Group Title: Tapir conservation (Print)
Title: Tapir conservation
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Title: Tapir conservation the newsletter of the IUCNSSC Tapir Specialist Group
Uniform Title: Tapir conservation (Print)
Abbreviated Title: Tapir conserv. (Print)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group
IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group
Publisher: IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group
Place of Publication: Houston TX
Houston TX
Publication Date: December 2007
Copyright Date: 2009
Frequency: semiannual
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began in 1990.
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 12, no. 2 (Dec. 2003); title from cover.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00095885
Volume ID: VID00022
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 56897961
lccn - 2004215875
issn - 1813-2286


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ISSN 1813-2286
Volume 16/2 U No. 22
December 2007


Tapir Conservation




Volume 16/2 0 No. 22 0 December 2007

From the Chair
Letter from the Chair

National Action Plan Reports
Plan de Acci6n Danta Costa Rica
Construcci6n Participativa de la Estrategia Nacional
para la Conservaci6n de los Tapires del Ecuador
Report on Progress Developing Argentina's National
Action Plan
Progress Report of National Action Plan for Tapir
Conservation in Indonesia

Seminar on Breeding Biology of Malay Tapir in Captivity
in Indonesia

Scientific Reports
2007: Two major Steps forTapir Conservation in
French Guiana
New Fossil Discoveries and the History of Tapirus

Contributed Papers
Anilisis de la Microbiota Bacteriana,Aislada en Heces de
Tapirus bairdii, de la Sierra Madre de Chiapas, Mexico
Reports sobre la Presencia del Tapir de Montana
(Tapirus pinchaque) en el Parque Nacional Llanganates,
Region Central de los Andes del Ecuador

News in Brief
Patricia Medici one of the Winners of the Golden Ark
Award 2008

TSG Members

TSG Structure

Notes for Contributors

The views expressed in Tapir Conservation are those of the
authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the IUCN/SSC
Tapir Specialist Group or Houston Zoological Gardens. This
publication may be photocopied for private use only and the
copyright remains that of the Tapir Specialist Group. Copyright
for all photographs herein remains with the individual photo-



Editorial Board



& Distribution


Tapir Cons.


William Konstant

Leonardo Salas

Diego J. Lizcano

Alan H. Shoemaker

Matthew Colbert

Anders Gongalves da Silva

Angela Glatston

Patricia Medici

Sheryl Todd

Leonardo Salas

Stefan Seitz

Kelly J. Russo

Rick Barongi

This issue is kindly sponsored by Houston Zoo
Inc., Cons. Program Asst., Kelly Russo, 1513 North
Mac Gregor, Houston,Texas 77030, USA.

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/2 0 No. 22 0 December 2007



Letter from the Chair

By Patricia Medici

It is a pleasure to announce that we are well on
our way in the process of organizing the upcoming
Fourth International Tapir Symposium that will be
held at Parque XCARET in Playa del Carmen, Cancin,
Mexico, from April 26 to May 1st, 2008.

The First International Tapir Symposium held in
Costa Rica in 2001 brought together for the very first
time 85 tapir experts and conservationists from 21
different countries worldwide. For the Second Inter-
national Tapir Symposium, held in Panama in 2004,
we had the participation of 90 representatives from 19
countries. The last conference, the Third International
Tapir Symposium held in Argentina in 2006, included
100 tapir conservationists from 25 countries. The
TSG's International Tapir Symposium has proved to
be a critical occasion for tapir conservation worldwide,
promoting the perfect opportunity and atmosphere to
exchange ideas and experiences, and to foster our glo-
bal network of tapir researchers and supporters. The
Fourth International Tapir Symposium will once again
bring together a multi-faceted group of tapir experts
and conservationists, including field biologists, envi-
ronmental educators, captivity specialists, academics,
researchers, veterinarians, governmental authorities,
politicians and other interested parties.
Specific topics discussed during the symposium
will be tapir field research and conservation, popula-
tion and habitat management, re-introductions and
translocations, husbandry and captive management,
environmental education and outreach, training and
capacity-building, involvement of local communities,
marketing, fundraising, governmental regulations and
permits, veterinary issues, human-tapir conflicts and
many other issues. The first part of the conference
will feature paper and poster presentations by tapir
researchers and keynote speakers, and the second part
will be devoted to workshops and round-tables ad-
dressing specific topics relevant to tapir conservation.
All sessions will be conducted in English and simulta-
neously translated to Spanish.
A very important session to be carried out during
the conference in Mexico is the TSG Strategic Planning
Workshop, during which we will review and evaluate
what was accomplished of our Strategic Plan for 2006-
2007 that was developed and prioritized during the

Third Symposium in Argentina, and formulate a new
Strategic Plan for 2008-2010.
Last but not least, the Fourth Symposium will pro-
vide a unique opportunity to establish and structure a
Tapir Action Plan Implementation Taskforce to oversee
the implementation of the recently finalized 2007 ver-
sion of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Action Plan. The main role
of this taskforce will be to promote and support the
plan throughout tapir range countries in Central and
South America, and Southeast Asia, and help it reach
all possible stakeholders. Our new Tapir Action Plan is
a "living document", which will be constantly reviewed,
updated and adapted according to evolving and emerg-
ing tapir conservation needs. Additionally, we will
provide support for any initiatives aiming to implement

Members of the Fourth International Tapir Symposium
planning committee during visit to Parque XCARET
in Mexico in August 2007. From left to right:
Alan Shoemaker, Efrain Castillo,Alberto Mendoza,
and Patricia Medici.

actions, including technical assistance, help with pro-
posal development and fundraising and political lobby-
ing. The progress made in implementing the plan will
be evaluated every three years during the International
Tapir Symposium.
The main partners on the organization of the
Fourth International Tapir Symposium are the IUCN/
SSC Tapir Specialist Group (TSG), Parque XCARET in
Mexico, Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) Tapir
Taxon Advisory Group (TSG), European Association of
Zoos and Aquaria (EAZA) Tapir Taxon Advisory Group
(TAG), and Copenhagen Zoo, Denmark. Members of
the symposium's planning committee Patricia Medici,
Alberto Mendoza, and Alan Shoemaker visited Cancin
in August 2007. We had a series with meetings with
XCARET's General Manager Eduardo Briones and
Director of Animal Collections Efrain Rios Castillo
- as well as with the owner of the facility, the architect

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/2 0 No. 22 0 December 2007


Miguel Quintana Pali, who committed the resources of
their entire staff to assist the TSG in organizing, pro-
moting and conducting this conference.
XCARET is one of the finest zoological organi-
zations in Latin America and the park will provide
excellent infra-structure and local logistics for our
conference. XCARET is located on the Caribbean, one
of the most beautiful coastal regions in the world. It is
also surrounded by significant Mayan historical sites.
Access to the region is very easy via direct and often
non-stop flights to Cancin, a major tourist destinati-
on in Latin America. For further information about
XCARET, please visit their website at:
Symposium sessions will be carried out at XCARET
and participants will be staying at the Hotel Allegro
Occidental in Playa del Carmen (www.occidentalhotels
.com/allegroplayacar/index.asp). A list of other options
for alternative hotels will be made available at a later
stage, including contact information and websites so
that participants can make their own reservations.
Currently, the symposium organizing committee
has been working non-stop to put this conference to-
gether! We are carrying out a major campaign to raise
the necessary funds for the conference, as well as or-
ganizing the local logistics with XCARET, booking local
services, contacting speakers and putting together the
conference program. Registration for the symposium
is available online at:
registration.html. We will soon be ready to send out a
call for abstracts for oral presentations and posters.
We are confident that this is going to be another
extremely successful event of the Tapir Specialist Group
and we would like to invite all of you to be with us in
Cancin! Make sure to put the Fourth International
Tapir Symposium on your schedule for 2008!

On another note, our Marketing Coordinator and
Webmaster Gilia Angell continues to work hard
to raise the profile of the Tapir Specialist Group. Our
website, was selected by Science Magazine
as its October 15 "Netwatch" website. Each month,
Science features a website it finds particularly inte-
resting and unique among science-related sites.
Congratulations to all of you for your document, news,
interview, article, writing, and photo contributions
to our site! Our combined content contributions to make it what it is today: a destination for
information about tapirs and tapir conservation. See a
printout of the article here:
Additionally, Gilia worked with Canon and National
Geographic photographer Joel Sartore earlier this year
to successfully pitch the Lowland tapir for the Decem-
ber issue of National Geographic! Each month in
National Geographic Magazine & Canon Cameras
features an endangered animal in its advertisement.
The ad describes the animal, the threats to it and invi-

tes readers to find out more at
Please visit our website to download the ad: http:
Our photo collection in the TSG website continues
to grow. We have fielded inquiries about photo usage
and sold a number of photos (including the one seen in
Science Magazine) -- all proceeds benefiting the TSG's
Conservation Fund. As always, we invite all of you to
send us your very best high resolution photos of tapirs
in the wild and/or in captivity to add to our collection of
fundraising photography:
This issue of Tapir Conservation includes articles
from some of our TSG Country Coordinators reporting
on their progress on the development of National Action
Plans for Tapir Conservation. As you will see, we are
well on our way in the process of developing National
Plans for tapir conservation in all range countries.
Still on the subject of action planning, I would
like to let you all know that the VORTEX VPJ files
developed during the PHVA Workshops for all four
tapir species will be made available online on the
TSG Website very soon. These VPJ files are baseli-
ne models for tapir population modeling. Computer
modeling is a valuable and versatile tool for assessing
risk of decline and extinction of wildlife populations.
Complex and interacting factors that influence popula-
tion persistence and health can be explored, including
natural and anthropogenic causes. Models can also be
used to evaluate the effects of alternative management
strategies to identify the most effective conservation
actions for a population or species and to identify
research needs. Computer modeling using the simu-
lation software package VORTEX has been used in all
four actions plans developed by the TSG over the past
five years.
Tapirs are distributed across different ecosystems
where they face various levels types of threats. VORTEX
models can be extremely useful to assess these threats
and the potential threshold at which the threat may
cause extinction of the tapir population. As a result,
having access to these VPJ files will allow tapir conser-
vationists willing to model their tapir populations all
throughout the world to do so.
Another exciting piece of good news is that all SSC
Specialist Group Chairs will be getting together from
February 11 to 14 in Al-Ain, Abu Dhabi, United Arab
Emirates (UAE). I will attend this important meeting
and represent the Tapir Specialist Group. This gathe-
ring will enable all SG Chairs to share the successes
and challenges of their Specialist Groups, allowing us
to understand more about the role we have within the
Species Survival Commission and IUCN. We will also
have the opportunity to contribute to SSC's plans,
share new approaches, make important contacts,
discuss topical issues (like restructuring, fund-raising

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/2 0 No. 22 0 December 2007


and policy formulation), and meet the SSC Steering
Committee and some of the Species Programme Staff
face-to-face. I will report on the results of this meeting
in the next issue of Tapir Conservation.
As a final note, I would like to ask you to please note
my new contact information below. I am now based in
Corumbi, Mato Grosso do Sul State, in the very heart
of the Brazilian Pantanal. After twelve years working
on lowland tapirs in the Atlantic Forests of Sao Paulo
State, I am now expanding my reach and establishing
a Lowland Tapir Conservation Initiative all throughout
Brazil. The first step will be the establishment of a
long-term lowland tapir research and conservation
project here in the Pantanal biome ... and from here
we will move forward to the Amazon, Cerrado and any
other biomes where our tapir conservation efforts will
be needed!

Come and visit us in the Pantanal!
But before that ... see you all in Mexico in a few

Patricia Medici
M.Sc. in Wildlife Ecology, Conservation and Management
Research Coordinator, IPE Instituto de Pesquisas
Ecol6gicas (Institute for Ecological Research), Brazil
Ph.D. Candidate, Durrell Institute of Conservation and
Ecology (DICE), University of Kent, UK
Chair, IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group (TSG)
Convener, IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist
Group (CBSG) Brasil Network
Rua America, n 1.090, Centro, Corumba CEP: 79300-070,
Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil
Phone & Fax: +55-67-3232-5842 /Cell Phone: +55-18-


Plan de Acci6n Danta -

Costa Rica

Por Fabricio Carbonell T.


Una vez concluido el taller para PHVA en Belice,
en el 2005, nos propusimos elaborar un Plan
de Acci6n para Costa Rica. A ese fin, se planific6 un
taller national en noviembre de ese mismo afio donde
se invit6 a varias personas para tratar este important
tema. Debido a las limitaciones de tiempo (1 s61o dia),
al final se obtuvo una lista de elements a tomar en
cuenta en un segundo taller, y acciones que se podrian
empezar a desarrollar.

En este taller national (apoyados por la Uni6n
Mundial para la Conservaci6n de la Naturaleza, Oficina
Regional para Mesoam6rica (UICN-ORMA)) se desta-
caron algunas diferencias de trabajo con respect al
PHVA en Belice. Por ejemplo:
* En Costa Rica se invite a participar a pobladores
locales, algo que no podria haberse hecho en el taller
de Belice. Asi, los lineamientos generals de Belice
son adaptados a la realidad local de Costa Rica al
invitar a participar a todas las personas e institucio-
nes involucradas en la conservaci6n del tapir.

* En el taller de Belice, las ciencias de la conserva-
ci6n biol6gica y la biologia determinaron las lines
de trabajo. En Costa Rica los temas fueron deter-
minados por los participants.
* En Belice las principles lines de trabajo para la
conservaci6n de la especie fueron:
1.) Manejo de Habitat (ordenamiento territorial);
2.) Manejo de Poblaciones Silvestres;
3.) Impactos Humanos y Educaci6n;
4.) Biologia de Poblaci6n y Evaluaci6n de Riesgos;
modelso) y
5.) Manejo ex-Situ (en cautiverio).
* Para el caso de Costa Rica, fueron:
1.) Conocimiento cientifico,
2.) Sensibilizaci6n y Educaci6n Ambiental,
3.) Conocimiento integral no formal, y
4.) Manejo y Gesti6n del habitat (ordenamiento

Plan de Acci6n

Con los elements descritos, los asistentes definieron
metas para cada uno. A continuaci6n present un
resume de los principles avances.

1. Conocimiento cientifico:
Se ha avanzado much con respect al studio de la
biologia del tapir en el pasado. Los principles apor-
tes han sido de Charles Foerster en Corcovado (1994-
hasta hoy), Juan de Dios Valdez en Corcovado (2004-5),
Feng Mei, studios en el Parque Nacional Volcan Barba
(2004-5), Olivier Chassot et al en la zona norte en la
nueva Reserva de la Biosfera Agua y Paz (2005). Antes
de estos trabajos se investig6 en el Parque Nacional

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/2 0 No. 22 0 December 2007


Volcan Tenorio (Fabricio Carbonell et al. (2000), en el
Parque Nacional Santa Rosa a traves de Daniel Janzen
(1980-2), Williams K. (1984) y en el Parque Nacional
Corcovado con los trabajos de Eduardo Naranjo
(1995). Ademas se han realizado studios gen6ticos,
hormonales y de enfermedades durante el proyecto de
Charles Foerster en Corcovado. En la actualidad se
continue el proyecto en Corcovado a cargo de Kendra
Bauer y se han hecho trabajos de investigaci6n de
dantas en la zona sur del pais principalmente en la
Reserva de la Biosfera La Amistad, tanto en el sector
caribe como pacifico, frontera con Panama.

2. Sensibilizaci6n y educaci6n ambiental:
Junto con los trabajos de investigaci6n en la Reserva
de la Biosfera La Amistad, la educaci6n ambiental se
ha orientado en tales lugares con pobladores indige-
nas y campesinos, especialmente lideres y maestros
comunales, tambi6n asociaciones de turismo y comi-
t6s de protecci6n local La educaci6n ambiental con
esta especie en algunos casos, fue conjunto con otras
investigaciones de species amenazadas (chanchos de
monte, jaguar, etc.), donde se integr6 a pobladores
como asistentes de investigaci6n en algunos casos.

3. Conocimiento integral no formal:
De acuerdo al Plan preliminary se trat6 de involucrar
a las comunidades para que tomen la conservation
como fuente de desarrollo, en ese sentido, algunas
comunidades indigenas han venido trabajando regist-
rando avistamientos de tapir en areas donde antes no
se veia, como es el caso de la comunidad de Yorkin
en Talamanca Bribri, zona fronteriza con Panama.
Ademis durante el trabajo de campo sobre investiga-
ci6n cientifica se recopil6 informaci6n del conocimien-
to traditional. Algunas reserves indigenas como el caso
de K6koldi han conformado un grupo de "guardare-
cursos" que realizan vigilancia peri6dica en la reserve
evitando la caceria y tala illegal.

4. Manejo y gesti6n del habitat:
Se tiene identificado para algunos sectors de las areas
de conservaci6n La Amistad Pacifico, Caribe, Cordillera
VolcAnica Central, Huetar Norte, Arenal Tempisque y
Osa, sectors de importancia para la conservaci6n de
la especie a largo plazo y la necesidad de corredores
biol6gicos locales. Por otro lado, debido a una dismi-
nuci6n de la caceria y aumento del turismo en ciertos
Parques Nacionales se esta viendo una inusual salida
de dantas de las areas protegidas hacia areas de cultivo
(Parque Nacional VolcAn Tenorio), carreteras (Parque
Nacional Braulio Carrillo) y de protecci6n privada
(Parque Nacional Barva), los dos primeros terminaron
en la muerte del animal y un acercamiento "peligroso"
con los pobladores campesinos, en el caso de la zona
de protecci6n privada, las personas pidieron asesoria

sobre la forma de actuar y si eran peligrosas para el

5. Gesti6n de la conservaci6n:
En el tema relacionado con political no se ha podi-
do avanzar al respect. Sin embargo se incursion
en la promoci6n del "simbolo" danta como fuente de
inspiraci6n para disefios de nuevos materials, esto
se llev6 a cabo con el curso de posgrado "Far side, el
lado notable del ambiente" de la Universidad Veritas, la
universidad del arte, disefio y arquitectura. Tambi6n
se apoy6 al Plan maestro de colecci6n regional para el
Tapir centroamericano para el traslado de individuos
entire zool6gicos.


No podria decir que hemos avanzado much con
respect al Plan de Acci6n para la conservaci6n del
tapir en Costa Rica, sin embargo se cuenta con infor-
maci6n dispersa que falta sistematizar y es probable
que en el pais se hayan iniciado nuevas investigaciones
sobre la especie. Un siguiente paso seria poder contar
con personal a tiempo parcial via voluntariado o fon-
dos especificos que pueda dar seguimiento constant
a las diferentes actividades, trabajos e investigaciones
que se estAn dando en torno a esta especie. Esperamos
pronto actualizar y mejorar el Plan de Acci6n prelimi-
nar que tenemos. Por favor mas informaci6n comuni-
carse con Fabricio Carbonell,

Fabricio Carbonell T.
Asociaci6n MERALVIS Costa Rica

Construcci6n Participativa de

la Estrategia Nacional para la

Conservaci6n de los Tapires


Por Leonardo Ord6iiez Delgado
y Fernando Nogales

uego de la participaci6n active de varias institu-
ciones e investigadores nacionales en el taller de
PHVA efectuado para la especie Tapirus pinchaque
(Colombia 2004 Ver Lizcano et al. 2005), se prioriz6,
como una actividad urgente para nuestro pais, la nece-
sidad de contar con una estrategia national que oriented

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/2 0 No. 22 0 December 2007


los esfuerzos hacia la conservaci6n de este g6nero en
el Ecuador. De esta forma, las siguientes lines tienen
la finalidad de detallar progress en la elaboraci6n de
este document.

Paso 1. Base de datos de colaboradores:
Se estructur6 una base de datos de contacts que
apoyan, por su experiencia, a la formulaci6n de la
estrategia. Estos colaboradores deberian tener vincu-
laci6n direct o indirecta con la tematica, o con otras
tematicas relacionadas, por ejemplo: levantamiento de
fondos, formulaci6n de propuestas, trabajo en ecosis-
temas en los cuales se distribuyen los Tapires, etc. En
este moment y en el desarrollo del trabajo ejecutado
se han involucrado 67investigadores, pertenecientes a
28 instituciones en Ecuador.

Paso 2. Elaboraci6n y aplicaci6n de una encuesta
de trabajo respect a los tapires en Ecuador:
Se elaboro y se aplico una encuesta a todos los colabo-
radores que se ha logrado ingresar a la base de datos
de contacts en el Ecuador. Dicha encuesta abarc6
diferentes tematicas sobre los Tapires en el pais, las
cuales son necesarias para la elaboraci6n del docu-
mento borrador de la estrategia. Cabe mencionar
que el modelo de la encuesta aplicada esta basado en
otras encuestas utilizadas para esta misma finalidad
en Colombia y Argentina.

Paso 3. Document borrador de la estrategia:
En base a la indagaci6n a los experts y colaborado-
res vinculados (por medio de la encuesta), se envia un
document basico (o planteamiento) sobre la estrategia
de conservaci6n de los Tapires en el Ecuador a cada
uno de los contacts. Tenemos previsto recabar estos
comentarios hasta el mes de diciembre del present
afio. El document inicial que contara con los comen-
tarios de los experts sera corregido, en base a todas
las observaciones planteadas. Este document sera la
base de discusi6n del taller final de trabajo sobre la

Pasos futures. Taller de revision de la estrategia:
Se efectuara un taller de trabajo con participaci6n de
todas las personas e instituciones involucradas, para
revisar el document de la estrategia planteada y pro-
ducir una estrategia definitive. El taller tendria como
objetivo adicional promover compromises para poner
en practice de forma inmediata la Estrategia Nacional
de Acci6n. Seguidamente, se presentara ante los parti-
cipantes del process y public national, la Estrategia
Nacional de Acci6n de Conservaci6n de los Tapires en
el Ecuador, por parte de la autoridad competent.

Se tiene previsto completar la Estrategia en los pr6xi-
mos seis meses, a partir de octubre del present afio.

Es important mencionar que se cuenta con el apoyo
decidido del Ministerio del Ambiente del Ecuador para
lograr que este document sea legalizado por medio
de un registro official, el cual establezca la Estrategia
Nacional de Acci6n como political de estado en el pais.

Leonardo Ord6inez Delgado, Fernando Nogales
Coordinadores Tapir Specialist Group Ecuador

Report on Progress

Developing Argentina's

National Action Plan

By Silvia Chalukian

n Argentina tapirs are listed as endangered in the
Red Mammal Book; in the past 100 years the species
range in the country has shrunk to almost half (46%)
its original size. Most, if not all the tapir populations in
good conservation status remain in protected areas.
The development of Argentina's National Action
Plan started in August 2005, as we distributed questi-
onnaires by e-mail and post, to governments (provin-
cial and national), researchers and zoos. We collected
records of localities with tapir presence, status and
threat perceptions, as well as a variety of suggestions
for a conservation strategy.
By the end of 2006, we organized two workshops
in two important tapir regions, in the Northwest (Salta)
and the Northeast (Chaco) of Argentina, to discuss the
results from the questionnaires. The purpose of the
workshops included developing a current known dis-
tribution to update the maps produced at the "Lowland
Tapir (Tapirus terrestris) and White-Lipped Peccary
(Tayassu pecari) Range-Wide Status Analysis" work-
shop (held in Bolivia on 2005), reviewing threats and
proposing conservation activities for the short, medi-
um and long time. (Results of the questionnaires were
presented at the III International Tapir Symposium
2006 in Buenos Aires). We worked in small groups
and plenary, weighing threats and developing strate-
gies and priority actions, assigning responsibilities and
timelines, assessing technical, social and economical
feasibility and limitations. Review data also included
satellite images to map threats (NW) and distribution
updates. A total of 46 people attended the workshops,
from government agencies (Provincial, National Fauna
and Parks agencies), Universities, researchers, local
people, private owners, a forestry enterprise, students,
and the species coordinator. We had various sup-

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/2 0 No. 22 0 December 2007


Salta workshop participants.

ports that made this possible, mainly National Fauna
Administration, Chaco Province, a local foundation
(Fadha), National Parks, and four private institutions.
A synthesis of the first draft was presented at the
PHVA workshop in Sorocaba, 2007. We recorded tapir
presence in 302 localities. The main threats identified
for in situ conservation were: habitat loss and frag-
mentation, hunting, cattle ranching and infrastructure
development. For ex situ conservation the main threats
were endogamy, sanitary management insufficiently
known, lack of public awareness, inadequate enclos-
ures, and insufficient coordination between Zoos and
field researchers.
On August 2007, during a meeting of the "ex situ
group" held in Salta, we applied the same methodology
to develop an action table, and made progress on an
environmental education plan.
The last step is to organize a common workshop
to make a review of the drafts, and establish a syner-

gism between ex situ and in situ activities. After the
workshop, the final Action Plan will be completed.
Unfortunately, due to lack of funds, the final workshop,
planned in November 2007, was postponed.
Coordinator of the Action Plan: Silvia Chalukian,
assisted by Leonidas Lizarraga and Soledad de Bustos
(NOA Tapir Project). Coordinator of the ex situ group:
Viviana Quse. Coordinator or Education Plan: Maria de
la Paz Isola, assisted by Lucas Stephan.

Silvia Chalukian


T Ialler para elaborar una Estratt
*dfj Nacionala de Conservaci6n de
G y 7 ce dcembre de 2006. Salt Captul,
4 y 15 ld.- a-nbr ae 0 2006. PcrtoTdl. 0

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/2 0 No. 22 0 December 2007

held in Chaco
words from
the Director of
Fauna, Chaco

held in Salta
working in


Progress Report of

National Action Plan for

Tapir Conservation in


By Wilson Novarino

A National Action Plan for the tapir Indonesia was
Znitiated in 2006. The elaboration of the plan was
transferred to a national conservation NGO named
Pusat Informasi Lingkungan Indonesia (PILI Center
for Environmental Information Indonesia) and the
Directorate of Forest Protection and Biodiversity
Conservation (PHKA) of the Ministry of Forestry
Indonesia. PILI, with support from PHKA, developed a
draft proposal for seeking funds. However, this mecha-
nism did not work properly.
As a mega-biodiversity country, Indonesia has seve-
ral flagship animals and plans. The Indonesian wildlife

management authority (PHKA) must set up their work
priorities based on such plans. In 2007, PHKA con-
ducted workshops to develop national action plans for
the Sumatran tiger, Orangutan, Sumatran and Bornean
Elephant, Anoa, Javan Hawk-eagle and Bali Starling.
According to information from PHKA, a National Action
Plan for the Tapir in Indonesia will be completed in
2008, if there are funds available from the Indonesian
government and other sponsors.
Recently, some of large mammals monitoring pro-
jects have been conducted in Sumatra, where the tapir
is distributed in Indonesia. Almost all of the projects
have tapir data, but not yet analyzed or published. We
expect all that data will be compiled on a national data-
base and will be used to develop the action plan when
the PHKA conducts the workshop. Some contacts have
been made to data-holding parties, and they are giving
positive feedback on this issue.

Wilson Novarino
Country Program Coordinator, TSG Indonesia
Andalas University, Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia
E-mail: wilson n


Seminar on the Breeding

Biology of MalayTapirs in

Captivity in Indonesia

By Wilson Novarino

A Seminar on the Breeding Biology of the Malay
Tapir was conducted on October 31, 2007, at the
Taman Margasatwa Ragunan (Ragunan Zoo), Jakarta.
This noteworthy seminar with six keynote speakers
was attended by more than 50 participants including
zoo representatives, university lecturers and students,
researchers, staff of the Ministry of Forestry.
During the opening ceremony, the director of the
Ragunan Zoo, Dr.h. Sri Mulyono, M.Sc., stated that
currently very few enrichment activities have been
applied to tapir enclosures in Indonesian zoos. The
lack of communication between zoos holding tapirs

was also noted. One of the goals of the seminar was to
invite participants to share the information that they
have and also to receive more information on how
to manage tapirs in zoos. The seminar was also held
as celebration for the recently born tapir calf at the
Ragunan Zoo.
The seminar was officially opened by Dr. Tonny
Soehartono, M.Sc., as Director of Biodiversity
Conservation, Directorate General Forest Protection
and Biodiversity Conservation, Ministry of Forestry
(PHKA). As keynote speaker, Dr. Soehartono gave a
talk titled "Tapir Conservation in Indonesia", which
described the current information available on tapir
biology, their global and national distribution, and the
PHKA strategy on conservation management of the spe-
cies in Indonesia, both in situ and ex situ. According
to Dr. Soehartono, little attention has been paid to
the conservation issues affecting Malay Tapirs in
Indonesia. The Indonesian government is still focusing
their resources on other issues such as poverty, educa-
tion and economic sectors.
Following the seminar was a presentation by
Wilson Novarino. In his presentation, Mr. Novarino,
M.Sc., mentioned efforts of Malay Tapir conservation
in Indonesia, both in situ and ex situ, detailed infor-
mation about the biology of the tapir, nomenclature,

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/2 0 No. 22 0 December 2007


classification, feeding, reproduction behavior, life cycle,
and general information about Malay Tapir holding
zoos at national and global levels. In this session par-
ticipants were also informed about the Tapir Specialist
Group IUCN (TSG) and the Tapir Preservation Fund as
potential funding agencies on tapir conservation, and
about minimum husbandry standards and the avail-
ability of a tapir enrichment document prepared and
distributed by TSG. Mr. Novarino also invited partici-
pants to become more active and increase their involve-
ment in tapir conservation on a global level by joining
as TSG members.
Dr. Ligaya Tumbelaka, M.Sc., presented her paper
titled "Studbook Buku Catatan Silsilah". This paper
offered information about the role of zoos and stud-
book keepers on conservation. Mrs. Ligaya provided
detailed information about the roles of a studbook
keeper, responsibilities, etc., based on her experience
as studbook keeper for the Sumatran tiger.
The third session in the seminar focused on how
to manage tapirs in zoos. Dr.h. Fathul Bari, from
Bandung Zoo, related his experiences on the manage-
ment of tapirs in zoos. His paper described captive
tapir husbandry, medical records and reproduction
activity. This session was followed by a presentation
by Dr. Gono Semiadi from the Indonesian Institute of
Science (LIPI). Dr. Semiadi shared information about
the current status and breeding problems of Malay
Tapir in Indonesia.
During the last session participants were informed
about captive tapir management in foreign zoos. Dr.
Darrin Collins, from the Woodland Park Zoo and
who currently works at the Wildlife Conservation
Society Indonesia Program, presented his paper
titled "Maternal and Neo-natal Protocols used for the
Successful Breeding Management of the Malay Tapir
(Tapirus indicus) at the Woodland Park Zoo". Dr.
Collins provided the participants with a detailed look
at the management program of the WPZ to help them
initiate their own tapir breeding programs, and how to
handle baby calves.
At the closing ceremony, the Chair of the Organizing
Committee, Dr.h. Bambang Triana, encouraged zoo
participants to adapt the tapir husbandry standards
using the information gained during the seminar to
improve the management quality During the seminar,
several issues arose, such as: the lack of informa-
tion about tapir holding zoos in Indonesia, number
of tapirs in each zoo, and the need for a studbook
keeper. Dr. Soehartono addressed this by encouraging
the participants to establish a network to ensure better
communication in the future.

Wilson Novarino
Country Program Coordinator, TSG Indonesia
Andalas University, Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia
E-mail: wilson n

Opening ceremony session: Dr.h. Sri Mulyono,
Dr.h. BambangTriana, Dr. Tonny Soehartono.

Dr.h. Fathul Bari, presenting his experience on
manage tapir in Bandung Zoo.

Dr.h. BambangTriana, as chair of Organizing
Committee giving a souvenir to Dr. Darin Collins.

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/2 0 No. 22 0 December 2007



2007: Two major Steps

forTapir Conservation in

French Guiana

By Benoit de Thoisy

The Guianas host a single contiguous forest block
that represents more than one third of remain-
ing Neotropical forest coverage, with expected good
conservation status of several large mammals,
including the Jaguar (Marieb 2006), the Giant Otter
(Groenendijk 1998), and the Lowland Tapir (Taber et
al. 2006). Conservation policy remained nevertheless
for long insufficient to protect large mammal popula-
tions, including tapirs. unsatisfactory, with evident
lack of ambition and means for implementation on the
field for distinct reasons. Guyana and Suriname have
faced decades of politic, economic and social difficul-
ties, relaying biodiversity conservation at lower priority
In contrast, French Guiana has a high economic
level. But due to its status as a French administrative
unit, many judiciary decrees related to nature conserv-
ancy remain either inappropriate for application on the
territory, or legally inapplicable. Also, divergent ambi-
tions between local (i.e., French Guianan) authorities
and national (i.e., French) government agencies com-
plicate the political implementation of a conservation
vision for the country. Two major milestones have
nevertheless been reached in 2007: the National Park,
a new protected area in the south of the country, and
a decree prohibiting the sale of several game species,
including the Lowland tapir.

The National Park,
a process initiated 15 years ago

At the Rio conference in 1992, the French president
proclaimed his will to create the "Amazonian National
Park" in French Guiana. Fifteen years later, the decree
was signed. The road has been long until this success,
and has exhausted many persons. Conflicting inter-
ests between national and local authorities, between
high biodiversity value spots and gold mining lobbies
(Hammond et al. 2007), and the lack of traditional
communities' rights in the French laws resulted in two
aborted projects before the successful one signed in

February 2007. With this new protected area of 20,000
km2, French Guiana presently contains a comprehen-
sive and well configured network of protected areas.
The other significant biodiversity conservation interest
is entirely regional: the aggregate comprised by the
Tumucumaque National Park (3,8 millions ha), the
Ecological Station of Grio-Para (4,3 millions ha) and
the Maicuru Reserve (1,2 millions ha) are now under
a single coordinated legal protection legislation, the
responsibility of both France and Brazil. It is the larg-
est tropical forest area in the world, with more than
12,000,000 hectares.
However, the Guianan National Park still awaits
IUCN endorsement, since I-IV IUCN protected areas
status is not reached with current park regulations.
Indeed, all the area remains legally open to hunting
practices by tribal communities, and extractive activi-
ties of natural resources are controlled by the same
French decrees than outside the park. The single
change brought the decree is that no species can be
sold or bought within the Park. This decision was
controversial, but the Park proposition contends that
the rationale for both scientific monitoring and respect
of aborigine livelihoods are parts of the solution for
natural resource conservation in remote, inhabited
Amazonian forests. An innovative concept of National
Park may have thus been implemented, but impor-
tant difficulties remain: intense illegal gold mining
pressure on the Park territory, conflicts among com-
munities inhabiting the Park (e.g., Bush negroes and
Amerindians), recurrent denial of the Park by several
local elected politicians, logistic needs to implement the
regulations for the daily functioning of the park, etc.

The Decree of July 23th, 2007

In French Guiana, the legal protection of terrestrial
vertebrates was restricted to a national decree signed
in 1986. This decree is still in course for most spe-
cies; it categorizes species with two protection levels:
(i) some species are fully protected, e.g. the Giant
Otter, the Spider Monkey, the Giant Armadillo; and (ii)
some species are prohibited to sale and/or buy, e.g. the
Capuchin Monkey, the Howler Monkey, the two Brocket
Deers (we have M. gouazoubira and M. americana).
Consequently, species not listed, including the tapir,
were not protected and could then be killed and com-
mercialized. In 1995 the government established by
decree a "positive list" of species that could be regularly
commercialized: the tapir was included in this decree.
In 2002, the "National Action Plan for the
Management of Fauna and is Habitats" was imple-
mented under the responsibility of the Ministry of
Environment. The key idea of this initiative was to
bring together managers, scientists, NGOs, communi-

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/2 0 No. 22 0 December 2007


ties representatives, and social work professionals to
initiate discussions on the status of fauna and to reach
consensus recommendations for its conservation.
Improvements of existing laws was one goal, but not the
exclusive points to deal with. During four years, public-
open working groups included several topics: aware-
ness and education, hunting practices and regulation,
forest management, non extractive uses of forest (e.g.,
tourism), etc. After hundreds hours of discussions,
often getting lively since conflicting points of view were
addressed, some consensus points were reached. The
necessity to retrieve the tapir and three frugivorous
birds (Psophia crepitans, Crax alector and Penelope
marail) from the list of commercial species was one
of those points, and the first approved with a decree.
Forthcoming working groups cessions will be focused
on hunting periods, quotas, and other management
details. Indeed, the status of many sensitive species
remains precarious: despite the National Park, only
3% of the territory is under strong protection, where
hunting is totally prohibited. Elsewhere, subsistence
hunting is allowed, and several species are under a
strong risk of overharvesting (e.g., monkeys and tapirs,
de Thoisy & Vogel 2002; de Thoisy et al. 2005).
The weakness of the legal status of the tapir in
French Guiana was highlighted during the TSG meeting
at Sorocaba, 2007 (Working group "Human conflicts",
objective 2, action 2.2). The involvement of, and impli-
cations for many Guianan peoples has to be acknowl-
edged for this first but indispensable review step for
large vertebrate conservation in French Guiana.


de Thoisy B., Vogel I. 2002. Status of Lowland Tapirs
(Tapirus terrestris) in French Guiana: a preliminary
assessment. Tapir Conservation (IUCN/SSC Tapir
Specialist Group Newsletter) 11: 18.
de Thoisy B., Renoux F, Julliot C. 2005. Hunting in north-
ern French Guiana and its impacts on primates commu-
nities. Oryx 39: 149-157.
Groenendijk J. 1998. A review of the distribution and con-
servation status of the Giant Otter (Pteronura brasil-
iensis), with special emphasis on the Guayana Shield
Region. Netherlands Commitee for IUCN. Amsterdam.
Hammond D.S., Gond V., de Thoisy B., Forget PM., DeDijn
B. 2007. Causes and consequences of a tropical forest
gold rush in the Guiana Shield, South America. Ambio,
in press.
Marieb K. 2006. Jaguars in the New Millennium. Data
Set Update: The State of the Jaguar in 2006. Wildlife
Conservation Society.
Taber A., Chalukian S., Minkowski K., Sanderson E.,
Altrichter M., Antinez M., Ayala G., Beck H., Bodmer R.,
Cartes J.L., Gomez C., G6mez H., de Thoisy B., Emmons
L., Estrada N., Flamarion de Oliviera L., Fragoso J.,
Garcia R., Goldstein I., G6mez H., Keuroghlian A.,

Ledesma K., Lizarraga L., Lizcano D., Lozano C., Medici
P, Montenegro 0., Moraes E.A., Neris N., Noss A., Palacio
Vieira J.A., Paviolo A., Perovic P, Reyna-Hurtado R.,
Radachowsky J., Rodriguez Oriz J., Rumiz D., Salas
L., Sarmiento Duefias A., Sarria Perea J., Schiaffino
K., Tobler M., Utreras V., Varela D., Ventincinque E.,
Wallace R., Zapata Rios G.A. 2006. Range-Wide Status
Analysis of Lowland Tapir (Tapirus terrestris) and White-
lipped Peccaries (Tayassu pecari): Preliminary results
for lowland tapirs and conservation implications. 3rd
International Tapir Symposium, TSG / SSC IUCN,

Benoit de Thoisy
Kwata Association, French Guiana
Coordinator, Guiana Shield, IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist
Group (TSG)

New Fossil Discoveries and

the History of Tapirus

By Matthew Colbert

Fossil tapirs tell a fascinating tale of intercontinental
dispersal, extinction, and evolution. While their
current geographic range is confined to Southeast
Asia, South America, and Central America, fossil tapirs
prove that as recently as a few thousand years ago they
ranged across North America, Europe, and Asia. Fossil
evidence also suggests that tapirs were not present in
South America until at most a few million years ago.
But how did this geographic pattern emerge? And
what is the relationship of these ancient tapirs to living
species? Recent discoveries of fossil tapirs in South
and North America, and an improved understanding
of their evolutionary relationships, have started to shed
some light on these questions. Here I briefly review
some of these new discoveries of fossil Tapirus, and
discuss some of the outstanding issues related to the
evolution of Tapirus.
In North America, major fossil discoveries of tapirs
have recently been reported from the southeastern
United States. These studies have shown the exist-
ence of new species of Tapirus, and have also provided
material for a much more thorough documentation of
formerly poorly known species. Most of the descrip-
tion and interpretation of these has been the work
of paleontologist Richard Hulbert from the Florida
Museum of Natural History.
Hulbert's work suggests that there were at least
six extinct species of Tapirus from the late Miocene to

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/2 0 No. 22 0 December 2007


Figure I. The South American tapirs define a monophyleti

Pleistocene of the eastern United States (about 9.5 mil-
lion years ago to about 10,000 years ago). This tally does
not include several fossil species that had been named
based on material that was not diagnostic (in other
words, the identification cannot be conclusive), or that
have been synonymized with other species (the same is
true for the extant tapir species!). Additionally there
are a couple named species from the western United
States that are in need of taxonomic revision, and that
may actually pertain to earlier named eastern species.
One of the newly-described species is Tapirus
webbi, from the late Miocene (about 9.5 to 7.5 mil-
lion years ago) of Florida (Hulbert 2005). This tapir
was about the size of the living T. terrestris, but with
longer legs, and is also characterized by having sev-
eral primitive features for Tapirus. Most importantly
the appearance of T. webbi signals a period of time in
which tapirs seem to have been diversifying in North
America, following an earlier period in which they are
extremely rare.
This diversification is exemplified recent discover-
ies of a small-bodied tapir called Tapirus polkensis,
from the early Pliocene (7 to 4.5 million years old) Gray
Fossil Site in eastern Tennessee. This tremendous site
has yielded abundant remains of Tapirus polkensis,
as well as many other fossil vertebrates. The tapirs
there are currently being studied by Steve Wallace and
Richard Hulbert, and have already provided data for
preliminary phylogenetic analyses and an improved

1.8 Ma
5 Ma

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/2 0 No. 22 0 December 2007

understanding the evo-
lutionary relationships
S*i among the species of
E 0T Tapirus. More about
this below.
2 2 Recent reports of
14 L late Pleistocene fossil
tapirs have also come
from South America.
South These include several
American isolated jaw bones from
pirus southwestern Amazonia,
Brazil (Hollanda and
Cozzuol, 2006), and
d" Tapirus the skull of a new spe-
cies from the Entre Rios
Province of Argentina
(Ferrero and Noriega,
2007). Although the
Brazilian sample is
rero and Noriega (2007), small, and is not diag-
nostic to the species
level, the fossils docu-
ment two markedly dif-
c cluster, ferent size classes that
suggest the presence of
at least two fossil spe-
cies at that time (as there are today in South America
- notably, these two fossil forms are both lowland spe-
cies). Note, while several species of fossil tapirs have
been named from South America, they are all based
on scanty material, and are probably not diagnostic
(as is the case with several fossil species from North
The skull from Argentina, however, is relatively
complete, and was placed into a new species, T. meso-
potamicus by Ferrero and Noriega (2007). Ferrero and
Noriega also performed a phylogenetic analysis, which
indicated to them that their new species is more closely
related to T. pinchaque than to T. terrestris (see Figure
1). Although I am not entirely convinced of this rela-
tionship, it is clear that T. mesopotamicus is closely
related to, or belongs to, a group that includes both T.
terrestris and T. pinchaque. The results are also con-
sistent with an earlier molecular analysis of mitochon-
drial DNA that independently supports a close relation-
ship between T. pinchaque and T. terrestris (Ashley et
al., 1996). Ferrero and Noriega's work builds on the
preliminary analysis of Hulbert and Wallace (2005)
that incorporates the new Gray Fossil Site tapirs.
The close evolutionary relationship between the two
living South American tapirs and T. mesopotamicus is
also concordant with the geologically relatively recent
appearance of tapirs in South America. Available evi-
dence suggests that tapirs, together with many other
North American biotic elements, dispersed to South


23 Ma

Based on the phylogenetic analyses of Fer
and Hulbert and Wallace (2005).


America from North America when the Isthmus of
Panama emerged from the sea about 3 million years
ago (of course, there were also South American biota
that dispersed northwards). Furthermore, the close
relationship between the South American tapirs is
also consistent with a hypothesis that they arose from
a single dispersal event that sent the ancestor of these
two over the Panamanian Isthmus. This hypothesis
will be tested with future fossil discoveries, and with
additional phylogenetic analyses.
But how are the South American tapirs related
to T. bairdii (Baird's tapir), and to other fossil North
American Tapirus? And how are all these New World
tapirs related to T. indicus (the Malayan Tapir), and
all the fossils from Europe and Asia? The recent
analyses of Hulbert and Wallace (2005), and Ferrero
and Noriega (2007), as well as the earlier molecular
analysis of Ashley et al (1996) have greatly improved
our understanding of these evolutionary relationships
within Tapirus, and have begun to shed some light on
these questions.
Before proceeding, I would like to present defini-
tions for the name Tapirus and for the word tapir.
Tapirus is here considered to comprise all of the
descendents of the most recent common ancestor of
the four living species (see Colbert, 2005). Thus, by
definition, all living tapir species belong to the genus
Tapirus. Note that this differs from a definition pre-
sented by Hulbert (2005), and although I would love
to debate the merits of the different definitions here,
it would be extremely boring to most of you. Please
email me if you really interested (colbert@mail.utexas
.edu). The informal name 'tapir' is here used to refer
to a more general group consisting of all species closer
to Tapirus than to the rhinoceroses. In addition to
Tapirus, tapirs also include a number of extinct genera
(such as Paratapirus, Plesiotapirus, and Miotapirus,
shown in Figure 1).
The South American tapirs define a monophyletic
cluster (that is, a group having a single common
ancestral species) in the phylogenies of both Hulbert
and Wallace (2005), and Ferrero and Noriega (2007;
and see Figure 1). The Central American T. bairdii,
however, is more closely related to T. polkensis and to
other Pleistocene North American tapirs. The earliest
divergence of the "New World" Tapirus is T. ohnsoni
which is from the Miocene of the state of Nebraska in
the United States (about 11 to 9 million years ago).
Tapirus indicus is shown here (Figure 1) as the
sister to all the "New World" tapirs, which are resolved
as a monophyletic group. This result implies a sce-
nario involving a single dispersal event between the
Old and the New World. Indeed because Plesiotapirus
and Paratapirus are from China and Europe, respec-
tively, this dispersal event would parsimoniously be
considered to have been from the Old to the New

World. Miotapirus is from North America, and implies
yet another (earlier) intercontinental dispersal. In
other words, there was a dispersal of Miotapirus (or
a related species) from North America to Europe and
Asia giving origin to Paratapirus and Plesiotapirus,
and then a dispersal of a derived Asian species back to
North America that gave rise to both T. indicus and all
extant forms in the Americas.
These dispersal scenarios are dependent upon the
tree topology shown in Figure 1. But while the analyses
represent a great start, they are still far from complete.
They do not include any fossil species of Tapirus from
Asia and Europe, and would benefit from the inclusion
of species from other genera of fossil tapirs. Indeed, a
global analysis comprising all known species of tapirs
(including fossil species outside of Tapirus) is the ulti-
mate goal for interpreting tapir evolution. Such an
analysis would test these results reviewed here, allow
a greater appreciation of rates and modes of morpho-
logical change, and a refined scenario of dispersal and
evolutionary radiation. The exciting thing is that the
rate of discovery of fossil species is increasing, and the
pieces are being put in place for undertaking such a
global analysis.


Ashley, M.V., J.E. Norman, and L. Stross. 1996.
Phylogenetic analysis of perissodactylan Family
Tapiridae using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase
(COII) sequences. Journal of Mammalian Evolution 3:
Colbert, M.W. 2005. The facial skeleton of the Early
Oligocene Colodon (Perissodactyla, Tapiroidea).
Palaeontologia Electronica 8(1)12A: 1-27. 12A; http:// /colbertl2/issue l_05.html
Ferrero, B.S., and J.I. Noriega. 2007. A new Upper
Pleistocene tapir from Argentina: Remarks on the phy-
logenetics and diversification of neotropical Tapiridae.
Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 27: 504-511.
Holanda, E.C., and M.A. Cozzuol. 2006. New records of
Tapirus from the Late Pleistocene of southwestern
Amazonia, Brazil. Revista Brasiliera Paleontologia 9:
Hulbert, R.C., Jr. 2005. Late Miocene Tapirus (Mammalia,
Perissodactyla) from Florida, with description of a new
species, Tapirus webbi. Bulletin of the Florida Museum
of Natural History 45: 465-494.
Hulbert R.C., Jr. and S.C. Wallace. 2005. Phylogenetic
analysis of Late Cenozoic Tapirus (Mammalia,
Perissodactyla). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 25(3,

Matthew Colbert
Ph.D. Research Associate, Jackson School of Geological
Sciences, University of Texas at Austin
Evolution Consultant, IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group (TSG)

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/2 0 No. 22 0 December 2007



Analisis de la Microbiota Bacteriana,Aislada en Heces de

Tapirus bairdii, de la Sierra Madre de Chiapas, Mexico

Giliris, A. D. M.' 3, Rojas, H. N. M.2, Berovides A. V.2, Cruz, A. E.4,
Ch6vez, H. C.4, Moguel, A.J.A.1, Perez, E. M. E.',3, Perez, E. R.',3

Facultad de MedicinaVeterinaria y Zootecnia. Universidad Aut6noma de Chiapas. Cuerpo Academico Estudio Biomedicos en
Fauna del Estado de Chiapas. Departamento de Ciencias MedicoVeterinarias. E-mail:
Facultad de Biologia. Coordinaci6n de posgrado. Depto. Microbiologia. Universidad de la Habana, Cuba.
Policlinica y Diagn6sticoVeterinario, Laborartorio de diagn6stico clinico zoosanitario.
Oficina de Investigaci6n. Zool6gico Regional "Miguel Alvarez del toro", Instituto de Historia natural y Ecologia del Gobierno
del Estado de Chiapas (IHNE).


Feces of 20 Tapirus bairdii were collected from
two areas (La Sepultura and El Triunfo) in the
Biosphere Reserve of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas,
and examined with microbiological techniques
(System API BioMeriux). In the tapir's samples we
detected bacteria of the families Enterobacteriaceae,
Aeromonadaceae, Micrococcaceae and others. We
found Aeromonas hydrophila, Alcaligenes sp.
Acinetobacter sp., Citrobacter sp. Citrobacter
braakii, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter aero-
genes, Enterobacter amnigenus, Enterobacter
cloacae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxitoca,
Klebsiella planticola, Klebsiella pneumoniae,
Kluyvera sp., Proteus mirabilis, Proteus pen-
neri, Serratia marscencens, Serratia odor-
ifera, Micrococcus sp., Staphylococcus sp.
Staphylococcus lentus. These species constitute
new records for Baird's tapir intestinal microbiota.


Se esta efectuando un studio formal para conocer los
aspects ecol6gicos, biol6gicos, biom6dicos y de sani-
dad en Tapirus bairdii, lo que permit aportar cono-
cimientos importantes para el disefio de una estrategia
de conservaci6n ex-situ en M6xico. Esta informaci6n
permitira identificar la microbiota normal, los posi-
bles agents etiol6gicos potencialmente productores
de enfermedades, sus efectos patog6nicos y factors de
riesgo epidemiol6gicos, con lo cual se podra establecer
e implementar medidas terap6uticas y/o de control y

prevenci6n de enfermedades, con especial 6nfasis en
poblaciones silvestres y en cautiverio en el estado de

Materiales y Metodos

El material estudiado proviene de 20 excretas recien
defecadas de Tapirus bairdii, y recolectadas del suelo
durante el seguimiento de los animals avistados. Las
excretas que se toman en cuenta para este studio pre-
sentan caracteristicas muy particulares desde el olor,
color, textura y ademas algo important que hemos
documentado es que los excrementos frescos de tapir
en un tiempo promedio de tres horas son "atacados"
por los escarabajos peloteros Coleoptera Scarabaeidae,
por lo que podemos asegurarnos de el tiempo aproxi-
mado de haber sido excretados por los animals.
El trabajo se realize en las zonas nucleo de las
Reservas de la Biosfera "La Sepultura" (Poligono "La
Palmita) y "El Triunfo" (Poligono I) ubicadas entire 160
21' 56" y 160 20' 18" de latitud norte, y 930 58' 31"
y 930 53' 10" longitud oeste en la Sierra Madre de
Chiapas; durante el period de 2002 al 2005 figure 1.
Las excretas recolectadas se transportaron y proc-
esaron en un laboratorio m6vil dentro de las Reservas
de la Biosfera, implementado para desarrollar los
process de siembra y primoaislamiento de bacteria,
bajo las mayores condiciones de asepsia y bioseguridad
(Giiiris y Cruz, 2002). Los medios de cultivo emplea-
dos para el aislamiento bacteriano de la enterobacteria
se seleccionaron de acuerdo a los criterios descritos
por Konemam et al. (2001), Agar MacConkey, Agar
Azul de Metileno Eosina, Agar Salmonella Shigella,

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/2 0 No. 22 0 December 2007


Figura I. El trabajo se realize en las zonas nucleo
de las Reservas de la Biosfera"La Sepultura" y

Agar Sangre, Caldo Verde Brillante (BD Bioxon). Los
medios de cultivo se inocularon con un asa bacteri-
ol6gica, dentro de un campo est6ril, realizandose la
siembra por medio de estrias de superficie en cada una
de las places. Estos fueron incubados a 370 Celsius
en aerobiosis durante 24 a 72 hrs. Se seleccionaron
colonies para verificar su taxonomia de acuerdo con
lo descrito por Staley y Krieg (1984) para la caracter-
izaci6n morfol6gica colonial, propiedades tintoriales
(Gram), morfologia y agrupaci6n bacteriana micro-
sc6pica, pruebas de identificaci6n taxon6mica para la
evaluaci6n del metabolismo bacteriano mediante las
reacciones de un sustrato bioquimico (sistema API 20
E, API Staph, API 20 NE) y de oxidaci6n y fermentaci6n
de carbohidratos con las cepas aisladas (BioMeriux
s/a; Macfaddin, 1990; Giiiris 2003). La identificaci6n
bacteriana, dependiendo de las reacciones observadas
en las pruebas bioquimicas (positivas o negatives), se
bas6 en la identificaci6n num6rica del perfil obser-
vado de cada microposo de los diferentes sustratos
bioquimicos,apoyandose en el calculo de su proximi-
dad relative a los distintos taxones de la base de datos
(% id), asi como a su proximidad al perfil mis tipico de
cada tax6n (indice T). Dichos calculos fueron analiza-
dos a trav6s del program APILAB PLUS Versi6n 2007
(bioM6rieux). El M6todo de cuantificaci6n de Unidades
Formadoras de Colonias (UFC) empleado es el descrito
por Seeley et al. (1991).


De acuerdo a los aislamientos bacterianos de copro-
cultivos en Tapir Centroamericano, denotaron una
frecuencia y distribuci6n proporcional de 262 (100%)

cepas aisladas. La proporci6n de aislamientos en
Grupo bacteriano o Familias se distribuy6 como sigue:
Aeromonadaceae con la menor proporci6n de aislami-
entos 4.96%, Bacilos Gram Negativos No Fermentadores
(BGNNF) con el 11.83%, Enterobacteriaceae con
la mayor proporci6n de aislamientos 75.19% y
Micrococcaceae con el 8.01%. Con respect a la identi-
ficaci6n de cepas bacterianas, se identificaron las sigu-
ientes species: Aeromonas hydrophila, Alcaligenes
sp. Acinetobacter sp., Citrobacter sp. Citrobacter
braakii, Citrobacterfreundii, Enterobacter aerogenes,
Enterobacter amnigenus, Enterobacter cloacae,
Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxitoca, Klebsiella plan-
ticola, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Kluyvera sp., Proteus
mirabilis, Proteus penneri, Serratia marscencens,
Serratia odorifera, Micrococcus sp., Staphylococcus
sp. Staphylococcus lentus (Tabla 1).
En cuanto a la cuantificaci6n de bacteria por
gramo de heces, se observ6 un promedio + desviaci6n
estandar (valor minimo valor maximo) de 7.900.000 +
1.6 (6.300.000 9.600.000) Unidades Formadoras de
colonies (UFC) en 6poca de secas y 86.000.000 + 4.0
(82.000.000. 90.000.000) UFC en 6poca de lluvias.


Los aislamientos bacterianos de heces de Tapirus bair-
dii silvestre de las Reservas de la Biosfera en la Sierra
Madre de Chiapas fue predominante para cepas bacte-
rianas de la familiar Enterobacteriaceae en comparaci6n
a las families Aeromonadaceae, Micrococcaceae y el
Grupo Bacteriano de BGNNF Estos resultados con-
cuerdan con Jawetz (1990), quien report que algunos
autores mencionan ciertos tipos de bacteria de la
familiar Enterobacteriaceae, que llegan a ser habitantes
normales de la flora intestinal, donde no produce
generalmente enfermedades e incluso contribuyen a
la funci6n y la nutrici6n normal y que ciertos g6neros
llegan a volverse pat6genos, solo cuando colonizan los
tejidos que estAn fuera del tubo intestinal, en particular
las vias urinarias y biliares, los pulmones, el peritoneo
y las meninges, causando inflamaci6n de estos sitios.
Nuestros aislamientos bacterianos en Tapir
Centroamericano concuerdan con trabajos realizados
por diferentes autores en el orden Perissodactyla:
Goltenboth et al. (1996), report el aislamiento de
Escherichia coli en el Tapir de la India (Tapirus indi-
cus), el mismo autor report tambi6n el aislamiento
de la misma bacteria en higado, bazo, e intestine de
Rinoceronte Negro (Diceros bicornis), los cuales se
encuentran filogen6ticamente relacionados con el Tapir
y los Equidos. Giiiris et al. (2001) aislaron Escherichia
coli de intestine (ciego, colon y recto) de dos Tapirus
bairdii con enterotoxemia del Zool6gico Regional

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/2 0 No. 22 0 December 2007



Tabla I. Distribuci6n proporcional de la frecuencia de aislamientos bacterianos
a partir de coprocultivos en Tapir Centroamericano de las Reservas de la Biosfera
"El Triunfo" y "La Sepultura" en la Sierra Madre de Chiapas.

Familia / Grupo Bacteria % Familia / Grupo No. Cepas %
Aeromonadaceae Aeromonas hydrophila 4.96 13 4.96
Alcaligenes sp. 11.83 14 5.34
Acinetobacter sp. 17 6.48
Citrobacter sp. 3 1.14
Citrobacter braakii 12 4.58
Citrobacter freundii 13 4.96
Enterobacter aerogenes 5 1.90
Enterobacter amnigenus 5 1.90
Enterobacter cloacae 4 1.52
Escherichia coli 83 31.67
Enterobacteriaceae Klebsiella oxitoca 75.19 10 3.81
Klebsiella planticola 14 5.34
Klebsiella pneumoniae 8 3.05
Kluyvera sp. 10 3.81
Proteus mirabilis 7 2.67
Proteus penneri 5 1.90
Serratia marcencens 7 2.67
Serratia odorifera 1 11 4.19
Micrococcus sp. 7 2.67
Micrococcaceae Staphylococcus sp. 8 10 3.81
Staphylococcus lentus 4 1.52
100% 262 100.00

Miguel Alvarez del Toro, en Tuxtla Guti6rrez, Chiapas,
M6xico. En un studio de caso de Bronconeumonia
en Tapirus bairdii del estado de Chiapas, al realizar
aislamientos de vias respiratorias y digestivas, Giiiris
et al. (2002) reportan: Enterococcus faecalis, un
estreptococo intestinal aislado en faringe, Escherichia
coli y Citrobacterfreundii aislado de intestine, lo que
sugiere que una bacteria (Enterococcus sp.) de la
microbiota intestinal de caballo o tapir puede actuar
como un pat6geno potential en vias respiratorias. Por
otra parte, Carter y Chengappa (1991) reportan ais-
lamientos de Escherichia coli en Caballo. P6rez (2005)
tambi6n encontr6 Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneu-
moniae, Enterobacter cloacae y Kluyvera sp. en tapir,
caballo y mula, aparentemente sanos. Esto sugiere
que dichas bacteria forman parte de la microbiota
resident del intestine de estos Perisodactilos. Con
respect a Alcaligenes sp. y Klebsiella planticola, ais-
lados en excretas de tapir, pueden estas bacteria estar
supeditadas posiblemente a los hdbitos alimentarios
del tapir, dado que esta bacteria se encuentra en suelo
o plants (Koneman et al. 2001). La mayor frecuencia

cuerda con lo descrito por
donde cita que Escherichia

de aislamientos bacteri-
anos en Tapir fue para la
especie Escherichia coli
en un 31.67%. cifra que
concuerda con lo encon-
trado por Giiiris et al.
2001. que reportan un
57.0% de aislamientos
de la especie en tracto
digestive de tapires en el
Zool6gico Miguel Alvarez
del Toro en Tuxtla
Gutierrez, Chiapas.
El grupo Serratia liq-
uefaciens es clasificada
no como una especie
unica, sino como una
colecci6n de muchos
grupos de hibridaci6n de
DNA bacterianos, la cual
se aisla del ambiente y
de humans (Konemam
et al. 2001).
En la present
investigaci6n se iden-
tificaron las siguientes
species: Escherichia
coli, Kluyvera sp.,
grupo Serratia lique-
faciens, Citrobacter
koseri, Pantoea agglo-
merans, Proteus vul-
garis y Acinetobacter
sp. Dicho resultado con-
Koneman et al. (2001) en
coli es uno de los aislami-

entos bacterianos mis comunmente realizados en el
laboratorio de muestras de tracto gastrointestinal. Por
otra parte Kluyvera sp. es raramente identificada en
muestras de heces de humans (Koneman et al. 2001).
En tanto que el aislamiento de Pantoea agglomerans
concuerda con lo descrito por Koneman et al. (2001),
en donde citan que esta especie bacteriana ha sido ais-
lada de fuentes biofisicas diversas plantsa, animals,
humans, agua) y de heridas, sangre, orina y 6rganos
internos. Mientras que Proteus vulgaris, se encuentra
en aislamientos recuperados con mas frecuencia de
muestras clinics y son distribuidos en la naturaleza
en forma amplia, estos microorganisms se encuen-
tran en el suelo y el agua, sobre las plants y como
lo indica el nombre de la familiar, dentro del tracto
intestinal de los series humans y animals. Es parte
de la microbiota intestinal de mamiferos, y ha sido
recuperado con mayor frecuencia en hu6spedes inmu-
nosuprimidos, en particular aquellos que han recibido
tratamientos prolongados con antibi6ticos (Konemam

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/2 0 No. 22 0 December 2007


et al. 2001), lo cual concuerda con lo descrito por
Jawets et al. (1990), quien tambi6n menciona que esta
especie produce infecciones s61o cuando abandon
el tubo intestinal. Referente a los aislamientos bacte-
rianos de Citrobacter koseri realizados, Koneman et
al. (2001) menciona que pueden encontrarse en orina,
nariz, esputo y heridas, causa rara de meningitis y
abscesos cerebrales en neonatos y han sido obtenidos
predominantemente de material fecal.
En cuanto al aislamiento de Acinetobacter sp.
Koneman et al. (2001), report el aislamiento de esta
especie bacteriana en infecciones de heridas de piel y
nosocomiales, neumonias, peritonitis, y bacteriemias
en humans. La frecuencia de aislamientos bacte-
rianos en heces fueron altos en Tapirus bairdii, lo
cual puede ser debido al habito alimentario (dieta
variada y rica en fibra de tallos y hojas) que quizas no
sea muy fermentable. Esto difiere de lo descrito por
Hojberg et al. (2003) en un studio sobre la capacidad
catab6lica microbiana gastrointestinal de cerdos con
dietas fermentables liquidas o fibrosas secas, quienes
observaron una disminuci6n de la poblaci6n microbi-
ana (microbiota resident) probablemente por el efecto
bactericida del acido lactico y bajo pH.

Literature citada

BioMerieux. Program APILAB PLUS: (Versi6n 2007).
BioMerieux s/a. Sistema de Identificaci6n bacteriana.
Diagnostico "in vitro" BioMerieux, S.A. Francia, 2000.
Carter G.R., Chengappa M.M. 1991. Bacteriologia y
Micologia Veterinarias, aspects esenciales. 2a. edici6n.
Edit. El Manual Moderno, S.A. de C. V M6xico. D.F.
G61tenboth R., Busch W., Jenschke J., Oces A. and
Wittstatt U. 1996. Herpesvirus infection in an Indian
Tapir (Tapirus indicus) and in a Black Rhinoceros
(Diceros bicornis): Case Reports. Proceedings American
Association of Zoo Veterinarians. Puerto Vallarta,
Mexico. 18-21.
Giiris A.D.M., Samayoa O.Y.Y., Cruz A.E. and Lira T.I.
2001. Identification of Aerobic Bacteria from Internal
Organs of Tapirus bairdii form Miguel Alvarez del Toro,
Regional Zoo, Chiapas, Mexico. First International Tapir
Symposium. IUCN Species Survival Commission (SSC),
Tapir Specialist Group. American Zoo and Aquarium
Association (AZA), Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TTAG),
Tapir Preservation Fund (TPF). Noviembre. San Jose,
Costa Rica. 3-8 (32).
Giiris A.D.M., Rojas H.N.M., Bastard G.C.W., P6rez
E.M.E. y Cruz A.E. 2002. Analisis Bacteriol6gico de
una Bronconeumonia en Tapirus bairdii del estado
de Chiapas, M6xico. XVIII Congreso Panamericano de
Ciencias Veterinarias (PANVET). Sesi6n Microbiologia e

Inmunologia (poster). Palacio de las Convenciones, 18
22 de Noviembre. La Habana, Cuba.
Giiris A.D.M., Cruz, A. E. 2002. Procedimientos de
Bioseguridad en Proyectos de Investigaci6n de Reservas
de la Biosfera. Policlinica y Diagn6stico Veterinario,
Institute de Historia Natural y Ecologia (ZooMAT)
Gobierno del Estado de Chiapas (IHNE), Universidad
Aut6noma de Chiapas, Investigaci6n y Posgrado. Tuxtla
Guti6rrez Chiapas. P 39.
Giuiris A.D.M., Cruz A.E. 2003. Estudios Biom6dicos y de
Sanidad en Tapirus bairdii del Estado de Chiapas,
Mexico. En: Estudios Biom6dicos y de Sanidad en
Fauna Silvestre Nativa y Cautiva del Estado de Chiapas.
Proyecto de Investigaci6n continue desde 1988... a la
fecha. Policlinica y Diagn6stico Veterinario, Instituto
de Historia Natural y Ecologia (ZooMAT) Gobierno del
Estado de Chiapas (IHNE), Universidad Aut6noma de
Chiapas, Investigaci6n y Posgrado. Tuxtla Guti6rrez
Chiapas. P 80.
Hojberg 0., Canibe N., Knudsen B. and Jensen B. B. 2003.
Potencial rates of fermentation in digesta from the gas-
trointestinal tract of pigs; Effect of feeding fermented
liquid feed. Applied and Environmental Microbiology.
January. 69(1): 408-418.
INE-SEMARNAP 1999a. Program de manejo de la Reserva
de la Biosfera "El Triunfo", M6xico. Institute Nacional
de Ecologia Secretaria de Medio Ambiente Recursos
Naturales y Pesca. Mexico, D.F
INE-SEMARNAP 1999b. Program de manejo Reserva de
la Biosfera "La Sepultura", Chiapas, M6xico. Institute
Nacional de Ecologia Secretaria de Medio Ambiente
Recursos Naturales y Pesca. M6xico, D.F
Jawest E., Melnick L.J., Adelberg A.E., Brooks F.G., Butel
S.J., Ornston N.L. 1990. Bastoncillos intestinales Gram
negatives. En: Microbiologia M6dica, Capitulo 16, 13
Edici6n M6xico D.F Editorial El Manual Moderno S.A.
de CV 204-214.
Koneman E.W., Allen S.D., Janda W.M., Schreckenberger
PC., Winn WC. 2001. Enterobacteriaceae. En:
Diagn6stico Microbiol6gico Texto y atlas a color.
Capitulo 4. 5a ed. Editorial M6dica Panamericana S.A.;
Mexico D.F 172-250.
Macfaddin J.F 1990. Pruebas Bioquimicas para la
Identificaci6n de Bacterias de Importancia Clinica.
Editorial Panamericana, S.A. de C.V M6xico. D.F
PEOT. 2004. Program de Ordenamiento Territorial del
Estado de Chiapas. Gobierno del Estado. Chiapas,
Perez E.R. 2005. Identificaci6n de la microbiota bacteriana
en coprocultivos de Tapirus bairdii y equinos dom6s-
ticos en la Sierra Madre de Chiapas, Mexico. Tesis
de Licenciatura. Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y
Zootecnia, Universidad Aut6noma de Chiapas.
Seeley, H.W., Van Demark, PJ. and Lee, J.J. 1991. Microbes
in action. A laboratory manual of microbiology. Fourth
edition. W.H. Freeman and Company. USA.
Staley J.T., Krieg N.R. 1984. Classification of prokaryo-
tic organism: An overview. In Krieg N.R., Holt J.G.
editors: Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology.
Williams and Wilkins. Baltimore, USA. Vol. 1: 1-4.

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/2 0 No. 22 0 December 2007


Reports sobre la Presencia del

Tapir de Montafia (Tapirus pinchaque)

en el Parque Nacional Llanganates, Ecuador

Alfonso Heredia', OrleyAchoa2, Luis Sandoval-Cafias3 & Modesto Iglesias4

S Ministerio del Ambiente, Responsable del Parque Nacional Llanganates.Ambato Ecuador. E-mail:
2 Ministerio del Ambiente, Educaci6n Ambiental y Promoci6n del Parque Nacional Llanganates. E-mail:
3 Estaci6n Cientifica Amaz6nica Juri Juri Kawsay, Universidad Central del Ecuador. Quito. E-mail:
4 Comunidad El Triunfo

En el Ecuador existen pocos studios realizados con
el tapir de montafia (Mora et al. 1993; Castellanos,
1994; Downer, 1996), sin embargo, los esfuerzos por
obtener informaci6n sobre esta especie son cada vez
mas constantes. Recientemente se han conseguido vali-
osos registros director de este ungulado en el Parque
Nacional Llanganates (PNL), los cuales son reportados
en la present nota.
El tapir de montafia (Tapirus pinchaque) se dis-
tribuye desde la parte norte de Peri, la parte este y

Figura 1. Ubicaci6n del Parque Nacional Llanganates
en el Ecuador. Provincias:
C = Cotopaxi; T =Tungurahua; N = Napo; P = Pastaza.

noroeste de la cordillera de los Andes del Ecuador
hasta la parte occidental, este y central de los Andes
Colombianos (Downer, 1997). Su hAbitat son los bos-
ques montanos y paramos que van desde los 2000 a
4000 msnm (Acosta et al., 1996; Downer 1996; 1997).
En el Ecuador este tipo de hAbitat se ha visto afectado
debido al constant desarrollo de actividades antropo-
g6nicas, las cuales han ocasionado que el 64% del total
de la superficie de los pAramos (12500 km2), haya sido
transformada (Hofstede et al. 2002).
El Parque Nacional Llanganates (PNL) es una de
las areas protegidas del Ecuador que conserve, amn,
lugares que no presentan alta fragmentaci6n (Vazquez
& Larrea 2000). Posee una superficie de 2.197 km2y se
extiende entire las provincias de Cotopaxi, Tungurahua,
Pastaza y Napo (Figura 1) (Castro & Roman 2000). Su
altitude varia desde los 2400 a 4500 msnm y present
ocho tipos de vegetaci6n: pAramo herbAceo, pAramo
de almohadillas, herbazal lacustre montano alto, bos-
que siempreverde montano bajo, bosque siemprever-

Figura 2. Parque Nacional Llanganates. Ubicaci6n de
los lugares en donde se obtuvieron los registros:
I =Valle del rio Mulatos; 2 = Paramos de Limoturo;
3 = Comunidad EITriunfo.
Mapa Fuente: Ministerio del Ambiente y EcoCiencia.

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/2 0 No. 22 0 December 2007



100 0 100 200 Miles


Figura 3. Cria registrada en elValle del rio Mulatos. Figura 4. Una pareja de tapires observada en el
Paramo de Limoturo.

de montano alto, bosque siempreverde piemontano,
bosque de neblina montano y areas con intervenci6n
humana (Chiriboga et al. 2000; Vazquez & Larrea,
Durante recorridos de control y vigilancia, por los
paramos del PNL, se han reportado observaciones
directs de cuatro individuos en tres diferentes locali-
dades (Figura 2): En la via Salcedo-Tena, valle del rio
mulatos, se registry una cria (Figura. 3), dos indivi-
duos en el paramo de Limoturo y un individuo juvenile
fue capturado por pobladores de la comunidad El
Triunfo (Figura. 4 y 5 respectivamente). Este individuo
fue examinado, desparasitado por un veterinario del
Ministerio y con el apoyo de la comunidad fue devuelto
a su habitat.
El PNL present areas en buen estado de conser-
vaci6n, las mismas que podrian ser utilizadas como
areas de refugio, apareamiento y alimentaci6n por los
tapires. No obstante, es necesario realizar investigaci-
ones que nos permitan determinar la disponibilidad
de habitat y el estado de conservaci6n del tapir en esta
El Parque Nacional Llanganates conserve lugares
que ain no han sido explorados, el endemismo y
diversidad de su flora y fauna son altos y la funci6n
que cumplen sus bosques y paramos en la captaci6n y
regulaci6n del recurso agua hacen que este parque se
convierta en un area prioritaria para la investigaci6n y
conservaci6n de toda su biodiversidad.

Literature citada

Acosta H., J. Cavelier & S. Londofo. 1996. Aportes al
conocimiento de la biologia de la danta de mon-
tafa, Tapirus pinchaque, en los Andes Centrales de
Colombia. Biotropica 28(2): 258-266
Castellanos, A. X. 1994. El tapir andino (Tapirus pinchaque
Roulin): crianza de un ejemplar en el bosque protec-
tor Pasochoa y notas ecol6gicas en el Parque Nacional
Sangay, Ecuador. Tesis de Licenciatura en ciencias de la
educaci6n. Universidad Central del Ecuador. Quito.
Chiriboga, C., J. Carvajal & N. Endara. Diagn6stico socioe-
con6mico de cuatro poblaciones aledafias al Parque
Nacional Llanganates. En: Vazquez, M. A., M. Larrea &
L. Suarez (eds.). Biodiversidad en el Parque Nacional
Llanganates: Un report de las evaluaciones ecol6gicas

Figura 5. Tapir capturado en la comunidad EITriunfo.

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/2 0 No. 22 0 December 2007


y socioecon6micas rapidas, pp. 149-188. EcoCiencia,
Ministerio del Ambiente, Herbario Nacional del
Ecuador, Museo Ecuatoriano de Ciencias Naturales e
Institute Internacional de Reconstrucci6n Rural. Quito.
Downer, C. 1996. The mountain tapir, endangered "flagship"
species of the high Andes. Oryx 30: 45-58.
Downer, C. 1997. Status and Action Plan of the Mountain
Tapir (Tapirus pinchaque). In: D. M. Brooks, R. E.
Bodmer and S. Matola (eds.). Tapirs, Status Survey and
Conservation Action Plan, pp. 10-22. IUCN/SSC Tapir
Specialist Group, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Hofstede, R., R. Coppus, P Vasconez, P Segarra, J. Wolf &
J. Sevink. El estado de conservaci6n de los paramos de
pajonal en el Ecuador. ECOTROPICOS 15(1):3-18 2002
Sociedad Venezolana de Ecologia.


Patricia Medici one of the

Winners of the Golden

Ark Award 2008

By Stefan Seitz

On the verge of printing this issue, a very pleasant
announcement reached the editors that should be
shared with the entire tapir community.
Patricia Medici, Coordinator of the Lowland Tapir
Conservation Initiative (LTCI) in Brazil and Chair of
the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group (CBSG) is one of
the three winners of the Golden Ark Award from the
Golden Ark Foundation in the Netherlands. Patricia
will receive this award for her long-term contributions
to lowland tapir research and conservation in Brazil,
as well as for her work as chair of the TSG.
The goal of the Golden Ark Foundation is to pro-
mote the conservation of species of wild animals and
plants. In pursuit of this goal, the Foundation has
established the Golden Ark Award, a prestigious con-
servation award, which rewards and funds individuals
for their internationally outstanding species conserva-
tion efforts. The Golden Ark Award honors creativity,
leadership, innovation and entrepreneurship in the
field of species conservation, and aims to stimulate
award winners to sustain their dedicated work.
In September 2007, 69 conservationists from 40
different countries worldwide were nominated for
the Golden Ark Award. Patricia Medici was nomi-

Mora, A., J. Flanagan & E. Cueva. 1993. Estudio de la dis-
tribuci6n y preferencia de habitat del tapir de montafa
(Tapirus pinchaque), en un area del Parque Nacional
Podocarpus PNP Informe T6cnico. Fundaci6n Natura y
Fundaci6n Ecol6gica Arcoiris. Loja, Ecuador.
Vazquez, M. A. & M. Larrea. 2000. Breve introducci6n a los
Llanganates. En: Vazquez, M. A., M. Larrea & L. Suarez
(eds.). Biodiversidad en el Parque Nacional Llanganates:
Un report de las evaluaciones ecol6gicas y socio-
econ6micas rapidas, pp. 9-12. EcoCiencia, Ministerio
del Ambiente, Herbario Nacional del Ecuador,
Museo Ecuatoriano de Ciencias Naturales e Instituto
International de Reconstrucci6n Rural. Quito.

nated by the Dutch Foundation Zoos Help of the Dutch
Federation of Zoos, a long-term supporter of Patricia's
tapir conservation efforts in Brazil. Ten of the nomi-
nees were short-listed for the second phase of the selec-
tion process, and three of them were selected as the
winners of the award.
The other two winners of the Golden Ark Award
2008 were Charudutt Mishra from India, who works
on Himalayan wildlife, with a strong focus on the snow
leopard, and Michiel Hotte from the Netherlands,
a pioneer in Amur leopard conservation in Russia.
Award winners will receive Euro 50.000 as a contribu-
tion to their conservation work. Patricia, Charudutt,
and Michiel will be the definite winners of the Golden
Ark Award when they receive it during the Golden
Ark Conference at Burgers' Zoo in Arnhem, the
Netherlands, on the 14th of March, 2008.
In the next issue of Tapir Conservation we will
report about the award ceremony and dwell into Pati's
biography and conservation projects. Further informa-
tion about the Golden Ark Foundation and Golden Ark
Award can be found at:

Stefan Seitz
Member, IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group
Co-editor, Tapir Conservation Newsletter

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/2 0 No. 22 0 December 2007



Currently, the TSG has 106 members, including
field researchers, educators, veterinarians,
governmental agencies and NGO representatives, zoo
personnel, university professors and students, from
27 different countries worldwide (Argentina, Australia,
Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica,
Denmark, Ecuador, France, French Guiana, Germany,
Guatemala, Honduras, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico,
Myanmar, Republic of Panama, Paraguay, Peru,
Thailand, The Netherlands, United Kingdom, United
States, and Venezuela).


PERHILITAN Bukit Rengit, Krau Wildlife Reserve
E-mail: cobra7512081

Seccion Ecologia, Sistematica y Evolucion,
Departamento Academico de Ciencias Biologicas y Fisiologicas
Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofia,
Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia

ANGELL, GILIA (United States)
Senior Designer,

APARICIO, KARLA (Republic of Panama)
M.Sc. Specialist in Wildlife Conservation and Management
Scientific Committee, Patronato "Amigos del Aguila Harpia"
Associate Researcher, Earthmatters.Org

Biol6go, Researcher, Laboratorio de Ecologia Evolutiva de Mamiferos,
Institute de Biologia, Universidad de Antioquia

M.Sc. Bi6logo, Investigador deVida Silvestre,WCS -Wildlife
Conservation Society Bolivia
Northern La Paz Living Landscape Program

BARONGI, RICK (United States)
Director, Houston Zoo Inc.
Former Chair / Member,American Zoo and Aquarium Association
(AZA) Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)

BAUER, KENDRA (United States)
Ph.D. Graduate Student, Integrative Biology,
University of Texas
at Austin

BECK, HARALD (Germany I United States / Peru)
Ph.D.Assistant Professor & Curator of the Mammal Museum
Department of Biological Sciences, Towson University

BENEDETTI,ADRIAN (Republic of Panama)
Director, Parque Municipal Summit, REPUBLIC OF PANAMA

General Curator / Jefe de Fauna, Parque Zoologico Recreacional

D.V.M. Director Tecnico, Fundaci6n Nacional de Parques Zool6gicos
eAcuirios (FUNPZA) Ministerio del Ambiente (MARN)

Ph.D. Lecturer in Biodiversity Conservation, Durrell Institute of
Conservation and Ecology (DICE), University of Kent

Coordinador deVida Silvestre, Sistema Nacional de Areas de
Conservaci6n, Ministerio del Ambiente y Energia (MINAE)

Coordinator, Programa Parques en Peligro, Fundaci6n Ecuatoriana
de Estudios Ecol6gicos EcoCiencia

Coordinador de Proyectos Ambientales, Asociaci6n Meralvis

M.Sc. Coordinador de Conservaci6n de Sitios, Guyra Paraguay
Cnel. Rafael Franco 381, C.P. I 132,Asunci6n, PARAGUAY

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/2 0 No. 22 0 December 2007


Director,Andean Bear Project, Fundaci6n Espiritu del Bosque

M.Sc. Proyecto de Investigaci6n y Conservaci6n del Tapir Noroeste

COLBERT, MATTHEW (United States)
Ph.D. Research Associate, Jackson School of Geological Sciences,
University of Texas at Austin


M.Sc. Researcher, Instituto de Historia Natural y Ecologia
E-mail: pimecruz59 I; ecruz59 I

Ph.D. Departamento de Ecologia de los Recursos Naturales,
Institute de Ecologia, UNAM

DEE, MICHAEL (United States)
General Curator, Los Angeles Zoo
Member,American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA)
Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)

Assistant Director, ZooParc de Beauval
Lowland Tapir Studbook Keeper, European Association of Zoos and
Aquaria (EAZA) Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)

DOWNER, CRAIG C. (United States)
BA, M.Sc., President,Andean Tapir Fund


FLESHER, KEVIN (United States I Brazil)

Director of Washington DC Office, International Fund for Animal
E-mail: J

FOERSTER, CHARLES R. (United States / Costa Rica)
M.Sc. Leader, Baird's Tapir Project, Corcovado National Park,
Costa Rica

Licenciado, Investigador, Centro de Estudios Conservacionistas,
Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala

GARRELLE, DELLA (United States)
D.V.M. Director of Conservation and Animal Health, Cheyenne
Mountain Zoo

GLATSTON,ANGELA (The Netherlands)
Ph.D. Curator of Mammals, Rotterdam Zoo
Member, European Association of Zoos and Aquaria (EAZA)
Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)

GOFF, DON (United States)
Assistant Director, Beardsley Zoological Gardens
Lowland Tapir Studbook Keeper,American Zoo and Aquarium
Association (AZA) Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)

Ph.D. Postdoctoral Fellow, Unit of Biology and Physical Geography
University of British Columbia, Okanagan, CANADA
Associated Researcher, IPE Instituto de Pesquisas Ecol6gicas
(Institute for Ecological Research), Brazil

GREENE, LEWIS (United States)
Director, Fresno Chaffee Zoo

D.V.M. Manager, Clinic Laboratory,
Zool6gico Regional Miguel Alvarez del Toro (ZooMat)
Institute de Historia Natural y Ecologia

D.V.M. M.Sc.Jefe de Operaciones, UN.A.CH.,
Policlinica y Diagn6sticoVeterinario

HANDRUS, ELLIOT (United States)
E-mail: ebh

D.V.M.Adjunct Professor, College of Veterinary Medicine,
University of Georgia

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/2 0 No. 22 0 December 2007


Photographer, Flora and Fauna International
E-mail:; jeremy_holden I

HOLST, BENGT (Denmark)
M.Sc.Vice Director and Director of Conservation and Science,
Copenhagen Zoo
Convener, IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG)
- Europe Regional Network
Chair, European Association of Zoos and Aquaria (EAZA) Tapir Taxon
Advisory Group (TAG)

JANSSEN, DONALD L. (United States)
D.V.M. Ph.D. Director,Veterinary Services, San Diego Wild Animal Park

Ph.D. Coordinador, Reserva Experimental Horco Molle
Universidad National de Tucumin

Chief, Hala-Bala Wildlife Sanctuary Department of National Parks,
Wildlife and Plant Conservation
Royal Forest Department of Thailand

Wildlife Research Division Department of National Parks,Wildlife
and Plant Conservation
Royal Forestry Department of Thailand

D.V.M. Scientific Director, Fundaci6n Nativa

Ph.D.Technical Advisor, Division of Research and Conservation
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (DWNP)

Director of Conservation and Science, Houston Zoo Inc.

D.V.M. M.Sc. Curador de la Colecci6n de Fauna, Zoologico de
San Juan de Arag6n
E-mail: ilira

Ph.D. Graduate Student, Centro de Biologia Animal,
Departamento de Biologia Animal
Faculdade de Ciincias, Universidade de Lisboa

Ph.D.Associate Conservation Scientist & Regional Advisor, Wildlife
Conservation Society -Asia Program

D.V.M. M.Sc.Associated Researcher, IPE Instituto de Pesquisas
Ecol6gicas (Institute for Ecological Research)
Scientific Coordinator,Vida Livre Medicina de Animais Selvagens

Deputy Director,Wildlife Conservation Society -Thailand Program

Team Leader, Flora and Fauna International

MATOLA, SHARON (United States I Belize)
Director, Belize Zoo and Tropical Education Center

M.Sc.Wildlife Ecology, Conservation and Management
Research Coordinator, IPE Instituto de Pesquisas Ecol6gicas
(Institute for Ecological Research)
Ph.D. Candidate, Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology
(DICE), University of Kent, United Kingdom
Convener, IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group
(CBSG) Brazil Regional Network

MENDOZA,ALBERTO (Mexico I United States)
D.V.M. Chair, American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA) Tapir
Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)

Director, San Francisco Zoological Gardens

Ph.D. Universidad Nacional de Colombia (UNAL)

LIZCANO, DIEGO J. (Colombia)
Ph.D. Professor, Universidad de Pamplona

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/2 0 No. 22 0 December 2007


MORALES, MIGUELA. (Paraguay I United States)
Ph.D. Protected Areas Management Advisor
People, Protected Areas and Conservation Corridors, Conservation
International (CI)

Ph.D. El Colegio de la Frontera Sur (ECOSUR)

Institute Ecuatoriano de Propiedad Intelectual (IEPI)
Associate Researcher, Fundaci6n Ecol6gicaArcoiris
Professor, Escuela de Gesti6n Ambiental de la Universidad Tecnica
Particular de Loja

Lecturer, Jurusan Biologi FMIPA, Universitas Andalas

Ph.D. Graduate Student, Biology Department, McGill University
E-mail: xoxo

Coordinator, Proyecto Corredores de Conservaci6n,
Fundaci6n Ecol6gica Arcoiris

D.V.M. Gerente del Departamento deVeterinaria,Africam Safari

Biologist, Ph.D. Graduate Student, CONICET- LIEY, Universidad
Nacional de Tucuman

Institute de Investigaci6n de Recursos Biol6gicos "Alexander von

Ph.D.Technical Forest Official Department of National Parks,Wildlife
and Plant Conservation
Royal Forest Department of Thailand

D.V.M. Senior Veterinarian, Fundaci6n Temaiken

M.Sc. Fundaci6n Wii

Institute de Ciencias Naturales,
Universidad Nacional de Colombia (UNAL)

Director, Zoocriadero de Dantas La Marina

ROMAN, JOSEPH (United States)
Curator,Virginia Zoological Park
Baird's Tapir Studbook Keeper,American Zoo and Aquarium
Association (AZA) Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)

RUBIANO,ASTRITH (Colombia I United States)
University of Connecticut / Conservation and Research Center,
Smithsonian Institution

Professor & Researcher, Escuela de Biologia,
Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala

RUSSO, KELLY J. (United States)
Manager of Interactive Marketing,
Web Communications Department, Houston Zoo Inc

SALAS, LEONARDO (Venezuela I United States)
Ph.D.Animal Population Biologist, Post-Doctoral Fellow,
Redwood Sciences Laboratory
U.S. Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station

Ph.D. President, Sociedad Mastozoologica de Panama (SOMASPA)
Director, Proyecto de Biodiversidad de Mamiferos (PROBIOMA)

Vice-President, Tapir Preservation Fund (TPF)

Licenciado en Ciencias Biol6gicas, Universidad Central del Ecuador,
Estaci6n Cientifica Amaz6nica Juri Juri Kawsay

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/2 0 No. 22 0 December 2007


M.Sc. Candidate, Universidad Nacional de Colombia

D.V.M. M.Sc. Genetics & Animal Improvement
Coordinator, Mamapacha Project

Ph.D. Captive Research on Tapirs: Behavior and Management,
4TAPIRS Information Centre

Curador General, Parque Zool6gico de Le6n
Miembro,Asociaci6n de Zool6gicos, Criaderos yAcuarios de Mexico
Coordinador, Programa de Recuperaci6n de Especies del Tapir
Centroamericano de AZCARM

SHOEMAKER,ALAN H. (United States)
Permit Advisor, American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA)
Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)

SMITH, BRANDIE (United States)
Assistant Director, Conservation and Science, American Zoo and
Aquarium Association (AZA)
Advisor, American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA) Tapir Taxon
Advisory Group (TAG)

STANCER, MICHELE (United States)
Animal Care Manager, San Diego Zoological Society
Malayan Tapir Studbook Keeper,American Zoo and Aquarium
Association (AZA) Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)

Jardin Botanico, Universidad Tecnol6gica de Pereira

Centro Tecnol6gico de Recursos Amaz6nicos de la Organizaci6n de
Pueblos Indigenas de Pastaza (OPIP) CENTRO FATIMA

THOISY, BENOIT DE (French Guiana)
D.V.M. Ph.D. Kwata Association

TOBLER, MATHIAS (United States / Peru)
Ph.D. Graduate Student, Botanical Research Institute of Texas

TODD, SHERYL (United States)
President,Tapir Preservation Fund (TPF)

Estudiante, Escuela de Gesti6n Ambiental, Universidad Tecnica
Particular de Loja
E-mail: naty;

TRAEHOLT, CARL (Denmark I Malaysia I Cambodia)
Ph.D. Research Coordinator, Malayan Tapir Project, Krau Wildlife
Reserve, Copenhagen Zoo


VAN STRIEN, NICO (The Netherlands / Indonesia)
Ph.D. SE Asia Coordinator, International Rhino Foundation

VARELA, DIEGO (Argentina)
Licenciado Ciencias Biologicas, Ph.D. Graduate Student,
Universidad de Buenos Aires / Conservaci6n Argentina

Ph.D.Associate Professor, Botany Department, University of
Hawaii at Manoa

WALLACE, ROBERT B. (England I Bolivia)
Ph.D.Associate Conservation Ecologist,Wildlife Conservation Society
(WCS) Madidi
Fax: +591-2-278-6642 / E-mail:

WATERS, SIAN S. (United Kingdom)
BA, M.Phil. Conservation Zoologist
E-mail: sian s; sian s

Ph.D. Private Consultant

General Curator, Belize Zoo

Malaysian Department of Wildlife and National Parks (DWNP)

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/2 0 No. 22 0 December 2007


Patricia Medici, Brazil,
William Konstant, United States,
Baird's Tapir Coordinator
Eduardo J. Naranjo Pihera, Mexico,
Lowland Tapir Coordinator
Viviana Beatriz Quse,Argentina,
Malay Tapir Coordinator
Carl Traeholt, Denmark / Malaysia,
Mountain Tapir Coordinator
Diego J. Lizcano, Colombia,
Red List Authority
Alan H. Shoemaker, United States,
Tapir Conservation Newsletter Editors
Leonardo Salas,Venezuela / United States,
Stefan Seitz, Germany,
Kelly J. Russo, United States,
Rick Barongi, United States,
Virtual Library Manager
Mathias Tobler, United States / Peru,
Harald Beck, Germany / United States,
Fundraising Committee Coordinator
Patricia Medici, Brazil,
Action Planning Committee Coordinator
Patricia Medici, Brazil,
Zoo Committee Coordinator
Viviana Beatriz Quse,Argentina,
Veterinary Committee Coordinator
D.V.M.Javier Adolfo Sarria Perea, Colombia,
Genetics Committee Coordinators
Anders Gongalves da Silva, Brazil / United States,
Cristina Luis, Portugal,
Education & Outreach Committee Coordinator
Kelly J. Russo, United States,
Marketing Committee &Website Coordinator
Gilia Angell, United States,
Task Force Re-Introduction & Translocation
Patricia Medici, Brazil,
Anders Gongalves da Silva, Brazil / United States,
Task Force Action Plan Implementation
Patricia Medici, Brazil,
Working Group Human/Tapir Conflict
Sian S.Waters, United Kingdom, sian s
Ethics Committee
Evolution Consultant
Matthew Colbert, United States,

This newsletter aims to provide information regarding all
aspects of tapir natural history. Items of news, recent events,
recent publications, thesis abstracts, workshop proceedings
etc concerning tapirs are welcome. Manuscripts should be
submitted in MS Word.

There are two deadlines per year: 3 I March for publication
in June and 30 September for publication in December.

Please include the full name and address of the authors
underneath the title of the article and specify who is the
corresponding author.

Full length articles on any aspect of tapir natural history
are accepted in English, Spanish or Portuguese language. They
should not be more than 5,000 words (all text included). In
any case, an English abstract up to 250 words is required.

Figures and Maps
Contributions can include black and white photographs, high
quality figures and high quality maps and tables. Please send
them as separate files (formats preferred: jpg, pdf, cdr, xls).

Please refer to these examples when listing references:

journal Article
Herrera, J.C.,Taber,A.,Wallace, R.B. & Painter, L. 1999.
Lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) behavioral ecology in a
southern Amazonian tropical forest. Vida Silv.Tropicale

Chapter in Book
Janssen, D.L., Rideout, B.A. & Edwards, M.S. 1999.Tapir
Medicine. In: M.E. Fowler & R. E. Miller (eds.) Zoo and Wild
Animal Medicine, pp.562-568. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia,

Brooks, D.M., Bodmer, R.E. & Matola, S. 1997.Tapirs: Status,
Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN, Gland,

Foerster. C.R. 1998.Ambito de Hogar, Patron de Movimentso
y Dieta de la Danta Centroamericana (Tapirus bairdii) en
el Parque Nacional Corcovado, Costa Rica. M.S. thesis.
Universidad Nacional, Heredia, Costa Rica.

Santiapilli, C.& Ramono,WS. 1989.The Status and
Conservation of the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) in Sumatra,
Indonesia. Unpublished Report,Worldwide Fund for Nature,
Bogor, Indonesia.

Please send all contributions to Leonardo Salas, e-mail:

Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/2 0 No. 22 0 December 2007

Tapir Conservation

Volume 16/2 0 No. 22 E December 2007

I~ Cotet

Contents .......................................... ........... 2
Editorial Board .................................... ........ 2
From the Chair ............................................... 3
Letter from the Chair
By Patricia Medici ..................................... 3
National Action Plan Reports .......................... 5
Plan de Acci6n Danta Costa Rica
Por Fabricio Carbonell T. .................................. 5
Construcci6n Participativa de la Estrategia Nacional
para la Conservaci6n de los Tapires del Ecuador
Por Leonardo Ord6hez Delgado y
Fernando Nogales ........................ ................... 6
Report on Progress Developing Argentina's
National Action Plan
By Silvia Chalukian ......................................... 7
Progress Report of National Action Plan for
Tapir Conservation in Indonesia
By Wilson Novarino ......................................... 9
Workshops ...................................... ........... 9
Seminar on Breeding Biology of Malay Tapir in
Captivity in Indonesia
By Wilson Novarino ......................................... 9

Scientific Reports ......................................... 11
2007: Two major Steps for Tapir Conservation in
French Guiana
By Benoit de Thoisy .................. .................... 11
New Fossil Discoveries and the History of Tapirus
By Matthew Colbert .................... ................. 12
Contributed Papers .................................... 15
Analisis de la Microbiota Bacteriana, Aislada en
Heces de Tapirus bairdii, de la Sierra Madre de
Chiapas, Mexico
Por GOiris, A.D.M., Rojas, H.N.M., Berovides A.V.,
Cruz, A.E., Chavez, H.C., Moguel, A.J.A.,
P6rez, E.M.E., P6rez, E.R. ................................ 15
Reports sobre la Presencia del Tapir de Montaia
(Tapirus pinchaque) en el Parque Nacional
Llanganates, Regi6n Central de los Andes del Ecuador
Por Alfonso Heredia, Orley Achoa,
Luis Sandoval-Cahas, Modesto Iglesias .............. 19
News in Brief ........................................ 21
Patricia Medici one of the Winners of the Golden
Ark Award 2008 21
Tapir Specialist Group Members ................. 22
Notes for Contributors ................................ 27



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