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TAPIR CONSERVATION The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group www.tapirs.org ISSN 1813-2286 July 2013
2 Volume 22 No. 30 July 2013 From the Chair 3 Letter from the Chair Patrcia Medici 3 Spotlight 4 The Tapir Research Spotlight Mathias Tobler, Ahimsa Campos-Arceiz 6 Conservation 6 Primer Congreso Latinoamericano de Tapires, Ecuador Andrs Tapia, Fernando Nogales, Ruth Arias, Diego G. Tirira 6 Tapirs in Mexico: researchers working together towards a common goal Georgina OFarrill 8 Fostering International Cooperation for Bairds Tapir Conservation in a Northern Portion of the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor Manolo J. Garcia, Nereyda Estrada, Christopher Jordan 8 Contributions 10 Distribution and conservation status of the Bairds tapir in Panama Ninon Meyer, Ricardo Moreno, Patrick A. Jansen 10 Bairds tapirs Tapirus bairdii in Nicaragua Christopher A. Jordan, Gerald R. Urquhart 14 Nuevo registro de Tapir centroamericano ( Tapirus bairdii ) atropellado en el Noroeste del estado de Campeche, Mxico Fernando M. Contreras-Moreno, Mircea G. Hidalgo-Mihart, Luz A. Prez-Solano, Yanira A. Vzquez-Maldonado, 22 Tapir Specialist Group Members 26 Instructions for Authors 31 Tapir Specialist Group Structure 33 CONTENTS Abbreviation Tapir Cons. ISSN 1813-2286 Website www.tapirs.org Contributions Carl Traeholt (Denmark/Malaysia) Editor E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Layout & Danielle Lalonde (Australia) Distribution Editors Kelly J. Russo (United States) Editorial Board Patrcia Medici E-mail: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org Mathias Tobler (Switzerland/Peru) Anders Gonalves da Silva (Australia) Diego J. Lizcano (Colombia) Matthew Colbert (United States) Budhan Pukazhenthi (United States) Benoit de Thoisy (French Guiana) Stefan Seitz (Germany) Production This issue is kindly sponsored by Houston Zoo Inc., & Distribution Kelly Russo, 1513 North Mac Gregor, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. Cover photo: Medardo Tapia, director of the Centro Ecologico Zanja Arajuno, Ecuador, works to reduce hunting of lowland tapirs. Photo by Hugo Santacruz. The views expressed in Tapir Conservation are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group or Houston Zoological Gardens. This publication may be photocopied for private use only and the copyright remains that of the Tapir Specialist Group. Copyright for all photographs herein remains with the individual photographers. TAPIR CONSERVATION
3 I hope this issue of Tapir Conservation finds all of you very well! Before you go ahead and enjoy the great articles included in this issue, let me keep you here with me for a little while so that I can give you a few exciting updates about the work of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group! Some of us had the opportunity to attend the First Latin American Tapir Symposium held in Puyo, Ecuador, from May 8 to 11 (please see Andres Tapias note about the conference in our Conservation section). This conference was an initiative of our TSG members in Ecuador, with the support from several local organizations including IUCN South America. It was held in conjunction with the annual meeting of the Ecuadorian Mammal Society. It was a great conference, with fantastic presentations and loads of new information about the three tapir species in Latin America. Nevertheless, I have to say that the best part of the conference was the opportunity we had to meet a number of new researchers working on tapirs in countries where we do not have a strong representation, such as Venezuela. The conference in Ecuador brought new blood and energy to the Tapir Specialist Group! Speaking of meetings, I am currently taking the first steps on the organization of the Sixth International Tapir Symposium to be held in Brazil in 2014. The conference will be held in Campo Grande, capital of Mato Grosso do Sul State, in the central part of Brazil, where I live and work. Campo Grande is known as the gateway to the Brazilian Pantanal! In consultation with the TSG Steering Committee we have set the dates for the conference: 16-20 November, 2014. I will now work on the local logistics here in Campo Grande and we will soon start our fundraising campaign. A group of us will be attending the major zoo association conferences in September and October, including AZA, EAZA and WAZA, and we hope to be able to approach as many tapir holding zoos as possible. Something very new about the Tapir Symposium in Brazil is that before the conference starts we will be holding two days (15th and 16th of November) of shorttraining courses (4-hour sessions) on specific topics suggested by members of the group. The topics we have considered so far include: fundraising, red listing, communication tools, camera-trapping, evaluation of hunting impact, mapping of tapir distribution and threats, tapir occupancy and abundance (research design and data analysis using R). We already have instructors for most of these courses, and these people will be responsible for putting the training sessions together. This time we will not have mid-conference trips as we did for previous conferences. Campo Grande does not really have options for mid-conference trips nearby. We will hold a 4-day symposium without any breaks and then offer packages for preand post-conference trips for those interested in exploring the Pantanal. Last but definitely not least, I would like to report that we have just finalized the 2013 funding cycle of the TSG Conservation Fund (TSGCF) We received 12 proposals and five (5) of those were selected for funding (US$2,000 grants). I would like to thank our TSGCF reviewing committee for their hard work reviewing and selecting proposals. In addition, I would like to congratulate our grantees: Christopher Jordan (Increasing Innovation and Efficiency of Regional Government in the Prevention of Tapir Hunting, Nicaragua), Jaime Andres Suarez Mejia (Evaluation of the National Program for the Conservation of Tapirs in Colombia), Juan Pablo Reyes Puig (Andean Tapir Conservation and Monitoring in Chamanapamba Reserve: A Cloud Forest Refuge for the Species in Central Andes of Ecuador), Lee McLoughlin (Integrating the National Animal of Belize, the Bairds Tapir, into the National Curriculum through the Development of Compatible and Innovative Educational Materials), and Nay Myo Shwe (Rapid Assessment of Malayan Tapir in Five Potential Townships of Taninthayi Range and Vicinity, Myanmar). We are all looking forward to meeting in Brazil next year!!! Best from Brazil, Patrcia Medici Chair, IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group (TSG)
4 Camera traps document the status of the Asian tapir across its range Next Generation Poo Studies Linkie, M., Guillera-Arroita, G., Smith, et al 2013. Cryptic mammals caught on camera: Assessing the utility of range wide camera trap data for conserving the endangered Asian tapir. Biological Conservation 162, 107-115. Hibert F, Taberlet P, Chave J, Scotti-Saintagne C, Sabatier D, et al (2013) Unveiling the Diet of Elusive Rainforest Herbivores in Next Generation Sequencing Era? The Tapir as a Case Study. PLoS ONE 8(4): e60799. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060799 T he Asian tapir is one of Southeast Asias least studied large mammals. Together with other members of the Southeast Asian megafauna such as the Asian elephant, the Javan rhino, the Sumatran rhino, and the gaur its populations have been rapidly declining due to hunting and habitat destruction. Assessing the range-wide status of a species is a difficult task generally requiring workshops with participants from all range countries. This study shows a different approach. Taking advantage of a growing number of camera trap studies being conducted throughout Southeast Asia, the authors compiled data from 19 study areas including 1128 camera trap sites for a large-scale analysis that gives us an insight into how the species is doing in different protected and unprotected areas. By calculating occupancy (the percentage of the sampling area used by tapirs), the researchers were able to not only determine the presence of tapirs for each study area but also to obtain a relative abundance index that shows the status of each population. The results give some reasons for hope for the future of the Asian Tapir. Tapirs were found in 90% L et me start with a disclaimer by writing this spotlight I am exposing my illiteracy in Molecular Ecology. Last year I attended the annual meeting of the ATBC (http://www.atbc2012.org) in Bonito, Brazil. It was an excellent meeting as of all the study areas and had high occupancy values in nine areas. The result confirmed the current range estimate and in some cases extended it. A clear difference can be seen between the southern part of the range including the Indonesian island of Sumatra and peninsular Malaysia where tapirs had a high probability of occurrence in almost all areas surveyed and the northern range countries of Thailand and Myanmar were tapirs were less abundant or absent. The authors found a negative relationship between human presence, measured by the human footprint index and tapir occupancy, but mentioned that hunting of tapirs was much less common in countries with a large Muslim population (Indonesia and Malaysia) because tapirs were often considered to be related to pigs. This study presents a novel approach to a rangewide assessment of a species status using existing camera trap data. Compared to previous methods this approach relies less on expert knowledge and more on verifiable field data. While spatial coverage of the data is still patchy, the results paint a clear picture of the current situation and show where further data needs to be collected. Many camera trap surveys are being carried out in all tapir range country every year; some with the aim of estimating densities for larger cats such as the tiger, leopard or jaguar, others for inventory purposes, and a few specifically to study tapirs. The data from these surveys contain a wealth of important information that is largely underutilized. This article shows how combining data from many different studies can help answer important conservation questions. I hope we will see many more such collaborative analysis in the future. Mathias Tobler Senior Researcher San Diego Zoo Global Institute for Conservation Research T he purpose of the Research Spotlight is to showcase relevant and important research that is of interest to tapir research. In this volume, we have contributions from Mathias Tobler and Ahimsa Campos-Arceiz, giving their takes on two very interesting papers. Mathias calls attention to an interesting paper exploring the use of cameratrapping to determine the conservation status of the Malay (Asian) tapirs. Ahimsa looks at the possibilities that are opening to us with technological developments in the field of genetics. We are open to suggestions and submissions to the research spotlight. We hope you enjoy our choices.
5 always is and the session that impressed me the most was one called DNA barcodes and beyond, in which the presenters introduced different advances in tropical environmental DNA and metabarcoding. They explained how, using Next Generation Sequencing and sophisticated bioinformatics, environmental geneticists are producing genomic libraries of certain tropical communities, such as the angiosperms of Barro Colorado Island (Panama) and Nouragues Natural Reserve (French Guiana). Once a genetic library is (reasonably) complete, researchers can tell a lot about the ecosystem just by analyzing DNA traces present in small amounts of soil, water, or biological samples. Although the idea is far from new, realizing how advanced the field is, felt revolutionary to a traditional ecologist like myself. Soon I was speculating about the opportunities that metabarcoding will bring for the study of large forest mammals, such as tapirs. But I didnt need to speculate too much because in a different session of that very same meeting, Fabrice Hibert presented his excellent work applying metabarcoding to describe the diet of lowland tapirs ( Tapirus terrestris ) in Nouragues Natural Reserve (Hibert et al 2013). In a nutshell, Hibert and colleagues used metabarcoding techniques to sequence plant DNA extracted from 39 tapir feces found in streams nearby Nouragues station. I will wisely skip the technical details. What matters is that Hibert et al. obtained thousands of plant DNA sequences from each sample and as many as more than 2.5 million sequences (!) from the 39 feces altogether. The plant diversity accumulation curves reached an asymptote somewhere around 20 samples, indicating that their sample size was satisfactory to describe the diet of Nouragues. The authors were able to identify 41 plant families, 39 genera, and three different plant species (they also identified eight Sapotaceae species using a different protocol) from these samples. The families Arecaceae, Rubiaceae, Fabaceae, and Cyclanthaceae were present in all the samples, and Arecaceae and Moraceae were the families with the highest number of sequences. The authors were also able to identify seasonal patterns, showing the highest richness of DNA sequences towards the end of the fruiting season. The fact that they were so successful to obtain plant DNA from feces and describe so much about the diet of tapirs is truly impressive. But working with highly degraded plant DNA (as the one found in feces) poses a trade-off between maximizing the chance of obtaining DNA and the taxonomic resolution. In this case, Hibert et al. opted for using a conservative segment of chloroplast DNA (the P6 loop), which resulted in a very low taxonomic resolution, with most of plants identified just at the family or genus level. Hibert et al. had previously studied the diet of that tapir population using classic methods (Hibert et al. 2011, PLoS ONE 6(10): e25850) and could thus compare the results of both methodologies. Compared with the classic study, metabarcoding failed to identify 49% (18/37) of the families and 76% (41/54) of the genera known to be consumed by tapirs in Nouragues. Part of this discrepancy might be because fruits, an important food resource for lowland tapirs, have little chloroplast DNA and are underrepresented in the metabarcoding study. Indeed, metabarcoding says nothing about the specific plant parts consumed, often a very important information for ecological interpretations. Other problems of the metabarcoding approach is the possibility of species misidentification (due to the use of conservative segments) and sample contamination (e.g. due to dung invertebrates and pollen grains), the cost of analyzing millions of sequences (although this is not mentioned in the study and I am not familiar with the prices, one can imagine that these techniques require heavy investments, even if just initially), and, most importantly, the dependence on a pre-existing comprehensive plant genetic library for the study area. Some of these limitations (e.g. price, need the genetic library) will get better with time. For the other issues, it might be necessary to combine methods e.g. metabarcoding and the identification of fruit remains in dung in order to maximize the information in diet studies. Overall, the study by Hibert et al. is a very exciting development that signals the way I expect most diet studies of tropical forest herbivores to be conducted in a not-distant future. The main advantage of metabarcoding is that it brings objective quantification to detection of plant species and that, as our environmental genetic libraries expand, the method becomes increasingly easy and convenient. I, for one, have just signed for a workshop on postgenomics and bioinformatics, to make sure that I dont miss the train of environmental genetics. Ahimsa Campos-Arceiz Associate Professor School of Geography University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus Semenyih 43500, Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia. email: email@example.com
6 CONSERVATION Primer Congreso Latinoamericano de Tapires, Ecuador Andrs Tapia 1,3 Fernando Nogales 1 Ruth Arias 2 y Diego G. Tirira 3 1 Grupo de Especialistas en Tapires Ecuador 2 Universidad Estatal Amaznica, Puyo 3 Asociacin Ecuatoriana de Mastozoologa C omo resultado del trabajo conjunto entre el Grupo de Especialistas en Tapires-Ecuador, la Asociacin Ecuatoriana de Mastozoologa y la Universidad Estatal Amaznica, se realiz en la ciudad de Puyo, Amazona del Ecuador, el Primer Congreso Latinoamericano de Tapires y II Congreso Ecuatoriano de Mastozoologa, del 8 al 12 de mayo de 2013. La decisin de realizar estos eventos de realce internacional en una ciudad pequea de la Amazona ecuatoriana, implic un cambio en la tradicin de organizacin de esta clase de congresos, generalmente realizados en las grandes capitales. La gran acogida recibida, disip todo tipo de dudas al respecto, como lo prueban los ms de 200 participantes (105 ponentes) y 132 trabajos de investigacin (52 trabajos sobre tapires) de 15 pases de Norte, Centro y Sudamrica y Europa. Este espacio represent una importante ventana para exponer la riqueza biolgica y cultural del Ecuador y especialmente, los avances logrados en la proteccin de los tapires, insignes mamferos de los bosques y pramos andinos y de las selvas lluviosas amaznicas del Neotrpico. Los eventos realizados simultneamente, contemplaron la presentacin de 17 conferencias magistrales y 132 ponencias orales del ms alto nivel que brindaron pautas para los nuevos retos en los campos de la conservacin, manejo e investigacin cientfica. Se cont con la masiva asistencia de conferencistas, docentes, investigadores y estudiantes procedentes de Venezuela, Colombia, Per, Chile, Argentina, Honduras, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Mxico, Estados Unidos, Inglaterra, Espaa, Brasil y Ecuador, abarcando temas tan diversos como la Paleontologa o la Filogentica, Manejo ex-situ, Ecologa, entre otros. La organizacin del evento permiti adems la realizacin de reuniones, simposios y mesas de trabajo donde los participantes intercambiaron experiencias en pro de la conservacin. As, se desarroll el Primer Simposio de micro mamferos, II Simposio de Primates, III Simposio de Murcilagos y las reuniones de los miembros del Grupo de Especialistas de Tapires, Primates y Figura 1: Participantes del Primer Congreso Latinoamericano de Tapires y II Congreso Ecuatoriano de Mastozoologa. Figura 2 A: Inauguracin del congreso con las palabras de Patricia Medici, Presidenta del TSG. B: Casa abierta durante el Da Nacional del Tapir
Murcilagos. A esto se sum los cursos pre-congreso sobre Radio telemetra de tapires, Ecolocacin en murcilagos, Anlisis genticos poblacionalesmoleculares y Herramientas para la conservacin de mamferos. Por otro lado, el 9 de mayo se celebr el Da Nacional del Tapir, una iniciativa impulsada desde el 2010 y que est enmarcada en la Estrategia Nacional de Conservacin del gnero Tapirus en el Ecuador, legalmente reconocida por el Ministerio del Ambiente del Ecuador mediante Registro Oficial. El acto cont con una sesin solemne con las palabras de las autoridades presentes y la participacin especial de Patricia Medici, Presidenta del TSG a nivel mundial. En una jornada cultural, iniciada desde tempranas horas con la casa abierta protegiendo al jardinero del bosque , hubieron stands de exposicin de varios proyectos de conservacin del tapir andino y amaznico encaminados en el Ecuador. Cerrando el da, presentaciones artsticas completaron un acto rico en manifestaciones culturales de las 7 nacionalidades indgenas de la provincia de Pastaza, la ms diversa culturalmente en el Ecuador. No solo expertos y cientficos se hicieron presentes, se cont adems con una importante representacin de comunidades indgenas y campesinas, gobiernos locales y funcionarios pblicos, vinculados a la conservacin del tapir y la fauna silvestre en general. Con respecto al accionar del TSG, se desarroll una reunin de trabajo abierta al pblico donde se discuti tareas y compromisos para continuar fortaleciendo al grupo, resultados que se evaluarn en el marco del prximo Simposio Internacional de Tapires a celebrarse en Brasil en el 2014. Los especialistas vieron la necesidad de incrementar oportunidades de capacitacin para sus miembros en captacin de recursos financieros, comunicacin, monitoreo no invasivo (trampas cmara), validacin de impactos de caza, distribucin y amenazas, entre otros temas de inters. Este espacio permiti intercambiar adems visiones y experiencias de trabajo con el pblico interesado en la labor que viene desarrollando el Grupo de Especialistas de Tapires en los pases de distribucin de las tres especies latinoamericanas. Agradecimientos E l Primer Congreso Latinoamericano de Tapires fue posible gracias al esfuerzo comprometido del Dr. Julio Csar Vargas Burgos, Rector de la Universidad Estatal Amaznica, Puyo-Ecuador y la planta de docentes asignados para las distintas actividades del evento. El Ministerio del Ambiente aport significativamente dando una cobertura a este evento en el marco de sus planes de conservacin. Agradecemos el invaluable apoyo econmico de Ecociencia, Fundacin Zoolgica del Ecuador, Ecofondo, Fundacin Mamferos y Conservacin, GIZ, Museo de Zoologa de la Universidad Catlica del Ecuador, Editorial Murcilago Blanco, GAD Municipal Puyo, GAD Provincial Pastaza y el Ministerio de Agricultura, Ganadera, Acuacultura y Pesca. Figura 3 A: Presentaciones artsticas de danza amaznica durante el Da Nacional del Tapir. B: La diversidad cultural de las nacionalidades amaznicas durante el evento cultural. Figura 4: Expositores del congreso A: Germn Gasparini (Argentina); B: Gabriela Pinho (Brasil), C: Manolo Garca (Guatemala)
8 Tapirs in Mexico: researchers working together towards a common goal Fostering International Cooperation for Bairds Tapir Conservation in a Northern Portion of the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor Georgina OFarrill Country CoordinatorMexico Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada firstname.lastname@example.org Manolo J. Garcia 1 Nereyda Estrada 2 Christopher Jordan 3 1 Centro de Datos para la Conservacin, Centro de Estudios Conservacionistas, Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala. Avenida Reforma 0-63 zona 10, Guatemala ciudad. Guatemala, Guatemala email: email@example.com 2 Fundacin Panthera, Tegucigalpa, Honduras email: firstname.lastname@example.org 3 Michigan State University Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, 203 Manly Miles Building, 1405 S. Harrison Road, East Lansing, Michigan 48823 email: email@example.com O n March 20th 2013, several members of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group of Mexico got together to present the most recent updates in terms of research on the Bairds tapir in Mexico. The meeting was organized by Eduardo Mendoza and was carried out at the Universidad Jurez Autnoma de Tabasco during the IV Congreso Mexicano de Ecologa. The presentations covered themes from the species distribution, movements, abundance, and new records, to a couple of studies on the Bairds tapir ecological function and various aspects of tapirs in captivity in Mexico. The main threats to tapir populations in the country were identified as habitat loss and fragmentation, hunting, fire and road-kill. The participants set short and long-term goals to expand the knowledge of tapirs in Mexico and improve conservation practices. Among the goals, we identified the need to carry out more studies in Oaxaca, Veracruz, Tabasco and Yucatan to identify isolated populations. In particular in Oaxaca, more studies are necessary to evaluate the limits of tapirs distribution in this region of Mexico. Other goals included the development of an awareness program for communities living in close contact with the species, identification of movement patterns and dependency of tapirs on waterholes, assessment of the health status of tapirs in captivity and in the wild, and identification of potential disease transmission between domestic animals and tapirs. In addition, we identified the need to build stronger collaborations and increase communication among members and to organize future meetings to discuss advances and information gaps. This meeting served as the perfect venue to re-consolidate the group of tapir experts in Mexico and to further achieve some of the goals of the Bairds Tapir Action Plan (2005) at a country level. This re-organization of the group might set the basis to develop the Bairds Tapir Action Plan in Mexico, to identify main gaps of knowledge, goals and initiatives to further promote research and conservation of tapirs in Mexico. As part of the new initiative to promote communication among Mexican scientists, researchers and conservationists interested in tapir populations; the coordinator of the group decided to create a web I n September 2012, TSG Honduras country coordinator Nereyda Estrada, Bairds tapir species coordinator Manolo Garcia, and Nicaragua country coordinator Christopher Jordan met in Tegucigalpa, Honduras to: i) conduct a joint MAXENT analysis to assess the potential of a northern portion of the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor as Bairds tapir Tapirus bairdii habitat, and ii) conduct a workshop for Honduran Forestry, Protected Areas and Wildlife Conservation Institute (ICF), university page to better demonstrate the state of research in Mexico. For this webpage and to identify our group in Mexico, a contest was carried out to find the logo for our group. By the March 1st 2013 deadline we obtained 7 interesting and sophisticated logos and we are pleased to present the new logo for the Tapir Specialist Group Mexico. The winner Maria Jos Montiel Castaeda presented a logo that features an abstraction of the tapirs figure emphasizing the natural patterns of its fur through motifs that allude to indigenous Mexican art. This logo shows our commitment to the conservation of tapirs in partnership with the people most intimately involved with the species in our country.
9 students, and NGO employees on the use of the MAXENT software. In their MAXENT analysis, the three members of the TSG used presence data from Honduras, Nicaragua and Guatemala to model potential Bairds tapir habitat across the three countries. The results of the modeling process indicate that several regions within the three study countries appear integral to the long-term conservation of Bairds tapirs. The Selva Maya region of Guatemala and the swath of forest comprised of the Honduran Moskitia and Nicaraguas Bosawas Reserve are particularly large areas of highly suitable habitat. Additionally, the model highlighted Nicaraguas Caribbean coast as a potentially important tapir corridor connecting the Honduran Moskitia and the Nicaragua/Costa Rica border. The activities opened with presentations on the status of tapirs in Honduras, Guatemala, and Nicaragua. This was followed by an exercise in which the facilitators guided the 20 participants through the process of using MAXENT to model a species potential distribution. To conclude, the tri-national tapir distribution modeling results were presented to participants, who were then prompted to discuss the important implications that international cooperation has for Bairds tapir conservation and ideas for encouraging international conservation efforts. The workshop succeeded in capacitating participants in MAXENT, refining the general understanding of the Bairds tapirs potential distribution in northern Central America, increasing international tapir awareness, and underscoring the importance of international collaboration between both researchers and practitioners. The events were graciously funded by the ICF, Proyecto Moskitia, and Proyecto Ecosistemas of the United Nations Development Program Global Environment Facility. Nereyda, Manolo, and Chris are currently seeking resources to implement research and conservation initiatives based on their MAXENT findings and to conduct a similar workshop in Nicaragua to inspire conservationists in a country in which tapir conservation activities have historically been lacking. In addition, they are preparing a manuscript on the habitat model which they intend to submit for peer review before the end of the year. Figure 1: Nereyda, Manolo, and Chris take a photo with a number of workshop participants after the final day of activities.
Distribution and conservation status of the Bairds tapir in Panama Ninon Meyer 1 Ricardo Moreno 1,2 and Patrick A. Jansen 1,3 1 Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa, Ancon, Panam 2 Yaguara, Programa de Conservacin de Felinos, Puerto Jimnez, Osa Pennsula, Costa Rica 3 Department of Environmental Sciences, Wageningen University, The Netherlands Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org T he Bairds tapir Tapirus bairdii listed as endangered on the IUCN red list (IUCN, 2013), ranges from South Eastern Mexico to the Gulf of Guayaquil in Ecuador (Reid, 2009). Within this area, the Isthmus of Panama is a key area because it connects populations of Central America and South America with each other (Webb, 2003). Tapirs may persist in some forested areas of Panama, but their presence has not been verified in most of the potential distribution areas. No studies of wild Bairds tapir have been undertaken in Panama outside of Barro Colorado Island, where the species was studied more than 30 years ago (Terwilliger, 1978). Basic information on tapirs occurrence and distribution is necessary to evaluate the suitability of protected areas for the conservation of viable tapir populations in Panama (Moreno, 2006; Ahumada et al 2011). Here, we assess the current distribution and conservation status of Bairds tapir in Panama. We compiled occurrence data from 30 sites scattered across the forested areas of Panama, covering nine distinct regions (Table 1). The data combined camera trapping data, field surveys of tracks, dung and direct observation, and interviews with guides and local people. Previous studies have shown that robust tapir data can be obtained from non-tapir specific cameratrap surveys (Noss et al 2003; Rayan et al 2012). Tapirs were confirmed at just 14 of the 30 sites, and in six of the nine areas (Table1, Fig. 1). The results reveal gaps in the distribution range of Bairds tapirs in Panama (Fig. 1). Tapirs occur mainly on the Atlantic side of Panama in relatively undisturbed forests. Populations appear healthy in the remote intact forests of Donoso, and in the forest block East of the Panama Canal, i.e. Darin and the comarcas de Guna Yala, Wargandi, Mandungandi and Embera-Wounan. These areas have low human population densities and are mainly inhabited and managed by indigenous people the Gunas, Emberas and Wounaan who maintain forested areas, practice subsistence hunting and only occasionally kill tapirs (Ventocilla et al 1995; MICI, 2013). With the exception of Donoso, all the above mentioned forests are connected to each other forming a large continuous area where animals can move freely without major anthropomorphic barriers such as highways or cities. Our assessment suggests that there are three parts of Panama where tapir numbers are critically low. The first is Central Panama that has been intensively monitored for decades due to the presence of the Panama Canal. In this area signs of tapir are rare or nonexistent. The Panama Canal area is the bottleneck of the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor and may present a barrier for the movements of species, due to increasing human population, habitat fragmentation, forest disturbance and high level of poaching (Wright et al 2000). Although tapir is not a preferred game species in Panama, they are often killed opportunistically, because of the large quantity of meat it provides. An intensive camera trapping survey (120 km2) took place as part of the Tropical Ecology Assessment and Monitoring program (TEAM; Ahumada et al 2011) in the 3-year period from 2010-2012 in Soberania National Park (SNP), a potentially suitable area for tapirs with 225 km2 of mature secondary forest. Yet not a single tapir photo was taken (Meyer et al 2013). Nevertheless, we did see tracks in 2011 and 2013 on
11 the west side of Pipeline road, indicating that very few individuals persist in the area. The TEAM survey was also conducted in Barro Colorado Natural Monument (BCNM) located in the middle of the Gatun Lake and consists of Barro Colorado Island (BCI) surrounded by five peninsulas. Tapirs were only detected on BCI, but neither game wardens nor local communities have ever observed signs of tapirs outside of BCI or reported any kills. However, the small population of tapirs on BCI (8-10 individuals, J. Giacalone-Willis, pers. com.), may consist of individual migrants, or transitory individuals through BCI providing renewal of the gene pool. We also found tapir tracks on Isla Maiz, a small island between BCI and the mainland supporting this hypothesis. This suggests that there are migrating tapirs in the mainland around BCI too. The route tapirs use to cross the canal and migrate through forests east and west of the Canal remains unknown. Several corridors have been proposed including the Filo de Santa Rita Corridor that connects Chagres NP to SNP (USAID, 2009). However, the corridor consists of small patches of forests in a matrix of cattle pastures, with a high human density and with two major roads that make this area difficult and dangerous for the tapirs to cross. The second region of critical concern involves tapir populations of the Serrania de Maje and the Atlantic coast. These populations are isolated by the Pan-American Highway that runs across the country in East-West direction. Table 1: Sites in Panama with information on tapir presence, with the survey method. For each site, we italicized the method that did not result in any tapir sign. 1 CT = camera trapping, T = tracks, dung and direct observation, PC = interviews and personal communication 2 X = no tapir sign encountered, O = tapir sign encountered Province Site Tapir occurrence SourceChiriqu1Volcn Bar CT T PC X ANAM-ANCON, 2004a; J. Willis, pers. com. 2La Amistad NP PC X ANAM-ANCON, 2004a3Fortuna T PC X A. Guevara and N. Fossatti, pers. com. Bocas del Toro4Palo Seco T PC O ANAM-ANCON, 2004b5San San Pond Sac T PC O ANAM-ANCON, 2004b; O. Lopez and A. Santos, pers. com. Veraguas6Santa F CT O Donoso, 20107Cerro Hoya CT T PC X Fort and Nielsen, 2012; ANAM, pers. com. Herrera8Montuoso T PC X Mendez and Santamaria, 2004. M. Arosemena, pers. com. Cocl9Donoso CT T PC O MWH, 2013, pers. obs.10El Cop T PC X L. Martinez and J-P Rios, pers. com. Colon11San Lorenzo NP CT X Meyer et al 201312BCI CT T O Terwilliger, 1978; Meyer et al 2013; pers. obs. (RM)13BCNM Peninsulas CT T PC X Wright et al 2000; Meyer et a l, 2013; H. Esser unpub. data.; S. Valdes, pers. com. 14Soberania NP CT T O Meyer et al 2013; A. Santos, pers. com.15Agua Salud CT X Meyer et al 201316Sierra llorona CT T PC X Meyer et al 201317Santo Domingo CT PC X Meyer et al 201318Chagres NP CT T PC O Moreno and Bustamante, 2007; I. Lopez, unpub. data.19Portobelo NP CT T PC O Moreno and Bustamante, 2007; H. Rissanen, pers. com. Panama20Cocobolo NR CT PC O E. Espino, pers. com.; H. Esser, unpub. data.21Camino de cruces CT T X H. Esser, unpub. data; RM22Howard T PC X ANCON, 2005 Guna Yala23Nusagandi CT T PC O Brown and Moreno, 201324Wargandi PC O MICI, 2013; J. Moreno, pers. com.25Madugandi T PC O MICI, 2013; J. Moreno, pers. com. Darin26Cerro Chucanti PC O G. Berguido, pers. com.27Cemaco T PC O Medina, 201328Serrania de Bagre T PC O ANAM-ANCON, 200629Paya T O E. Campos, pers. com.30Cana CT T PC O Moreno, 2006Method
12 The third area where poaching, deforestation and resulting habitat fragmentation make it difficult for tapirs to persist (Brooks et al 1997), is in the Comarca de Ngbe-Bugle between the forests of Santa F El Cop Donoso and La Amistad International Park (PILA). Few tapir data are available for the forested area of Chiriqu in Western Panama. Tracks of tapirs have been found in some places and photos taken in the highlands of Costa Rica (Gonzalez-Maya et al 2009) that are part of the cross boundary continuous forests between Costa Rica and Panama. Poaching levels remain high in some parts of Chiriqu and Western Panama which contributes to the extinction process (Smith, 2008; J. Giacalone-Willis, pers. com.). The lack of evidence of tapir in the two last remaining forests of the Peninsula de Azuero over the past decades leads us to believe that tapirs are extinct in those areas. The information compiled in this assessment is an important addition to the existing knowledge about tapirs in Panama. A key point is the importance of restoring the connectivity between forest fragments in Panama thereby allowing for gene flow between tapir populations (Norton & Ashley, 2004). This is especially true for the region in Central Panama, a key area for the species, and where a small population size may reduce the genetic viability of this population. Special attention should also be paid to conserve the corridor between the Comarca de Ngbe-Bugle to avoid the same problem as in Central Panama. To improve conservation intervention more research is needed regarding tapir population density and habitat requirements in Panama. Acknowledgments We thank M. Arosemena, G. Berguido, E. Campos, H. Esser, N. Fossatti, J. Giacalone-Willis, A. Guevara, I. Lopez, O. Lopez, L. Martinez, C. Medina, J. Moreno, M. Ponce, J-P. Rios, H. Rissanen, A. Santos-Murgas, I. Tejada, S. Valdes and the game wardens of BCI and ANAM for valuable information and Y. Liefting for help in the map elaboration. The TEAM camera-trapping data were provided by the Tropical Ecology Assessment and Monitoring (TEAM) Network, a collaboration between Conservation International, the Missouri Botanical Garden, the Smithsonian Institution, and the Wildlife Conservation Society, and funded by these institutions, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, and other donors. Figure 1: Distribution map of Tapirus bairdii in Panama (A) and an inset of Central Panama (B). The numbers correspond with the sites listed in table 1.
13 References Ahumada J.A., Silva C.E.F., Gajapersad K., Hallam C., Hurtado J., Martin E., McWilliam A., Mugerwa B., OBrien T. & Rovero F. (2011). Community structure and diversity of tropical forest mammals: data from a global camera trap network. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 366: 27032711. ANAM (Autoridad Nacional del Ambiente)-ANCON (Asociacin Nacional para la Conservacin de la Naturaleza). (2006). Plan integral de consolidacin del corredor biolgico Serrana el Bagre, Distrito de Chepigana, Provincia de Darin. Unpublished report. ANAM (Autoridad Nacional del Ambiente)-ANCON (Asociacin Nacional para la Conservacin de la Naturaleza) (a). (2004). Elaboracin de Planes de Manejo del Parque Internacional La Amistad y el Parque Nacional Volcn Bar. Unpublished report. ANAM (Autoridad Nacional del Ambiente)-ANCON (Asociacin Nacional para la Conservacin de la Naturaleza) (b). (2004). 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14 Bairds tapirs Tapirus bairdii in Nicaragua Christopher A. Jordan 1 and Gerald R. Urquhart 2 1 Michigan State University Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, 203 Manly Miles Building, 1405 S. Harrison Road, East Lansing, MI 48823 email: email@example.com 2 Michigan State University Department of Fisheries and Wildlife and Lyman Briggs College, 35 East Holmes Hall, East Lansing, MI 48825 email: firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract N icaragua has a high level of biocultural diversity that has brought many researchers to the country for centuries. There exist many reports about their studies and explorations that describe Nicaraguan cultures, languages, and ecosystems. Nonetheless, terrestrial fauna has been significantly under-represented in these investigations and subsequent publication. Due to this, there is a great deal regarding Nicaraguan fauna, especially for rare species such as the Bairds tapir, that remains unknown to international conservationists. The IUCN range map for this species is a case in point. In this article we clarify the historical and contemporary status of the Bairds tapir in Nicaragua through a literature review and a preliminary discussion of our long-term ecological research using camera trap and track surveys along the Caribbean Coast of Nicaragua. Key Words: Bairds tapirs, biological corridor, Nicaragua Introduction N icaragua has rich biocultural diversity characterized by ecologies and cultures that differ greatly between the Pacific and Caribbean coasts. The nahuatl speaking indigenous groups of the Pacific coast have become largely assimilated both culturally and linguistically into Mestizo culture, defined by a mix of indigenous Nicaraguan and Spanish descent. The Pacific coast area was historically covered with expansive tracts of tropical dry lowland forest in the lower elevations, and cloud forests and dwarf forests in montane and volcanic habitats. In contrast, the Caribbean coast continues to harbour higher cultural diversity, including the Rama, Miskito, and Mayangna indigenous peoples, and the Garifuna and Kriol afro-descendent groups. Linguistic diversity likewise remains higher than in the Pacific coast; extant languages include Miskito, Kriol English, Spanish, Garifuna, Rama, and several Mayangna dialects, with the last three being the most endangered nationally. Historically, the Caribbean coast was covered primarily by large swaths of lowland tropical evergreen rainforest, seasonally flooded swamp forests, pine forests and mangrove forests. This confluence of diverse ecosystems, cultures and languages has attracted a relatively consistent flow of explorers and researchers over the past several centuries that have collectively authored an extensive literature (Bell, 1899; Collinson, 1867; Craig, 1992; Davidson, 1980; Jamieson, 2010). There are numerous ethnographic publications available describing the countrys Rama, Ulwa, Miskito, and Garifuna cultures and languages. There also exists a variety of reports on geographical and biological explorations detailing Nicaraguas forests, topography and hydrology. However, research in Nicaragua has been characterized by a general deficiency of systematic investigations of the countrys wildlife, especially along the Caribbean coast (Jordan & Roe, 2010). Among the studies that do exist, few focus on the countrys terrestrial mammalian fauna (Jordan & Roe, 2010). Due to this, scientific information on this fauna is not common; much of the available data are anecdotal and found in sources outside the realm of the natural sciences. Not unexpectedly, this lack of scientific information has resulted in misperceptions among international conservationists regarding Nicaraguas terrestrial mammals and the current state of their populations. For instance, in the case of the Bairds tapir Tapirus
15 bairdii the species range map provided by the IUCN suggested that the species had been extirpated from the Caribbean coast (IUCN, 2008) (Fig. 1). Yet, our literature review and field data suggests that a population of global significance exists in Nicaraguas Caribbean Coast ecosystems (Jordan et al ., 2010). In this paper we help illuminate the status of tapirs in Nicaragua for conservationists and scientists by reviewing two lines of evidence: (i) the historical literature on Nicaraguan tapirs and (ii) our tapir survey data from four years of ecological monitoring in the Southern Atlantic Autonomous Region (RAAS) and Northern Atlantic Autonomous Region (RAAN). The results serve to provide evidence that can be used to update the IUCN map, highlight the Caribbean coast as a potentially key segment in the Bairds tapirs global range and clarify what we do and do not know about Nicaraguan tapirs. Materials and Methods Study Species B airds tapirs are large-bodied, odd-toed ungulates that consume browse, bark, fruits, and seeds (Fig. 2). The IUCN estimates that there are fewer than 5,500 mature adult Bairds tapirs in the wild and approximately 500 in Nicaragua (IUCN, 2008). The species is considered endangered and has been greatly affected by habitat fragmentation and hunting throughout its range (IUCN, 2008). Literature Review A brief literature review was undertaken by searching for the following key terms in the Google Scholar search engine: tapir +Nicaragua, Bairds tapir +Nicaragua, Tapirus bairdii +Nicaragua, danto +Nicaragua, mountain cow +Nicaragua, pamka +Nicaragua, and tilba +Nicaragua. A few additional, less systematic but related phrases were also included. All publications from the search were reviewed to separate those mentioning Bairds tapirs from those not mentioning the species. We then read each remaining source carefully and separated the literature that made geographically referenced accounts of Bairds tapirs in Nicaragua from those simply mentioning the Bairds tapir as part of the Nicaraguan fauna. The former group of sources was utilized in the review. We also reviewed the bibliographies of all results to find additional sources. Pertinent titles within the bibliographies were subject to the same selection process. Those sources from the bibliographies with geographically specific information on Bairds tapirs in Nicaragua were also included in the review. We compared the prevalence over time of sources describing tapirs in Caribbean coast Nicaragua with the prevalence of those describing tapirs in Pacific coast Nicaragua to create a narrative on the historical and contemporary status of Nicaraguan tapirs. Tapir Sampling and Study Area F rom 2009-2013 we undertook a broad, systematic camera trap surveys throughout most of the RAAS. Detailed descriptions of the methodology and study area can be found in Jordan & Roe (2010). During 2010-2013, in the same study area, we used camera traps to sample specifically for Bairds tapirs by hiring forest specialists from rural communities to help us install cameras in locations of high local tapir activity. From 2010-2013 we also carried out Bairds tapir track surveys in the RAAS, during which the same local forest specialists were hired to help us find tapir footprints in the forests surrounding their communities. Tapir footprints are quite unique and therefore unmistakable if the prints are relatively recent. Accordingly we only classified recent tapir tracks that were unmistakable as positive detections. Older tracks or tracks that could not be identified with 100% certainty were not recorded as detections. We thus avoided false presence data. These last two, tapir specific methodologies, have also been carried out in the RAAN since January 2012. Results and Discussion Literature Review W e found 26 sources describing tapirs in Nicaragua that referenced a geographical location. Four sources described the same dataset (Koster, 2006; 2008a; 2008b; 2011). We included one additional known account (Urquhart, 1997). Two of the publications were our own and are not discussed here, but the data are included in Tapir Sampling 19th century tapir literature is not very common, but some was found. Some of the first publications describing the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua document the adventures of French and English Buccaneers in the 18th and 19th centuries. These stories tend toward the dramatic and exaggerative, and sometimes describe indigenous peoples in discriminatory ways. Nonetheless, they simultaneously include extensive cultural and ecological accounts of the region, including the first published accounts of Bairds tapir presence (Fig. 3). The most common references of tapir sightings come from 1850-1860 publications detailing surveys of the south-eastern waterways and forests connecting Lake Nicaragua and the Caribbean Sea, part of a route that was nearly chosen over the Panama Canal (Collinson, 1867; Nicaragua Maritime Canal Company, 1890). Other 19th century tapir references place the species in more northern regions of the Caribbean coast, including Bells (1899) work Tangneera, which describes tapirs in the surroundings of the town of
16 Kuamwatla in the RAAN, and Berckenhagens (1894) account of Miskito lore in the RAAN. 19th century accounts of tapirs in the Pacific region are less common, but do exist. In a description of linguistic data collected in 1842, Brinton (1886) related the significance of the species within the Mangue dialect of a people located in the area of two Pacific Coast lakes, Masaya and Apoyo. Another 19th century Pacific coast account appears to come from a rare zoological expedition in the department of Chinandega that is referenced in a more recent publication (Martinez-Sanchez, 2004). Nicaraguan tapir information from the 20th century is more common than the tapir literature from the prior century and is quite informative. Carr (1953) relates multiple experiences with tapirs from his 1945 expedition around the Wawashang River in the RAAS, calling the ecosystem a jungle full of tapirs. Most other tapir references are found in ethnographic accounts. Hamilton & Loveland (1976) provide explanations of the significance of the tapir in Rama culture based on fieldwork around the area of Wirin Cay, RAAS from the 1920s and late 1960s. They documented two types of narratives about tapirs, one describing the origin of the species and the other describing its behaviour. For instance, the Rama related to the researchers that tapirs and manatees were originally brothers before a swimming competition across a river went awry when only one brother managed to make it across. This brother became the tapir, while the brother who became trapped in the water became the manatee (Loveland, 1967). In another Rama story of tapir behaviour, the first tapir lived within human society before he subsequently decided to leave the human community to live in the forest because he was often ridiculed by his uncles for making so much noise when he walks (Loveland, 1976). Loveland (1976) references this latter tale to argue that the tapir signifies the marginalized members of Rama culture and society. Around the RAAS community of Tasbapauni, Nietschmann (1973) recorded multiple accounts of Miskito hunters killing Bairds tapirs during his fieldwork from 19691971. He also described tapir meat as historically taboo in Miskito communities (Nietschmann, 1973). Finally, Urquhart (1997) observed tapir tracks in 1994 and 1996 approximately 30 km north of Lovelands (1967) study area. These accounts provide evidence of tapir presence in a fairly extensive portion of the RAAS during the 20th century. Furthermore, the ethnographic evidence supports the assertion that tapirs occurred there for many centuries, to the extent that they became embedded within local cultures and traditions. The northern Caribbean coast is somewhat underrepresented in 20th century literature, though Ryan (1978) describes tapirs as extant in the southern Bosaws Reserve, 20 km west of the town of Siuna, during the 1970s. Pacific coast accounts of tapirs, available from the 19th century, all but disappear from the 20th century literature. Those that exist are unreliable at best, with an unclear description of a small remnant population of tapirs in the northwest of the country (Brooks et al ., 1997), a citation describing one specimen and community testimony from the Cosigina Peninsula from around the middle of the century (Genoways & Timm, 2005) and a brief, vague assertion that some tapirs occur in Matagalpa state comprising the only information (Brooks et al. 1997). Given the rarity of 20th century Pacific coast tapir accounts, it is not a surprise that they disappear entirely in 21st century literature. The only source is Medina (2005), who mentions that tapirs are only found on the Pacific side of the country within the buffer zones of the Bosaws and Indio-Maz reserves bordering the Caribbean region. In other words, Medina (2005) posits that the last surviving Pacific coast tapirs represent the western limit of the Caribbean populations. Medina (2005) also explicitly states that he believes that tapirs are extirpated from all Pacific coast locations far from the two aforementioned reserves. Nonetheless, this publication does not reveal how the author collected and analysed his data to arrive at these conclusions. The picture is different for Caribbean coast Nicaragua, where surveys of protected areas in the far north and south suggest the presence of viable populations of tapirs in each of these locations. Figure 1: The IUCN Bairds tapir range map for Nicaragua. Note that the species is considered extinct along the Caribbean coast.
In particular, biodiversity surveys describe viable populations within the Bosaws Reserve and its buffer zones along Nicaraguas border with Honduras (Medina, 2005; Mijail-Perez & Siria, 2006) and within the Indio-Maz Reserve along the southern border with Costa Rica (Almanza & Medina, 2002; Hueck-Espino, 2005; Medina, 2005). In these examples, and in the remainder of this text unless otherwise indicated, we define viable in the less rigorous sense employed by Iverson & Rene (1997), the likelihood that habitat conditions will support persistent and well distributed fish and wildlife populations over time. While perhaps not the most ideally detailed definition, the lack of rigor in the available data does not allow us to be more specific. Almanza & Medina (2002) indicate that the population centred in the Indio-Maz Reserve reaches its Western limit in a region that could be classified as the Pacific side of the country. However these tapirs are classified as part of the Caribbean population because its nucleus and source are located there. A number of publications that are the product of research projects on the daily activities of various indigenous communities provide more information about the viable population in the Bosaws Reserve (Cordon & Toledo, 2008; Koster, 2006; 2008a; 2008b; 2011; and Williams-Guillen et al. 2006). Koster (2006), in particular, underscores the viability of the population by describing tapir hunting strategies and accounts, and the local tapir populations capacity to continually rebound despite observed Miskito hunting pressure that he calculated should have been unsustainable. One 20th century source outside of the Bosaws and its buffer zone is a non-scientific report of concerning the indigenous community of Kuakuail II in the Tasba Pri territory, municipality of Puerto Cabezas that describes the cultural importance of the tapir (Tebtebba Foundation, 2010). Similar to the case in Wirin Cay (Loveland, 1976), the fact that the tapir assumes an important cultural role in this community suggests that the tapir historically occurred in the Tasba Pri territory (Tebtebba Foundation, 2010). Furthermore, the text references tapirs in a way that indicates that the species still exists in the region. Yet it does not include contemporary observations or confirmed sightings, so the evidence for contemporary tapirs is equivocal. References of tapirs in other regions of the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua were not found. At the same time, the source from the Tasba Pri (Tebtebba Foundation, 2010) and the observations from the late 1990s (Urquhart, 1997) constitute evidence that prevents us from concluding definitively that tapirs have become locally extinct in Caribbean areas of Nicaragua outside of the Bosaws and Indio-Maz Reserves. In other words, given the information available in the literature, it is not possible to make convincing conclusions regarding the presence or absence of tapirs in these areas at the turn of the 21st century. Despite the variation in the quantity, type, and content of the Nicaraguan tapir literature throughout history, the major trends in the last several centuries of Bairds tapir literature from Nicaragua are the disappearance of Pacific coast tapir accounts and the continued presence of Caribbean coast accounts into the 20th and 21st centuries. These trends suggest that the population that historically occurred in the Pacific regions of the country was not viable and has subsequently become extinct whereas the Caribbean coast population was viable and persisted widely in the 20th century and at least within large nature reserves into the 21st century. Using the literature, we thus conclude that the IUCN (2008) map is correct in two sectors: in the Bosaws Reserve along the border with Honduras and in the Figure 2: A photo of a Bairds tapir taken with a camera trap in the Maya Creek area, located in the Western Wawashang Reserve, RAAS, Nicaragua.
18 Indio-Maz Reserve along the border with Costa Rica. Both the literature and the map indicate that viable populations of tapirs are found within and around these reserves. However, the conclusions from the literature review put two other sectors of the IUCN (2008) map in question. First, the map identifies the entire Pacific coast of Nicaragua as inhabited by tapirs, while the literature indicates that tapirs are likely extinct in this region. Second, the map identifies the majority of the Caribbean coast outside of the aforementioned reserves as an area of widespread tapir extirpation. The literature describing these locations is sparse, but suggests that this hypothesis is also incorrect. Indeed, the references found indicate that the species still occurred in several Caribbean coast locations outside of reserves during the 20th century, but with the exception of the Bosaws and Indio-Maz and their respective buffer zones, strong evidence of the species survival into the 21st century is not available. However, as mentioned above, we consider that the confirmed observations from the late 1990s (Urquhart, 1997) and the source describing tapirs from 2010 (Tebtebba Foundation, 2010) constitute evidence that prevent us from making a definitive conclusion about tapir extirpation in the region. According to this interpretation, it would have been more appropriate to label this area on the IUCN (2008) map as an area in which tapirs are Possibly Extinct. Although the lack of systematic investigation and the immense variation in the Nicaraguan tapir literature mean that these literature-based conclusions about the historical and contemporary status of tapirs should not be accepted as definitive, it is important to make the point that the history of Nicaraguas development and deforestation strongly supports our interpretations. Indeed, the Pacific coast is widely dominated by Mestizo culture. This culture has traditionally employed expansive cattle ranching and market-oriented, monoculture agriculture to the extent that most arable Pacific coast land was converted to cattle ranches, coffee plantations, or cotton fields by the 1950s. Intact forest that could function Figure 3: This map includes the various locations of Bairds tapir presence cited in the historical literature from Nicaragua. Locations are juxtaposed with the year the associated fieldwork was undertaken rather than publication date. Only citations with fairly specific geographic information were included on this map. Our survey data from 2009-2013 are not included here. Figure 4: This map depicts: 1) the approximate locations of the known viable tapir populations in the northern and southern regions of the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua; 2) the areas of confirmed tapir presence from our 2010-2013 surveys; and 3) areas about which we were unable to find published literature on tapir presence, absence, or ecology. Note: this map only describes information from the Caribbean coast; Pacific coast sources are not represented. Key locations mentioned throughout the article are labelled.
19 as wildlife habitat was for the most part was reduced to small patches. In contrast, the indigenous and afro-descendant groups of the Caribbean coast were historically dedicated to smaller-scale subsistence horticulture, fishing, and hunting. Although the impact of these subsistence activities is debatable, they are undoubtedly more sustainable than the practices typical of Pacific coast Mestizos In addition, larger forested areas are currently preserved in the Caribbean coast than in the Pacific coast. In short, throughout recent history the ecological conditions have been more favourable for tapir conservation in the Caribbean coast regions of Nicaragua than in the Pacific. Finally, it is important to mention that the country endured a Civil War during the end of the 20th century, which certainly reduced and likely prevented any scientific investigation on tapirs for all regions of the country. Tapir Sampling O ur work with tapirs in the RAAS and RAAN reveals that tapirs still occur in many areas of the Caribbean coast outside of the Bosaws and Indio-Maz Reserves, including several areas that are amongst the most highly affected by the agricultural frontier and land-colonization that is being driven by Mestizo Nicaraguans (Fig. 4). Our preliminary data reveal without question that this species continues to inhabit the Caribbean region that we could only identify as an area of possible extinction through our literature review and that the IUCN (2008) previously identified as an area of widespread tapir extirpation. Our tapir survey results also: a) confirm our conclusion that there existed a viable population of tapirs along the entire Caribbean coast throughout recent history, and b) suggest the possibility that the two main viable populations of tapirs previously identified in the Bosaws and Indio-Maz Reserves could be genetically linked via Caribbean coast ecosystems. Concerning conclusion b while preliminary analyses support this hypothesis, there is still a large portion of the Caribbean coast that remains to be surveyed. This lack of data does not allow us to conclude whether or not Nicaraguas Caribbean coast serves as a tapir corridor between the Bosaws and IndioMaz Reserves. This gap includes the riverine habitats along the Rio Grande between Karawala and Makantanka, and much of the forests along the highway between El Rama and Pearl Lagoon (Fig. 4). This latter region includes a sizeable oil palm plantation. Surveying these areas and better understanding the viability of the potential corridor is one of our high research priorities, because if gene flow exists between the Bosaws and Indio-Maz tapirs, or even if it is feasible to establish such gene flow through conservation initiatives, the Caribbean Coast of Nicaragua would be a key part of the Bairds tapir global distribution and a priority area for tapir conservation. If tapirs cannot inhabit these areas, the remaining tapirs in the RAAN and RAAS may simply be isolated individuals, rather than a viable population. Analysis of satellite photos with regard to our current tapir data can help to clarify this, but we consider additional surveys and telemetry data necessary because proper ecological elements may not be indicative of tapir presence due to the high degree of human activity. Indeed, hunting data we have recorded for a limited portion of the RAAS indicate that harvest levels are potentially unsustainable, with almost 50 tapirs reported to have been killed in the last decade by a mix of Mestizo indigenous, and afro-descendant hunters. This could mean that even if a corridor currently exists, the population within it may not be viable in the near future due to high hunting pressure. This would entail the effective extinction of Nicaraguas Caribbean coast tapirs, at least outside of the Bosaws and IndioMaz Reserves. Conclusion T he historical literature on tapirs in Nicaragua provides evidence that confirms certain sectors of the IUCNs species distribution map, but provides other evidence that puts other sectors in doubt (IUCN, 2008). In particular, the literature indicates that: 1) tapirs still exist in viable populations in the Bosaws and IndioMaz Reserves, 2) that tapirs historically occurred in viable populations along the Caribbean Coast outside of these reserves, 3) that the extirpation of these other Caribbean coast tapir populations is possible but uncertain, and 4) that a population of tapirs historically occurred in Pacific Coast Nicaragua, but it was not viable and has since gone extinct. Nicaraguas history of deforestation and development agrees with these conclusions regarding the status of Nicaraguas tapirs. The preliminary results from our current research on tapirs confirm conclusion two and provide evidence that tapirs are not extirpated from the majority of the Caribbean coast. The tapir still has a wide distribution along the coast. In fact, our results suggest that the Caribbean Coast of Nicaragua may serve as a genetic corridor between the known viable populations of tapirs in the Bosaws and IndioMaz Reserves. If such a corridor exists, or if it is feasible to establish such a corridor through conservation planning, the Caribbean Coast of Nicaragua would be a priority area for the global Bairds tapir conservation community. In terms of national tapir conservation, all of the evidence indicates that the Caribbean Coast should be the priority. Today we have more knowledge than ever about Bairds tapirs in Nicaragua. Nonetheless there remains much that we do not know about tapirs in the country; too little, for instance, to draft a conservation plan that includes detailed, practical, long-term prescriptions
for conservation based on tapir ecology data collected in Nicaragua. As mentioned above, we do not have the ecological or genetic data to confirm or refute the genetic corridor along the Caribbean coast. We also know very little about the species reproductive success versus mortality rates or dispersal capabilities, and habitat use and preferences in Nicaragua are unknown. Additionally, though the evidence suggests that the Caribbean coast should be considered the priority for tapir conservation, science infrastructure and investigation are highly deficient in Nicaragua. Nicaraguan scientists and field studies on terrestrial fauna, while increasing, are rare and have been rare throughout history and were likely prevented entirely during the Civil War in the late 20th century. Due to this, despite the conclusions of other researchers (i.e. Medina, 2005) and the dearth of 21st century tapir accounts from the Pacific coast, we should not be consider the species extirpated from this region. Based on these uncertainties, we can outline several key research priorities for tapir researchers in Nicaragua: Gain a complete understanding of tapir distribution in the potential corridor between the viable populations of the far north and south Caribbean coast regions. Gather data on tapir daily movements, habitat use and preferences in this potential corridor, including within protected areas and in landscapes inhabited by Mestizo indigenous and afro-descendant peoples to confirm or refute its corridor function. Use data to derive density and abundance estimates for Nicaraguas tapirs and then determine the potential impact of previously reported hunting levels and estimate the viability of the population, defined in a more rigorous manner: the probability the population will become extinct over a specified period of time. Analyse satellite photos of and additional literature on Pacific Coast Nicaragua to identify areas with the necessary resources to support tapirs Undertake surveys in those Pacific coast ecosystems identified to confirm or refute the species extirpation in the region If Nicaraguan tapirs are to be conserved, it is also important to begin using the information we currently have and continue applying all of the new data we collect to design and implement: A national education and awareness program focused on Nicaraguan tapir conservation A conservation action plan that outlines conservation priorities and feasible actions to achieve them. Indeed, long-term tapir conservation can only be achieved with a clear vision and the understanding and support of the Nicaraguan public. Acknowledgements T his research was completed with the economic support of the Disney Worldwide Conservation Fund, the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program, the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group Conservation Fund, the Mohammed bin Zayyed Species Conservation Grant Program, and the National Science Foundations Coupled Natural and Human Systems program (CNH-0815966). References Almanza, F. & Medina, A.. (2002). Distribucin, abundancia y aprovechamiento de especies silvestres cinegticas en tres reas protegidas de la reserva de biosfera del sudeste de Nicaragua. Bases para una propuesta regional de manejo y aprovechamiento de fauna en la Reserva Natural Indio Maz; Refugio de Vida Silvestre Rio San Juan y el Refugio de Vida Silvestre Los Guatuzos. Unpublished Report, Fundacin Amigos del Ro San Juan (FUNDAR), Managua Nicaragua. Bell, C.N. (1899). Tangweera: life and adventures among gentle savages Edward Arnold. London, UK. Berkenhagen, H. (1894). Grammar of the Miskito Language Gustav Winter Press. Bluefields, Nicaragua. Brinton, D.G. (1886). Notes on the Mangue: An extinct dialect formerly spoken in Nicaragua. Proc. of the American Philosophical Society. 23(122): 238-257 Brooks, D.M., Bodmer, R.E., & Matola, S.. (1997). Status survey and conservation action plan IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group. Carr, A. (1953). High Jungles and Low University Press of Florida. Gainesville, Fl. Collinson, J. (1867). Explorations in Central America, accompanied by surveys and levels from Lake Nicaragua to the Atlantic Ocean. Proc. of the Royal Geographical Society of London. 12(1): 25-48 Cordon, M.R. & Toledo, V.M.. (2008). La importancia conservacionista de las comunidades indgenas de la Reserva Bosaws, Nicaragua: un modelo de flujos. Revista Iberoamericana de Economa Ecolgica. 7: 43-60. Craig, CG. (1992). Language shift and language death: the case of the Rama in Nicaragua. International Journal of the Sociology of Language. 93(1): 11-26. Davidson, W.V. (1980). The Garifuna of Pearl Lagoon: Ethnohistory of an afro-american enclave in Nicaragua. Ethnohistory. 27(1): 31-47 Genoways, H. H., & Timm, R. M.. (2003). The xenarthrans of Nicaragua. Mastozoologia Neotropical 10: 231. Genoways, H.H., & Timm, R.M.. (2005). Mammals of the Cosigina peninsula of Nicaragua. Mastozoologa Neotropical. 12(2): 153-179. Hueck-Espino, J. (2005). La fauna de la reserva biolgica Indio Maz. Unpublished Report, IBESo (Investigacin sobre Biodiversidad, Ecologa y Sociedad) Financiado por PASMA, Danida, Netherlands. IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) (2008). Tapirus bairdii In: IUCN (2012). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2
21 Iverson, G.C. & B. Rene. 1997. Conceptual approaches for maintaining well-distributed, viable wildlife populations: a resource assessment. In: Julin, K.R (compiler). Assessments of wildlife viability, oldgrowth timber volume estimates, forested wetlands, and slope stability Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-392. Pp. 1-23. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. Portland, OR. Jamieson, M. (2010). A journey into symbolic disorder: Miskitu reactions to Mestizo Catholic ritual in Nicaragua. Ethnography 11(3): 409-424. Jordan, C.A. & Roe Hulse, K.. (2010). Estado de la biodiversidad terrestre de la Regin Autnoma Atlntico Sur (RAAS), Nicaragua. Ciencia e Interculturalidad. 7(2): 136. Jordan, C.A., Stevens, K.J., Urquhart, G.R., Kramer, D.B., & Roe, K.. (2010). A new record of Bairds tapir Tapirus bairdii in Nicaragua and potential implications. Tapir Conservation. 19(1): 11. Koster, J.M. (2006). Assessing the sustainability of Bairds tapir hunting in the Bosaws Reserve, Nicaragua. Tapir Conservation. 15(2): 23-28 Koster, J.M. (2008a). The impact of hunting dogs on wildlife harvests in the Bosaws Reserve, Nicaragua. Environmental Conservation. 35(3): 211-220. Koster, J.M. (2008b). Hunting with dogs in Nicaragua: an optimal foraging approach. Current Anthropology. 49(5): 935-944. Koster, J.M. (2011). Interhousehold meat sharing among Mayangna and Miskito horticulturalists in Nicaragua. Human Nature. 22(4): 394-415. Loveland, F.O. (1976). Tapirs and manatees: cosmological categories and social process among Rama Indians of Eastern Nicaragua. In: Helms, M.W. and F.O. Lovejoy. (eds). Frontier Adaptations in Lower Central America. pp. 67-82. Institute for the Study of Human Issues. Philadelphia. Martinez-Sanchez, J.C. (2004). Potencial para el ecoturismo de la finca las rojas departamento de Chinandega, Nicaragua. Unpublished Report, Camara Nicaraguense de la pequea y mediana industria turstica CANTUR, Managua, Nicaragua. Medina, A. (2005). Una aproximacin a los dantos de Nicaragua. Mijail Perez, A. & Siria, I. (2006). Visit to BOSAWS buffer zone, ATDER BL project site, Nicaragua. Unpublished Report to the IUCN, Netherlands. Nietschmann, B. (1973). Between Land and Water: The Subsistence Ecology of the Miskito Indians, Eastern Nicaragua. Seminar Press, Virginia, USA. Nicaragua Maritime Canal Company. (1890). The Maritime Ship Canal of Nicaragua: 1890 Harvard University, MA. Ryan, D.A. (1978). Recent development of national parks in Nicaragua. Biological Conservation. 13(3): 179-182 Tebtebba Foundation. (2010). Indigenous peoples, forests & REDD Plus: Sustaining & enhancing forests through traditional resource management. In: Tebtebba Foundation. (2010). The Tasba Pri Kuakuail II Communitys Relationship with the Forest in Nicaragua. Unpublished Report. Tebteppa Foundation, Phillipines. Urquhart, G.R. (1997). Disturbance and regeneration of swamp forests in Nicaragua: Evidence from ecology and paleoecology. Ph.D. Dissertation. The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. Williams-Guillen, K, Griffith, D., Polisar, J., Camilo, G. & Bauman, K. (2006). Abundancia de animales de caza y caracteristicas de cazeria en Kipla Sait Tasbaika Kum, Reserva de la Biosfera BOSAWS. WANI Conservacion y Antropologia 23:37-61.
22 Key Words: Atropellamiento, carreteras, Campeche, registro E l tapir centroamericano ( Tapirus bairdii ) es uno de los mamferos silvestres ms grandes de Latinoamrica, y una de las especies amenazadas de los trpicos, por tal razn se encuentra catalogado como en peligro de extincin en la Red list de la UICN (Castellanos et al ., 2008; UICN, 2011) y se le considera en el Apndice I de CITES desde 1975 (CITES, 2012). En Mxico est en peligro de extincin debido principalmente a la prdida y fragmentacin de su hbitat, y a la cacera sin control (Naranjo, 2009). El tapir ha sido una de las especies menos estudiadas en Mxico. A la fecha se ha determinado la importancia de algunas reas Naturales Protegidas del sureste del pas, como refugios para esta especie, pero se desconoce casi en su totalidad, la importancia de las ANP ms pequeas, terrenos privados y comunales como hbitat del tapir (Mendoza & Carbajal, 2011). En Mxico se ha confirmado la presencia del tapir en los estados de Oaxaca, Chiapas, Campeche y Quintana Roo (Naranjo, 2009). Sin embargo, al interior de los estados aun existen vacios de informacin, como el caso del estado de Campeche, en donde algunos reportes recientes plantean que la distribucin actual de la especie abarca nicamente la porcin sureste del estado, principalmente en la regin del gran Calakmul (complejo de reservas conformado por la Reserva de la Bisfera de Calakmul, as como las Reservas Estatales de Balam-ku y Balam-kin; Naranjo, 2009), as como en reas de propiedad privada y comunal localizadas en la porcin central del estado (Contreras-Moreno, 2012). Esta nota trata del nuevo registro de un individuo de Tapirus bairdii (atropellado) en la regin centrooeste del estado de Campeche, donde no se tena datos de la presencia reciente de esta especie. Al amanecer del da 9 de septiembre de 2012 se registr el atropellamiento de una hembra adulta de tapir centroamericano (Fig. 1) en el km 62 de la carretera federal 261 Escarcega-Champotn, a 2 km al norte del poblado San Pablo Pixtn, Campeche (19 Nuevo registro de Tapir centroamericano ( Tapirus bairdii ) atropellado en el Noroeste del estado de Campeche, Mxico Fernando M. Contreras-Moreno 1 Mircea G. Hidalgo-Mihart 1* Luz A. Prez-Solano 2 y Yanira A. Vzquez-Maldonado 3 1 Laboratorio de Ecologa y Conservacin de Fauna Silvestre Neotropical, Universidad Jurez Autnoma de Tabasco. Km. 0.5 Carretera Villahermosa-Crdenas, Villahermosa, Tabasco, Mxico. C.P. 86039. 2 Divisin de Posgrado, Instituto de Ecologa A. C. Carretera Antigua a Coatepec 351. El Haya, Xalapa, Veracruz, Mxico. C.P. 91070. 3 Tecnolgico de Chin. Calle 11 s/n entre 22 y 28, Campeche, Campeche, Mxico. C.P. 24520. Correspondencia: email@example.com Figura 1: Imagen del tapir centroamericano ( Tapirus bairdii ) hembra atropellado en el Noroeste del estado de Campeche, Mxico.
23 N ,90 37W), por un vehculo de caractersticas desconocidas (Fig. 2). La va Escarcega-Champotn fue construida hace mas de 40 aos y ampliada en 2010 y 2011 de 8 a 12 m de ancho de corona (una de las partes transversales que componen una carretera), con superficie de concreto asfltico. La Figura 2: Localizacin del registro de tapir centroamericano ( Tapirus bairdii ) atropellado en el noroeste del estado de Campeche, Mxico. Se observa que el tapir fue atropellado entre el complejo de reservas que conforman el gran Calakmul (Reserva de la Bisfera de Calakmul y Reservas estatales de Balam-kin, Balam-ku,) y el rea de Proteccin de Flora y Fauna Silvestre Laguna de Trminos.
24 carretera en la actualidad se encuentra diseada para alojar dos carriles de circulacin de 3,5 m por sentido y acotamientos laterales de 2,5 m. La velocidad proyectada para los vehculos en el sitio donde el tapir fue atropellado es de 90 a 110 km/h, pues se trata de un rea plana y sin curvas. El uso de suelo alrededor del sitio de atropellamiento se encuentra constituido por cultivos tales como maz y calabaza, as como por reas donde los cultivos y pastizales inducidos para la ganadera han sido abandonados. Una vez que los pobladores locales encontraron al animal a un lado de la carretera, tomaron fotografas y se lo comieron, por lo que no fue posible la recuperacin de tejidos. Este nuevo registro de tapir en la zona centrooeste del estado es de destacar, ya que originalmente se consideraba que la distribucin del tapir centroamericano abarcaba todo el estado de Campeche en Mxico (Hall, 1981), sin embargo, aos despus se publicaran mapas en los que ya se descartaba la presencia del tapir en gran parte de su distribucin original (Naranjo, 2001). Con este registro se confirma la presencia de Tapirus bairdii en el centro-oeste del estado de Campeche, Mxico. Existen numerosos estudios sobre el efecto negativo que las carreteras tienen sobre los ecosistemas naturales (Coffin, 2007). Se ha documentado que las carreteras en muchas ocasiones tienen efectos adversos en la fauna silvestre, pues transforman el hbitat donde se construye el camino, favorecen la entrada de nuevos pobladores humanos con el consiguiente cambio en el uso de suelo e incremento en cacera, limitan o impiden el paso de especies especialistas de hbitat, as como provocan mortalidad debido a colisiones con vehculos (Coffin, 2007; Laurence et al ., 2009). En el caso particular de las colisiones con vehculos, se ha documentado que millones de organismos mueren por atropellamientos cada ao (Laurence et al ., 2009), a tal grado que para algunas especies, la mortalidad producida por colisiones excede al provocado por la cacera (Forman & Alexander, 1998). El efecto de las carreteras es tal, que en la actualidad las carreteras se consideran como una barrera que limita el movimiento de los animales entre ambos lados de la va, disminuyendo la accesibilidad a los recursos y el intercambio gentico interpoblacional (Epps et al ., 2005; Riley et al ., 2006; Strasburg, 2006). Los tapires han sido reportados como organismos que raramente son atropellados (Fisher et al ., 2004; Nigro & Lodeiro, 2009, Cceres et al ., 2010). En la actualidad se cuenta con muy poca informacin sobre atropellamientos de tapires centroamericanos ( Tapirus bairdii ). nicamente se sabe de reportes aislados de atropellamientos de tapires en Belice (Medici et al ., 2005), as como crnicas en medios de comunicacin que informan de tapires muertos en carreteras de Mxico (ej. http://www.comunicacarmen.com.mx/Php/ noticiacomlocal.php?id=66481 ). Debido a su tamao y hbitos, el tapir requiere de grandes reas para sobrevivir (Naranjo, 2009), lo que muy probablemente implica que se vean obligados a cruzar continuamente carreteras y, al igual que otros grandes mamferos que comparten estas caractersticas, se encuentran en riesgo constante de ser atropellados (Gunther et al ., 2001; Laurence et al ., 2009). La regin donde fue atropellado el tapir ha sido sealada como clave para grandes mamferos como el jaguar, pues une las poblaciones de esta ultima especie entre el rea del gran Calakmul y el rea de Proteccin de Flora y Fauna Laguna de Trminos (Rabinowitz & Zeller, 2010). As mismo, en modelos de dispersin de jaguar, la regin localizada entre el km 54 y 68 de la misma carretera, ha sido identificada como un rea clave para la conexin entre las reas naturales protegidas (Hidalgo-Mihart et al ., 2011). El hecho de que este tapir haya sido atropellado exactamente en las reas identificadas como prioritarias dentro de un corredor biolgico para otras especies, refuerza la importancia de conservacin de este corredor, as como la necesidad de establecer propuestas de conservacin para las diversas especies locales, adems de implementar una serie de medidas para reducir los riesgos de atropellamiento de fauna silvestre en esta rea. El efecto que el atropellamiento de esta hembra de tapir tiene sobre la poblacin en la regin centrooeste de Campeche se desconoce, sin embargo, en especies que presentan densidades bajas y tamaos poblacionales pequeos tales como los grandes carnvoros o herbvoros, las colisiones con vehculos, an cuando sean poco numerosas, pueden convertirse en una causa importante de mortalidad y un factor significativo para reducir las posibilidades de supervivencia de la poblacin local, como por ejemplo la pantera de Florida (Maher et al ., 1991; Taylor et al ., 2002). Ante la evidente presencia de tapires en la zona (centro-oeste del estado de Campeche), es necesario realizar estudios enfocados a conocer el estatus que el tapir centroamericano presenta en esta regin, para poder determinar si el individuo atropellado se trataba de un organismo dispersor o existe una poblacin residente en la zona, y as establecer bases solidas sobre las cuales se elaboren estrategias de manejo y conservacin de esta especie en la zona Literatura Citada Cceres, N.C., Hannibal, W., Freitas, D.R., Silva, E.L, Roman,C. & Casella, J. (2010). Mammal occurrence and roadkill in two adjacent ecoregions (Atlantic Forest and Cerrado) in south western Brazil. Zoologia 27: 709. Castellanos, A., Foerester, C., Lizcano, D.J., Naranjo, E., Cruz-Aldan, E., Lira-Torres, I., Samudio, R., Matola, S., Schipper, J. & Gonzalez-Maya. J. (2008). Tapirus bairdii In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened
25 Species. Version 2011.2.
26 C urrently, the TSG has 122 members, including field researchers, educators, veterinarians, governmental agencies and NGO representatives, zoo personnel, university professors and students, from 28 different countries worldwide (Argentina, Australia, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica, Denmark, Ecuador, France, French Guiana, Germany, Guatemala, Honduras, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Myanmar, Nicaragua, Republic of Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Thailand, The Netherlands, United Kingdom, United States, and Venezuela). AMANZO, JESSICA Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia Peru AMORIM MORAES JR., EDSEL Instituto Biotrpicos Brazil AEZ GALBAN, LUIS Fundacin Parque Zoolgico Metropolitano del Zulia Venezuela ANGELL, GILIA Amazon.com United States ARIAS ALZATE, ANDRS Grupo de Mastozoologa CTUA, Universidad de Antioquia Colombia AYALA C., GUIDO Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) Bolivia Bolivia BARONGI, RICK Houston Zoo Inc. / AZA Tapir TAG United States BECK, HARALD Towson University United States BERMUDEZ LARRAZABAL, LIZETTE Parque Zoologico Recreacional Huachipa Peru BERNAL RINCN, AGUEDA LUZ Zoolgico Centro Vacacional CAFAM MELGAR Colombia BODMER, RICHARD University of Kent United Kingdom BOSHOFF, LAUTJIE Rafiki Safari Lodge Costa Rica BUMPUS, RENEE Houston Zoo Inc. United States CALM, SOPHIE Universit de Sherbrooke, Canada / El Colegio de la Frontera Sur (ECOSUR), Mexico Canada CALVO DOMINGO, JOS JOAQUN Sistema Nacional de reas de Conservacin, Ministerio del Ambiente, Energa y Telecomunicaciones Costa Rica CAMACHO, JAIME EcoCiencia Fundacin Zoolgica del Ecuador Ecuador CAMPOS ARCEIZ, AHIMSA University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus Jalan Broga Malaysia CARTES, JOS Asociacin Guyra Paraguay Paraguay CASTELLANOS PEAFIEL, ARMANDO XAVIER Fundacin Espritu del Bosque Ecuador CASTILLO, FERNANDO Guatemala
CHALUKIAN, SILVIA C. Consultant Argentina COLBERT, MATTHEW University of Texas at Austin United States CORDEIRO, JOS LUIS Fundao Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz), Ministrio da Sade Brazil CRUZ ALDN, EPIGMENIO Instituto de Historia Natural / Zoologico Regional Miguel Alvarez Del Toro Mexico CUARN, ALFREDO D. SACB Servicios Ambientales, Conservacin Biolgica y Educacin Mexico de THOISY, BENOIT Association Kwata French Guiana DEE, MICHAEL United States DESMOULINS, AUDE ZooParc de Beauval / EAZA Tapir TAG France DINATA, YOAN Fauna & Flora International Indonesia Program Indonesia DOWNER, CRAIG Andean Tapir Fund United States ESTRADA ANDINO, NEREYDA Panthera Foundation Honduras FINNEGAN, MITCH Oregon Zoo United States FLESHER, KEVIN Michelin Brasil Brazil FLOCKEN, JEFFREY International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW) United States FLREZ, FRANZ KASTON Fundacin Nativa & Nativa France Colombia FRAGOSO, JOS MANUEL VIEIRA Stanford University United States GALEANO, MIGUEL Fundacin para la Autonoma y el Desarrollo de la Costa Atlntica de Nicaragua, FADCANIC Nicaragua GARCA VETTORAZZI, MANOLO JOS Centro de Estudios Conservacionistas / Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala Guatemala GARELLE, DELLA Cheyenne Mountain Zoological Park United States GASPARINI, GERMN Divisin Paleontologa Vertebrados, Museo de La Plata, CONICET Argentina GATTI, ANDRESSA Universidade Federal do Esprito Santo (UFES) / Instituto Marcos Daniel (IMD) Brazil GLATSTON, ANGELA Rotterdam Zoo / EAZA Tapir TAG The Netherlands GOFF, DON Beardsley Zoological Gardens / AZA Tapir TAG United States GONALVES DA SILVA, ANDERS Monash University Australia GREENE, LEWIS Columbus Zoo / AZA Tapir TAG United States GIRIS ANDRADE, DARIO MARCELINO UN.A.CH. / Policlinica y Diagnstico Veterinario Mexico
28 HERNANDEZ, SONIA University of Georgia United States HOLDEN, JEREMY Flora and Fauna International Indonesia Indonesia HOLST, BENGT Copenhagen Zoo / EAZA Tapir TAG Denmark HOYER, MARK Artis Royal Zoo The Netherlands ISASI-CATAL, EMILIANA Universidad Simn Bolvar Venezuela JANSSEN, DONALD San Diego Wild Animal Park United States JORDAN, CHRISTOPHER Michigan State University United States JULI, JUAN PABLO Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Tucumn Argentina LAGUNA, ANDRES Andean Bear Foundation Ecuador LEONARDO, RAQUEL Fundacin Defensores de la Naturaleza Guatemala LIRA TORRES, IVN Instituto de Ciencias Agropecuarias UAEH Mexico LIZCANO, DIEGO J. Universidad de Pamplona Colombia LYNAM, ANTONY Wildlife Conservation Society (WSC) Asia Program Thailand MANGINI, PAULO ROGERIO TRADE Brazil MARIN WIKANDER, SOFA Universidad Simn Bolvar Venezuela MARINEROS, LEONEL IRBIO Zamorano Honduras MARTYR, DEBORAH Flora and Fauna International Indonesia Indonesia MATOLA, SHARON Belize Zoo and Tropical Education Center Belize M C CANN, NIALL Cardiff University United Kingdom MEDICI, PATRCIA IP Instituto de Pesquisas Ecolgicas Brazil MENDOZA, ALBERTO Vet Tech Institute / AZA Tapir TAG Latin America Advisor United States MOGOLLON, HUGO Ecuador MONTENEGRO, OLGA LUCIA Universidad Nacional de Colombia (UNAL) Colombia MORALES, MIGUEL A. Conservation International United States MUENCH, CARLOS CIEco-Centro de Investigaciones en Ecosistemas, Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mxico Mexico NARANJO, EDUARDO El Colegio de la Frontera Sur (ECOSUR) Mexico NOGALES, FERNANDO Universidad Tcnica Particular de Loja (UTPL) / Instituto Ecuatoriano de Propiedad Intelectual (IEPI) Ecuador
29 NOVARINO, WILSON Andalas University Indonesia NUGROHO, AGUNG Bogor Agricultural Institute (IPB) Inodnesia OFARRILL, GEORGINA University of Toronto Canada OLOCCO, MARA JULIETA Universidad de Buenos Aires Argentina ORDEZ DELGADO, LEONARDO Findacin Ecolgica Arcoiris Ecuador ORDONNEAU, DOROTHE Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias de Esperanza Universidad Nacional del Litoral France PAVIOLO, AGUSTN CONICET-Instituto de Biologa Subtropical, Univ. Nac. de Misiones y CelBA Argentina PERERA, LUCY Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) Venezuela Venezuela PINHO, GABRIELA Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amaznia Brazil POT, CELSO Belize Zoo and Tropical Education Center Belize PRASTITI, SHARMY Taman Safari Indonesia / South East Asia Zoological Association (SEAZA) Indonesia PUKAZHENTHI, BUDHAN Smithsonian Institutions National Zoological Park, Conservation and Research Center United States QUSE, VIVIANA BEATRIZ Argentina RESTREPO, HECTOR FRANCISCO Fundacin Wii Colombia REYES PUIG, JUAN PABLO Fundacin Oscar Efrn Reyes Ecuador RICHARD-HANSEN, CCILE Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage (ONCFS) / Direction tudes et Recherches French Guiana ROBERTS, RACHEL SSC Network Coordination Officer, IUCN Species Survival Commission (SSC) United Kingdom RODRGUEZ ORTIZ, JULIANA Universidad Nacional de Colombia (UNAL) Colombia ROMAN, JOSEPH Virginia Zoological Park / AZA Tapir TAG United States RUIZ FUAMAGALLI, JOS ROBERTO Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala Guatemala RUSSO, KELLY J. The Houston Museum of Natural Science United States SACASA, EDUARDO Fundacin Amigos del Zoolgico Nicaragense (FAZOONIC) Nicaragua SANCHES, ALEXANDRA UNESP Brazil SANCHEZ, CARLOS Chicago Zoological Society United States SANDOVAL ARENAS, SERGIO Colombia SARMIENTO DUEAS, ADRIANA MERCEDES Fundacin Gaia Amazonas Colombia
SCHWARTZ, KARIN R. ISIS Unites States SCHWARTZ, RICHARD Nashville Zoo at Grassmere / AZA Tapir TAG United States SEITZ, STEFAN Consultant Germany SHEWMAN, HELEN Woodland Park Zoo United States SHOEMAKER, ALAN H. TSG / AZA Tapir TAG United States SHWE, NAY MYO Friends of Wildlife (FoW) Myanmar SIMPSON, BOYD Copenhagen Zoo Southeast Asia Conservation Programme Malaysia SMITH, DIORENE Summit Zoo Panama STAHL, TIM Stahl PhotoGraphics United States STANCER, MICHELE San Diego Zoo / AZA Tapir TAG United States SUREZ MEJA, JAIME Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Facultad de Estudios Ambientales y Rurales Colombia TAPIA, ANDRS Centro Ecolgico Shanca Arajuno Ecuador TOBLER, MATHIAS San Diego Zoo Global United States TORRES, NATALIA Ecuador TRAEHOLT, CARL Copenhagen Zoo Southeast Asia Conservation Programme Malaysia VARELA, DIEGO Conservacin Argentina Argentina WALLACE, ROBERT B. Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) Bolivia Bolivia WILLIAMS, KEITH Private Consultant Australia WOHLERS, HUMBERTO The Belize Zoo and Tropical Education Centre Belize ZAINUDDIN, ZAINAL ZAHARI Malaysia ZAVADA, JEANNE East Tennessee State University & General Shale Brick Natural History Museum at Gray Fossil Site United States ZAVADA, MICHAEL East Tennessee State University & General Shale Brick Natural History Museum at Gray Fossil Site United States
31 Scope The Tapir Conservation, the Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group aims to provide information regarding all aspects of tapir natural history. Items of news, recent events, recent publications, thesis abstracts, workshop proceedings etc concerning tapirs are welcome. Manuscripts should be submitted in MS Word (.doc, at this moment we cannot accept documents in .docx format). The Newsletter will publish original work by: Scientists, wildlife biologists, park managers and other con tributors on any aspect of tapir natural history including distribution, ecology, evolution, genetics, habitat, husbandry, management, policy and taxonomy. Preference is given to material that has the potential to improve conservation management and enhances understanding of tapir con servation in its respective range countries. The primary languages of the Newsletter are English and Spanish. Abstracts in English are preferred. Papers and Short Communications Full Papers (2,000-5,000 words) and Short Communications (2002,000 words) are invited on topics relevant to the Newsletters focus, including: Research on the status, ecology or behaviour of tapirs. Research on the status or ecology of tapir habitats, including soil composition, mineral deposits (e.g., salt licks) and topo graphy. Husbandry and captive management. Veterinarian and genetic aspects. Reviews of conservation plans, policy and legislation. Conservation management plans for species, habitats or areas. Tapirs and local communities (e.g., hunting, bush meat and cultural aspects). Research on the ecological role of tapir, for example, seed dispersers, prey for predators and facilitators of forest regrowth. Natural history and taxonomy of tapirs (e.g., evolution, palaeontology and extinction). How to Submit a Manuscript Manuscripts should be submitted in electronic format by e-mail to the contributions editor at the email provided. Hard copies will not be accepted. Contributions Editor: Carl Traeholt e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org In the covering e-mail, the Lead Author must confirm that: a) the submitted manuscript has not been published elsewhere, b) all of the authors have read the submitted manuscript and agreed to its submission, all research was conducted with the necessary approval and permit from the appropriate authorities and adhere to appropriate animal manipulation guides. Review and Editing All contributors are strongly advised to ensure that their spelling and grammar is checked by native English or Spanish speaker(s) before the manuscript is submitted to the Contributions Editor. The Editorial Team reserves the right to reject manuscripts that are poorly written. All manuscripts will be subject to peer review by a minimum of two reviewers. Authors are welcome to suggest appropriate reviewers; however, the Contributions Editor reserves the right to appoint revie wers that seem appropriate and competent for the task. Proofs will be sent to authors as a portable document format (PDF) file attached to an e-mail note. Corrected proofs should be returned to the Editor within 3 days of receipt. Minor corrections can be com municated by e-mail. The Editorial Team welcomes contributions to the other sections of the Newsletter: News Concise reports (<300 words) on news of general interest to tapir research and conservation. This may include announcements of new initiatives; for example, the launch of new projects, conferences, fun ding opportunities, new relevant publications and discoveries. Letters to the Editor Informative contributions (<650 words) in response to material published in the Newsletter. Preparation of Manuscripts Contributions in English should make use of UK English spelling [if in doubt, Microsoft Word and similar software can be set to check spelling and grammar for English (UK) language]. The cover page should contain the title and full mailing address, e-mail address and address of the Lead Author and all additional authors. All pages should be numbered consecutively, and the order of the sections of the manuscript should be: cover page, main text, acknowledgement, tables, figures and plates. Title This should be a succinct description of the work, in no more than 20 words. Abstract Full Papers only This should describe, in 100-200 words, the aims, methods, major findings and conclusions. It should be informative and
32 intelligible without reference to the text, and should not contain any references or undefined abbreviations. Keywords Up to five pertinent words, in alphabetical order. Format For ease of layout, please submit all manuscripts with a minimum of formatting (e.g. avoid specific formats for headings etc); however, the following is needed: Manuscripts should be double-spaced. Submissions can be in doc, rtf or wpd format, preferably as one file attached to one covering email. Avoid writing headlines in CAPITAL letters. Font type and size should be Times New Roman # 12 Font type for tables should be Arial and 0.5 dot lines. 1 inch (2.54 cm) margins for all margins Number pages consecutively starting with the title page numbers should be on the bottom right hand corner Font type for tables should be Arial and 0.5 dot lines. Pictures and illustrations should be in as high resolution as possible to allow for proper downscaling and submitted as separate files in EPS or JPG format. References References should be cited in the text as, for example, MacArthur & Wilson (1967) or (Foerster, 1998). For three or more authors use the first authors surname followed by et al. ; for example, Herrera et al. (1999) Multiple references should be in chronological order The refe rence list should be in alphabetical order and article titles and the titles of serial publications should be given in full. In cases where an author is referenced multiple times the most recent publication should be listed first. Please check that all listed references are used in the text and vice versa. The following are examples of house style: Journal Article Herrera, J.C., Taber, A., Wallace, R.B. & Painter, L. 1999. Lowland tapir ( Tapirus terrestris ) behavioural ecology in a southern Amazonian tropi cal forest. Vida Silv. Tropicale 8:31-37. Chapter in Book Janssen, D.L., Rideout, B.A. & Edwards, M.S. 1999. Tapir Medicine. In: M.E. Fowler & R. E. Miller (eds.) Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine, pp.562-568. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, USA. Book MacArthur, R.H. & Wilson, E.O. (1967) The Theory of Island Biogeography Princeton University Press, Princeton, USA. Thesis/Dissertation Foerster. C.R. 1998. Ambito de Hogar, Patron de Movimentso y Dieta de la Danta Centroamericana ( Tapirus bairdii ) en el Parque Nacional Corcovado, Costa Rica. M.S. thesis. Universidad Nacional, Heredia, Costa Rica. Report Santiapilli, C. & Ramono, W.S. 1989. The Status and Conservation of the Malayan tapir ( Tapirus indicus ) in Sumatra, Indonesia. Unpublished Report, Worldwide Fund for Nature, Bogor, Indonesia. Web IUCN (2007) 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species Http://www. redlist.org [accessed 1 May 2009]. Tables, figures and plates These should be self-explanatory, each on a separate page and with an appropriate caption. Figures should be in black and white. Plates will only be included in an article if they form part of evidence that is integral to the subject studied (e.g., a camera-trap photograph of a rare situation), if they are of good quality, and if they do not need to be printed in colour. Species names The first time a species is mentioned, its scientific name should fol low without intervening punctuation: e.g., Malay tapir Tapirus indicus English names should be in lower case throughout except where they incorporate a proper name (e.g., Asian elephant, Malay tapir). Abbreviations Full expansion should be given at first mention in the text. Units of measurement Use metric units only for measurements of area, mass, height, distance etc. Copyright The copyright for all published articles will be held by the publisher unless otherwise stated. Publisher IUCN Tapir Specialist Group Website www.tapirs.org
33 Chair Patrcia Medici, Brazil Steering Committee Alan Shoemaker, United States Alberto Mendoza, Mexico/United States Anders Gonalves da Silva, Brazil/Australia Bengt Holst, Denmark Carl Traeholt, Malaysia Gilia Angell, United States Jeffrey Flocken, United States Kelly Russo, United States Mathias Tobler, Switzerland/United States Michael Dee, United States Michele Stancer, United States Rick Schwartz, United States Viviana Quse, Argentina Bairds Tapir Coordinator Manolo Garca, Guatemala Lowland Tapir Coordinator Viviana Beatriz Quse, Argentina Malayan Tapir Coordinator Carl Traeholt, Malaysia Mountain Tapir Coordinator Armando Castellanos, Ecuador Red List Authority Red List Focal Point: Alan H. Shoemaker, United States Tapir Conservation Newsletter Editors Contributions Editor: Carl Traeholt, Malaysia, and Anders Gonalves da Silva, Brazil/Australia Layout & Distribution Editors: Danielle Lalonde, Australia, and Kelly J. Russo, United States Virtual Library Manager Mathias Tobler, Switzerland/United States Fundraising Committee Coordinator Patrcia Medici, Brazil Action Planning Committee Coordinator Patrcia Medici, Brazil Action Plan Implementation Taskforce TSG Species Coordinators & TSG Country Coordinators Zoo Committee Coordinator Viviana Quse, Argentina Veterinary Committee Coordinator Viviana Quse, Argentina Genetics Committee Coordinators Anders Gonalves da Silva, Brazil/Australia Marketing & Education Committee Coordinators Kelly J. Russo, United States Webmasters Kara Masharani, United States Re-Introduction & Translocation Advisory Committee Coordinators Patrcia Medici, Brazil and Anders Gonalves da Silva, Brazil/Australia Nutrition Consultant Maria Julieta Olocco, Argentina Evolution Consultant Matthew Colbert, United States Country Coordinators Argentina: Silvia Chalukian Belize: In the process of identifying a coordinator Bolivia: Guido Ayala Brazil: Patrcia Medici Colombia: Olga Montenegro Costa Rica: In the process of identifying a coordinator Ecuador: Fernando Nogales Guatemala: Raquel Leonardo Guiana Shield (French Guiana, Guiana and Suriname): Benoit de Thoisy Honduras: Nereyda Estrada Andino Indonesia: Wilson Novarino Malaysia: Zainal Zahari Zainuddin Mexico: Georgina OFarrill Myanmar: U Nay Myo Shwe Nicaragua: Christopher Jordan Panama: In the process of identifying a coordinator Paraguay: Jos Luis Cartes Peru: Jessica Amanzo Thailand: Antony Lynam Venezuela: In the process of identifying a coordinator
Contents Contents .......................................................... 2 Editorial Board ................................................ 2 From the Chair ................................................. 3 Letter from the Chair Patrcia Medici 3 Spotlight ......................................................... 4 The Tapir Research Spotlight Mathias Tobler, Ahimsa Campos-Arceiz 4 Conservation ................................................... 6 Andrs Tapia, Fernando Nogales, Ruth Arias, Diego G. Tirira 6 towards a common goal Georgina OFarrill 8 Fostering International Cooperation for Bairds Tapir Conservation in a Northern Portion of the Manolo J. Garcia, Nereyda Estrada, Christopher Jordan 8 Contributions ................................................. 10 tapir in Panama Ninon Meyer, Ricardo Moreno, Patrick A. Jansen Bairds tapirs Tapirus bairdii in Nicaragua Christopher A. Jordan, Gerald R. Urquhart 14 Nuevo registro de Tapir centroamericano ( Tapirus bairdii ) atropellado en el Noroeste del estado de Fernando M. Contreras-Moreno, Mircea G. Hidalgo-Mihart, Luz A. Prez-Solano, Yanira A. Vzquez-Maldonado 22 Tapir Specialist Group Members .................... 26 Instructions for Authors ................................ 31 Tapir Specialist Group Structure ................... 33 1513 North MacGregor Houston, Texas 77030 www.houstonzoo.org TAPIR CONSERVATION The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group www.tapirs.org