs and
mangroves protected by the system continues to decline and their importance as refuges for key species
diminishes, visitors may decide MPAs are no longer worth the trip,. This is especially true for some of the
most fragile sites, such as the rare mangrove and reef habitats in the Pelican Cayes in South Water Caye
Marine Reserve, and Glover's Reef (assessed below). Belize's MPAs provide benefits well beyond what
can be measured in economic terms alone. Even with an increase in government support, they should
continue to be an extraordinarily "good deal" long into the future.

As a first step towards sustainable financing of MPAs in Belize, WRI and WWF interviewed MPA
managers to compile their understanding of the current financing situation. The responses from MPA
mangers on the details of visitation levels, fee collection, expenditures, and financial needs are included in
the table in Appendix 3. This snapshot of MPA management demonstrates, among other things, a need for
coordination and record keeping at the MPA system level. Inconsistencies, gaps in data, and vast differences
in the availability of funding make it difficult to assess the current level of investment, total fees collected,
or even total MPA visitation with accuracy. The available information suggests that fees, government
spending, and funding by co-managing organizations (largely grant based) bring total spending on MPA
management in Belize to roughly US$1.6 million per year.

WRI has also adapted the national level valuation method for reef- and mangrove-associated tourism and
fisheries for Marine Protected Areas in Belize.9 Preliminary assessments of the fisheries and tourism value
of several MPAs were produced in collaboration with protected area co-managers, such as TASTE, TIDE,
and the Belize Audubon Society, and will be available in a separate document. The results of a valuation of
the tourism and fisheries benefits of Glover's Reef Marine Reserve are included in Box 3.

9 This valuation method, both at the national and the MPA level, captures only current use of resources. For underutilized MPAs,
an assessment of "potential" tourism value may be a more useful estimate. For this application and others, it will be important to
conduct assessments of tourist carrying capacity at one or more marine tourism sites in Belize.







Coastal Capital: Belize


Total Revenues (USD)
MPA-associated accommodation $3,158,243 $4,737,344
MPA-associated recreation (outside of all-inclusives) $291,123 $586,671
Other tourist spending on MPA-associated days $37,287 $55,914
Taxes and Fees (including MPA fees) $345,028 $506,722
Total Tourism Value $3,931,680 $5,886,652

Lobster revenue $457,951 $686,926
Conch revenue $500,803 $751,205
Finfish revenue $18,850 $28,276
Total Fisheries Value $977,604 $1,466,407

Total Tourism and Fisheries Value. Glover's Reef $4.909.285 $7.353.058







Coastal Capital: Belize




-:::::::::::tnps to:thc:t PA ,:::::::::::::: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
-t1:: :oth erspeniditi res:toirfooditranspn rati.:etc- on r dns:that tounistsr isite PAP a :t ..:







&i ki::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::



m1 -ti c liiitc?^r iibr Ai kt stt )thiPr l :Siw;:::::::::::



: Hsls:e 1 A----:--- -----t o -t- 4rw fixt fi : st- - -l p-t-A---a-t:::::e: ::::::::::::::w::
------------ ---------- ----------------
: rit ose ReMa1inUW Resepctciwsuhuast 3 p0:aclesAm ffiatuh4 'pcicomafl flfscug erspxkic ::
: 4iE'hJac res (ooperiwtsi tan emkur mrnarna icserri o:ma4askh Eiiestf-n14 nd nwk 41- th:b total i5uh::
: Thsucutflotumet fli tUMnQ 4natfTh l smanl W sciestafcus&fg t 20nT prwe cslnalfilheresnptrlsiat s ponr:&:- -






( r: citpans Rct ARllte:nksi t m$o $1 :l 4lutt1ons^K cabfitit& toYwnsi i- t t:ht e coffcte Z 4:81::::
: nlns eM -t:-u ri-n stibtu nf^t g p*. ssurctul unik MPA t-il: Hns1dnbibk, m\retlflv :trcwn 4wi Iv ro idedsi in::





:I Jfcr& : Fib ifia t ior prm; lrni 'fl4:ipoti iu\&oinrirbiititatudj firn DipsoiUn hli$.u\ bwuiwifltie iQstr.fflii iOtMl U:
4 fauidgt f ifys(QwEjj fltf I-j 2IuK. :WGS tEZ); fftl.tft :fIhB:miwt eatte:4f iv Ih h2l s~hf"Ipfis:ai4 - -





: :TlBc tata.:uconrnni anncnwtotfn iancounsntfarnfisetresnassrtxtted xiitho-tkre Redais thanratefLtattS't to::
: $7;3iirondianrperiear:: By:compar:san dr gas enunntu spet g:USW:btlt:peryearsn unauc Ith:::::

r On-fianuzedt r r the: Fisieries: Depart ent: iEgardkess:ofsxa; : : :ixe ;:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::

: fivrs Reetmi': e: Rteset e is nhnuslsfJnutj:aars:mnanillut~oFhaiatx: acuipansan- jc^ em:appni:nsrnl
------- ,;l~l--------------------- ------------------- ---------------------------












)traesi ateidlrdnainkTTit'nuexnimnnh: tirg rcsant urnaa nie.: f unidli'inigxoxns oa nnTcbaatainitJ zncutglr^:T:':

: ftictto:patbncE atlsK: -.Bnittarrntmsomcoi ritt Bcla et i t : ibrarfihizropiainjnpp anquicktish nhs mastC of-:::::




t ah11 A7,: aur stdria mrsata~snit:arcstlmaeF~bctwcen;k2Ltfnlf lfzt^ ftitO annmarisitonns n mnsnz:
: ocupanci: ratcs:3rnd.Stima3teS nf lartrip nIsitOrisrfmm *ncIhaytown~nySlm.tf -thrcsTT:cnTvcc CcTtccIXtfll $4t81:::
: nrmMPAf ccst isitrar n-lirinprapoflinrncanmTccninwc ongninrosIBZ$3Ltt ftairmnsur uv:tnprisits::
zBZ$1iflrsbutxTt'tlnlahcaI n I' couLnrT^T''tra Cmt4 2La7 nI'Ckt '\~isiwpgfipbialfbktss thantamlf;otH:'^tL '::::


(GHcrirs RRUTEn niinns-9 r of ii thaourdnjewes nt Gii B s AssnititCKS thresns inp t:
tfeatizh: rtht iiK ft ec^slitmffi:dRnu:zbosatncotrof:raarisrs5af ueaanrd &ipptica: toed:tfi^hing ~cflufl s::







Coastal Capital: Belize


5. Conclusions and Recommendations

The valuation findings underline the extent to which coastal and marine ecosystems provide vitally
important goods and services to Belize's economy. The protection they furnish from erosion and wave
damage from coastal storms, valued at US$231 347 million in avoided damages per year, is especially
notable, and highlights the importance of protecting coral reefs and mangroves for their less visible
services as well as for the more obvious benefits of fisheries and marine tourism. As these resources
become increasingly threatened, it is critical to recognize the value they provide, and to incorporate them
into decision-making. It is in the long-term economic interest of Belize to:

1. Invest in scientific assessment, monitoring, and compliance. The government has taken an
important first step by reinstating the Coastal Zone Management Authority and Institute (CZMAI).
Now, it needs to invest in CZMAI and other science-based efforts to expand monitoring activities and
assess the state and use of coastal resources. Next steps should include:
a. Allocating additional resources to enforce fishing regulations and work with local fishermen,
restaurants, and hotels to improve compliance with existing laws;
b. Collecting data at a national level on how many tourists are using reefs and mangroves and
visiting MPAs each year. This is critical information for evaluating the importance of these
resources, managing them sustainably, and planning for their future use.
c. Climate change is a growing threat. Current monitoring and conservation efforts should
expand to include identification of reefs that will be resilient to climate change.


2. Plan and implement development sensibly. The government needs to enforce existing land-use and
development regulations in the coastal zone. Longer-term tourism and development strategies should
incorporate the ecosystem services provided by coral reefs and mangroves. For instance decisions on
development permits, sewage and waste disposal regulations, and the balance between cruise and







Coastal Capital: Belize


overnight tourism should consider the potential impacts on the flow of benefits from coastal
resources. Key areas of focus should include:
a. Minimizing the loss of mangroves along the shoreline and outer cayes, as they provide
critical habitat and protect the coast from storms;
b. Incorporating ecosystem services into Environmental Impact Assessments and subsequent
compliance plans for development in sensitive coastal areas, such as the cayes;
c. Conducting threat hazard assessment/mapping as part of any proposed development along
Belize's mainland and insular coast;
d. Engaging developers proactively to find ways to protect mangrove habitat, manage
construction impacts and sewage treatment, and incorporate other sustainable practices into
the sector; and
e. In planning a long-term tourism strategy, weighing revenues from a growing cruise industry
against potential losses to the overnight sector from environmental impacts.

3. Increase support for Belize's MPA system. Belize's MPA system is among the best in the world,
but it is suffering from uneven funding and management. To avoid a continuing decline in the health
of coral reefs and fish populations in MPAs, Belize should: increase overall investment; improve fee
collection in order to capture missing revenue; improve collection of basic indicators of human use
(e.g. visitation, recreation, and fisheries data); strengthen monitoring and enforcement efforts, and
establish a permanent source of funding to support the MPA system. Strategic planning at the system
level is also needed to address disparities and gaps in the current structure, and to incorporate climate-
related threats into planning for the future.


Further research: Belize's reefs and mangroves provide many benefits not assessed in this study. Not the
least of these is the previously described "consumer surplus" of divers, anglers, and snorkelers the
enjoyment they receive above what they have paid for their experiences. A useful follow-up to this study
would be to estimate this value in order to provide a fuller picture of the tourism value of Belize's reefs and
mangroves, including some of the intangible elements that draw tourists to the country. This information
could also be used to set MPA fees, sport fishing taxes, and other fees to support better marine and coastal
management.


This study demonstrates that the links between healthy coastal and marine ecosystems and Belize's
economy are too important to ignore. Coral reefs and mangroves are an extremely important part of
Belize's ecological and economic wealth. The value of three economically vital services provided by
these ecosystems amounts to US$395 559 million per year. This is an especially large sum relative to
Belize's GDP of US$1.3 billion, and underlines the importance of protecting and managing these
resources so that they can continue to provide these benefits. Many of Belize's reefs and mangroves are
already under threat from unsustainable development, overfishing, and natural threats such as storms.
Climate change threatens to worsen these effects. It is critical for Belize's government and citizens to
work now to protect their coastal resources, or risk losing these benefits in the not-so-distant future.







Coastal Capital: Belize


References

Belize Fisheries Department. 2008. Fisheries production and export statistics for 2007.

Belize Fisheries Department. 2007. Glover's Reef Marine Reserve: 2006 Yearly Report.

Belize Tourism Board (BTB) 2008a. "Cruise Visitor Activities, 2007." In Belize Travel and Tourism
Statistics 2007. CD-Rom. Belize City: BTB.

Belize Tourism Board (BTB) 2008b. "Arrival Statistics." In Belize Travel and Tourism Statistics 2007.
CD-Rom. Belize City: BTB.

Belize Tourism Board (BTB) 2008c. "Accommodation Statistics." In Belize Travel and Tourism Statistics
2007. CD-Rom. Belize City: BTB.

Belize Tourism Board (BTB) 2008d. Liveaboard Tax Form (unpublished).

Belize Tourism Board (BTB) 2007. Travel and Tourism Statistics 2006: Visitor Expenditure and
Motivation Survey (VEMS) Results. Belize City: BTB.

Bood N. 2008. "Community level climate change vulnerability assessment. A case study." World
Wildlife Fund (WWF), Belize City, Belize.

Burke, L., S. Greenhalgh, D. Prager, and E. Cooper. 2008. "Coastal Capital Economic Valuation of
Coral Reefs in Tobago and St. Lucia." WRI Working Paper. World Resources Institute, Washington DC.
Available online at: http://www.wri.org/project/valuation-caribbean-reefs

Center on Ecotourism and Sustainable Development (CESD). 2006. Cruise Tourism in Belize:
Perceptions of Economic, Social and Environmental Impact. Washington DC and Stanford, CA: CESD.

Cesar, H., P. van Beukering, and G. Romilly. 2003. Mainstreaming Economic Valuation in Decision
Making. Coral Reef Examples in Selected CARICOM countries. Hol Chan Case Study. Netherlands:
ARCADIS-Euroconsult.

Cesar, H., P. van Beukering, S. Pintz, and J. Dierking. 2002. "Economic Valuation of the Coral Reefs of
Hawaii." Cesar Environmental Economics Consulting, Arnhem, the Netherlands.

Deitrich, A. 2006. "The Belize Coastal Tourism Project: An Assessment of the Environmental, Socio-
Cultural, and Economic Impacts of Tourism in Coastal Communities in Belize." Project Summary and
Recommendations. Kingston, RI: University of Rhode Island and the Oak Foundation.

Denby, J., J. Drake, J. Tan, M. Whittington. 2007. "Glover's Reef Marine Reserve: Financial
Sustainability Report." Belize City: University of California, Berkely, WCS, and USAID.

Dixon, J., L. Scura, and T. van't Hof 1993. "Ecology and Microeconomics as 'Joint Products': The
Bonaire Marine Park in the Caribbean." LATEN Dissemination Note #6. Washington DC: The World
Bank.

Fedler, A. 2008. "Economic Impact of Recreational Fishing for Bonefish, Permit and Tarpon in Belize for
2007." Gainesville FL: Human Dimensions Consulting and Friends of Turneffe Atoll.







Coastal Capital: Belize


Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2005. Fishery and Aquaculture country
profile: Belize. Online at: http://www.fao.org/fisherv/countrysector/FI-CPBZ/en

Gibson, J and S. Hoare. 2006. "Preliminary Results of a Long-term, Fishery-Independent Monitoring
Program at Glover's Reef Marine Reserve." Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS), Belize City, Belize.).

Gibson, J. (ed.) and D. Lizama. 2006. "Report on the Socioeconomic Monitoring Survey for Glover's
Reef Atoll, Belize." Belize City: Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS), USAID, and the Belize Audubon
Society.

Gibson, J., D. Lizama, and R. Pomeroy. 2005. "Establishing a Socioeconomic Monitoring Program for
Glover's Reef Atoll, Belize." Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS), Belize City, Belize.

Gillett, V. 2003. The Fisheries of Belize. Fisheries Centre Research Reports. 11(6): 141-147.

Graham, R., R. Carcamo, K. Rhodes, C. Roberts, and N. Requena. 2007. Historical and contemporary
evidence of a mutton snapper (Lutjanus analis Cuvier, 1828) spawning aggregation fishery in decline.
Coral Reefs. 27(2): 311-319(9).

Heyman, W. and R. Graham (eds). 2000. "The Voice of the Fishermen of Southern Belize. Punta Gorda,
Belize: Toledo Institute for Environment and Development (TIDE).

Huitric, M. 2005. Lobster and Conch Fisheries of Belize: A History of Sequential Exploitation. Ecology
and Society. 10 (1): 21. Online at: http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol10/issl/art21/

Kishore, R., J. Finlay, M. Clarke-Marshall, H. Ramsundar, G. de Souza and H. Heylock. 2006. "Political
organization and socio-economics of fishing communities in Trinidad and Tobago, Grenada and Belize."
Chapter 7 in Y. Breton et al. (eds.). Coastal Resource Management in the Wider Caribbean. Resilience,
Adaptation, and Community Diversity. Ian Randle/IDRC. Online at: lhp \ \ \ .idrc.ca/en/ev-102785-201-1-
DO TOPIC.html

Kramer P.A. and P.R. Kramer 2000. "Ecological status of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef: impacts of
Hurricane Mitch and 1998 coral bleaching." Final report to the World Bank.

Lindberg, K. 2001. "Visitors to Belize's Marine Protected Areas: Characteristics, Evaluations, and
Responsiveness to Entrance Fees." Report of the 2001 visitor survey conducted as part of the TIES/PFB
MPA Revenue Generation Project funded by the Summit Foundation.

McField M., N. Bood, A. Fonseca, A. Arrivillaga, A.F. Rinos and R.M. Loreto Viruel 2008. "Status of
the Mesoamerican Reef after the 2005 coral bleaching event." Chapter 5 in C. Wilkinson and D. Souther
(eds.). Status of Caribbean coral reefs after bleaching and hurricanes in 2005. Townsville, Australia:
Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network, and Reef and Rainforest Research Centre.

McField, M. and N. Bood. 2007. "Our reef in peril Can we use it without abusing it?" Chapter 6 in B.
Balboni and J. Palacio (eds). Taking stock: Belize at 25 years of Independence: Economy, Environment,
Society and Culture.

Organization of American States (OAS). 2002. Atlas ofProbable Storm Effects in the Caribbean Sea.
Washington DC: USAID Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance and the Caribbean Regional Program.
Online at: http://www.oas.org/CDMP/document/reglstrm/index.htm.







Coastal Capital: Belize


Orr, J. et al. 2005. "Anthropogenic ocean acidification over the twenty-first century and its impact on
calcifying organisms." Nature 437 (29): 681-686.

Pendleton, L. (ed.). 2008. "The Economic and Market Value of Coasts and Estuaries: What's at Stake?"
Arlington VA: Restore America's Estuaries. Online at: http://www.estuaries.org/?id=208.

Statistical Institute of Belize 2008. 2007 "Labour Force by Industry and Sex and Occupation by Sex."
(provided to WRI by the Belize Tourism Board).

Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS). 2008. Catch per Unit Effort, Glover's Reef. Final Report
(unpublished).

Wildtracks / Wildlife Conservation Society. 2007. "Management Plan: Glover's Reef Marine Reserve
World Heritage Site: 2008 2013." Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS), Belize City, Belize.

World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC). 2008. Tourism Satellite Accounting: Belize. London, UK:
WTTC.







Coastal Capital: Belize


Appendix 1: Technical Notes and Data Sources


A Reef- and M angrove-Related Tourism .............. ........................................................... 28
B C om m ercial F ish eries............................................................................ .... ................ .... 3 6
C Shoreline P protection ............................ ............................ .. ........... ................... 38


Note: All prices and revenue estimates are in US dollars.



A. Reef- and Mangrove-Related Tourism


Belize is a major ecotourism destination, and attracts visitors both for its coastal and marine attractions and for
inland sights such as rainforests and Mayan ruins. A critical step in evaluating the economic impact from reef- and
mangrove-related tourism is thus to determine the percentage of total "tourist nights" that are spent by visitors
engaged in marine activities. The Belize Tourism Board (BTB) collects accommodation statistics (including number
of hotel rooms and occupancy rates) by district. WRI held an expert workshop in Belize in March 2008 to solicit
feedback on the data, assumptions, and methods used in the analysis. Among the key outputs of the workshop was
an estimate of the percentage of tourists engaging in coral reef or mangrove-related activities on any given day for
each of BTB's accommodation districts (these include the six political districts plus major offshore islands and
tourist towns). If a tourist visits the reef to dive or snorkel, sits on a coralline beach, or fishes for mangrove-
dependent fish, we count that day as reef or mangrove associated. We applied this "reefuser" estimate to BTB's data
on total rooms and occupancy rates, concluding that an estimated 64 percent of visitor nights in Belize can be
attributed to days spent using reefs, mangroves, or coralline beaches (see Table 1).


Belize District


49.1%


30%


Ambergris 1443 49.5% 714 100% 714
Caye Caulker 580 39.6% 230 100% 230
Cayo 942 43.4% 409 1% 4
Corozal 283 19.7% 56 1% 1
Orange Walk 237 38.6% 91 1% 1
Stann Creek 495 43.6% 216 90% 194
Placencia 689 39.2% 270 90% 243
Toledo 265 32.2% 85 50% 43
Other Islands 300 44.6% 134 100% 134
Total 6200 44.3% 2679 NA 1706
Estimated % of
visitor nights
attributed to the reef 64%
a Source: BTB 2008c (Accommodation Statistics)
b Source: WRI estimate, based on expert opinion


Accommodation

Hotels


Appendix 1







Coastal Capital: Belize


We use BTB's published accommodation statistics to estimate annual hotel revenues generated by reef-associated
tourists. In doing this, we found that there was a major disparity between total reported hotel revenues for 2007
($64.1 million) and the rough estimate that can be produced by multiplying together the data on total rooms, average
occupancy rates, and average room rates for each district ($99.7 million). There are uncertainties in both estimates.
Underreporting of revenues could cause the first figure to be low; higher occupancy rates at the low end of the price
scale and/or a large number of hotel rooms sold at discounted rates would lead to an overestimate using room and
occupancy rates. We use BTB's figure on total tourist spending in 2007 ($257.8 million for overnight visitors) (BTB
2008c) as an additional reference point. Reported hotel revenues for 2007come to less than 25% of the total
spending figure. In comparison, expert opinion in Belize suggests that 40 50% (or more) of visitor expenditures
tend to go toward accommodation.

We try to estimate a range for reef- and mangrove-related accommodation revenue in 2007 that takes these
uncertainties into account. For the low end of the range, we apply our estimates of reef-related visitor days to
reported hotel revenue to arrive at an estimate of $46.7 million in reef-related accommodation revenue per year. For
the high end of the range, we use the rough revenue calculation from above, and reduce average room rates by 15
percent, to account for uneven distribution of room sales, discounts, etc. We multiply this total by estimated reef-
related visitor days to arrive at an estimate of $61.2 million per year, a difference of about 24 percent (see Table 2
below).


Belize District


49.1%


173,122


51,937


$ 8,524,479


$ 2,557,344


$59.86


$ 3,108,763


Ambergris 1,443 49.5% 260,714 100% 260,714 $26,983,501 $26,983,501 $122.23 $ 31,867,075
Caye Caulker 580 39.6% 83,833 100% 83,833 $ 3,076,504 $ 3,076,504 $ 43.32 $ 3,632,031
Cayo 942 43.4% 149,222 1% 1,492 $ 7,883,541 $78,835 $ 72.66 $108,428
Corozal 283 19.7% 20,349 1% 203 $ 897,314 $ 8,973 $ 54.52 $11,094
Orange Walk 237 38.6% 33,391 1% 334 $ 1,281,877 $12,819 $ 55.91 $18,670
Stann Creek 495 43.6% 78,774 90% 70,897 $ 4,614,756 $4,153,280 $ 87.58 $6,209,431
Placencia 689 39.2% 98,582 90% 88,724 $ 8,011,728 $7,210,556 $131.17 $11,637,715
Toledo 265 32.2% 31,145 50% 15,573 $ 576,844 $288,422 $ 39.53 $615,644
Other Islands 300 44.6% 48,837 100% 48,837 $ 2,307,378 $2,307,378 $ 81.74 $3,991,949
Total 6,200 44.3% 977,970 64% 622,544 $64,093,827 $46,677,612 $ 83.96 $ 61,200,802
a Source: BTB 2008c (Accommodation Statistics)
b Source: WRI calculation using BTB 2008c
c Source: WRI estimate, based on expert opinion



As a further check, we found that the high end of this range ($61.2 million) was fairly close to $66 million the
figure that results from taking 64 percent (reef related) of 40 percent (percent of visitor spending that usually goes
toward accommodation) of BTB's estimate of total overnight visitor spending ($257.8 million).

Liveaboards

In addition to revenues from hotels on land, there is a small but active liveaboard and yachting industry in Belize.
The liveaboard sector primarily attracts tourists who are interested in spending the week diving, fishing, anc visiting
beaches maintained by the reefs. As a result, we chose to count 100% of liveaboard and yachting revenue as reef-
associated. With the help of BTB and local experts, we estimate that between 6,800 and 10,000 tourists visit the
reefs on yachts or liveaboards per year. The average length of a trip in 2007 was 7.2 days, and the average price of


Appendix 1







Coastal Capital: Belize


chartering a yacht was estimated at $197 per person per night (from research on prices, weighted by volume per
company). Using these figures, we estimate revenue from liveaboard guests at between $9.6 and $14.2 million for
2007.


Table A3: Liveaboard Revenue from 2007 (USD)
# of liveaboard Avg. price pp / per Estimated
tourists (range) Avg. trip duration night in 2007 Liveaboard Revenue
6,800 7.2 days 197.21 $ 9,655,342
10,000 7.2 days 197.21 $14,199,033
Source: BTB 2008d

Reef and Mangrove Recreation

There is no centralized and publicly available estimate of annual revenue from reef- and mangrove-based recreation
such as diving, snorkeling, and sport fishing in Belize. It is clear that these sports are popular with visitors, and they
provide an important source of employment and revenue to coastal communities. We do not have enough
information to estimate how many people come to the country because these activities are available; however,
BTB's 2006 Visitor Expenditure and Motivation Survey (VEMS) does produce estimates of the percent of total
visitors who engage in different activities during their stay, including marine activities such as diving and
snorkeling. The VEMS results indicate that 27 percent of visitors to Belize dive, 59 percent snorkel, and 16.5
percent fish (BTB 2007). Since no centralized data were available, we used these figures as a starting point for the
analysis. At an expert workshop held in March 2008, we solicited feedback on available reef recreation data, and on
the assumptions and adjustments used to incorporate these data into the analysis.

Finally, recognizing that many all-inclusive resorts advertise room prices that include reef-related activities, we
wanted to be sure to avoid double-counting revenue already recorded in the accommodation sector. According to
BTB, the published room rates and revenues for hotels represent the accommodation portion only for all-inclusive
resorts. This should avoid most double-counting concerns in this sector.

Diving

Dive tourism is a lucrative industry in Belize, and the barrier reef draws a large number of both serious and novice
divers to the country. Diving is a relatively expensive sport, and it is likely that divers spend more in the local
economy, on average, than most other tourists. It is also an industry that is likely to suffer if the quality of Belize's
reefs continues to decline relative to other dive destinations.

To estimate annual revenue from dive tourism, we researched dive prices at shops across the country, and used
expert opinion to estimate the distribution of 1, 2, and 3 tank dive trips sold (2 tank dives being by far the most
popular option). The VEMS exit survey indicates that as many as 27 percent of visitors dive, but not how many dive
trips these visitors tend to purchase; some people will come for a whole week of concentrated diving, while others
may go out only once (BTB 2007). We consulted experts at the workshop and elsewhere to arrive at a conservative
estimate of an average four dives per "diving visitor". Web research showed dive prices to be slightly higher in the
south, in part due to longer distances per trip. Because the north is more heavily visited, we weight the northern
prices more heavily, producing the average prices per trip listed in the table below. We conservatively estimate that
60 percent of divers rent equipment, averaging US$22 per rental.

Through our own research and input from participants at the expert workshop, we determined that the VEMS figure
was a reasonable estimate of the number of divers per year, likely falling at the high end of a probable range. In an
effort to remain conservative in our estimate, we treat 27 percent participation as the high end of a range. For a low-
end estimate, we use a 20 percent lower figure for percent of visitors who dive (22 percent of all visitors).


Appendix 1







Coastal Capital: Belize


The revenue figures we have calculated below include taxes, which we need to separate out from gross revenue. We
subtract the 10% General Sales Tax (GST) from the totals to arrive at an estimated range of $20 million to $25
million in gross revenue from diving for 2007.


1 tank dive 10% 6,845 27,380 $55.25 $1,512,755 $1,206,867
2 tank dive 72% 49,284 197,137 $79.06 $15,585,671 $12,434,156
3 tank dive 10% 6,845 27,380 $119.25 $3,265,086 $2,604,866
long distance 8% 5,476 21,904 $167.50 $3,668,943 $2,927,061
Total 100% 68,450 273,802 NA $24,032,454 $3,614,183 $19,172,950 $2,883,374
Revenue minus
GST $__ 21,847,685 $3,285,621 $17,429,955 $2,621,249
Total Dive and
Rental Revenue $25,133,306 $20,051204


Snorkeling

We calculated revenue from snorkeling in Belize using the same approach used for diving, above. The VEMS
survey results suggest that 59 percent of visitors to Belize snorkel at least once. We estimated that these visitors
average 1.5 snorkel trips per visit, and consulted local experts to estimate the distribution of half day, full day and
long-distance trips sold. We researched snorkel operator prices and weighted them towards the more heavily visited
northern destinations. We estimate that 90 percent of snorkelers rent equipment and 70 percent of shops charge extra
for rentals at $5 per trip.

The VEMS estimate of snorkeling volume seemed reasonable to local experts, but because there is a high degree of
uncertainty in the figure, we again used a 20 percent lower estimate of snorkelers (47 percent of all visitors) to create
a range. To remain conservative, we assume GST is included in all trip prices, and subtract it from the total to arrive
at an estimate of $10.1 million to $12.6 million in gross snorkeling revenue for 2007.


Table A5: Estimated Snorkel Revenue. 2007 (all f


1/2 day trip 55% 81,247 121,871 $40.00 $4,874,828 $3,903,185
full day trip 35% 51,703 77,554 $67.00 $5,196,124 $4,160,440
long distance 10% 14,772 22,158 $140.00 $3,102,164 $2,483,845
Total 147,722 221,583 $13,173,116 $697,987 $10,547,469 $558,865
Total revenue
minus GST $11,975,560 $634,533 $9,588,608 $508,059


Appendix 1







Coastal Capital: Belize


Kayaking/Canoeing

The VEMS survey suggests that 15.7 percent of visitors to Belize canoe or kayak. We again use this figure as the
upper end of a range; at the lower end we estimate that 11 percent of visitors canoe or kayak (a 30 percent
reduction). We conservatively estimate that the average canoeing or kayaking trip costs $7.50 (or $5 per hour, with
half of visitors going out for two hours, half for one). Using these figures, we arrive at estimated gross revenues of
$207,000 to $296,000 per year.

Sport Fishing

Recreational or "sport" fishing is an extremely high-value industry per visitor, and an important source of income
for fishermen in Belize. Nevertheless, it is very difficult to estimate the number of participants or even the number
of guides in the country based on publicly available data. Belize is home to the "Big Three" sport fishing species -
Permit, Tarpon, and Bonefish. These three species are dependent upon mangrove and seagrass habitats, many of
which are threatened by development along the country's coastline and outer cayes. A recent study (Fedler 2008)
estimates that the wider economic impact of recreational fishing for these three species could be as high as $25
million in direct impact and $56 million in direct and indirect impact combined"1. These estimates do not translate
directly into our study, but the field research in the report is helpful for refining our estimates, particularly in terms
of getting a sense of the total number of recreational fishers that come to Belize each year.

The VEMS results indicate that 16.5 percent of visitors to the country engage in fishing during their trip.
Information on the total number of fishing guides in Belize is limited-local experts suggest that the list of
registered guides is an underestimate-but based on an estimate of the number of guides in the country, it did not
seem that the industry could support quite this volume of recreational fishermen." We decided to look for
additional sources, including Fedler's study, to arrive at a more conservative range. We conservatively estimate that
90% of all sport fishing in Belize is reef- or mangrove-based (experts suggested that there is a very small amount of
deep sea fishing). In addition to relatively serious anglers staying at all-inclusive lodges or hiring guides for multiple
days to fish for the Big Three, there are tourists who hire party boats for a day or two of casual fishing on the reef.

To arrive at a low-end estimate of recreational fishermen, we use Fedler's estimate that 7,261 anglers come to fish
for the Big Three each year (roughly 1/3 of them staying at all-inclusives and 2/3 fishing with independent guides).
He estimates that guests at all-inclusive lodges fish for six days on average, and fishermen using independent guides
spend an average of 3.5 days fishing (Fedler 2008). We researched lodge prices and estimated an average price of
$461 per night per person at a fishing lodge. Experts at BTB confirmed that it is reasonable to assume that 50% of
an all-inclusive rate goes toward accommodation, so we count $230.50 per day as the price of fishing at a lodge, and
subtract out the remainder to avoid double counting the accommodation portion. Prices for fishing with independent
guides are estimated at $167 per person, per day, assuming an average of 1.8 anglers per boat, at $300 per boat. To
estimate the number of "party boat" fishermen that visit Belize in addition to the serious anglers, we take (90%) x
(9%) x (total visitors in 2007 (251,656)) and subtract the Big Three fishermen counted above. This cuts the VEMS
estimate of visitors that fish almost in half, to 9 percent. We estimate an average of five people per "party boat" and
an average trip price of $250, or $50 a head. All of these figures are included in Table 6 below.

The greatest amount of uncertainty in this estimate is around a) the number of fishermen who come to the country in
a given year, and b) the number who participate in each type of fishing. Local experts suggested that Fedler's
estimate of Big Three anglers is very conservative and we could easily assume that a higher number of serious
fishermen visit Belize each year. Based on information on the number of guides and local expert opinion we use 25
percent higher visitation by Big Three anglers, as well as a slightly higher number of sport fishermen overall (12%
of visitors or 75% of the VEMS results) as the high estimate of sport fishermen. As was done above, we assume the
less serious fishermen engage in one day of fishing with a larger party. We do not subtract GST from the
recreational fishing totals, since research suggested that the majority of fishing guides do not include tax in their

10 Fedler looks at total spending by sport fishermen, including accommodation and other spending by anglers on days they are not
fishing. We capture some of this spending (if it is reef related) in our separate accommodation and 'other spending' categories.
S' The number of people coming to sport fish likely fluctuates with the time of year, and it is possible that the survey results were
collected during the high season for some of the target species in Belize, skewing the numbers slightly high.


Appendix 1







Coastal Capital: Belize


advertised rates; we also normalize lodge prices at "before GST". We estimate that revenues from sport fishing in
Belize fall between $7.2 and $8.5 million per year.


Table A6: Revenue from recreational fishing in 2007

# Big 3 anglers / year 7,261 9,125
# Anglers using independents 4,804 5,900
Avg. # days fishing pp 3.5 3.5
Avg. price pp / day $167 $167
Revenue from independents $2,807,938 $3,441,667
# Anglers at all-inclusives 2,457 3,225
Avg. # days fishing pp 6 6
Avg. price pp / day $429 $429
Revenue from all-inclusives $7,378,371 $8,301,150
Fishing portion of all-
inclusive revenue $3,689,186 $4,150,575
# Visitors who do other reef-
based fishing 13,123 18,054
Avg. # anglers / boat 5 5
Avg. # trips taken pp 1 1

Avg. price per party boat trip $250 $250
Revenue from party boats $769,402 $1,083,885
Total Revenue (USD) $7,153,280 $8,494,934



Other Spending by Tourists Using Reefs and Mangroves


In addition to direct spending on reef and mangrove recreation, our methodology counts other spending by tourists
on days they are using these resources as revenues that stem from the presence of healthy reefs and mangroves.
To estimate "other spending", we rely upon expert opinion on the percent of total spending that the average tourist
puts toward accommodation versus everything else (food, transport, entertainment). We estimate that 40 percent of
tourist spending goes to accommodation, and work backwards to estimate $77.5 to $101.5 million in non-
accommodation spending, including taxes.12 We subtract out spending on reef and mangrove recreation to arrive at a
range of $31.8 to $44.7 million in "other spending" by reef- and mangrove-related tourists in 2007, with an
additional $3.2 to $4.5 million in GST.



Cruise Tourism

BTB conducts exit surveys of cruise passengers, and has a very good record of cruise visitor activities. We use their
survey results from 2007, which cover almost all cruise visitors from that year (BTB 2007b). Using percent
participation from that study, we scale up the estimates just slightly to cover the total number of cruise visitors in
2007 (see Table 7). To estimate revenues from reef- and mangrove-related cruise tourism, we researched average
prices charged to cruise tourists for each of these activities. To keep things simple, we assume that most of these
activities include tax in the advertised price. Using participation and price, we arrive at estimated revenues of $5.1
million from coastal and marine recreation by cruise tourists. Because there is some uncertainty around the number

12 To avoid double counting, we subtract spending on liveaboards from this total before calculating Other Spending (most of the
expenses of liveaboard tourists are likely included in trip prices).


Appendix 1







Coastal Capital: Belize


of cruise participants and the prices over the course of a year, we varied the final revenue estimate by +/- 10 percent,
producing a range of US$4.6 to $5.7 million per year.


Snorkeling .8 N% 36,0U2 $65.00 $2,343,380 $2,130,346 $213,03U
Diving 2.6 % $143.00 $2,325,973 $2,114,521 $211,452
Kayaking 0.2% $55.70 $55,952 $50,865 $5,078
Water-based wildlife
(incl. dolphins) 1.3 % 8,083 $60.50 $489,019 $444,562 $44,456
Fishing 0.3 % 2,140 $206.11 $441,120 $401,018 $40,102
Reef & mangrove
total 10.2 % 63,545 $5,846,079 $5,141,312 $514,131


Taxes and Service Charaes


For the purposes of this analysis, we consider taxes on reef- and mangrove-based tourism to be a benefit to the
economy and the country of Belize. Taxes have been deducted from gross revenue where necessary in the sectors
above, but we add them back into the estimate of total economic contribution.

In estimating taxes and service charges associated with reef- and mangrove-based tourism, we only consider taxes
on direct spending by tourists. To keep the analysis relatively simple and consistent between study countries, we
have limited the scope to sales and departure taxes. Although there is not complete consistency within the different
industries, we had to make a general assumption for each industry as to whether taxes and service charges are
generally included in published rates. For the accommodation sector, we assume that taxes are not included in the
advertised rate for the majority of hotels. We calculate taxes collected through Belize's nine percent hotel tax, as
well as a 10 percent service charge for 15 percent of the rooms (not all hotels add a service charge, so this is a
conservative estimate of the total number of rooms at hotels that do add a charge). For all other spending by
tourists, including most spending on reef recreation, we conservatively assume that the 10 percent General Sales Tax
is included in the advertised rates (sport fishing is the exception). We subtract the 10 percent tax from all of the
revenues calculated for reef recreation and other tourist spending, and count those tax revenues here. We also count
MPA fees as revenue that benefits the country. Finally, we count departure taxes from all overnight visitors who
spend at least a portion of their time using the reef. For all of these totals, please see Table 8 below.

For cruise tourists, we count both the GST from reef recreation and $3.00 of the $7.00 per head cruise tax as benefits
to the economy (we do not count the $4.00 that go to the cruise line-owned tourist village (CESD 2006:30)).


Table A8: Taxes on Coastal & Marine Tourism (all figures in USD)
Low Estimate High Estimate
Accommodation (hotel tax) $4,268,790 $5,575,877
Accommodation (service charges) $700,164 $918,012
Reef Recreation $3,730,115 $4,623,833
MPA fees $1,244,514 $1,244,514
Other tourist Spending $3,180,604 $4,467,185
Cruise Reef Recreation $462,718 $565,544
Portion of the Cruise Head Tax $171,572 $209,699
Departure Tax $5,826,466 $5,826,466
TOTAL $19,584,943 $23,431,130


Appendix 1







Coastal Capital: Belize


Total Direct Impact

The direct economic impact of reef- and mangrove-related tourism and recreation is estimated at US$149.8 $195.7
million per year (See Table 9, below).

Table A9: Reef- and Mangrove-Based Tourism and Recreation: Direct Economic Impact (USD)

Reef- and mangrove-associated accommodation $ 56.3 75.4 million
Reef- and mangrove-associated recreation $ 37.5 46.5 million
Other spending by reef- and mangrove-associated tourists $ 31.8 44.7 million
Spending by reef- and mangrove-associated cruise tourists $ 4.6 5.7 million
Taxes and service charges $ 19.6 23.4 million
Total Direct Impact (revenues + taxes and service charges)* $149.8 195.7 million
*Totals may not sum correctly due to rounding

Indirect Impacts

In addition to direct benefits in the tourism sector, there are benefits to the wider economy from spending by reef-
and mangrove-associated visitors. For example, food purchased by visitors may be sourced from local farmers; fuel
used for transportation is purchased from local fuel distributors, etc. The most common way to estimate the
magnitude of these indirect or secondary impacts to use a multiplier. A multiplier of 1.6, for example, represents 60
cents of additional impact for every $1 in direct tourist expenditure. The size of the multiplier is influenced by the
portion of goods and services required by tourism operators that is produced domestically, such as linen, beverages,
food, dive equipment, construction materials, etc.

We were not able to find either a general economy or sector-specific multipliers published for Belize, and instead
relied upon rough multipliers used in the recent literature.3 Because of the large amount of uncertainty in creating
and applying multipliers as well as the lack of a reliable multiplier for Belize, we chose to go with a very
conservative multiplier, and may underestimate indirect impacts considerably. We applied a multiplier of 1.2 to 1.4
to total reef- and mangrove-related tourist expenditure in Belize to arrive at a range of US$26.1 to $68.9 million per
year in indirect economic impacts.


Table A10: Total Economic Impact of Reef- and Mangrove- Related Tourism (USD)
Total Direct Impact $149.8 195.7 million
Total Indirect Impact $26.1 68.9 million
Total Impact (Dir. & Indirect) $175.9 264.6 million


13 Fedler 2008 uses a tourism multiplier of 1.22; 1.8 was cited by local experts as a general economy multiplier that has been used
in the past, but we were not able to find documented evidence.


Appendix 1







Coastal Capital: Belize


Appendix 1B: Technical Notes and Data Sources Commercial Fisheries

Belize's commercial fisheries sector is dominated by small-scale artisanal fishers, and is entirely dependent upon
reef- and mangrove-related species. The fisheries department does not systematically collect catch or landings data
for the country at this time. The best available catch information comes from the Fishermen's Cooperatives. The Co-
ops provide data to the Fisheries Department on total catch, total exports, and total export revenue by major fish
type. Using this information as a starting point, we divided the fisheries sector into three categories (1) exports
through cooperatives, (2) local sales through cooperatives, and (3) all other local sales (further divisible into local
market sales and direct sales to hotels and restaurants). Export sales are the biggest source of revenue for the
fisheries industry. We expect that the Co-op data on exports and local sales are relatively good, but have little to no
information on local sales outside of the cooperatives.

Co-op Sales Revenues

Using data provided by the fisheries department, we divided Co-op sales into exports and domestic sales. Export
revenues were reported at $11.2 million for 2007. Using a rough estimate of average local sale price per pound
(broken down by lobster, conch, finfish) we estimated total revenues from domestic Co-op sales at $1 million. Total
Co-op sales (local and export) for 2007 are estimated at $12.2 million (see Table 1). This total includes the value
added from any processing done at the cooperative plants. It was difficult to accurately separate out production and
processing revenues in Belize, so the two are presented together as total revenue.


Lobster tails 462,152 440,080 95.2% $8,531,400 22,072 $8.75 $193,130 $8,724,530
Lobster meat 41,294 23,450 56.8% $84,600 17,844 $3.75 $66,915 $151,515
Conch 480,154 429,650 89.5% $2,259,750 50,504 $5.00 $252,520 $2,512,270
Conch fillet 83,468 54,300 65.1% $325,800 29,168 $5.00 $145,840 $471,640
Shrimp 26,351 750 2.8% $3,000 25,601 $3.75 $96,004 $99,004
Salted fish 13,500 13,500 100.0% $8,438 0 $0 $8,438
Crab claws 2,360 2,360 100.0% $21,505 0 $0 $21,505
Whole fish 9,534 0.0% $0 9,534 $1.50 $14,301 $14,301
Fish fillet 59,587 2,000 3.4% $10,000 57,587 $4.00 $230,348 $240,348
Total 1,178,400 966,090 82.0% $11,244,493 212,310 $999,058 $12,243,550
a: Source: Belize Fisheries Department, 2008.
b: source: WRI /WWF primary research

Local Sales Revenues

The Fisheries Department has begun to collect data at local markets and may look at restaurant and hotel sales in the
future-these data will be critical for getting an accurate picture of total catch in Belize. In the meantime, we have
looked to several different sources to come up with a plausible estimate for local sales. Using several different
surveys of fishermen as well as expert opinion, we estimate that, averaged across the country, fishermen sell 15% of
lobster, 5% of conch, and 95% of the finfish they catch to buyers outside of cooperatives (i.e. to local markets,
restaurants, etc.). Using these percentages, we worked backwards from total Co-op production to estimate local sales
(see Table 2). We used an average local sale price (see Table 1 above) to estimate total revenue from these sales, but
did not have enough information to break down revenue estimates by destination (markets, restaurants, etc.). Local
experts suggested that the price of fish varies over the course of the year, but does not vary widely between these
different sale destinations. Hence, we felt reasonably comfortable estimating local sales at this aggregated level.
Finally, we value fish given to family and friends using the local market price, since these can be considered an in-
kind substitute for a local purchase.


Appendix 1







Coastal Capital: Belize


Table B2: Local Fish Sales, 2007



Total Lobster* 503,446 85% 88,843 $599,693
Total Conch 563,622 95% 29,664 $148,322
Total Finfish 69,121 5% 1,313,299 $1,969,949
Subtotal 1,136,189 1,431,807$ S2,717,963
*We did not have information on the breakdown of local tail / head meat sales for lobster; we assume 40% head meat and 60%
tail meat sold, which we hope to be a conservative breakdown (tails are more expensive). Much more tail meat is exported.

Total local sales for 2007 are estimated at $2.7 million. Given the many uncertainties in this calculation, this should
be considered a very rough estimate. Varying estimated local catch by + / 30 percent, we arrive at a range of $1.9
to $3.5 million in local (non Co-op) sales. Total fisheries revenue for 2007 is estimated at US$14.1 to $15.8 million.



Fish cleaning

Fish cleaning plays a very small role in the fisheries industry, as most local fish is sold unprocessed, or is processed
by the fishermen for a minimal fee. Industrial processing for export is captured in the export figures, above. We
surveyed fish cleaners at four of the major landing sites in Belize to get an idea of the number of people who work at
the sites cleaning fish and their average earnings. There are eleven landing sites across Belize, with an average of
three cleaners per site. Work days range from 3 10 hours per day, and cleaners earn an average of BZ$4.17 per
hour. We used this information to estimate that local fish cleaning brings in about BZ$200,000 or US$100,000 per
year. This estimate is sensitive to assumptions about time spent by cleaners and prices charged, which may vary
over the course of the year. We varied the estimate by +/- 20 percent to arrive at a range of US$80,000 to $120,000
in revenues from local fish cleaning per year.



Total Direct Impact

We estimate total annual revenues from the fisheries industry (production and processing) at between US$14.2 and
$15.8 million. Of this total, $11.2 million comes from exports, and the remainder from in-country sales through Co-
ops, local markets, restaurants, etc.



Indirect Impact

Indirect impacts for the fisheries sector are calculated by applying a multiplier range of 1.2 to 1.4 to gross revenues
from commercial fishing and cleaning (for a full discussion of multipliers and indirect impacts, see the section under
Tourism, above). We estimate a range of $2.8 to $6.3 million in indirect economic impacts from reef and mangrove
associated fisheries in 2007.

The total economic impact (direct and indirect) of reef- and mangrove-associated fisheries is estimated at US$17.0
to $22.2 million for 2007.


Appendix 1







Coastal Capital: Belize


Appendix 1C: Technical Notes and Data Sources Shoreline Protection

1) Vulnerable Lands.

a. Storm Surge and Wave Heights: Modeled storm data for the 25 year storm event came from:
Organization of American States (OAS). 2002. Atlas of Probable Storm Effects in the Caribbean Sea.
(Online at: http://www.oas.org/CDMP/document/reglstrm/index.htm.)


Location Modeled Wave Modeled Strom Combined total
Height (m) (Surge (m) (m)
San Pedro 4.2 0.6 4.8
Belize City 4.1 1.0 5.1
Dangriga 4.0 1.1 5.1
Punta Gorda 3.1 1.3 4.4


Based on these storm surge and wave height estimates, we elected to use a 5 m elevation as the threshold for
defining vulnerable land (within 1 km of the coast).

b. Coastline. The coastline was derived from a data set provided by SERVIR reflecting the Exclusive
Economic Zone (EEZ) for Belize.
c. Elevation. Elevation is based on NASA's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 90m DEM,
which includes errors from roofs and tree tops. To address these errors, the DEM was corrected to be
less than 5 m in areas where mangroves are identified as present or where the error appears to be
caused by tops of buildings in urbanized areas.

2) Protection by Reefs and Mangroves
a. Coral Reefs. The Coral Reef map is from the Belize Coastal Data CD (WRI, 2005) and is based on
data from the Belize Tropical Forest Studies (BTFS) Ecosystem Map (-" '14), and data from the
Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) and the Belize Coastal Zone Management Authority and
Institute (CZMAI).

b. Mangroves. Data on mangroves from three sources were used in this analysis:
a) Unpublished data from the Belize Forestry Department (FD) (2008), which updates their
1992 map of mangroves; (this data set did not include Turneffe Atoll).
b) Emil Cherrington (SERVIR) developed a map of change in mangrove extent using
LANDSAT imagery and the 1990 mangrove map by Zeisman as a base;
c) Lola Fatoyinbo (WRI) mapping of mangroves from 2000 / 2002 LANDSAT imagery.
The data from the Forestry Department was used as the base, with areas of disagreement between the FD and
Cherrington data resolved using the WRI data set. Data from WRI were also used to fill in mangrove data for
Turneffe.

There were slight registration issues between the mangrove and shoreline data sets (so mangroves do not reach
the coast in many areas). To compensate for this issue, a 50 m distance threshold was used to identify shoreline
(the line) protected by mangroves. (In Turneffe, this distance was reduced to 20 m, as the WRI data were well
registered to the coast).

3) Relative Shoreline Stability (7 of 9 factors were implemented). The relative stability (resistance to erosion)
of each shoreline segment is evaluated based on the integration of up to nine physical factors. For Belize, data
were available for seven of the nine factors which influence the relative stability of the shoreline: coastal
geomorphology, geology, coastal protection by structures (atolls or sea walls), the coral reef index (reef
proximity, type and continuity), hurricane frequency, coastal elevation, and coastal vegetation. Data were not
available for wave energy or presence of damaging activities, such as sand mining Each individual factor can
range in value from 0 to 4 (with 4 being the highest stability). The nine factors and their associated values are
provided in Table 13.


Appendix 1








Coastal Capital: Belize


Factor 1 Coastal Geology classes are based on the Geology of Belize from Selva Maya -
a) 1 Alluvial geology was assigned as Class 1 Unconsolidated sediments;
b) 2 Limestone and sedimentary geology was assigned Class 2 Sedimentary.

Factor 2 Coastal Geomorphology This factor is a combination of geomorphology classes from Selva
Maya, combined with the Mangrove dataset described above. Areas mapped as mangrove take precedence.
a) 1 If alluvial and not mangrove, it is classed as a beach
b) 2 Current mangroves
c) 3 if limestone or sedimentary and not mangrove, it is classed as limestone bluff
d) 4 Areas where there is sea wall (Belize City only).

Factor 3 Coastal Protection by Atolls We developed a proxy indicator of fetch as input to classify the
coast as to level of protection by land, islands, atolls, and other emergent reef.
a) Fetch was derived at 300 m. resolution for 3 directions due West, NW and SW. This was done both
for land alone and land and emergent reef;
b) These two layers were combined with a weighting of 2X for land and 1 X for land and emergent reef
(as land offers more protection).
c) The results were split into five rough quintiles, of up to 350, 700, 1050, 1500, and over 1500 cells),
which were assigned to the 5 factor categories). (See Figure 1 below the reef blocks some energy,
but land is a greater barrier). Results for atolls in Belize are similar to the map of wave exposure from
Burke, 1982 (Figure 2).


Figure 1: Modeled Fetch (WRI 2008)


Figure 2: Map of Belize showing wave
exposure regimes (modified from Burke 1982)

I MEXICO


4 Kr




~A


7dA


I,,





WIND


nuary JuWy


Sea Level Reef
Zapotilla "i,,i High Spur and Groave Features
Coys Clol Framework Ridge
--- 74 5' Mean Wove Direction
Unimpeded Wave Force
\' Modified Wave Force
|\\\\ Maximum Impedence of Wove Force


Factor 4- Coral Reef Index. The reef index was modified for Belize at a workshop held at CZMAI in March
2008. Using that revised methodology, shoreline segments which are "protected by coral reef' were classified
as to the closest reef's distance offshore, reef type and the continuity of reef protecting that segment of coast:

1. Reefs were classified by type -
o Emergent Barrier Reef (4)


Atoll Shadow
BzJandjdy.shp
Atdl_emerg3

1150 1500
1500-1973
S No Data


Appendix 1


',.r'








Appendix 1


Coastal Capital: Belize


o Emergent Reef on Windward side of Atoll (4)
o Fringing Reef or reef on Leeward side of Atoll (3)
o Patch Reef (2)
2. Reefs were classified by Continuity -
o Continuous (2)
o Discontinuous (1)
3. Distance offshore (thresholds selected based on Nomogram below).
o within 250m (4.0)
o 250 500m (3.5)
o 500- 1000m (3.0)
o 1 2 km (2.5)
o 2-4 km(2.0) 4-8 km (1.5)
o 8-16 km (1.0) and
o Over 16 km offshore (0.5)

The Reef Index was calculated by taking the Sum of three individual factors / maximum-possible (10) 4 (for
scaling). The reef index ranges from 1.4 to 4.0.



Figure 3 Wind, Fetch, Wave Relationship (Nomogram from Chris Houser, Texas A&M)

10000
--40 knots
--60 knots
9000
65 knots
70 knots
8000 ---80 knots
--100 knots
70 00

S60 00

5000

S4000
0000 h po0nt r s a d e gy whih s14
propoona t the square of wave height Use
3000 ------------- -- Histo tr s e from Stch CARIB (http://stocabequ.c ) were use

20 00 reef environment forthat wave hght F or example at 60
w ao t wud t fetch length of 6 6 km or larger to






pa 2 m wa3 every 25 years;ve
1 00 m idd a A teati i vely a fetch ength of 30 km provides protect on
- - - - - -from waves >6 m at wind speed, f 80 k ts

000 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400
Significant Wave Height (m)



Factor 5 Storm Factor Historic storm trcks come from StormCARIB (http://stormcarib.com/) were used
to look at frequency of different categories of hurricane event. A storm intensity surface was developed. Belize
was split into two categories -
a. The north of Belize (Belize City Latitude and North) was assigned a 2 affected by at least a category
3 every 25 years;
b. The middle and south of Belize were assigned a 3 affected by at least a category 2 every 25 years.



Factor 6 Coastal Elevation This factor is derived from the 90m SRTM DEM from NASA. As described
previously, there are errors in this DEM associated with treetops and buildings. I used the same corrections (for
mangroves and for cities) as was used in developing the Vulnerability layer. If an area showed as > 5 m in the
DEM in a mangrove or urban area, it was reclassed to 2 (2 to 5 m).







Coastal Capital: Belize


The shoreline was classified as follows.
Class Description Sq Km
1 0-1 m 699 39%
2 2-5 m 1,041 58%
3 6-12 m 46 3%
4 over 12 m 17 1%


Factor 7 Coastal Vegetation was based on Belize Ecosystems 2004 (BTFS), updated with more recent
mangrove maps (described above). Areas which are no longer mangrove were reclassed as 1.9 (the average
value for non-mangrove areas in the shoreline).


Two factors were not included in the Shoreline Stability Analysis -
o A mapping of anthropogenic activities (such as sand mining) was not available;
o Wave energy -was not available.
o We had hoped to use modeled wave heights from Belize Hydromet, but these are not available.
o Will Heyman of Texas A&M University has measurements inside and outside the reef for one
location, which shows significant reduction in wave energy inside the reef.


We conducted an exploratory analysis to produce an
estimate of maximum possible wave height for a 60
knot wind, based on the nanogram provided by Chris
Houser. Figure 4 demonstrates this analysis for
Belize We incorporate land and emergent reefs as
barriers, then calculate fetch behind these features.
Using the nanogram, fetch can be translated into
maximum wave height for a given wind speed an
duration (see Figure 3). Using this technique, we
estimate that a 60 knot wind can generate waves
reaching about 3 m inside the reef. This wave height
estimate was not included in the analysis.


Figure 4: Modeled Wave Height

Estiamted Wave Ht (m) for 60 kt wind


5) Property Values

The values below reflect average values for land and built structures (when present) from 2007-08
gathered through internet searches.


wausao ~i
8:
la
I


Appendix 1







Appendix 1


Coastal Capital: Belize


Table C1 Average Property Values by Locale
Coastal properties Inland properties
PLACE_NAME (US$ per sq ft) (US$ per sq ft)
Ambergris Caye $14 $7
Belize City $15 $7
Caye Caulker $16 $8
Corozal $2 $1
Dangriga / Hopkins $9 $4
Other Developed Coast $4 $2
Other Cayes $3 $2
P.G. $4 $2
Placencia $15 $7
San Pedro $22 $12







Appendix 1


Table C2 Coastal Protection Factors
Source: Institute of Marine Affairs (IMA) and WRI, adapted for Belize


Coastal Capital: Belize


Level Of Coastal Protection
Very High High Medium Low None
Factor 4 3 2 1 0

Coastal Geomorphology Rocky, Cliffed Coastline Soft (Limestone) Cliffs or Mangroves Beaches N/A
Or Low Bluffs
Sea Wall

Coastal Geology
Igneous and/or Volcanic Metamorphic Sedimentary Unconsolidated Sediments N/A


Coastal Protection Structures
Significantly protected by a Protected by atoll, or by Slightly protected by atoll Protected by one or two No protection by atoll or
large atoll or 2 prominent headlands small headlands headlands
headlands
Coral Reef Index (sum of 3 factors/ 10 *4)
Emergent Reef (barrier or Fringing and Leeward side Patch No reef present
Reef Type windward side of atoll) of atoll

Reef Distribution
Continuous Discontinuous No reef present
Reef Distance Offshore (m) < 250 m 250 500m .5 1 km 1 2 km 2 4 km 4- 8 km 8 16 km km > km No reef present

Wave Energy (~ Max. Wave Height)
< 25 cm 25-50 cm 50- 100 cm 1-2m >2m


Storm/Hurricane Events 2 or more category 3 or
Affected by at least a Affected by at least a Affected by at least a hher expectedeery N/A
category 1 every 25 years category 2 every 25 years category 3 every 25 years highr e d y 25 N
years
Coastal Elevation (m)
CoastalElevation ) >12 6-12 2-5 0-1 <0(N/A)**


Coastal Vegetation )
Type Mangroves Forest / Coastal Shrub and Thicket Savannah and Wetlands None
Woodlands

Coastal Anthropogenic Activities N/A
No sand mining, coastal Misc. Other Activities Either sand mining or Sand mining and coastal
development, etc. coastal development development







Appendix 2 Coastal Capital: Belize


Appendix 2: Technical Notes and Data Sources for Economic Valuation of
Glover's Reef


A. Tourism and Recreation

The value of reef-related tourism in GRMR is assessed using a similar method to the one applied at the national
level. This approach involves calculating gross revenues and taxes from tourism associated with the reserve,
including reef recreation, coralline beach use, and spending on accommodation, food, and other things on days that a
tourist has visited the reserve. For most Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in Belize, we can assume that all tourists
visiting a reserve are utilizing coral reefs or mangroves during their visit, either snorkeling, diving, or fishing, or by
sitting on a coralline beach. In the case of Glover's Reef, visitors stay on a coral atoll, and all tourism can safely be
counted as "reef-associated.". In addition, Glovers attracts a high percentage of tourists who are avid divers and
likely to be interested in and respond to the condition of the reef.

Accommodation

To calculate accommodation revenues associated with the MPA, we need both an estimate of the number of visitors
to the reserve each year, and a rough breakdown of where they spend the night on the days that they visit. In Hol
Chan, for example, rangers estimate that 77 percent of visitors to the reserve come with tour operators from San
Pedro, and 22 percent from Caye Caulker. Glover's Reef has five active resorts within the reserve, and gets day trip
visitors from Hopkins and Dangriga on the mainland.14 In addition, at least 40 chartered yachts visit the reserve each
year, bringing divers who come specifically to dive its protected coral reefs (Reserve Manager's estimate).

It should be possible to get a breakdown of day-trip and week-long visitors to the reserve, since the fee level is
different for these two groups. However, this information was not available for 2006 or 2007 at the time of this
report. We use the rough occupancy rate estimates from the Glover's Reef Marine Reserve Management Plan
(Wildtracks / Wildlife Conservation Society 2007:57) to estimate that approximately 3,200 visitors stay at resorts
inside the reserve each year, spending an average of 6.5 night.15 Many of the hotels inside the reserve sell their
rooms as part of all-inclusive packages that include diving, snorkeling, and other reef-related activities. No separate
estimate of reef recreation levels inside the reserve is available, so we use average per-person package rates to
estimate revenues for the all-inclusive hotels, and attempt to estimate all remaining reef recreation activities
separately (see below). Including these all-inclusive packages, we estimate that the accommodation sector inside
Glover's Reef Marine Reserve earns approximately US$2.9 to $4.3 million per year.16 Using estimates from the
WCS Socioeconomic Monitoring Surveys in 2005 and 2006 (discussed in Reef Recreation, below), we estimate that
an additional 3,500 5,300 day-trip visitors come to the reserve each year from Hopkins and Dangriga. We count
one night of accommodation revenue for each day-trip visitor to the reserve; using 2007 room rates for these areas,
we estimate that day-trip visitors spend an estimated US$2' ""; $349,000 on accommodation for days associated
with the reserve.1

No formal tally is kept of the number of yachts that visit the reserve each year. To account for some of this
uncertainty, we vary the reserve manager's estimate of 411 \ lusi by + / 20 percent. We estimate that each boat
spends an average of 1.5 days in the reserve. Using the average price per day of chartering a yacht in the area
($853), we estimate total MPA-associated revenues from yachts at between US$41,000 and US$61,000 per year.


14 Placencia can probably be added to this list for 2008- onward, but this analysis looks only at tourism activities in 2007.
5 According to the management plan, there are 120 beds in the five hotels inside the reserve (Wildtracks / WCS 2007:65). The
average occupancy rate is estimated to be 50% for four of the properties; we estimate a more conservative 35% for Glover's Reef
Atoll Resort. The occupancy rate for all rooms in the reserve comes to approximately 44% overall, which is consistent with the
Belize Tourism Board's published occupancy rate statistics for small offshore islands in Belize (44.6 percent in 2007).
16We calculate revenues for Glovers Reef Atoll Resort separately from the other resorts, rather than doing a straight average,
since the resort's room and occupancy rates were outliers for hotels inside the reserve (and were not all-inclusive).
17 We used nightly rates (not all-inclusive package rates) for all mainland hotels, including the bigger resorts, and calculated day-
trip reef recreation separately, because some information on these activities was available.







Appendix 2 Coastal Capital: Belize


ReefRecreation

Very little information is available on the amount of reef recreation that occurs on Glover's Reef. We were able to
produce a very rough estimate of participation in reef-related activities, including diving, snorkeling, sport fishing,
and kayaking by day trip visitors using the results of interviews with tour operators in Gibson et al. 2005 and 2006.
The surveys asked tour guides in these areas the number of trips they make to the reserve in a year, and the average
number of tourists per boat. The responses provide a rough picture of reef recreation in the MPA, but the answers
are subjective, and the studies were not designed to be comprehensive. It is unclear to what extent visitors from
resorts such as Jaguar Reef and Hamanasi are covered in the study, for example. To take some of this uncertainty
into account, we vary the reef recreation volume estimates by +/- 20 percent to arrive at a range of 3,546 to 5,319
day-trip visitors to Glover's Reef in 2007. According to the surveys, 56 percent of day-trip visitors are divers, 38
percent are snorkelers, and the remaining five to six percent are sport fishermen.

Estimating the number of dive and snorkel trips sold inside the reserve is complicated by the fact that many of the
hotels on the atoll offer dive packages. The average room rates used in the accommodation estimates, above, take
these package rates into account. As a result, revenues from most reef recreation activities inside the reserve are
counted as accommodation revenue.18 Information on the actual number of dive and snorkel trips taken at these
resorts was not available. We worked with local experts to estimate the remainder of reef recreation inside the
reserve (i.e. dives, snorkel trips, and kayak trips taken by guests at the non-all-inclusive hotels, such as Glover's
Reef Atoll Resort). We conservatively estimate that between 1,400 and 2,148 dive trips, 600 900 snorkel trips, and
550 820 kayak rentals are sold outside of packages to guests inside the reserve each year19. After subtracting out
taxes, total revenues from day-trip and MPA overnight guest reef recreation are estimated at approximately
US$390,000 $587,000 per year. As mentioned above, this excludes all reef recreation sold through all-inclusive
packages. For further detail, see Table 1, below. These estimates are extremely rough, and should be considered
'placeholders' until better reef-use data are available in future.

Table 1: Reef Recreation in Glover's Reef Atoll
Reef Recreation Activity Revenues (USD)
Diving
Day Trips $233,998 $350,997
MPA overnight guests (excluding all-inclusive
packages) $68,736 $103,104
Equipment rental $16,921 $25,382
Snorkeling
Day Trips $63,451 $95,162
MPA overnight guests (excluding all-inclusive
packages) $12,336 $18,504
Sport Fishing
Day Trips $32,054 $48,082
MPA overnight guests (excluding all-inclusive
packages) unknown
Kayaking (MPA overnight guests only) $2,739 $4,109

TOTAL Reef Recreation Revenue associated with the MPA $430,235 $645,339
TOTAL Reef Recreation Revenue minus taxes $391,123 $586,671

Other Spending


18Note: This is a departure from our approach at the national level, where BTB reports accommodation only room rates for all
hotels (all reef recreation activities are counted separately). If this valuation is repeated in future, especially with improved data,
it may be worth separating out the "activity" portion of the package rates and moving these revenue estimates into the recreation
section, providing a more accurate picture of the accommodation / recreation breakdown for the reserve.
19 This estimate of "dives sold" takes into account the fact that most guests dive or snorkel more than once during their one week
stay.







Appendix 2 Coastal Capital: Belize



In addition to accommodation expenses from days that tourists visit the MPA, we also estimate other tourist
expenditures (on food, transportation, etc. ) for days associated with the reserve. Because most of the resorts inside
GRMR are all-inclusives, we only estimate "other spending" for the day-trip visitors. We did not have specific
information on tourist spending in Dangriga and Hopkins, so we use the assumption from the national valuation that
40 percent of tourist spending, on average, goes toward accommodation. After subtracting reef recreation from the
remaining 60 percent of total spending, we estimate that MPA-associated tourists spend approximately US$37,000 -
$56,000 per year on other expenses.

Taxes and Fees

For this study, we estimate tax revenues generated through the hotel tax and the general sales tax (GST) only. We
also include MPA fees in this section. Future assessments may wish to expand this to include other taxes and fees.
Accommodation associated with Glovers Reef brought in US$280,000 $420,000 in tax revenues in 2007. We
assume that most hotels add the nine percent hotel tax on top of their advertised room rate. Reef recreation
associated with the reserve brought an additional US$39,000 $59,000 in GST. Other spending by day-trip tourists
contributed $3,700 $5,600 more in tax revenue. We assume that most business and tour operators do include sales
tax in their advertised rates, and subtract GST from gross revenues before counting it here. GRMR collected
US$21,630 in MPA fees in 2006. We would prefer to include 2007 numbers, but they remain unreleased as of the
writing of this report.

Total taxes and fees associated with the MPA are estimated at roughly US$345,000 $507,000 per year.

Tourism & Recreation Total

The total direct economic contribution of reef and mangrove-associated tourism in the Glover's Reef Marine
Reserve is estimated at US$3.9 $5.9 million per year. As was the case in the national level valuation (p. 12), we
can also produce a rough estimate of the indirect economic impact of tourism and recreation in GRMR (i.e. the
benefits to domestic industries that support the coastal tourism in Belize). We use a multiplier range of 1.2 1.4 to
estimate that Glover's Reef contributes an additional US$0.7 to $2.2 million in indirect economic impacts to Belize.

Table 2: Tourism and Recreation Revenues Associated with Glover's Reef Marine Reserve


MPA-associated accommodation US$3.2 $4.7 million
MPA-associated recreation US$0.4 $0.6 million
Other spending on MPA-associated days US$.04 $.06 million
Taxes and Fees US$0.3 $0.5 million
Total Direct Impact US$3.9 $5.9 million
Total Indirect Impact US$0.7 $2.2 million


Data Limitations

Reef recreation numbers could be improved through a number of different record-keeping measures. Ideally, rangers
should be in place to monitor use of the reserve, including the number of divers and snorkelers brought into the
MPA each day. In such a large reserve, this does not appear to be realistic at current staffing levels. Requiring better
reporting from tour operators and hotels outside the reserve, and improving coordination between MPA managers
and resorts inside the reserve could lead to better record-keeping; having rangers visit the resorts once a week to
collect tickets and estimates of diver and snorkeler numbers, for example, could improve both reef recreation
estimates and collection of visitor fees.

If the day-trip and overnight visitation estimates are even roughly accurate, reported visitation (and thus collection
of fees) vastly undercounts actual use of the GRMR. Park visitation for 2007 had still not been reported by end of







Appendix 2 Coastal Capital: Belize


2008, but 2006 numbers show only 4,281 visitors to the reserve. This study estimates total overnight and day-trip
visitation to be between 6,300 and 8,000 people or between 50% and 100% over recorded visitation (likely
somewhere in between these two extremes).



B. Fisheries

Glovers Reef Atoll is an important site for commercial fishing in Belize, with fishermen from Sarteneja, Dangriga,
and Hopkins regularly utilizing the general use zone of the reserve to catch lobster, conch, and finfish. Although
comprehensive landing data for Glover's Reef Atoll is not collected by the government, the Wildlife Conservation
Society (WCS) conducts a fisheries monitoring program (the Fisheries Catch Data Collection Program) to determine
trends in catch and fishing pressure inside the MPA. The WCS program collected data from 230 fishermen between
2004 and 2007. With the help of Dr. Robin Coleman of WCS, we used catch per unit effort data from these surveys
to estimate average annual catch of lobster, conch, and finfish inside the reserve.

A total of 41 boats with approximately 200 crew members visited the reserve in 2007. The number of visits per boat
ranged from one to fifteen, with fishermen from Dangriga and Hopkins typically staying for 1-2 days, and sailboats
from Sarteneja fishing for a week at a time. In total, fishermen logged an estimated 47,000 hours fishing inside the
reserve in 2007 (WCS 2008).

WCS estimates that landings from Glover's Reef (by weight) break down into roughly 20 percent lobster, 75 percent
conch, and 5 percent finfish (Coleman 2008). We use the estimate of total fishing hours (above) and catch per unit
effort by fish type (Table 3) to calculate lobster, conch, and finfish catch associated with the reserve in 2007 (see
Table 3).


Table 3: Catch er Unit Effort and Estimated Total Catch for Glover's Reef b Fish Type a



lobster 1.60 43% 32,178 20%
conch 4.90 52% 119,307 75%
finfish 3.38 5% 7,920 5%
Total 100% 159,406 100%
a Source: Modified by WRI from data provided by WCS 2008


To calculate total revenues, we need to know the proportion of total catch that is sold outside of the Cooperatives at
local prices, and the proportion that is sold to the Cooperatives to be processed and exported overseas. We consulted
local experts to estimate that 85% of lobster, 95% of conch, and 5% of finfish caught in the reserve are sold to the
Cooperatives, with the remainder sold to restaurants, hotels, and markets in the local area. Using national average
fish prices for 2007, we estimate that commercial fisheries in Glover's Reef Atoll earned approximately US$1.2
million in 2007 (see Table 4). We vary the catch estimates by + / 20 percent to estimate a range of US$1.0 to $1.5
million in fisheries revenues per year.


lobster


85%


19.39


15%


8.75


conch 95% $ 5.26 5% $ 5.00 $ 6


5%


finfish
Total


2.50


95%


3.00


1.,


572,441
>26,005
23,563
22,009


5


.1







Coastal Capital: Belize


C. Summary

The total economic contribution of tourism and fisheries associated with Glover's Reef Atoll is estimated at US$4.9
to $7.3 million per year.

Table 5: Tourism and Fishing Revenues Associated with Glover's Reef Marine Reserve
Total Revenues (USD)
MPA-associated accommodation $3,158,243 4,737,344
MPA-associated recreation (outside of all-inclusives) $291,123 $586,671
Other spending on MPA-associated days $37,287 $55,914
Taxes and Fees (including MPA fees) $345,028 $506,722
Total Tourism Value $3,931,680 $5,886,652

Lobster revenue $457,951 $686,926
Conch revenue $500,803 $751,205
Finfish revenue $18,850 $28,276
Total Fisheries Value $977,604 $1,466,407

Total Tourism and Fisheries Value, Glover's Reef $4,909,285 $7,353,058


Appendix 2






WORLD
RESOURCES
INSTITUTE


WWF


World Resources Institute and World Wildlife Fund. 2008. Financial Overview of MPAs in Belize*


Management Total Area (ha) Visitation (#/yr) Fee Level ($BZ/day)
NGO
MPA managers or Is there
Paper Manage- co- Domestic Foreign Domestic Foreign undercounting
Park ment Type managers Land Water (2006) (2006) (2007) (2007) of visitors? Domestic Foreign Other

Caye Bokel Co UB 0 558
Dog Flea Co UB 0 576
25 (special
Gladden Split & Friends of permit)
Silk Cayes Co Nature ?? 10,453 292 4,340 2,836 4,455 No $0 $20 whaleshark
$500-1,000
for
research;
30/wk;
Glover's Reef Gov. (WCS) 42 35,025 4,281 ___yes $20 $20 10/day





Hol Chan Yes between 5-
Hol Chan Unique Trust Fund 92 1,453 3,954 42,771 4,147 52,471 8% $0 $20
Port Honduras Co TIDE 673 39,796 490 545 324 431 yes- by 10% $0 $10
8.00
camping
Sapodilla Cayes Co TASTE 28 15,591 2,226 1,654 Yes by 30% $0 $20 fee
$10.00 for
South Water Caye Gov. (??) 130 47,573 5,663 Yes $0 $10 kayaking



30.00/wk
Bacalar Chico Gov. (GreenReef) 5,185 6,303 952 1,166 Yes 25% 50% $10 for camping
Caye Caulker Co FAMRACC 63 3,911 988 16,211 1,224 18,387 probably some $0 $10


Source: WRI and VWVF 2008.





*Table was completed by MPA Managers using the best available information. WRI has left the figures as they were reported to us.


Management Total Area (ha) Visitation (#/yr) Fee Level ($BZ/day)
NGO
MPA managers or Is there
Paper Manage- co- Domestic Foreign Domestic Foreign undercounting
Park mentType managers Land Water (2006) (2006) (2007) (2007) of visitors? Domestic Foreign Other


Belize Yes by 20% for
Audubon domestic and 3%
Blue Hole (LH) Co Society 0 414 100 9,300 100 9,156 for foreign $0 $60
Corozal Bay x Gov. 0 73,050

Belize Yes by 20% for
Half Moon Caye Audubon domestic and 3% 10.00 for
(LH) Co Society 18 3,936 100 9,500 100 9,405 for foreign $2.50 $20 camping

Friends of
Laughing Bird Co Nature 18 4,077 474 9,427 787 9,221 no $0 $20
Friends of
Swallow
Swallow Caye Co Caye 0 3,631 50 4,800 $2 $10


Caye Glory
Sandbore (I
South Poini


LH)


Gov.
Gov.


I I


was completed by


managers using tne best avalli


ures as tney were reported to us.


Source: WRI and WWF 2008.


I t I I






WORLD
RESOURCES
INSTITUTE


wwF


World Resources Institute and World Wildlife Fund. 2008. Financial Overview of MPAs in Belize*


Revenue from fees (BZ$) Distribution of fee Business Government funding
MPA Estimated Current Targeted Typical level
Gov. of Management Costs Management of gov funding What does this payfor
2005 2006 2007 MPA Belize YIN Year ($BZyr) Costs ($BZ/yr) ($BZ) (fuel? Staff?)

Caye Bokel Y 2008
Dog Flea Y 2008
Gladden Split & (2006) 643,000 ranger, biologist, fuel and
Silk Cayes $183,310 $241,868 $146,298 80% 20% (?) Y 2002 (2007) 500,000 $700,000 (2006) 48,000 administrative costs
Fisheries dept.
supports
management
Glover's Reef $85,620 ____ $200,000 $300,000 (~ $200,000) 4 staff and fuel
40% salaries; 25% fuel;
10% maintenance, boats
and building; 10%
assistance to other
MPA's; 10% upgrade and
purchase of new
Hol Chan $886,675 $893,451 $972,725 equipment; 5% utilities 0% Y 2001 (2007) 700,000 $900,000






40% to contribute fuel for annual conch
Port Honduras $18,459 $15,259 $9,650 60% to TIDE Fisheries Y 2007 (2007) 258,189 $734,980 survey
(2004) 532,000; Fisheries dept.
100% to (2005) 620,000 with supports fisheries dept pays for staff
government 10% increase every current costs + management salaries and fuel for patrols and
Sapodilla Cayes $67,120 $19,500 $23,160 0% MPA fund Y 2005 year after $300,000 (~ $200,000) some monitoring


Fisheries dept. 24,000 for fuel, 87,000 for
South Wtr 100% to supports salaries, 15,000 maintenance,
government management meetings 5,000, research
Caye $43,870 $56,633 MPA fund N $151,000 $200,000 (-~ $200,000) equipment 20,000.



Fisheries dept.
100% to supports
government management fuel, staff salaries, administrative
Bacalar Chico $41,160 $11,670 0% MPA fund Y 2003 (2007) $200,000 $500,000 (~ $200,000) costs, patrols
Fisheries dept.
100% to supports
government management Fuel, salaries for 5 people,
Caye Caulker $162,110 $183,870 MPAfund N $125,900 $212,000 ($125,900) maintenance of boat


Source: WRI and WWF 2008.





*Table was completed by MPA Managers using the best available information. WRI has left the figures as they were reported to us.


Revenue from fees (BZ$) Distribution of fee Business Government funding
MPA Estimated Current Targeted Typical level
Gov. of Management Costs Management of gov funding What does this pay for
2005 2006 2007 MPA Belize Y /N Year (SBZlyr) Costs (SBZlyr) ($BZ) (fuel? Staff?)

on-site management costs,
maintenance, staff salary,
equipment, and supplies for
in drafting unknown at this research and maintenance, staff
Blue Hole (LH) $374,000 $368,700 100% 0% Y stage $219,800 point insurance, structural upgrades
Corozal Bay $0 $o 0%
on-site management costs,
maintenance, staff salary,
equipment, and supplies for
Half Moon Caye in drafting unknown at this research and maintenance, staff
(LH) $374,000 $368,700 100% 0% Y stage $219,800 point insurance, structural upgrades
all fees stay at the park, the fees
are used to manage the park by
Laughing Bird $63,232 $76,619 $186,432 100% 0% Y $2,004 $150,000 $250,000 100% providing fuel, salary


Source: WRI and WWF 2008.






WORLD
RESOURCES
INSTITUTE


VWWF


MPA What aspects of management could the MPA improve with aspirational funding?



Caye Bokel

Dog Flea
continue biophysical support, continue surveillance activities, continue 24 hr ranger presence,
Gladden Split & develop a special enforcement team made up of relevant NGO, and government, enhance all
Silk Cayes monitoring and enforcement equipment

Glover's Reef

Hol Chan
Prevent further degradation of littoral forests, mangroves and associated nursery (LANDSAT
imagery access / aerial surveys equipment with light hawk,involvement of ministerial and political
good will to prevent intensive, Reduce fishing pressure in the PHMR by 30% by eliminating illegal
fishing and illegal fishing methods (refurbishment of existing stations (Abalone Caye erosion
protection measures, electricity, toilet & shower, internet; West Snake Caye implementation), sub-
ranger station at Monkey River, one boat and 2 sets of four stroke engines), development shrimp
farms / big scale developments extend moratorium in mangroves), By 2018, increase commercial
species (conch, lobster, snapper, grouper, parrotfish, shark) levels to viable population levels
(establish monitoring protocol for snappers, groupers and parrotfish; MAP habitats in PHMR
(LANDSAT & ground truthing); stakeholders consultation and advocacy campaigns to increase size
of no take zones & re-evaluate sizes of commercial species (minimum reproductive size, etc)). By
Port Honduras 2010, have nest monitoring and protection in place for 25% of all marine turtle nests.
could improve science program by creating better system to input/extrapulate data (database). More
funding to do training for biologist and managers to analyze and interpret data. More funding could
help boost up the enforcement aspect of the reserve by purchasing better equipment and fuel
Sapodilla Cayes useage. More funds can be used to buy dive gear, compressor, new boat for better management
rangers patrol, and legislation for zoning
South Water Caye


More patrols and enforcement and collection of fees, more systematic monitoring, implement
Bacalar Chico outreach programs
increase enforcement, increase monitoring, more mooring buoys in conservation zone,more
Caye Caulker demarcation buoys in zones, more community outreach programs

funding for new housing, telephone communication, and internet services, monitoring activities such
as water quality testing, and other monitoring. Also for mooring infrastructure, patrolling and
Blue Hole (LH) enforcement

Corozal Bay

Half Moon Caye
continue biophysical support, continue surveillance activities, continue 24 hr ranger presence,
develop a special enforcement team made up of relevant NGO, and government, enhance all
monitoring and enforcement equipment
Laughing Bird

Swallow Caye


Caye Glory

Sandbore (LH)

South Point 53
All information was provided by MPA managers and co-managing organizations in the fall of 2008




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs