Group Title: Tapir conservation (Print)
Title: Tapir conservation
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 Material Information
Title: Tapir conservation the newsletter of the IUCNSSC Tapir Specialist Group
Uniform Title: Tapir conservation (Print)
Abbreviated Title: Tapir conserv. (Print)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group
IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group
Publisher: IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group
Place of Publication: Houston TX
Houston TX
Publication Date: June 2007
Copyright Date: 2009
Frequency: semiannual
regular
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Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
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Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began in 1990.
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 12, no. 2 (Dec. 2003); title from cover.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00095885
Volume ID: VID00021
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 56897961
lccn - 2004215875
issn - 1813-2286

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ISSN 1813-2286
Volume 16/1 U No. 21
June 2007


TAPIR SPECIALIST GROUP


Tapir Conservation

www.tapirs.org


Printing and distribution the Tapir Con4erv eion Newsletter is supp ted by the
Houston Zoo Inc., 151 N. Mac Gregor, Houston,Texas 77030 Unit States,
http://www.houstonzoo.org
I II i Q






2 THE NEWSLETTER OF THE IUCN/SSC TAPIR SPECIALIST GROUP


I CONTENSI


TAPI CONSERVATIO


Volume 1611 U No. 21 E June 2007


From the Chair

Letter from the Chair


Tapir Conservation Workshops


TSG Committee Reports I

TSG Marketing and Website Report January June 2007 I

TSG Veterinary Committee Report I


Contributed Papers I

Tungurahua Volcano:
An Estrategic Refuge for Mountain Tapirs in Ecuador I

Occurrence of Baird's Tapir
Outside Protected Areas in Belize I

About the Possible Return of Baird's Tapir to El Salvador

Conservaci6n en Ecotonos Interculturales yTransfronterizos:
La Danta (Tapirus bairdii) en el Parque Internacional
La Amistad, Costa Rica-Panami


The Asian Tapir in Jambi Lowland Forest
and Commercial Landscape


TSG Members


TSG Structure


Notes for Contributors


The views expressed in Tapir Conservation are those of the
authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the IUCN/SSC
Tapir Specialist Group or Houston Zoological Gardens. This
publication may be photocopied for private use only and the
copyright remains that of the Tapir Specialist Group. Copyright
for all photographs herein remains with the individual photo-
graphers.


Abbreviation


ISSN


Editorial Board


Collaborators


Editors


Production
& Distribution



Website


Tapir Cons.


1813-2286


William Konstant
E-mail: bkonstant@houstonzoo.org

Leonardo Salas
E-mail: LeoASalas@netscape.net

Diego J. Lizcano
E-mail: dj.lizcano@gmail.com

Alan H. Shoemaker
E-mail: sshoe@mindspring.com

Matthew Colbert
E-mail: colbert@mail.utexas.edu

Anders Gongalves da Silva
E-mail: ag2057@columbia.edu

Angela Glatston
E-mail: a.glatston@rotterdamzoo.nl


Patricia Medici
E-mail: epmedici@uol.com.br; medici@ipe.org.br


Sheryl Todd
E-mail: tapir@tapirback.com


Leonardo Salas
E-mail: LeoASalas@netscape.net

Stefan Seitz
E-mail: info@4tapirs.de

Kelly J. Russo
E-mail: krusso@houstonzoo.org

Rick Barongi
E-mail: rbarongi@houstonzoo.org


This issue is kindly sponsored by Houston Zoo
Inc., Cons. Program Asst., Kelly Russo, 1513 North
Mac Gregor, Houston,Texas 77030, USA.


www.tapirs.org


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/1 0 No. 21 0 June 2007






FROM THE CHAIR 3


FROM THE CHAIR



Letter from the Chair

By Patricia Medici


The IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group is VERY
PROUD and VERY HAPPY to announce that after
five long years of dedication and hard work we have
concluded the development of the second version of
our IUCN/SSC Tapir Action Plan!!! This is one of the
most significant accomplishments in the history of the
Tapir Specialist Group and we want all of you to cele-
brate with us!!!
As reported in several different occasions over the past
years, during the First International Tapir Symposium
held in San Jos6, Costa Rica, in November 2001,
participants agreed that the revision and updating
of the first version of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Status
Survey and Conservation Action Plan (edited by
Daniel Brooks, Richard Bodmer and Sharon Matola
in 1997) should be one of the priority goals for the
TSG. An Action Planning Committee was created and
it was decided that a Population and Habitat Viability
Assessment (PHVA), as implemented by the IUCN/SSC
Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, would be the
most appropriate methodology for the development
of updated action plans for each one of the four tapir
species, listing and prioritizing actions for the conser-
vation of tapirs and their habitats.
Towards achieving this goal we first conducted the
Malayan Tapir PHVA Workshop, held in Malaysia, in
August 2003. The workshop included 30 participants
from the Malayan tapir range countries in Southeast
Asia, including Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand. The
second meeting, Mountain Tapir PHVA Workshop,
was held in Colombia, in October 2004. A total of
63 representatives from the mountain tapir range
countries (Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru) attended
the workshop. The third workshop, Baird's Tapir
PHVA Workshop, was held in Belize, in August 2005.
A total of 55 participants from the Baird's tapir range
countries (Belize, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala,
Honduras, Mexico, and Panama) attended the meeting.
More recently, from April 15 to 19, 2007, the TSG car-
ried out the Lowland Tapir PHVA Workshop, which
was held at the Sorocaba Zoo, Sao Paulo, Brazil, inclu-
ding 70 participants coming from the 11 lowland tapir
range countries throughout South America (Argentina,
Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana,
Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela).
This last PHVA meeting, like all the previous ones,


was extremely successful and we can now say we have
new, updated, prioritized action plans for each one of
the four tapir species. Each of these plans focuses on
recommendations for the conservation of tapirs in the
wild, as well as on captive populations, education and
capacity building, research priorities, research gaps,
funding and all other relevant topics.
Conservation action plans are designed to promote con-
servation action financially, technically, or logistically,
influencing key players at the local, national, regional,
and global levels. They provide a common framework
for a range of players, from decision-makers at the
governmental level, to those who will implement the
conservation actions on the ground to interact, to carry
out their work synergistically. Because the conservati-
on actions are prioritized and justifications provided,


CBSG Facilitators and Modellers. From left to right:
Anders Gongalves da Silva (Modeller CBSG Brasil),
Leandro Jerusalinsky (Facilitator CBSG Brasil),
Arnaud Desbiez (Modeller CBSG Brasil), Onnie Byers
(Facilitator CBSG HQ), Patricia Medici (Chair,TSG and
Facilitator CBSG Brasil), and Robert Lacy (Chair &
Modeller, CBSG).

scientists, resource managers, agency officials, funding
organizations, universities, zoos, and political leaders
utilize them when deciding how to allocate available
resources. Action plans are also "snapshots in time",
providing a baseline set of data and information against
which to measure change and monitor progress, indi-
cating where changes of emphasis or direction may be
needed to conserve the species. Further, they identify
gaps in species research and policy and give direction
for future endeavors on what data and knowledge are
needed most.
Alot of energy and hard work was necessary to
undraise for and organize these PHVA work-
shops around the world. Therefore, the publication


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/1 0 No. 21 0 June 2007






4 FROM THE CHAIR


Participants of the Lowland Tapir PHVA Working Participants of the Lowland Tapir PHVA Working
Group that discussed tapir conservation in Protected Group that discussed tapir ex-situ conservation.
Areas.


of this new Tapir Action Plan cannot be the end of
our efforts. We must make sure that our new plan
will be actively used by all organizations directly or
indirectly involved with tapir conservation, and gua-
rantee that all the actions listed as priorities will be
implemented. We want this new Tapir Action Plan to
be a LIVING DOCUMENT. This means it will con-
stantly be reviewed, updated and adapted according
to tapir conservation needs identified in the years to
come. To this end, we have already established an
Action Plan Implementation Taskforce, which has an
enormous responsibility. The taskforce is responsible
for promoting the new action plan throughout all tapir
range countries in Central and South America, and
Southeast Asia, reaching all possible stakeholders and
key conservation players. Additionally, the members
of the taskforce will be constantly reviewing the action
plan and providing technical assistance, help and sup-


port for proposal development, writing and fundrai-
sing, and political lobbying. An important outcome of
these PHVA Workshops was the creation of a network
of professionals and organizations committed to put in
practice all the actions listed as priorities. Therefore,
another major responsibility of the taskforce will be
to keep in contact with these professionals and make
sure they work on their actions. The progress made in
implementing the Tapir Action Plan will be evaluated
during the International Tapir Symposium every two
years, where the general TSG audience will be updated
on progress in conserving tapirs according to this mas-
ter plan.
The English version of the Malayan Tapir Action Plan
and Spanish versions of the Mountain Tapir and
Baird's Tapir Action Plans are available online on the
TSG website and can be downloaded in PDF format.
The latter two are in the process of being translated


Participants of the Lowland Tapir PHVA Working Participants of the Lowland Tapir PHVA Working
Group that discussed tapir hunting. Group that discussed education and communication.


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/1 0 No. 21 0 June 2007






FROM THE CHAIR 5


into English. The Lowland Tapir Action Plan will be
published in approximately three months. It will be
made available on the TSG website in Portuguese,
Spanish and English.
Speaking for all of us in the TSG, I would like to take
this opportunity to express our gratitude to all people
and organizations that helped us make this happen!
In order to organize and conduct these workshops we
counted with the support of a very large list of insti-
tutional and financial supporters that were with us all
along the way. Together, we worked tirelessly to orga-
nize and conduct each workshop, compile final reports
and develop the action plans. Right now, I would like
to say a special THANK YOU!! to the Sorocaba Zoo
here in Brazil, our main partners for the organization
of the Lowland Tapir PHVA Workshop.
The boxes below provide further information about
each one of our PHVA Workshops and Action Plans,
including lists of organizers, institutional and financial
supporters, and lists of participants per range country.
You, the reader, may also want to visit our website at:
www.tapirs.org


A another VERY IMPORTANT announcement is that
n January 2007 the board of the Copenhagen Zoo
in Denmark approved a proposal to cover the TSG's
annual operational costs, including general expenses
with the implementation of our new Tapir Action Plan,
which is absolutely great news for the TSG. This support
will be fundamental to help us establish a system to
guarantee that our Action Planning Implementation
Taskforce will be able to get started with the process
of implementing the actions included in our new action
plan. We could not be more grateful for this support,
and for the person who is truly behind this... our TSG
member and Chair of the EAZA Tapir TAG, Bengt Holst.
We will always be grateful for everything Bengt does for
the TSG and for tapir conservation in general.
On another important piece of news, we have added
over 100 new tapir references to our TSG Virtual
Library. Our library now contains 450 bibliographical
references including scientific papers, book chapters,
dissertations etc. all in PDF format!!! The TSG Virtual
Library is a joint volunteer project of the TSG and the
Botanical Research Institute of Texas (BRIT) and aims
to make available all published bibliography on tapirs.
We aim to make this a constantly updated and robust
resource for tapir researchers and those interested
in accessing published studies and articles on tapirs
which are often difficult to obtain in hard copy. Visit
our library at: http://atrium.tapirs.org/
Regarding TSG documents, we have just managed
to finalize our TSG Tapir Field Veterinary Manual,
which will soon be available on our TSG website
in English, Portuguese and Spanish. Additionally,
we have finalized the very first draft of our TSG


Participants of the Lowland Tapir PHVA Taskforce that
discussed tapir epidemiology.


Participants from French Guiana and Suriname. From
left to right: Krisna Gajapersad (Suriname), Claudine
Sakimin (Suriname), Benoit deThoisy (French Guiana),
and Laure Debeir (French Guiana).


Experimental Protocols for Tapir Re-Introductions
and Translocations, a document that was developed
by a group of TSG members including biologists,
veterinarians and geneticists. This first draft will be
submitted to the IUCN/SSC Re-Introduction Specialist
Group for review and endorsement, and the final docu-
ment will soon be available online in all appropriate
languages. A brief note on these documents is included
in this issue.
During the Lowland Tapir PHVA Workshop we added
several new members to the TSG, and made a few
changes on our group's structure. We now have a new
Country Coordinator for Bolivia, Guido Ayala, who
works for the Wildlife Conservation Society in Bolivia.
And we put together a system of Regional Coordinators
for the TSG in Brazil. Brazil is such a vast country
that we would never be able to carry out the process


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/1 0 No. 21 0 June 2007






6 FROM THE CHAIR


We would like to thank Bengt Hoist, Director of
Conservation and Science of the Copenhagen Zoo in
Denmark, Chair of the EAZATapirTAG, and member
of the Tapir Specialist Group, for obtaining the funding
for the TSG operational costs, a great achievement for
the group.


of developing a National Action Plan for this country
without having more Brazilians on board. Therefore,
we now have coordinators for each region of Brazil and
our first step will be to compile a list of people and
organizations involved with tapir conservation in the
country.


The team responsible for the development of the first
draft of the TSG Experimental Guidelines forTapir
Re-Introduction and Translocation. From left to right,
standing up: Anders Gongalves da Silva, Javier Sarria
Perea, Joares May Jr., Ralph Vanstreels, and Marcelo
Schiavo. From left to right, kneeling down: Jose Maria
de Aragao, Paulo Rogerio Mangini, and Patricia Medici.
Missing from photograph: Leo Salas.


COPENHAGEN


Logo of the Copenhagen Zoo in Denmark.


Last but not least, we would like to announce that we
have already started the process of organization of our
Fourth International Tapir Symposium that will most
probably be held in April 2008 in Mexico. The exact
dates and venue will be announced very soon!
My very best wishes from Brazil!


Patricia Medici
M.Sc. in Wildlife Ecology. Conservation and Management
Research Coordinator. IPE Instituto de Pesquisas
Ecol6gicas (Institute for Ecological Research). Brazil
Ph.D. Candidate. Durrell Institute of Conservation and
Ecology (DICE). University of Kent, UK
Chair. IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group (TSG)
Convener. IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist
Group (CBSG) Brasil Network
Avenida Perdizes. 285. Vila Sao Paulo. Teodoro Sampaio
CEP: 19280-000. Sao Paulo. Brazil
Phone & Fax: +55-18-3282-4690
Cell Phone: +55-18-8119-3839
E-mail: epmedici@uol.com.br


A ~ slgh edtra msa e ase us to crdi th ineve




wit Mr Calo Rodrgu. (TprCnevto esetrIS


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/1 0 No. 21 0 June 2007






FROM THE CHAIR 7


MALAYAN TAPIR
CONSERVATION WORKSHOP
Population and Habitat Viability Assessment
(PHVA)

LanchangTraining Center, Krau Wildlife Reserve, Malaysia
August 12-16, 2003


PLANNING COMMITTEE

Patricia Medici, Chair, IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group (TSG), Brazil
Bengt Hoist, Copenhagen Zoo; Chair, EAZA Tapir TAG; Member, TSG
Carl Traeholt, Malayan Tapir Project, Krau Wildlife Reserve, Malaysia;
Coordinator, Malayan Tapir,TSG
Siti HawaYatim, Department of Wildlife and National Parks
(DWNP), Malaysia
Kae Kawanishi, Department of Wildlife and National Parks
(DWNP), Malaysia
Ramlah Abdul Majid, Department of Wildlife and National Parks
(DWNP), Malaysia

CBSG FACILITATORSIMODELERS

Philip S. Miller, Program Officer, IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding
Specialist Group (CBSG) Headquarters USA
Amy Camacho, Convener, IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding
Specialist Group (CBSG) Mexico Regional Network

INSTITUTIONAL SUPPORT

IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group (TSG)
IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG)
Copenhagen Zoo, Denmark
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (DWNP), Malaysia
European Association of Zoos and Aquaria (EAZA)
Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)
American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA)
Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)

FINANCIAL SUPPORT

Copenhagen Zoo, Denmark
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (DWNP), Malaysia
European Association of Zoos and Aquaria (EAZA)
Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)

PARTICIPANTS SPONSORSHIP

Department of National Parks,Wildlife and Plant Conservation,
Thailand
Directorate of Forest Protection and Nature Conservation
(PHKA), Indonesia
Idea Wild, United States
International Rhino Foundation, Indonesia
Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS),Thailand
World Wildlife Fund (WWF), Malaysia


LIST OF PARTICIPANTS (30)

MALAYSIA (18)
Abd. Kadir Hashim,Abd. MalekYusof, Carl Traeholt,
Dionysius S. K. Sharma, Fakrul Hatta Musa, Hasdi Hassan,
Hilary Chiew, Ishak Mohamad, Kae Kawanishi,
Mohd.Taufik Abd. Rahman, N. S.Vellayan,
Petra Sulai, Ramlah Abdul Majid, Rozidan bin Md Yasin,
Shabrina Mohd. Shariff, Siti HawaYatim, Siti Khadijah Abd Ghani,
Wan ShaharuddinWan Nordin

INDONESIA (4)
Ardinis Arbain, Kurnia Rauf,
Listya Kusumarwardhani,Wilson Novarino

THAILAND (3)
Antony Lynam, Ramesh Boonratana, Suwat Kaewsirisuk

TSG OFFICERS & INTERNATIONAL (5)
Bengt Hoist, Denmark
Charles R. Foerster, United States / Costa Rica
Leonardo Salas,Venezuela / Indonesia
Nico J. van Strien,The Netherlands / Indonesia
Patricia Medici, Brazil


MOUNTAIN TAPIR
CONSERVATION WORKSHOP
Population and Habitat Viability Assessment
(PHVA)

Otun-Quimbaya Sanctuary, Pereira, Colombia
October 12-15, 2004

TALLER DE CONSERVACI6N DE LA
DANTA DE MONTANA
Evaluaci6n de Viabilidad Poblacional y de
H6bitat (PHVA)

Santuario de Fauna y Flora Ot6n-Quimbaya, Pereira, Colombia
12-15 Octubre 2004


PLANNING COMMITTEE

Patricia Medici, Chair, IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group (TSG), Brazil
Diego J. Lizcano, Professor, Universidad de Pamplona, Colombia;
Mountain Tapir Coordinator, TSG
Olga L. Montenegro, Professor, Universidad Nacional, Colombia;
Country Coordinator, Colombia, TSG
Jaime A. Suirez Mejia, Universidad Tecnol6gica de Pereira,
Colombia; Member,TSG
Carlos Pedraza, Instituto de Investigaci6n "Alexander von
Humboldt", Colombia; Member,TSG


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/1 0 No. 21 0 June 2007






8 FROM THE CHAIR


CBSG FACILITATORSIMODELERS

Philip S. Miller, Program Officer, IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding
Specialist Group (CBSG) Headquarters USA
Amy Camacho, Convener, IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding
Specialist Group (CBSG) Mexico Regional Network
Luis Carrillo, Facilitator, IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist
Group (CBSG) Mexico Regional Network

INSTITUTIONAL SUPPORT

IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group (TSG)
IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG)
Colombian Tapir Network (Red Danta de Colombia)
Unidad Administrativa Especial del Sistema de Parques Nacionales
Naturales de Colombia (UAESPNN), Colombia
American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA)
Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)
European Association of Zoos and Aquaria (EAZA)
Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)
Houston Zoo Inc., United States
World Wildlife Fund (WWF), Colombia
Conservation International (CI), Colombia

FINANCIAL SUPPORT

Cheyenne Mountain Zoo, United States
Conservation International (CI), Colombia
Copenhagen Zoo, Denmark
Houston Zoo Inc., United States
Los Angeles Zoo, United States
Unidad Administrativa Especial del Sistema de Parques Nacionales
Naturales de Colombia (UAESPNN), Colombia
U.S. Fish &Wildlife Service, Division of International Conservation,
United States
World Wildlife Fund (WWF), Colombia

PARTICIPANTS SPONSORSHIP

Africam Safari, Mexico
Cabildo Indigena de Gaitania,Tolima, Colombia
Centro Tecnol6gico de Recursos Amaz6nicos Organizaci6n de
Pueblos Indigenas de Pastaza, Ecuador
Cheyenne Mountain Zoo, United States
Conservaci6n Internacional (CI), Colombia
Continental Airlines, Partnership Houston Zoo Inc., United States
Corporaci6n Aut6noma Regional de Caldas -
CORPOCALDAS, Colombia
Corporaci6n Aut6noma Regional de Chivor -
CORPOCHIVOR, Colombia
Corporaci6n Aut6noma Regional de Tolima -
CORTOLIMA, Colombia
Corporaci6n Autonoma Regional del Cauca CRC, Colombia
Corporaci6n Aut6noma Regional del Quindio CRQ, Colombia
Corporaci6n Universitaria de Ciencias Aplicadas yAmbientales
(UDCA), Colombia
Fondo Mundial para la Naturaleza -WWF Colombia Programa


Andes del Norte, Colombia
Fundaci6n Ecol6gica Arcoiris, Ecuador
Fundaci6n Ecuatoriana de Estudios Ecol6gicos EcoCiencia, Ecuador
Fundaci6n Espiritu del Bosque, Ecuador
Fundaci6n Nativa, Colombia
Fundaci6n Zoologica de Cali, Colombia
Fundaci6n Zoologico Santacruz, Colombia
GEOBIOTA, Colombia
Institute de Investigaci6n en Recursos Biol6gicos "Alexander von
Humboldt", Colombia
IPE Instituto de Pesquisas Ecol6gicas, Brazil
IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG) -
Headquarters and Mexico
IUCN/SSC TSG Conservation Fund (TSGCF)
Los Angeles Zoo, United States
Ministerio del Ambiente,Vivenda y Desarrollo Territorial, Colombia
Parque Nacional Natural Chingaza, Colombia
Parque Nacional Natural Las Hermosas, Colombia
Parque Nacional Natural Los Katios, Colombia
Parque Nacional Natural Nevado del Huila, Colombia
Parque Nacional Natural Purace, Colombia
Parque Recreativo y Zool6gico Piscilago, Colombia
Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Colombia
Santuario de Fauna y Flora Otun-Quimbaya, Colombia
Unidad Administrativa Especial del Sistema de Parques Nacionales
Naturales de Colombia (UAESPNN), Colombia
Universidad Central del Ecuador, Ecuador
Universidad de los Andes (UNIANDES), Colombia
Universidad del Cauca, Colombia
Universidad del Tolima, Colombia
Universidad Nacional (UNAL), Colombia
Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos (UNMSM), Peru
Universidad Tecnica Particular de Loja, Ecuador
Universidad Tecnol6gica de Pereira, Colombia
University of Florida, United States
Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS), Colombia
Zool6gico Matecaia, Colombia

LIST OF PARTICIPANTS (63)

COLOMBIA (49)
Adolfo Alvarez,Adriana Mercedes Sarmiento Duehas,
Alvaro Posada Salazar,Andres Gonzalez,Andres Guarnizo,
Camilo Pineda, Carlos Alberto Pedraza Peialosa, Carolina Urrea,
Cesar ArlexVargas Castaio, Claudia Rodriguez,
David Alfonso Bejarano Bonilla,
Diana Sarmiento, Diego Duque Montoya, Diego J. Lizcano,
Eliceth Mosquera, Fernando Sanchez, Franz Kast6n Fl6rez,
German Corredor, German Jimenez, Gustavo Kattan,
JaimeAndres Suarez Meja, JavierAdolfo Sarria Perea,
Jhon Jarold Montilla, Joaquin Sanchez, Jorge Eliecer Sanchez,
Jose Sinisterra Santana, Jos Vicente Rodriguez,
Juan Carlos Amezquita, Juan Carlos Castaheda,
Juliana Rodriguez Ortiz, Karin Osbahr Hansen, Liliana Roman,
Luis Alberto Espino, Luis Harold Gomez Nuiez,
Maria Del Pilar Rivas, Maria Piedad Baptiste, Olga Lucia Hernindez,
Olga Lucia Montenegro, Oscar Ospina Herrera, Ovidio Paya,


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/1 0 No. 21 0 June 2007






FROM THE CHAIR 9


Pedro Quilindo, Ricardo Sanchez, Ricardo Walker,
Rocio Polanco Ochoa, Rodrigo Sarria, Sandra Correa,
Sergio Sandoval Arenas, Silvia Juliana Alvarez,
Tamara Vodovoz

ECUADOR (8)
Andres Tapia Arias,Armando Xavier Castellanos Pehafiel,
Fernando Nogales, Gioconda Remache, aime Camacho,
Leonardo Arias, Leonardo Ord6hez Delgado,
Luis Fernando Sandoval Cahas

PERU (I)
Jessica Amanzo

TSG OFFICERS & INTERNATIONAL (5)
Alan H. Shoemaker, United States
Craig C. Downer, United States / Ecuador
Della Garelle, United States
Michael Dee, United States
Patricia Medici, Brazil


BAIRD'S TAPIR CONSERVATION
WORKSHOP
Population and Habitat Viability Assessment
(PHVA)

The Belize Zoo & Tropical Education Center,
Belize, Central America
August 15-19, 2005


TALLER DE CONSERVACION DE LA DANTA
CENTROAMERICANA
Evaluaci6n de Viabilidad Poblacional y de
H6bitat (PHVA)

Zool6gico de Belice y Centro de Educaci6n Tropical,
Belice, Centroambrica
15-19Agosto, 2005


PLANNING COMMITTEE

Patricia Medici, Chair, IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group (TSG), Brazil
Siin S.Waters, IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group (TSG),
United Kingdom
William Konstant, Deputy-Chair, IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group
(TSG), United States
Alberto Mendoza, Chair,AZA Tapir TAG, United States
Alan Shoemaker, Red List Authority, IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist
Group (TSG), United States
Celso Poot, Education Department,The Belize Zoo, Belize


CBSG FACILITATORSIMODELERS

Philip S. Miller, Program Officer, IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding
Specialist Group (CBSG) Headquarters USA
Amy Camacho, Convener, IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding
Specialist Group (CBSG) Mexico Regional Network
Luis Carrillo, Facilitator, IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist
Group (CBSG) Mexico Regional Network
Anders Gongalves, Modeller, IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding
Specialist Group (CBSG) Brasil Regional Network

INSTITUTIONAL SUPPORT

IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group (TSG)
IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG)
Houston Zoo Inc., United States
The Belize Zoo & Tropical Education Center, Belize, Central America
American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA) Tapir Taxon
Advisory Group (TAG)
European Association of Zoos and Aquaria (EAZA) Tapir Taxon
Advisory Group (TAG)

FINANCIAL SUPPORT

Africam Safari, Mexico
Bergen County Zoological Park, United States
BREC's Baton Rouge Zoo, United States
Brevard Zoo, United States
Chicago Board of Trade Endangered Species Fund, Brookfield Zoo,
Chicago Zoological Society, United States
Connecticut's Beardsley Zoo Conservation Fund, United States
Conservation International's Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
(CEPF), United States
Copenhagen Zoo, Denmark
Franklin Park Zoo, United States
Houston Zoo Inc., United States
Jacksonville Zoo and Gardens, United States
Lee Richardson Zoo, United States
Los Angeles Zoo, United States
Louisiana Purchase Zoo, United States
Milwaukee County Zoological Gardens, United States
Nashville Zoo, United States
Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo, United States
Private Donors
San Diego Zoo, United States
Sedgwick County Zoo, United States
U.S. Fish &Wildlife Service, Division of International Conservation,
United States
Virginia Zoological Park, United States
World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA), Switzerland
Wuppertal Zoo, Germany
XCARET Zoo, Mexico

PARTICIPANTS SPONSORSHIP

Africam Safari, Mexico
Area de Conservaci6n LaAmistad Pacifico, Costa Rica


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/1 0 No. 21 0 June 2007






10 FROM THE CHAIR


Comisi6n Nacional de Areas Naturales Protegidas, Mexico
Consejo Nacional de Areas Protegidas (CONAP), Guatemala
Conservation Division, Ministry of Natural Resources, Belize
Continental Airlines, Partnership Houston Zoo Inc., United States
Corporaci6n Hondureha de Desarrollo Forestal
(AFE-COHDEFOR), Honduras
Direcci6n Biodiversidad, Ministerio del Ambiente, Honduras
El Colegio de la Frontera Sur (ECOSUR), Mexico
El Nispero Zoo, Republic of Panama
Fundaci6n Wii, Colombia
ICADE, Honduras
Institute de Historia Natural y Ecologia, Mexico
Institute de Investigaci6n en Recursos Biol6gicos "Alexander von
Humboldt", Colombia
IPE Instituto de Pesquisas Ecol6gicas, Brazil
IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG) -
Headquarters and Mexico
IUCN/SSC TSG Conservation Fund (TSGCF)
La Marina Zoo, Costa Rica
Parque Nacional Sierra del Lacandon, Guatemala
Parque Nacional Volcan Tenorio, Costa Rica
Parque XCARET, Mexico
Parque Zool6gico de Le6n, Mexico
Patronato "Amigos del Aguila Harpia", Republic of Panama
Programme for Belize
Sistema Nacional de Areas de Conservaci6n,
Ministerio del Ambiente y Energia (MINAE), Costa Rica
Sociedad Mastozoologica de Panama, Republic of Panama
Summit Zoo, Republic of Panama
Tropical Science Center, Costa Rica
UN.A.CH., Policlinica y Diagn6sticoVeterinario, Mexico
Universidad Aut6noma de Honduras (UNAH), Honduras
Universidad de Costa Rica, Costa Rica
Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala, Guatemala
Universidad del Mar Campus Puerto Escondido, Mexico
Universidad Nacional (UNAL), Colombia
Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica, Universidad Latina
de Costa Rica, Costa Rica
Virginia Zoological Park, United States
Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS), Guatemala
Zool6gico "Miguel Alvarez del Toro" (ZOOMAT), Mexico
Zool6gico Nacional La Aurora, Guatemala

LIST OF PARTICIPANTS (55)

BELIZE (3)
Eugene Ariola, Humberto Wohlers, Oscar Ulloa

COLOMBIA (3)
Hector F Restrepo, Olga Lucia Montenegro, Rocio Polanco Ochoa

COSTA RICA (9)
Adrian Ugalde Chavarria, Fengmei Wu Chen, Gustavo Gutierrez,
Jeffrey Ortiz Gamboa, Jose Joaquin Calvo Domingo,
Jose Manuel Mora, Juan Jose Rojas, Olivier Chassot,
VilmarVillalobosVillegas


GUATEMALA ( I)
Francisco Castaheda Moya, Franklin Herrera,
Jeannette Urdiales Ortiz,Jose Roberto Ruiz Fuamagalli,
Jose Soto, Julio Madrid, Manolo Garcia, Marielos De La Roca,
Miguel Bolom Maas, Rony Garcia, Rosa Maria Perez

HONDURAS (6)
Cintia Zelaya, Hector Portillo, Leonel Marineros,
Nereyda Estrada Andino, Ruben Sinclair, Sergio Midence

MEXICO (II)
Daniel G6mez Casilla, Dario Marcelino Guiris Andrade,
Eduardo J. Naranjo Pihera, Efrain Rios Castillo,
Epigmenio Cruz Aldan, Georgita Ruiz Michael, Ivan Lira Torres,
Juan De DiosValdez Leal, Marco Benitez,
Pedro Aguilar Aragon, Richard Sheffield

PANAMA (4)
Adrian Benedetti, Carlos Mauricio Caballero, Karla Aparicio,
Rafael Samudio Jr.

TSG OFFICERS & INTERNATIONAL (8)
Alan H. Shoemaker, United States
Alberto Mendoza, United States
Gilia Angell, United States
Jeffrey Flocken, United States
Joseph Roman, United States
Lewis Greene, United States
Patricia Medici, Brazil
Siin S.Waters, United Kingdom



LOWLAND TAPIR CONSERVATION
WORKSHOP
Population and Habitat Viability Assessment
(PHVA)

Sorocaba Zoo, Sorocaba, Sio Paulo, Brazil
April 15-19, 2007

WORKSHOP PARA A CONSERVA;AO DA
ANTA BRASILEIRA
An6lise de Viabilidade Populacional e de
Habitat (PHVA)

Zool6gico de Sorocaba, Sorocaba, Sao Paulo, Brasil
15 a 19 de Abril de 2007

TALLER DE CONSERVACION DEL TAPIR DE
TIERRAS BAJAS
Evaluaci6n de Viabilidad Poblacional y de
Habitat (PHVA)

Zool6gico de Sorocaba, Sorocaba, Sao Paulo, Brasil
15-19Abril, 2007


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/1 0 No. 21 0 June 2007






FROM THE CHAIR 11


PLANNING COMMITTEE

Patricia Medici, Chair, IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group (TSG), Brazil
Alberto Mendoza, Chair,AZA Tapir TAG, United States
Rodrigo Hidalgo Teixeira,Veterinarian, Sorocaba Zoo, Brazil
Adauto Nunes Veloso, Director, Sorocaba Zoo, Brazil
Alan Shoemaker, Red List Authority, IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist
Group (TSG), United States
Bengt Hoist, Chair, EAZA Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG),
Denmark
Lilian Sanches,Administrative Manager, Sorocaba Convention Bureau,
Brazil

CBSG FACILITATORSIMODELERS

Leandro Jerusalinsky, IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist
Group (CBSG) Brasil Regional Network
Arnaud Desbiez, IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group
(CBSG) Brasil Regional Network
Anders Gongalves Silva, IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist
Group (CBSG) Brasil Regional Network
Onnie Byers, Executive Director, IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding
Specialist Group (CBSG) Headquarters USA
Robert Lacy, Chair, IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist
Group (CBSG) Headquarters USA
Luis Carrillo, Facilitator, IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist
Group (CBSG) Mexico Regional Network

INSTITUTIONAL SUPPORT

IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group (TSG)
Sorocaba Zoo, Sorocaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Prefeitura do Municipio de Sorocaba (Municipality of Sorocaba),
Sao Paulo, Brazil
Houston Zoo Inc., United States
Copenhagen Zoo, Denmark
IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG) -
Headquarters USA
IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG) -
Brasil Regional Network
IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG) -
Mexico Regional Network
IPE Instituto de Pesquisas Ecol6gicas, Brazil
American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA)
Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)
European Association of Zoos and Aquaria (EAZA)
Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)
Sorocaba Convention and Visitors Bureau, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Joy-Joy Studios, Sorocaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil

FINANCIAL SUPPORT

Alexandria Zoological Park, United States
Chicago Board of Trade Endangered Species Fund, Brookfield Zoo,
Chicago Zoological Society, United States
Connecticut's Beardsley Zoo Conservation Fund, United States
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnol6gico


(CNPq), Brazil
Copenhagen Zoo, Denmark
Denver Zoological Gardens, United States
Dutch Foundation Zoos Help (DFZH),The Netherlands
Emmen Zoo,The Netherlands
Evansville's Mesker Park Zoo & Botanic Garden, United States
Herberstein Tier-und Naturpark, Austria
Houston Zoo Inc., United States
IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group Conservation Fund (TSGCF)
Los Angeles Zoo, United States
Miami Metro Zoo, Zoological Society of Florida, United States
Nashville Zoo, United States
Nature Conservation Trust,Apelsoorn, The Netherlands
Prefeitura do Municipio de Sorocaba (Municipality of Sorocaba) -
PROJETO FAMA, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Rum Creek Preserve (Former Peace River Center), United States
Safari de Peaugres, France
San Antonio Zoological Gardens & Aquarium, United States
San Diego Zoo, United States
San Francisco Zoo, United States
Sedgwick County Zoo, United States
Sorocaba Zoo, Brazil
Twycross Zoo, United Kingdom
U.S. Fish &Wildlife Service, Division of International Conservation,
United States
Virginia Zoological Park, United States
WildlifeWorld Zoo Inc., United States
World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA), Switzerland
Zoo de La Palmyre, France
Zoo OsnabrLck, Germany
Zoologicka Garden & Chateau Zlin-Lesna, Czech Republic

PARTICIPANTS SPONSORSHIP

Administraci6n de Parques Nacionales, Delegaci6n Regional
Noroeste, Argentina
American Airlines, Partnership Brookfield Zoo, United States
BIOTROPICOS Instituto de Pesquisa em Vida Silvestre, Brazil
BRIT Botanical Research Institute or Texas, United States
Brookfield Zoo, Chicago Zoological Society, United States
CAIPORA Cooperativa para Conservacgo da Natureza, Brazil
Centro Tecnol6gico de Recursos Amaz6nicos Organizaci6n de
Pueblos Indigenas de Pastaza, Ecuador
Conservation International (CI), Suriname
Conservation International (CI), United States
Continental Airlines, Partnership Houston Zoo Inc., United States
Entidad Binacional Yacyreta, Paraguay
Fundacgo Parque Zool6gico de Sao Paulo, Brazil
Fundacgo RioZOO, Brazil
Fundaci6n Ecol6gica Arcoiris, Ecuador
Fundaci6n Nacional de Parques Zool6gicos eAcuirios (FUNPZA)
Ministerio del Ambiente,Venezuela
Fundaci6n Temaiken, Argentina
IF Instituto Florestal do Estado de Sao Paulo, Brazil
Institute de Ensino, Pesquisa e Preservacgo Ambiental Marcos Daniel
(UNILINHARES), Brazil
Institute de Investigaci6n de Recursos Biol6gicos


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/1 0 No. 21 0 June 2007






12 FROM THE CHAIR


"Alexander von Humboldt", Colombia
Institute de Pesquisas Cientificas e Tecnologicas do Estado do Amapi
(IEPA), Brazil
IBAMA Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos
Naturais Renoviveis, Brazil
IPAM Instituto de Pesquisa Ambiental da Amazonia, Brazil
IPE Instituto de Pesquisas Ecol6gicas, Brazil
IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG) -
Brasil, Headquarters, and Mexico
IUCN/SSC TSG Conservation Fund (TSGCF)
KASA Kouprey Amigos dos Santuirios deAnimais, Brazil
Kwata Association, French Guiana
Michelin, Bahia, Brazil
ONCFS Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage,
French Guiana
Parque Zool6gico da Prefeitura Municipal de Bauru, Brazil
Parque Zoologico Recreacional Huachipa, Peru
Royal Zoological Society of Scotland (RZSS),
Edinburgh Zoo, Scotland
Suriname Conservation Foundation -
Capacity Building Support Project
Unidad Administrativa Especial del Sistema de Parques Nacionales
Naturales de Colombia (UAESPNN), Colombia
Universidad de Antioquia, Colombia
Universidad Distrital Francisco Jose de Caldas, Colombia
Universidad Nacional de Colombia (UNAL), Colombia
Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS), Bolivia
Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS), Brazil
Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS), Ecuador
Zoo OsnabrLck, Germany
Zool6gico de Brasilia, Brazil
Zool6gico de Parque Sur de la Ciudad de Maracaibo,Venezuela
Zool6gico de Sao Bernardo do Campo, Brazil
ZooParc de Beauval, France

LIST OF PARTICIPANTS (70)

ARGENTINA (4)
Agustin Paviolo, Diego Varela, Flavio Moschioni,
Viviana Beatriz Quse

BOLIVIA (I)
GuidoAyala

BRAZIL (34)
Adauto NunesVeloso,Adriane Aparecida de Morais,
Alexandre de Matos Martins Pereira,Andrea Soares Pires,
Andressa Gatti, Cassiana Javessine, Catia Dejuste de Paula,
Cecilia Pessutti, Claudia Regina Silva, Daniel Brito,
Edsel Amorim Moraes Junior, Eduardo Martins Venticinque,
Elias Sadalla Filho, Gabriella Landau-Remy,
Joares A. May Jr., Jose Luis Passos Cordeiro,
Jose Maria de Aragio, Kevin Flesher, Leandro M. Scoss,
Luiz Ant6nio da Silva Pires, Luiz Gustavo Rodrigues Oliveira Santos,
Marcelo da Silva Gomes, Marcelo Lima Reis,
Marcos Adriano Tortato, Maria Gabriela Rocha,
Mauricio Talebi Gomes, Oswaldo de Carvalho Jr, Patricia Medici,


Paulo Rogerio Mangini, Ralph Eric Thijl Vanstreels,
Renato de Oliveira Affonso, Rodrigo Teixeira,
Tinia Ribeiro Junqueira Borges,Valdir de Almeida Ramos Jr.

COLOMBIA (6)
Andres Arias Alzate,
Carlos Alberto Pedraza Peialosa, Carolina Maria Lozano Barrero,
Jose Sinisterra Santana, Juliana Rodriguez Ortiz,
Olga Lucia Montenegro

ECUADOR (5)
Andres Tapia, Jose Dionicio Machoa Santi,
Leonardo Ordohez Delgado, Luis Fernando Sandoval Cahas,
Victor Manuel Utreras Bucheli

GUIANA SHIELD (4)
Benoit De Thoisy, French Guiana
Claudine Sakimin, Suriname
Krisna Gajapersad, Suriname
Laure Debeir, French Guiana

PARAGUAY (4)
Evelio Narvez, Fredy Ramirez,
Magdalena Cubas, Miguel A. Morales

PERU (2)
Lizette Bermudez Larrazabal, Mathias Tobler

VENEZUELA (2)
Luis Guillermo Ahez Galban,
PilarAlexander Blanco Marquez

TSG OFFICERS & INTERNATIONAL (8)
Alberto Mendoza, United States
Aude Desmoulins, France
Gilia Angell, United States
Jeffrey Flocken, United States
Lee Spangler, United States
Leonardo Salas,Venezuela / United States
Olivier Chassot, Costa Rica
Sheryl Todd, United States


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/1 0 No. 21 0 June 2007






TSG COMMITTEE REPORTS 13


TSG COMMITTEE REPORTS



TSG Marketing and Website

Report January June 2007

By Gilia Angell


am pleased to report very interesting additions and
changes to our website (www.tapirs.org). It is already
a relatively popular site, receiving over 3,000 hits per
day. About 10% of these result in visits (-300/day) that
last on average 2 minutes. These visitors view on ave-
rage 4.8 pages, with "Downloads" and "About Tapirs"
areas being the most popular destinations. Most peo-
ple still find us through searches on MSN Search and
Google, and thus enter our site via our homepage,
rather than through links in other websites.
The following are our new additions:
* Additional print-resolution photos to our pictu-
re collection, including rare wild mountain tapir
photos, all contributed by TSG researchers in the
field.
* An expanded news area with links to tapir-related
articles all over the world (in English), thereby esta-
blishing a log of all online news and media related
to tapirs going back to 2004.
* A new FTP account for TSG members to use
for large file exchanges (please contact Gilia for
access).

The latter two additions complete or supplement
an action from our 2006-2007 list of actions, including
actions created at Baird's and Lowland Tapir PHVAs.
Notably, our domain was moved to a more stable and
supported server: ix-webhosting.com. In the near
future we will explore launching some field videos to
YouTube. This free video viewing service could be a
great way to cross-promote TSG and tapir conservati-
on, and to contribute some science-based, interesting
videos to the "tapirs" subject on YouTube. It's also a
safer way to share our video content, instead of provi-
ding it for download on our site.
There have been several new developments regar-
ding our Marketing Committee's work and media tapir
news.
Noteworthy amount of media coverage of tapir
births around the world including the baby tapir born
to the Edinburgh Zoo in Scotland. This baby's photo
was seen in photo streams as far away as Colombia.
See our site news section for full coverage of zoo tapir
births (http://tapirs.org/news).


Malayan tapirs received some of our attenti-
on during the last six months. We assisted Wilson
Novarino, our Malay Tapir Coordinator, to procure a
Malayan Tapir video from the Woodland Park Zoo in
Seattle. Wilson is using this video for his educational
outreach campaign in Indonesia. Similarly, we contri-
buted a photo of a Malayan Tapir for educational pos-
ter campaign about endemic wildlife in Malaysia.
At the Lowland Tapir PHVA in Sorocaba, Brazil, our
committee prioritized a main goal: create a campaign
manual/toolkit for TSG members and tapir advocates
to create and implement their educational campaigns
or outreach activities. The kit will include tip sheets on
identifying tapir populations and target audiences, on
working with various audiences from local communi-
ties to the media, and will consolidate all tools (videos,
materials for kids, brochures for printing, etc.) in one
place on the website. The kit will be made available in
English, Portuguese and Spanish. We aim to have mate-
rials that are general enough to tailor to regional or
cultural differences among tapir locales and audiences.
Implementing this kit is the marketing committee's
number one priority for 2007. We are looking for any
help in putting these materials together. If you wish
to assist, or possess some materials that can help us
achieve this goal, please contact Gilia.



Gilia Angell
Coordinator,TSG Marketing Committee
E-mail: giliaangell@earthlink.net
http://www.tapirs.org/committees/marketing-committee.html








Our6 .l L wwwI w stilwork, l l









Plas als not th TS a Lirr 0s no fon 0 at


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/1 0 No. 21 0 June 2007






14 TSG COMMITTEE REPORTS


TSG Veterinary Committee

Report

By Paulo Rogerio Mangini


The IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group (TSG) Veterinary
SCommittee was formed during the First International
Tapir Symposium held in San Jose, Costa Rica, in
November of 2001. The purpose of this committee was to
address any and all health-related issues that could affect
the conservation of the genus Tapirus.



TSG Tapir Field Veterinary Manual

The first and main task of the TSG Veterinary Committee
was to develop a Tapir Field Veterinary Manual compiling
all available data and information about tapir capture,
immobilization, manipulation, collection of biological
samples, and general epidemiological information. After
six long years trying to turn this Manual into reality, we
finally concluded the work. We are proud to announce
that the TSG Tapir Field Veterinary Manual is ready in
English, Portuguese and Spanish and available in PDF
Format on the TSG website.
The manual was created as a very detailed, comple-
te source of information to help tapir field researchers
implement projects including tapir capture and mani-
pulation, as well as health assessment of wild tapir
populations. This manual includes information about
when and how to do any procedures, giving an array of
different possibilities and always explaining the appli-
cability of veterinary medicine in tapir conservation. It
also includes information about basic tapir anatomy,
different experiences with different capture methods,
and adequate drugs for chemical restraint, considering
the most important aspects to conduct safe captures
and handling of wild tapirs.
Considerations are provided on how to conduct
necropsy, clinical evaluation and collection, handling
and storage of biological samples. Examples illustrate
easy and practical means to collect and store biological
material that could help to understand the wild tapir
population health status. Other subjects addressed
include: tapir hematology, blood chemistry, immuno-
logical screening and a brief reproductive physiology
review. Recommended research topics on these issues
are also available to guide progress in our understan-
ding of tapir physiology.
Finally, the manual presents an appendix with
general information about anesthetic agents common-
ly used for tapirs, some important signs of selected
diseases that may cause tapir mortality, plus spreads-


heets examples with chemical restraint and clinical
evaluation, body measurements and necropsy, which
could be very useful to simplify and standardize field
data collection on tapir health. Even though this manu-
al was prepared thinking of field research procedures
on wild animals, the information inside is readily
applicable to evaluate and monitor the health status of
captive tapirs too.



IUCN Experimental Protocols
For Tapir Re-Introductions and
Translocations

The environmental conservation and management phi-
losophy of the International Union for the Conservation
of Nature (IUCN) and other conservation bodies, stated
in key documents such as "Caring for the Earth" and
"Global Biodiversity Strategy," acknowledges the need
for approaches that include community involvement
and participation in sustainable natural resource con-
servation, promote the overall enhancement of the qua-
lity of human life, and that seek to conserve or, where
necessary, restore ecosystems.
Restoration efforts focused on single species of
plants and animals are becoming more frequent
around the world. Some such efforts succeed; yet,
many still fail. Therefore, empirically tested guidelines
are needed to ensure re-introductions and transloca-
tions are both justifiable and likely to succeed. It is
equally important that the conservation world learn
from each initiative, successful or not.
The four tapir species are ideal candidates for re-
introduction and translocation programs. Previous
studies have demonstrated that tapirs are highly plas-
tic and adaptable in terms of diet, environmental con-
ditions, and habitat use, and therefore have the poten-
tial to adapt to a variety of different types of habitat. In
addition, tapirs live in threatened ecosystems, in which
biological diversity is maintained by the tapirs' key eco-
logical roles, including seed predation and dispersal
(especially of large seeds), selective sapling browsing in
tree fall gaps, and nutrient recycling.
The Tapir Specialists Group (TSG), a member of the
Species Survival Commission (SSC) of the International
Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), has set
the highest priority to the development of protocols
that are of direct, practical assistance to those plan-
ning, approving, supervising, and/or carrying out tapir
re-introductions and/or translocations. This document
comprises the first edition of these protocols, and is
by no means complete or authoritative. It is composed
of well-informed suggestions and recommendations
about how to proceed with tapir re-introductions and
translocations, which must be continuously tested and


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/1 0 No. 21 0 June 2007






TSG COMMITTEE REPORTS 0 CONTRIBUTED PAPERS 15


improved upon. Our target audiences, at this juncture,
are the practitioners (usually wildlife managers or sci-
entists), rather than decision-makers in governmental
agencies.
With the above in mind, this experimental protocol
for tapir re-introduction and translocation is divided
into steps that are designed to test different modes of
re-introduction and translocation, taking into account
individual animal variability and the diversity of
environmental settings. At each step, there must be
intensive record-keeping for peer-reviewing and future
reproducibility of successful methods and techniques.
It is hoped that our approach will stimulate tapir
conservationists and other interested parties to think
critically about protocols presented herein, helping to
expand on our suggestions towards a more compre-
hensive management tool for tapir conservation.
As such, the protocols outlined below are but a
first step in the direction of full-fledged guidelines.
Nevertheless, however experimental our protocols may
be, they still hold a few fundamental points in com-
mon to any re-introduction and translocation program.
First, some degree of mortality is to be expected, but
every care should be taken to minimize losses. Second,
the ultimate goal of any such program is to establish
a viable population, which can grow and evolve on its
own. This is the fundamental goal of the protocols
outlined below, this goal should always be kept in
sight, and all steps should lead towards this objective.
Last, re-introductions and translocations are always
very lengthy, complex and expensive processes. Before
attempting to implement these protocols, financial and
logistical considerations should be carefully thought-
out to guarantee the resources are available to carry
the program to term.


While we believe that it is important to take into
consideration financial limitations, we attempt to put
together what we think is the best compromise, which
will not only minimize the risks to the animals, but also
to the team working on the program, and maximize the
chances of success. Funds will ultimately shape what is
effectively possible, but every effort should be made to
carry out all the steps outlined below. Considerations
about the success of the re-introductions and trans-
locations aside, the most important reason to follow
these experimental protocols is to ensure comparison
among programs with different tapir species in diffe-
rent areas. Only through comparisons can we begin to
understand the role of the innumerable variables invol-
ved in the process and improve based on the gained
knowledge.
Finally, we tried to make this document general
enough so that it might apply to all four tapir species,
over a wide range of local conditions. Nevertheless, we
make note of particular areas where we think a broa-
der array of methods or techniques might be applica-
ble.



Paulo Rogerio Mangini, D.M.V., M.Sc.
Wildlife Medicine and Management
Ph.D. candidate, Doctoral Program on Environment and
Development (UFPR)
Associate Researcher, Instituto de Pesquisas Ecol6gicas
(IPE)
Member, Brasilian Institute for Conservation Medicine
TRADED)
Member, IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group (TSG)
Member, IUCN/SSC Veterinary Specialist Group (VSG)


CONTRIBUTED PAPERS


TungurahuaVolcano: An Estrategic Refuge for Mountain Tapirs in Ecuador ................... 16


Occurrence of Baird's Tapir Outside Protected Areas in Belize ........................................... 17

About the Possible Return of Baird's Tapir to El Salvador ................................... .......... 20


Conservaci6n en Ecotonos Interculturales yTransfronterizos: La Danta (Tapirus bairdii)
en el Parque Internacional LaAmistad, Costa Rica-Panama ............................................ 24

The Asian Tapir in Jambi Lowland Forest and Commercial Landscape ............................... 30


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/1 0 No. 21 0 June 2007






16 CONTRIBUTED PAPERS


Tungurahua Volcano:

An Estrategic Refuge for Mountain Tapirs in Ecuador

Juan Pablo Reyes Puig', Nelson Palacios2 and Andr6s Tapia3


S Fundaci6n Oscar Efren Reyes. Bahos,Tungurahua-Ecuador. E-mail: foer2005@yahoo.com
2 Comunidad San Antonio de Puntzan. Bahos, Tungurahua-Ecuador.
3 Centro Tecnol6gico de Recursos Amaz6nicos Centro Fitima Puyo, Pastaza-Ecuador. E-mail: centrofati@panchonet.net


res de la region, merece figurar la danta o Gran
Bestia, animal al que tenia yo por semi-fabuloso
en mis exploraciones; pues siempre que oia que
en tal o cual lugar abundan las dantas me sonreia
con cierto aire de duda; pero ahora estoy conven-
cido de que en los bosques de los contrafuertes
del Tungurahua, existen real y efectivamente dan-
tas, y a juzgar por los caminos construidos por
ellas, que se cruzan en todas direcciones, y por la
enorme cantidad de excrementos que se encuen-
tra de ellos, su numero debe ser considerable.>

Nicolds G. Martinez. Hacienda San Antonio.
Noviembre de 1910.


The Tungurahua volcano is located in the Central
region of the Ecuadorian Andes. With an altitude
of 5,023 m a.s.l., it is one of the most active volcanoes
of the world. For centuries this mountain has been
modelating the variety of local ecosystems due to con-
tinuous eruptions and it has regulated the dynamics of
one of the richest Andean fauna and flora.
Bafios the closest town to the volcano is a small vil-
lage in the doors of the Central Ecuadorian Amazonia.
In the past decades most researchers have neglected
this area in search of more diverse habitats in lowland
ecosystems (Lynch and Duellman 1980). For that rea-
son, there are just historic or anecdotic registers of the
fauna, but no long-term studies that depict the faunal
composition of the region.
Paradoxically, this area is one of the most well
preserved of the Ecuadorian Andes and, because of its
connectivity with other protected areas (i. e., Sangay
National Park, San Antonio Forest Reserve), represents
a strategic corridor for the survival of the endangered
mountain tapir (Tapirus pinchaque). Here, we present
the most recent direct record of a mountain tapir in the
eastern flanks of the Tungurahua volcano.
Access to the wild domains of mountain tapirs
demanded three hours following tapir trails in a nearly
inaccesible Andean forest and across the 300 to 500 m


tall rock walls that raise from the bottom of the valley
of the Salt River ("Rio de la Sal"). The sighting of two
individuals was made at an altitude of 2,600 m a.s.l.,
beside natural springs of mineral waters that come
from the volcano and could be used by tapirs as a
source of salts and minerals. The surrounding forest is
composed of endengared trees like Sisin (Podocarpus
sp.) and Palma de Ramos (Ceroxylon sp.), with other
typical elements of cloud forest like moss, lichens, bro-
meliads and orchids (Figure 1).
The first tapir was seen while crossing the river at a
distance of 30 m and heading to the forest in the direc-
tion of the paramo. After this encounter, we walked
approximately 200 m and arrived at a natural spring
where we saw another individual hiding between rocks
and vegetation (Figure 2). The skin of the posterior part
of this second animal appeared to be affected because
it lacks a patch of hair*. We supposed this animal to
be unhealthy because it did not escape rapidly and we
could even touch it before it ran away.
Several direct observations have been made in the
last years in Tungurahua, but without adequate record-


Figure I. Andean Cloud forest habitat of the moun-
tain tapir on the eastern slopes of the Tungurahua
Volcano, Ecuador, ca. 2,600 m a.s.l. The circle shows
a fleeing tapir. Credit: Juan Pablo Reyes Puig.


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/1 0 No. 21 0 June 2007






CONTRIBUTED PAPERS 17


Figure 2. Direct sighting of a mountain tapir in its
natural habitat on the TungurahuaVolcano, Ecuador.
Credit: Juan Pablo Reyes Puig.


ing and verifiable evidence. In the surrounding areas (i.
e. Runtun, Pondoa) indirect observations (tracks and
feces) evidence other mountain tapir groups that could
be more or less connected with the Tungurahua popu-
lation. Historical reports (e.g., Martinez 1933) mention
that this mammal was common at the beginning of
the 20th century but, according to the local inhabit-
ants, the tapir populations were severely threaten by
hunting until 1990, when this activity was forbidden.


In addition, the constant eruptions of the Tungurahua
volcano have stopped the colonization of the region
with the consequent improvement of the natural areas
surrounding it. Due to its inaccessibility, the influence
of the eruptions in keeping humans at bay, and its con-
nectivity with other protected zones, this area could
constitute one of the last refuges for mountain tapirs
in the Ecuadorian Andes.
The tapir observations described herein were made
while conducting a monitoring project on endangered
wildlife at the Tungurahua Volcano, with support from
Ecociencia and Conservation International.



References


Lynch, J. D. & W E. Duellman. 1980. The
Eleutherodactylus of the Amazonian slopes of the
Ecuadorian Andes (Anura: Leptodactylidae). Misc. Publ.
Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas 69: 1-86.
Martinez, N. G. 1933. Exploraciones en los Andes
Ecuatorianos. El Tungurahua. Publicaciones del
observatorio de Quito. Secci6n de Geofisica. Imprenta
Nacional. Quito-Ecuador. Pp. 88.


*N.B. patches of bare skin in the hind quarters of Mountain
Tapirs are not uncommon and at present it is unknown
whether these are indicators of the health or age of the
animals.


Occurrence of Baird's Tapir

Outside Protected Areas in Belize

Sidn S. Waters' and Oscar Ulloa2


14 Lindsay Gardens, Tredegar, Gwent NP22 4RP UK, e-mail: sian_s
Department of Forestry, 24/25 Unity Blvd., Belmopan City, Belize.



Abstract

We conducted a preliminary survey of the pre-
sence of the endangered Baird's tapir outside
protected areas in Belize during March to May 2006.
We found that Baird's tapir occurred in every district
of Belize and that hunting of the species took place
but was not widespread. We make suggestions for
further conservation and management of the species
outside protected areas.


waters@hotmail.com




Introduction

Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) occurs from south east-
ern Mexico to northern Colombia. The species is an
important food resource for local people and plays
an important role as seed disperser for many plant
species. Currently it is considered vulnerable to local
extinction triggered by habitat loss and over-hunting
(Naranjo & Bodmer 2002) and is classified as endan-
gered (IUCN, 2006).


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18 CONTRIBUTED PAPERS


Little research has been undertaken on Baird's
tapir in Belize since the 1980s (Fragoso 1983; Fragoso,
1991). The IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group orga-
nised a Population & Habitat Viability Analysis (PHVA)
workshop for Baird's tapir in August 2005 which high-
lighted the lack of data available on the distribution
and status of the species within Belize, as well as in
other range countries. A survey of the distribution of
Baird's tapir in Belize was recommended as a result of
the PHVA (Medici et al., 2006).
Tapirs are protected from hunting in Belize but they
can be legally shot if they destroy crops or become dan-
gerous to humans. During the Baird's tapir PHVA, par-
ticipants were informed of the remains of eight tapirs
discovered near the protected area of Tapir Mountain
in Belize (R. Richardson in Waters et al., 2006). The
possibility was raised that these might be retaliatory
killings of the species as a result of its crop raiding
behaviour. This study aimed to make a preliminary
assessment of the extent that Baird's tapirs conflicted
with people due to crop raiding, and to ascertain the
presence of Baird's tapir outside protected areas in
Belize. Results of the latter aspect of the study are
presented here; results on the human/tapir conflict
survey will be published elsewhere.
This study was conducted throughout Belize, where
the Baird's tapir is the national animal. The country
has one of the lowest human populations in Central
America, with -240,000 inhabitants (Roberts, 2000).
A high proportion of the country (approximately 36%)
is within protected areas. However, Belize has illegal
encroachment problems on its western border with
Guatemala, where protected areas are heavily frequen-
ted by collectors of xat6 palm leaves (Chamaedorea
sp.). This activity has been prevalent since 1998 (Anon,
2005) and up to 1,000 illegal xat6 collectors have been
reported to camp and hunt in the Chiquibul protected
area (comprised of the Chiquibul Forest Reserve and
the Chiquibul National Park) whilst harvesting the
leaf (Castillo, 2005). Although the forestry division
regularly patrols the protected areas in an attempt to
prevent illegal collection of xat6, the large number of
people and the large size of the areas they use may
mean that illegal hunting of protected species such as
the Baird's tapir is prevalent in these protected areas.



Methods

We undertook a countrywide assessment of human-
wildlife conflict amongst subsistence farmers in Belize
from March to May 2006. We used a structured
questionnaire to interview local people from all six
districts of Belize about potential problems with crop
raiding by wild animals. The villages targeted for
interviews were selected based on their dependence on


subsistence agriculture and location outside protected
areas. Those villages and communities dependent
on citrus, banana and sugar cane cultivation, and
cattle farming, were excluded from the survey. The
questionnaire was administered to the person who
worked on his/her farm in every sixth house in a
village.
The interview protocol was thus: The interviewer
told the respondent that s/he was from an NGO and
undertaking research on agriculture. They were then
asked if they would answer questions regarding their
land and crops and were assured of confidentiality.
When the questionnaire was completed, and if the
respondent had not already mentioned Baird's tapir
as a crop raider, they were asked about the presence
of tapirs in the area. GPS locations for Baird's tapir
were recorded if they were reported by at least two
respondents independently of one another in each vil-
lage surveyed, and/or where evidence of tapir sign such
as foraging sign or footprints was found. If possible,
the farm where crop raiding had been reported was
visited and a GPS location taken there. Otherwise, the
location of the village where the respondent lived who
had reported the presence of Baird's tapir on his farm
was recorded. A GIS map was generated from these
data.

Results

A total of 168 people were interviewed during the
survey from a total of 63 villages. Baird's tapir were
reported from all six districts of Belize. We verified
19.6% (N = 51) of reports of tapir occurrence by sign.
A map showing reported presence of Baird's tapir can
be seen in Figure 1.
Hunting was reported to take place in 10 of the 51
locations where tapirs were reported to occur. In two
villages, interviewees reported that tapirs were hunted
preferentially for their meat. 9.6% of respondents
reporting that tapir occurred in their areas (N = 73)
indicated, without prompting, that they shot them.
Orange Walk and Belize districts reported a higher
incidence than would be expected by chance of tapir
hunting when compared to other districts of the coun-
try (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.003). In addition, four
respondents stated, without prompting, that they had
been charged by an adult Baird's tapir whilst in the
forest, although they had escaped without injury.


Discussion

The distribution data collected for Baird's tapir cannot
be used to ascertain relative abundance of the species
throughout Belize; yet, these data may be useful for
understanding patterns of presence and absence of the


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/1 0 No. 21 0 June 2007






CONTRIBUTED PAPERS 19


Bairns Tapir Survey



Corozat ,.'
-






A*-




.






I P N *
.-ng .. i
i

*
















Figure I. Baird'sTapir Records Outside Protected Areas
in Belize.


species within the landscape. They also demonstrate
that, unlike the lowland tapir in Peru (Naughton-Treves
et al., 2003), Baird's tapirs visit farms near settle-
ments, as tracks were found near human habitation in
this survey.
Orange Walk has the lowest number of reports of
tapirs although the species does occur in the protec-
ted area of the Programme for Belize (E. Ariola, pers.
comm.) located in the northwest of the district. Orange
Walk is also one of the two districts that yielded more
reports of tapir hunting than would be expected by
chance among all districts of the country.
Three unprotected areas appear to hold what may
be sustainable tapir populations and merit further
investigation. These are: the watershed of the New
River in Corozal; the area south (and probably north)
of Yalbac Creek in northern Cayo district, along with
a population of black howlers and the possibility of
the occurrence of spider monkeys (Waters & Ulloa,
submitted); and the watershed of the Temash River
in southwestern Belize where black howlers were also
commonly heard (Waters & Ulloa, submitted).
Although hunting by subsistence farmers in
response to crop raiding does not appear to threaten
response to crop raiding does not appear to threaten


Baird's tapir in Belize at present (Waters & Ulloa, in
prep.), preferential hunting of tapir for their meat
appears to be localized in some areas with potential
threats of unsustainable extraction.
The reports of the remains of eight tapirs mentio-
ned above, a report of an adult tapir shot on farmland
near the Tapir Mountain reserve in 2005 (R. Richards,
pers comm.), and another report of an animal shot in
the area of Monkey Bay near Belmopan while conduc-
ting this survey, reflect that tapirs are also being shot
in Belize for other reasons apart from crop raiding or
for their meat. All respondents who reported being
charged by tapirs whilst in the forest expressed fear
at meeting them. It was perceived knowledge amongst
respondents during the survey that surprising a female
tapir and calf whilst in the forest may cause the female
to charge at the disturbance. Thus, another aspect
of human-wildlife conflict fear of death or injury by
a large animal could be a possible explanation for
the abovementioned, apparently motiveless, killings
of tapirs. Although this situation has not, so far as
is known, led to any human fatalities in Belize, there
may be a common misapprehension that all tapirs are
unpredictable and thus dangerous, and this may lead
to killing of the species whenever it is encountered.
However, this needs further work before any firm con-
clusions can be reached.
Tapirs may remain common in Belize because they
are not a preferred meat species for the majority of the
population (Fragoso, 1991). Its status as Belize's nati-
onal animal was also mentioned by respondents as a
reason for not killing the species. However, there is no
room for complacency because the extent of the effect
that illegal xat6 collectors are having on wildlife in pro-
tected areas of western Belize is not being quantified
and could be extensive and negatively impacting on the
Baird's tapir over an important area of its distribution.
Xat6 collectors may be entering areas otherwise rarely
visited by subsistence hunters and farmers. The fact
that some protected areas are not secure from illegal
hunting means that unprotected areas which are still
relatively undeveloped and have yielded evidence of
tapir and primate presence should be the subject of
stakeholder conservation management plans to ensure
that the habitat supporting those and other species
does not disappear.


Acknowledgements

This study was fully funded by the Royal Zoological
Society of Scotland (Edinburgh Zoo). We thank
the Government of Belize, Department of Natural
Resources, for granting permission to undertake the
work. We are indebted to the farmers of Belize for
their patience in answering our questions. We thank


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/1 0 No. 21 0 June 2007






20 CONTRIBUTED PAPERS


our field assistant, David Barclay, for his photographs,
help and good humour, and Dr. John Morris of the
Government of Belize Institute of Archaeology, and
numerous others for their help in the field. Thanks to
Isabel Gonzalez and Leo Salas for commenting on an
earlier draft of this manuscript and to Mr. G. Baez for
help with the map.


References

Anon. 2005. Xate in Belize, a Growers Guide. Belize
Botanic Gardens, Ya'axche' Conservation Trust, Belize &
the Natural History Museum, London, UK.
http://www.belizebotanic.org/xate_manual.pdf. [accessed
25 October 2006].
Castillo, G. 2005. Proceedings of the Chiquibul
Stakeholders' Planning Workshop. 33pp. http:
//www.eco-index.org/search/pdfs/970report_ 1 .pdf
[accessed 25 October 2006].
Fragoso, J.M.V. 1983. The Ecology and Behaviour of Baird's
Tapir in Belize. Unpub. Undergraduate Thesis, Trent
University, Ontario, Canada.
Fragoso, J.M.V 1991. The effect of hunting on Baird's
tapir in Belize. In: J.G. Robinson & K. Redford (eds.)
Neotropical Wildlife Use and Conservation, pp. 154-
162. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA.
IUCN. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. http://www.iucnredlist.org.


[accessed 28 July 2006].
Medici, E.P, Carillo, 1., Montenegro, O.L., Miller, PS.,
Carbonell, F., Chassot, O., Cruz-Aldin, E., Garcia,
M., Estrada-Andino, N., Shoemaker, A.H. & Mendoza,
A. 2006. Taller de Conservacion de la Danta
Centroamericana (Tapirus bairdii): Evaluacion de
Viabilidad Poblacional y del Hdbitat (PHVA). CBSG.
176pp, http://www.tapirspecialistgroup.org/action-plan/
action-index.html [accessed on 13 August 2006].
Naranjo, E.J. & Bodmer, R.E. 2002. Population ecology and
conservation of Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) in the
Lacand6n Forest, Mexico. Tapir Conservation 11:25-33.
Naughton-Treves, L., Mena, J.L., Treves, A., Alvarez, N.,
Radeloff, VC. 2003. Wildlife survival beyond park
boundaries: The impact of slash-and-burn agricul-
ture and hunting on mammals in Tambopata, Peru.
Conservation Biology 17:1106-1117.
Roberts, S.A. 2000. National Population and Housing
Census 2000, Report No. http://www.cso.gov.bz/
population_housing.html [Accessed on 30 September
2006].
Waters, S. S. & Ulloa, O. Submitted. Results from a preli-
minary survey on the current distribution of primates in
Belize. Neotropical Primates.
Waters, S.S. In prep. Tapirs and tolerance in Belize: A pre-
liminary study of subsistence farmers and crop raiding
mammals.
Waters, S.S., Chalukian, S. & Lizcano, D. 2006. Human/
Tapir Conflicts Working Group: Preliminary data and
further investigations. Tapir Conservation 15/1:8.


About the possible Return

of Baird's Tapir to El Salvador

Edmundo S6nchez-N6nez', Rodrigo Samayoa-Valiente2, Stefany Henriquez-Ortiz3, Ver6nica Guzm6n-Serrano3


Asociaci6n TerritoriosVivos-Mexico, PhD Candidate, University of Liverpool,UK, E-mail: E.Sanchez-Nunez@liverpool.ac.uk
Fundaci6n Zool6gica de El Salvador (FUNZEL), E-mail: rsamayoav@integra.com.sv
Universidad Nacional de El Salvador


Abstract

s it is well known, the Baird's tapir (Tapirus
airdii) has been declared extinct in El
Salvador since 1982 by the UICN. However, two
reports in 2002 and 2004 suggested the presence
of the species in some Salvadorian protected areas.
In both cases field biologists reported footprints of a
tapir but there are no verifiable evidences to support
the reports (such as photographs, plaster moulds,
videos, etc). Due to the increasing interest of some
Salvadorian zoologists to update and produce
confident wildlife inventories, and as a result of
the mentioned reports, a research team attempted


to verify the possible presence of T. bairdii in the
country. The first efforts were carried out in two
protected areas, El Imposible and Barra de Santiago
- Sector Santa Rita, where the footprints were
reported in 2002 and 2004, respectively. Although
this first attempt to obtain definitive evidences to
establish the presence of this species in El Salvador
did not confirm the mentioned reports, there is a
good possibility that some individuals of T. bairdii
from Guatemala are exploring Salvadorian land due
to the good quality of habitat observed particularly
in the El Imposible National Park. Notably, some
local inhabitants in the surveyed areas attest to
never have seen a tapir.


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/1 0 No. 21 0 June 2007






CONTRIBUTED PAPERS 21


Background and Justification

The main threat faced by Baird's tapir is habitat des-
truction; different records show that the species survi-
ves principally in zones where human access is difficult
and, as a consequence, there is abundant high-quality
tapir habitat (Matola et al., 1997).
Particularly in El Salvador, it is assumed that the high
rate of deforestation was the main problem for this
species resulting in its extinction formally declared by
IUCN in 1982 (Thornback & Jenkins, 1982); however
there is a lack of scientific evidence to explain this
extinction process. Also, civil war in the country (1980-
1992) may have affected tapir populations but there
are not explanations about how and where it could
contribute to the extinction.
Thus, accepting that T. bairdii is absent in El
Salvador, some thoughts have been given to evaluate
potential habitat in natural protected areas within the
country. Matola et al. (1997) consider the National
Parks El Imposible and Montecristo as sites with
potential habitat for Baird's tapir; particularly the
last one (which is adjacent to forest in Honduras and
Guatemala) has been mentioned as the protected area
with more possibilities to house a remaining populati-
on. The same authors have expressed that if the spe-
cies is not yet extinct, the prospects for its conservation
are difficult and, due to the lack of information about
the country, they suggest new surveys are needed. On
the other hand, Owen (2003) has suggested that tapir
is probably restricted to El Imposible; based on the
skull of a specimen which was found in the park in
1987, he considers that the species has been present
in this National Park at least since the mid-80s.
A after almost twenty years without reports about
T. bairdii in El Salvador, a casual finding of footprints
in 2002 resurrected the interest for the species among
the zoologists in the country. Although there were no
verifiable evidences, Owen (2003) accepted the authen-
ticity of the finding and he has speculated about the
origin of this tapir, considering two possibilities: (1)
the tracks were made by an unknown specimen of the
original population of the Salvadorian tapirs (assuming
that the Baird's tapir was not extinct in the country);
or, (2) tapirs from Guatemala have re-colonized El
Imposible.
Consequently, the main objectives of the survey
carried out by our research team were, first, to start
a systematic search to determine if Baird's tapir is
really back to El Salvador; second, to contribute to the
efforts of the Specialist Tapir Group of IUCN to update
information about the species in the Central American
region; and third, to encourage the new generations of
Salvadorian biologists to become involved in the study
and conservation of wildlife and vulnerable ecosystems
in this country.


The Recent Reports

In 2002 the Dutch herpetologist Twan Leenders
was collaborating in El Salvador with the local NGO
SalvaNATURA to produce a zoological inventory for
the National Park El Imposible. At the end of one
trip, Leenders mentioned that he found tracks of an
adult tapir near the site named "Piedra Sellada" (an
interesting archaeological place at the East of the
National Park, see Figure 1), and also he said that in
one of the prints the smaller fourth toe was evident.
He measured the diameter of the track at its widest
point (between the toe tips), and it was of 185 mm;
unfortunately, he could not take at least a picture to
provide evidences of his finding (Oliver Komar, pers.
comm., 2002).
After two years, in 2004, during a botanical survey
in the Protected Natural Area Barra de Santiago Sector
Santa Rita, the Salvadorian botanist Raul Villacorta
reported tracks of tapir and apparently his information
had a relative impact (Ministerio de Medio Ambiente
de El Salvador, pers. comm., 2006). Again, this new
record was not backed with verifiable evidence.



Areas Surveyed:
The National Park El Imposible and
the Natural Protected Area Barra de
Santiago Sector Santa Rita

These protected areas are relatively close to each other
(Figure 1) but they keep different types of ecosystems
and habitats. El Imposible has an extension of about
4,318 hectares and it is characterized by mid-eleva-
tion tropical montane forest; in its highest elevations
there are portions of remnant cloud forest. The park
presents an altitudinal range between 500 and 1,425
m.a.s.l. It is considered as one of the last tropical forest
in El Salvador. There are eight main rivers crossing the
zone and a large amount of brooks. The National Park
was created in 1989 and currently has an interesting
international prestige (Samayoa-Valiente et al., 2007).
The Natural Protected Area Barra de Santiago is
made up of four Sectors: Barra de Santiago, El Chino,
Cara Sucia y Santa Rita. Tapir evidence was found in
the fourth Sector. It is classified by the IUCN as Category
6, its extension is approximately of 2,689 hectares and
present an altitudinal range between 0 and 20 m.a.s.l.
Mangrove is the predominant vegetation. This area is
not formally protected (Herrera, 1997).


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/1 0 No. 21 0 June 2007






22 CONTRIBUTED PAPERS


Figure I. Areas Surveyed: The National Park El Imposible
Protected Area Barra de Santiago Sector Santa Rita.


Survey Locations,
Methods and Results

The first intensive survey took place in November 2006
and it was two weeks long; mainly looking for tapir
evidences in El Imposible but also as a way to attract
attention to the species in the country. The fieldwork
in this National Park was divided in two stages. The
first was carried out in the Sector San Benito and the
second in the Sector La Fincona. In Barra de Santiago,
Sector Santa Rita the fieldwork was brief due to wea-
ther conditions.
The most recent report of tapir footprints in the
park is located in El Imposible, Sector San Benito;
consequently a considerable research effort was focus-
ed in this region mainly looking for tracks along the
Guayapa River. For methodological purposes this river
was considered as a big transect (just inside the park
boundaries) where the transect length was the same
as the river's, and the width was about 40 meters (20
m by each side of the river). Subsequently, following
the same methodology, the Venado River was sampled;
this river is located in the same area as Piedra Sellada.
A base camp was set at a high point at the south of
Guayapa River, and from this site numerous streams
which are linked to the Guayapa were covered. The


": 1 last survey in this sector was
y- carried out in the Ixcanal River.
It is relevant to mention that in
j the original research plan the
F Mashtapula River would be sur-
.' ,veyed, however the particular
l. and unexpected weather con-
ditions made unsafe the routes
inside the park. El Imposible
. Sector La Fincona.was covered
in two days focusing the efforts
Only in the Mixtepe River.
Staff of the Salvadorian
S" Ministry of Environment and
S.4' ~ Natural Resources (MARN)
i p suggested to the research team
to visit the Barra de Santiago
rv 9 emv Sector Santa Rita because
I am F they knew about a report of
P K u,. tapir tracks made in 2004.
Im.AW -; This place is relatively near
c anv- r to El Imposible. The visit was
.f. / brief (just one morning) due to
our tight schedule and becau-
se the previous day's rainfall
flooded this site; hence, it was
and the Natural
impossible to look for tracks.
Nevertheless, for us it was
important to know the habitat
conditions in this place consi-
dering that the most recent report of Baird's tapir in
the country has been done in this protected area.
None of the surveyed places showed evidence of
tapir presence. Moreover, some inhabitants of the
zone cannot remember when it was the last time that
a tapir was sought. Only one park guard in the Sector
La Fincona remembers the single occasion that he saw
a Baird's tapir individual, and it was when he was
a child, more than 25 years ago. We also surveyed
brooks trying to find tapir droppings and also looked
for feeding evidence, without success.



Final Comments

In different sites of the National Park El Imposible
the habitat conditions are favourable for Baird's
tapir; nevertheless, the hard soil in the park made
finding tracks challenging and thus our methodology
may be inconclusive to ascertain the presence of the
species. In the wet season, when soils may be moist
and soft enough to be imprinted upon, the rain may
easily erase the footprints. Although in diverse places
we found white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginiana),
racoon (Procyon lotor) and great curasaw (Crax rubra)


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/1 0 No. 21 0 June 2007






CONTRIBUTED PAPERS 23


footprints, the density of these species in the park
made it easy to find them each morning.
Notably, none of the consulted park guards have
seen this species. They are a very capable staff and
their knowledge about local wildlife is thorough. As
stated above, the 40 years old park guard Mr Vidal
Campos is the only one among those questioned who
vaguely remembers the occasion when in his childhood
he saw a tapir in El Imposible.
Despite our results, at the moment it is difficult to
confirm whether the tapir is present in El Imposible,
although in our opinion if the species is currently
there, it must be as result of immigration of tapirs from
Guatemala. This possibility poses the opportunity to
start a cooperative effort between research teams and
academic institutions of El Salvador and Guatemala,
Medici et al. (2006) have mentioned that information
about biological and ecological monitoring for Baird's
tapir is a priority specifically in subjects like current
distribution, habitat use and availability, and move-
ment patterns. El Salvador has been a big question
mark in terms of tapir distribution, and the recent
reports set a challenge. It is important to say that
several scientific publications about Central American
biodiversity find in El Salvador the same big question,
and it is sometimes interpreted as absence of some
species. However, the real problem is that El Salvador
has been a poorly studied country for a long time.
Based on literature review (746 references), Herrera
(2002) concludes that in the past 15 years the verte-
brates are the most studied group in El Salvador (40%
of the published materials), and with the end of the
civil war there was a great interest for research about
ecological and biological diversity issues, although the
studies are very focused in some protected areas and
the results of such studies are not always published.
Finally, although it was not possible to establish the
presence of Baird's tapir in the studied area through
this survey, further attempts must be considered using
other complementary methods (like camera traps) and
also through systematically covering the whole National
Park. We realize that the burden of proof will always
be there: finding no tapirs or tapir evidence always
leaves the open possibility that they may still be out
there, whereas to prove their presence it only takes one
verifiable record. But because the habitats we obser-
ved are conducive to hosting a tapir population, and
because the possibility and means exist for immigrants
from Guatemala to enter these areas in El Salvador, we
think the chances are high that the previous reports are
correct and contend that further effort must be made
to verify them. By the same token, we urge cooperati-
ve work with Guatemalan scientists and authorities to
determine if a corridor exists between forests in both
countries. If such corridor can be confirmed, it should
be considered a conservation priority, especially within


the scope of the unique international conservation tool
of Central American countries, namely the Corredor
Biologico Mesoamericano.



Acknowledgements

FUNZEL made possible the expedition with the logis-
tic help, the SalvaNatura's and MARN's staff suppor-
ted administrative and fieldwork issues. We wish to
acknowledge the support of Patricia Medici; Carlos
Roberto Hasbun supported the logistic facilities; the
park guards Heriberto Rivera, Heliberto Sandoval and
Vidal Campos assisted us in the field.



References

Alvarez, J.M. & Komar, O. (eds). 2003. El Parque Nacional
El Imposible y Su Vida Silvestre. Fundaci6n Ecol6gica
de El Salvador SalvaNATURA. San Salvador. 227pp.
Herrera, N. 1997. Vida Silvestre de Barra de Santiago.
Servicio de Parques Nacionales y Vida Silvestre.
Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia. El Salvador. 30
pp.
Herrera, N. 2002. Diagn6stico de linea base sobre el esta-
do de la investigaci6n de biodiversidad. El Salvador.
Corredor Biol6gico Mesoamericano. 107 pp.
Matola, S., Cuaron, A. & Rubio-Torgler, H. 1997. Status
and Action Plan of Baird's Tapir (Tapirus bairdi).
In: Brooks, D. M., Bodmer, R.E. & Matola, S. (com-
pilers). Tapirs Status Survey and Conservation
Action Plan. (English, Spanish, Portuguese.) IUCN/SSC
Tapir Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and
Cambridge, UK. viii + 164 pp.
Medici, E. P, Carrillo, L., Montenegro, O.L., Miller, PS.,
Carbonell, F, Chassot, O., Cruz-Aldan, E., Garcia, M.,
Estrada-Andino, N., Shoemaker, A.H. & Mendoza, A.
(Editores). 2006. Taller de Conservaci6n de la Danta
Centroamericana: Reporte Final. IUCN/SSC Tapir
Specialist Group (TSG) & IUCN/SSC Conservation
Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG), Apple Valley, MN,
USA. 176 pp.
Owen, J. 2003. Mammals. In: Alvarez, J.M. & Komar, O.
2003. El Imposible National Park and its Wildlife.
SalvaNATURA. San Salvador, El Salvador. 230 pp.
Samayoa-Valiente, R., Vieira, B., Salazar, A & Rodriguez, E.
2007. Plan de Manejo del Parque Nacional El Imposible
2007-2011. SalvaNATURA-MARN. El Salvador. 103 pp.
Thornback, J. & Jenkins, M. 1982. The IUCN mammal red
data book. Part 1: Threatened mammalian taxa of the
Americas and the Austrasia zoogeographic region (exclu-
ding Cetacea). IUCN Conservation Nature, Switzerland.
516 pp.


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/1 0 No. 21 0 June 2007






24 CONTRIBUTED PAPERS


Conservaci6n en Ecotonos Interculturales yTransfronterizos:

La Danta (Tapirus bairdii) en el Parque Internacional

LaAmistad, Costa Rica-Panama

Fabricio Carbonell e Isa Torrealba


Meralvis (Mejorando al Desarrollo Rural Regional a traves de la Conservaci6n de laVida Silvestre; Apdo. 1854-3000, Heredia, Costa Rica;
E-mail: ong_meralvis@yahoo.com)
DOCINADE (Doctorado en Ciencias Naturales para el Desarrollo, Programa Latinoamericano Inter-universitario; http://www.docinade.com)


Abstract

W e sought to strengthen the management and
conservation efforts present in La Amistad
International Park, between Costa Rica and Panama.
We pursued our goal by means of a study of the
conservation status of a flagship species, the Tapir
(Tapirus bairdii), with the participation of environ-
mental authorities of both countries, together with
rural and indigenous local communities. We studied
tapir fecal samples, predator activity, track surveys
and habitat use. We conducted interviews of local
residents on wildlife use, participant observations
and multi-stakeholders participative workshops. In
this interdisciplinary effort we identified key areas
for species conservation, along with political and
socio-cultural opportunities for fostering an integral
alternative conservation.



Resumen

E n la bfsqueda por fortalecer la gesti6n y los esfue-
rzos de conservaci6n en el Parque Internacional
La Amistad, entire Costa Rica y Panama. Nosotros
hicimos un studio sobre el estado de conservaci6n
de la danta (Tapirus bairdii), especie insignia, con
la participaci6n de autoridades gubernamentales de
ambos paises, junto con las comunidades locales
rurales e indigenas. Estudiamos muestras fecales,
actividades depredadoras, transectos para huellas
y uso del habitat. Ademas hicimos observaciones
participants, entrevistas a residents locales sobre
el uso de la fauna y talleres de multi-participes. En
este esfuerzo interdisciplinario nosotros identifi-
camos las areas importantes para la conservaci6n
de la especie, junto con las oportunidades liticas
y socio-culturales por fortalecer una conservaci6n
integral alternative.


Key words: conservation, indigenous people, tapirs,
Biosphere Reserve, trans-boundary parks, environ-
mental politics, La Amistad International Park

Palabras claves: conservaci6n, indigenas, dantas,
Reserva de la Biosfera, parques transfronterizos, politi-
cas ambientales, Parque Internacional La Amistad


Introducci6n

El Parque Internacional La Amistad (PILA), con
191.647 hectareas en Costa Rica y 207.000 hectareas
en Panama, es el parque national mas grande en estos
paises, y forma un area continue de cobertura forestal
y habitats que alberga una important biodiversidad
y una significativa representaci6n de etnias locales.
Por su tamafio y relieve, el PILA posee various micro-
climas y tipos de bosque representatives de ambos
paises y de la region (Figura 1). Culturalmente,
el PILA esta rodeado por comunidades indigenas
Bribris y Cabecares del lado costarricense, y Teribes
y Ngobes del lado panamefio; en algunos casos 6stas
viven dentro del parque y mantienen vias de comu-
nicaci6n. En el pasado, estas comunidades tenian
importantes areas de caceria y de respeto sagrado;
para ellas las dantas tenian un profundo valor sagrado
y simb6lico. A su vez, el PILA es el area nficleo de la
Reserva de la Biosfera La Amistad (RBA), la cual ha
sido incorporada al Patrimonio Mundial de la UNESCO
y sus zonas de amortiguamiento estan compuestas por
un conglomerado de areas protegidas y territories
indigenas.
Estudio busc6 fortalecer la gesti6n del PILA usando
la danta como especie insignia indicative del desarrollo
rural y del estado de la biodiversidad. Efectuamos una
investigaci6n ecol6gica para conocer la abundancia,
dieta, ambito de hogar y areas importantes para
la sobrevivencia de la danta. Adicionalmente,


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/1 0 No. 21 0 June 2007






CONTRIBUTED PAPERS 25


fomentamos la participaci6n de los pobladores
locales en la investigaci6n y didlogo de conservaci6n,
e involucramos a pueblos indigenas, comunidades
campesinas locales, autoridades ambientales nacionales
(Autoridad Nacional del Ambiente de Panama ANAM
- y el Ministerio de Ambiente y Energia de Costa
Rica MINAE) y una organizaci6n no-gubernamental
international (Conservation International).
Agrupamos nuestros resultados en tres secciones:
i) la percepci6n de la conservaci6n de la danta por
etnias indigenas (personas claves en las localidades
Kekoldi, Yorkin, Agua Salud, Tayni y Cabagra, com-
plementada con resultados de investigaciones previas
y fuentes bibliograficas) y campesinos; ii) la ecologia
de la danta; y iii) informaci6n integral socio-ambiental
para la conservaci6n en los ecotonos interculturales y
transfronterizos. Discutimos una percepci6n sobre el
rol de los organismos ambientales en la promoci6n de
una efectiva conservaci6n, y aportamos nuestra una
vision sobre conservaci6n integral alternative.



Metodos

Protocolo social: Hicimos giras, conversaciones
informales (Ander-Egg, 1991), observaci6n partici-
pante (Taylor y Bodgan, 1998) y charlas brindadas en
centros docentes y asociaciones sociales de la zona.
Entrevistamos a lideres comunales, cazadores, inves-
tigadores y funcionarios gubernamen-
tales sobre la importancia de species
grandes como la danta y compilamos 't
histories, tradiciones culturales y pro- -. -_
blemas ambientales en las comunida-
des de Kekoldi, Yorkin, Agua Salud,
Cabagra, Potrero Grande, Tres Colinas,
Altamira, Hitoy Cerere y Cerro Punta.
Efectuamos 15 entrevistas, numero-
sas conversaciones informales, siete
charlas interactivas y participamos en
cuatro events cientificos obteniendo
la retroalimentaci6n de los asistentes, .
entire otros. Hicimos ademas charlas
para escolares. A trav6s de panfletos
informativos y documents t6cnicos
difundimos este trabajo en Costa Rica,
Nicaragua, Panama, Belice y Holanda
(Carbonell y Torrealba, 2005a).

Protocolo ambiental: Realizamos
giras, conteo de rastros en transectos,
colecta de heces y observaci6n direct
(Burnham et al. 1980, Naranjo,
1995a, Naranjo, 1995b, Glanz, 1991, Figura 2. S
Jorgenson, 1993). La investigaci6n se Reserva de


Figura I. RioYorkin,territorio indigena Costa Rica,
Panama.


llev6 a cabo en cuatro sectors del PILA seleccionados
de acuerdo a su acceso, zonas fronterizas, areas con
y sin presi6n de caceria y conocimiento de la zona.
Los sectors fueron: 1) Pacifico y Caribe, sendero
Altamira Valle del Silencio, ubicado dentro del PILA,
Costa Rica; 2) Pacifico, sector Cerro Punta, ubicado
dentro del PILA, Panama; 3) Caribe, Reserva Biol6gica
Hitoy Cerere, fuera del PILA, Costa Rica; y 4) Caribe,
Territorio indigena Bribri Yorkin, fuera y dentro del
PILA, Costa Rica y Panama (Figura 2).


ectores de muestreo y zonas de manejo en la RBA:
la Biosfera LaAmistad, Costa Rica, Panama.


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/1 0 No. 21 0 June 2007






26 CONTRIBUTED PAPERS


Resultados y Discusi6n

Los resultados siguientes se obtuvieron tras 182 dias
efectivos en campo y 18 dias en events especiales
fuera del area de studio (de enero/2004 a septiembre/
2005).

i) Percepciones sobre la
Conservaci6n de la Danta

Percepci6n indigena: De acuerdo a la percepci6n
cultural de etnias Bribris y Cabecares, el PILA del sec-
tor costarricense era antiguamente territorio indigena.
Los "awapa", especialistas en medicine traditional,
cuentan la historic y el future del pueblo indigena,
y por ellos se sabe que la danta para los Bribris y
el jaguar para los Cabecares, cumplen una funci6n
simb6lica important dentro de la cosmovisi6n indi-
gena. S61o algunos clanes tenian permitido matar a
la danta, respetando ciertas normas. La danta y el
jaguar simbolizan una deidad madre de los indigenas
y un espiritu poderoso con poderes espirituales sobre
la naturaleza. En el PILA del lado panamefio habitan
las etnias Nasos y Ngobes-Bugld, con territories ila-
mados "comarcas." Ellos mantienen tambi6n vinculos
culturales muy fuertes con la vida silvestre, expresada
en danzas, leyendas, prestigio para el cazador y en la
"balseria", deported cultural ngobe. Las dantas son vis-
tas como opci6n de alimento proteinico que ayuda a la
sobrevivencia de muchas families por la gran cantidad
de care que produce.

Percepci6n campesina: Principalmente en la verti-
ente Pacifica de Costa Rica existe una fuerte inclina-
ci6n hacia el turismo; se ve al PILA y la presencia
de la danta como oportunidad para atraer turismo
natural a la zona y, por consiguiente, mejorar los
ingresos econ6micos familiares. Los lugarefios rela-
cionan automaticamente parque y dantas con ingresos
del turismo (Figura 3). La caceria de dantas en esta
region no es facil por las grandes extensions del area,
relieve abrupto y por el comportamiento muy evasivo
de la especie; sin embargo, la caceria fue frecuente en
el pasado, y todavia hoy ocurre, aunque muy eventu-
almente.

Nuestra percepci6n sobre el rol de los organismos
ambientales para una efectiva conservaci6n: Faltan
recursos para la capacitaci6n de las autoridades ambi-
entales gubernamentales y capacitaci6n e interns de los
funcionarios e investigadores en el PILA para manejar
los conflicts y las percepciones de las personas loca-
les. Urgen talleres de capacitaci6n a todos los funcio-
narios en aspects de sensibilidad social y ambiental,
co-manejo, y dinamicas para la socializaci6n de la


informaci6n. Por lo general, el funcionario de "control"
no esta preparado para apoyar esfuerzos de educaci6n
ambiental en la zona. Existen agrupaciones que estan
trabajando de manera coordinada, sin embargo much-
as veces no son autosuficientes y necesitan de recursos
externos. Por otra parte, comentarios falsos escuch-
ados en las comunidades acerca de investigadores con
< ella>> implican un gran desconocimiento de lo que es el
PILA y las investigaciones.

Una mirada al future: Un bosque sin sus animals
cambia debido a las relaciones ecol6gicas entire la
fauna y la flora, como la diseminaci6n de semillas,
la polinizaci6n y el mantenimiento de algunas espe-
cies (Glanz, 1991; Valdez, 2004). En los territories
indigenas la danta es escaza, por ello, la caceria de
ser necesaria debiera promoverse de forma no dafiina
para el bosque, ni para las futuras generaciones. Al
nivel indigena la caceria, ademis de ser una practice
cultural milenaria y de sobrevivencia, es una forma
de utilizar la biodiversidad. Pensamos que algunas
practices y conocimientos indigenas podrian ayudar a
reforzar la conservaci6n en las areas protegidas y en
los territories natives, convirtiendo a etnias locales en
verdaderos custodios y co-manejadores de tales areas,
al tiempo que se promueve un uso sostenible de la
biodiversidad. Al nivel campesino rural, apreciamos que
las comunidades no estan adecuadamente informadas
sobre los intereses del PILA, de los funcionarios
ambientales, ni de los investigadores; y viceversa. En
cuanto a los organismos ambientales, observamos una
profunda separaci6n de la percepci6n comunitaria
sobre el uso de la vida silvestre y los funcionarios
ambientales. No obstante, existen esfuerzos en ambos
paises para fortalecer la conservaci6n en el PILA, tales
como el proyecto AMISCONDE que busca la producci6n
agricola sostenible y la evaluaci6n de biodiversidad en
las fincas agroforestales. Tambi6n, comit6s locales de
corredores biol6gicos, agriculture organica y control
de caceria e incendios son iniciativas importantes en
el Pacifico costarricense y panamefio. En el lado del
Caribe predominan las reserves y comarcas indigenas
con las que urge implementar medidas end6genas
de co-manejo y gesti6n apropiada sobre los usos de
la biodiversidad y buscar opciones a la caceria no
sostenible.


ii) Ecologia de la Danta

Dieta: La danta se alimenta de hierbas, frutos, cortezas
y hojas de diversas plants de sotobosque en areas
ubicadas en potreros abandonados, ci6nagas, claros
naturales de bosque y bosques secundarios cercanos a
quebradas de agua en el PILA. Las principles plants


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/1 0 No. 21 0 June 2007






CONTRIBUTED PAPERS 27


encontradas fueron Chusquea spp. (Poaceae), Quercus
spp. (Fagaceae), Miconia spp. (Melastomataceae),
Philodendron spp. (Araceae), la corteza de un arbusto
de la familiar Araliaceae, brotes de helecho arborescente
(Cyathea spp.), plAntulas de Smilacaceae y moras
silvestres (Rubus spp.), entire otros. Al encontrar
germinaci6n de semillas en excremento de danta,
confirmamos que la danta contribute al traslado de
semillas a ambientes favorables, lo cual contribute
junto a su active labor de ramoneo a mantener la
diversidad en la zona (Valdez, 2004; Naranjo, 1995b).

Distribuci6n: Debido a la gran extension del parque y
lugares remotos que frecuenta la danta, los animals
no se observan fAcilmente en el PILA, aunque
existen sectors donde son muy frecuentes. En esta
investigaci6n, la danta abund6 mAs en sectors con
bosque primario y ci6nagas del PILA, como el Valle
del Silencio (Area a 2.500 msnm), y en los bosques
secundarios; fue escasa en bosques primaries de
roble (Quercus spp.). En el period de sequoia o pocas
lluvias ("verano"), la danta tiende a ampliar su rango
de acci6n y en ciertas ocasiones se han reportado
dantas en cafetales cerca de areas protegidas. Las
investigaciones enfatizan que las principles variables
para la presencia de dantas son la disponibilidad
de comida y de agua, por ello frecuenta los bosques
secundarios cercanos a fuentes de agua, en busca de
vegetaci6n abundante y brotes tiernos del sotobosque;
sin embargo, aparentemente require de bosque
primario para su reproducci6n y sobrevivencia
(Carbonell y Torrealba, 2005a).

Uso de habitat: Se ha estimado un Ambito de hogar en
promedio de 107 hectAreas para dantas en un bosque
humedo tropical de parties bajas en el Parque Nacional
Corcovado, y de 160-181 has para un bosque seco en
el Parque Santa Rosa (Foerster, 2001, Williams, 1984).
Nuestros resultados indicaron que la danta hace uso
de los hAbitats de manera preferencial. Por ello se
seleccionaron las variables 6poca (lluviosa o seca),
meses, afios, sectors y hAbitats para ser comparados
entire si con relaci6n al promedio del nfimero de
huellas por Km encontrado (Naranjo 1995a). Para el
anAlisis se utiliz6 un modelo log-lineal univariado, y
determinamos que los meses, el hAbitat y los sectors
explican un 85.5% de la varianza en la presencia de
huellas (F=6.717, P < 0.001). Hubo diferencias
significativas entire hAbitats (F=5.077, P < 0.05) y
entire sectors (F= 23.32, P < 0.001), pero no entire
meses (F=0.775, P=0.64).

Abundancia en Costa Rica: Conocer la cantidad de
dantas en el pais nos permit predecir escenarios para
la conservaci6n future de importantes hotspots, por
eso various investigadores han tratado de estimar el


Figura 3. Dibujo de Maria Isabel Cordero Marin (2004),
Liceo El Carmen, donde represent la importancia de
la danta para su comunidad.


tamafio poblacional de esta especie. Williams (1984)
estim6 una poblaci6n de dantas para todo Costa Rica
entire 1.800 y 3.500 individuos distribuidos en las
areas protegidas del pais, mientras que (Brooks et
al., 1997) indican unos 1.000 para todo el pais unos
afios despu6s. Si consideramos al primer autor, hace
unos 20 afios en Costa Rica habia unas 5.000 dantas,
de las cuales aproximadamente la mitad estaba dentro
de Areas protegidas (unas 2.650). Con la t6cnica de
Vald6z (2004) y otras estimaciones (Carbonell et al.,
2001), estimamos la poblaci6n actual del pais en 3.483
individuos, de las cuales un 90% (3.153) esta en las
Areas silvestres protegidas y un 21% dentro del PILA-
sector costarricense (728). Considerando que el PILA
forma parte de la Reserva de la Biosfera La Amistad
(RBA), un conglomerado de Areas protegidas y territo-
rios indigenas con una extension de 349.150 hectAreas
en Costa Rica, calculamos que para el pais casi el 40%
(1.365) de las dantas sobreviven en la RBA. Asi, un
40% de la poblaci6n de la especie reside en este 6,8%
del territorio national y otro 50% se encuentra en un
8,9% del territorio protegido. Hace poco mis de 20
afios el 50% de la poblaci6n de la especie residia en
terrenos silvestres no protegidos y hoy el 90% de la
poblaci6n de dantas se encuentra en apenas un 15,7%
de la superficie del pais, Area conformada exclusiva-
mente por ciertas areas protegidas.

Una mirada al future: El Area minima requerida por
pareja de dantas es de 2,14 km2 (Foerster, 2001). Para
conservar unas 1.000 parejas de dantas se necesitan
unas 214.000 hectAreas, por lo cual el PILA con
alrededor de 400.000 hectAreas entire los dos paises,


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/1 0 No. 21 0 June 2007






28 CONTRIBUTED PAPERS


podria estar asegurando la viabilidad future de la
especie. Cuando sefialamos los tamafios requeridos
no debemos perder de vista que son estimaciones.
Nuestro dato de area no es un estimado estadistico
del tamaio requerido para conservar la especie, pero
es mas que una unidad minima de conservaci6n. Si
consideramos que la poblaci6n de dantas de la RBA
represent casi el 40% del total de dantas en Costa
Rica; podriamos decir que la poblacion de dantas en el
PILA es de una importancia biol6gica vital y que una
buena gesti6n de la misma es crucial no s61o para la
danta, sino para la biodiversidad de este pais.



iii) Los Sociotonos
de la Conservaci6n

Protocolo social-ambiental: Para intentar llenar
los vacios metodol6gicos de interdisciplinaridad
elaboramos graficos, promovimos representaciones
artisticas y efectuamos talleres de multi-participes
inclusivos de g6nero y equidad. Asi, respaldamos
nuestra propuesta a trav6s de imagenes, mapas
y diagramas (Carbonell y Torrealba, 2005b) en la
busqueda de una efectiva integraci6n sociol6gica
y ecol6gica para la conservaci6n promotora del
desarrollo rural sostenible.

Asimetrias de la conservaci6n en los sociotonos
entire vertientes, cultures y fronteras: Pese a que
la cordillera de Talamanca (que alberga el PILA) forma
una unica unidad ecol6gica, hay diferencias socio-
econ6micas y culturales entire ambos paises donde
se encuentra, y hay similares asimetrias entire las
vertientes del Caribe y del Pacifico. Panama destaca
por la calidad y conservaci6n de sus ecosistemas en
zonas de tierras altas y medias del caribe (500-3000
msnm), y Costa Rica en zonas de elevada altitude (mas
de 2.000 msnm) inicamente. En Costa Rica, el PILA
conserve principalmente los ecosistemas de altura y
del Caribe, como el cerro Kamuk y el Valle del Silencio,
que constituyen un refugio important para las dantas
y jaguars en sus parties altas Zonaa II, Figura 2). En
cambio, los ecosistemas de altitude media del pacifico
costarricense (500 1.000 m.s.n.m.) -muy importantes
por su gran diversidad y estacionalidad- estan
desprotegidos y no estan representados en el Sistema
Nacional de Areas Protegidas, como por ejemplo la
Cuenca del Rio Mosca; sin embargo tanto en Costa
Rica como Panama se esta dando un fuerte impulso al
turismo en esta zona Zonaa I, Figura 2). En Panama,
la zona Caribe del PILA es important por la presencia
de algunas species con poblaciones afectadas en el
lado costarricense, tales como el chancho de monte o


de labios blancos (Tayassu pecari) y el aguila harpia
(Harpia harpyia). Zonaa II, Figura 2).
Por otra parte, ambos paises tienen un fuerte
component indigena en la zona del PILA. Zonaa III,
Figura 2). En Panama 6stos viven dentro del parque
en la comarca Naso-Teribe y dos poblados Ngobe; en
Costa Rica hay viviendas indigenas aisladas dentro del
PILA en el sector caribe y senderos indigenas dentro
del mismo. Su aspect social varia igualmente, los
indigenas de Panama sufren de pobreza extrema y los
de Costa Rica, si bien son considerados pobres, tienen
acceso a servicios de salud, transport y educaci6n.
En esta zona hay una several p6rdida de species
amenazadas. Por ello, se sugiere una reflexi6n sobre la
necesidad de que los Planes de Manejo y Conservaci6n
incluyan, ademas de un monitoreo o seguimiento, una
integraci6n de los aspects socio-econ6micos con los
ecol6gicos, para que haya una trascendencia fronteriza
via convenios internacionales en pro de una efectiva
conservaci6n para un desarrollo sostenible (Carbonell
y Torrealba, 2005b).

Incidencias en political para la conservaci6n: Sobre
la implementaci6n de la gesti6n para la conservaci6n,
apreciamos que Costa Rica tiene una political
ambiental fortalecida que se refleja en los recursos
invertidos en Areas de Conservaci6n del MINAE, a
diferencia de Panama que tiene menos recursos y no
tiene un ministerio ambiental sino un institute, que
es la Autoridad Nacional del Ambiente. Informes del
lado panamefio refieren de ficas ganaderas dentro del
parque y caminos utilizados para transportar ganado
entire la vertiente del Pacifico y del Caribe en el PILA
(ANCON y Consultores Ecol6gicos 2004) Asimismo,
se observa en la vertiente del Pacifico en ambos paises
la compra de tierras por extranjeros con conciencia
preservacionista e interns por el turismo. Este
acelerado fen6meno puede traer efectos favorables para
la conservaci6n pero consecuencias socioculturales
adversas en las areas urbanas o asentamientos "ilegales"
en areas de conservaci6n sensibles a la degradaci6n
ambiental. De alli la importancia de conocer mejor
la situaci6n de la danta en la cordillera de Talamanca
para reforzar sus political de conservaci6n.
Nuestra vision una conservaci6n integral alter-
nativa: La Reserva de la Biosfera La Amistad es parte
del Patrimonio Mundial, donde tanto la importancia
de la diversidad cultural como la diversidad biol6gica
deben ser vistas de manera integral. El hecho de que
actualmente exista gran preocupaci6n por la caceria
en territories indigenas que han llevado al borde de la
extinci6n a ciertas species de fauna no implica desco-
nocer que parte de esto ha sido ocasionado por fuertes
presiones de caracter politico y econ6mico. Sabemos
que los indigenas habitan areas boscosas importantes


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/1 0 No. 21 0 June 2007






CONTRIBUTED PAPERS 29


pero han sido confinados a areas poco productivas,
rodeados por plantaciones bananeras y pueblos cam-
pesinos; actualmente no poseen alternatives viables
para revertir la tendencia de extinciones biol6gicas
en sus territories y, por ende, de su propia extinci6n
cultural. Ambos, indigenas y species de vida silvest-
re, deben ser ponderados para la conservaci6n de la
biodiversidad.
Hoy es menester integrar a las areas de propiedad
privada y a los territories indigenas en la gesti6n para
la conservaci6n de la vida silvestre y de las areas
protegidas. Poblaciones de dantas en ciertas areas
nucleares protegidas de la RBA estan confrontando
series amenazas. Asi, tanto el Parque Nacional Barbilla
como la Reserva Biol6gica Hitoy-Cerere deberian no
s6lo estar conectadas con areas de cobertura boscosa,
sino trabajar en conjunto con las comunidades
campesinas e indigenas para que actuen como
centros de protecci6n de fauna silvestre amenazada, y
responsables de la misma; no s61o como extractores.
Para que ello suceda, se deberian promover medios de
economic alternative o programs tipo "Bandera Azul
Ecol6gica" o "Pago de Servicios Ambientales" (Segura
y Moreno, 2002) amboss sistemas presents en Costa
Rica desde hace various afios), pero enfocados hacia las
species de fauna silvestre amenazadas o en peligro de
extinci6n.
A trav6s de este studio detectamos la presencia de dos
areas prioritarias para enfocarse a una conservaci6n
alternative integral, ambas ubicadas a median altitude
(500-1000 metros): 1- los tiltimos reductos de los
ecosistemas estacionales del Pacifico en asentamientos
campesinos, amenazados por incendios y utilizados
por las dantas eventualmente, y 2- los ecosistemas del
Caribe en territories indigenas con una baja sensible
de fauna cineg6tica, discriminaci6n social several y un
lazo ancestral entire la cultural y la biodiversidad (Zonas
I y III, Figura 2). La conservaci6n del PILA por su
lejania e inaccesibilidad depend de la integraci6n de
las comunidades indigenas y campesinas con la vision
ecol6gica, por ello deberian integrarse los conocimien-
tos cientificos y tradicionales, el ecoturismo rural, la
educaci6n en el uso de la biodiversidad con una vision
futurista, las political transfronterizas y los esfuerzos
por hacer integraciones multi-participes.




Agradecimientos

A Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund- Conservation
International, Idea Wild, a nuestros asistentes, a los
campesinos e indigenas que nos apoyaron y aportaron
valiosa informaci6n, al Ministerio de Ambiente y En-
ergia de Costa Rica y a la Autoridad Nacional del Ambi-
ente de Panama por su respaldo para este proyecto.


Referencias

ANCON y Consultores Ecol6gicos. 2004. Plan de Manejo
Parque Internacional La Amistad, Panama. ANAM,
CBMAO, Panami. http://www.inbio.ac.cr/pila/pdf/
planmanejo_pila_panama.pdf
Ander Egg, E. 1991. T6cnicas de investigaci6n social.
Editorial El Ateneo. Mexico, D. F. Mxico.
Bodmer, R. 1989. Frugivory in amazonian ungulates. PhD.
Thesis. University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United
Kingdom.
Brooks, Daniel M.; Bodmer, Richard E.; Matola,
Sharon (compilers). 1997. Tapirs Status Survey
and Conservation Action Plan. (English, Spanish,
Portuguese.) IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group. IUCN,
Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. viii + 164 pp.
http://www.tapirback.com/tapirgal/iucn-ssc/tsg/action97/
cover.htm
Burnham, K., Anderson, D. & Laake, J. 1980. Estimation
of density from line transect sampling of biological
populations. Wildlife Monographs 72.
Carbonell, F. & Torrealba, I. 2005a. Conservaci6n de la
danta (Tapirus bairdii) y del Parque Internacional La
Amistad, Costa Rica y Panama. Informe final de termi-
naci6n de proyecto. ONG Meralvis y CEPF Costa Rica.
http://www.inbio.ac.cr/pila/pdf/ http://www.eco-
index.org/search/resultss.cfm?projectID=713
Carbonell, F. & Torrealba, I. 2005b. Conservaci6n de
la danta (Tapirus bairdii) y del Parque Internacional
La Amistad, Costa Rica y Panama. Informe final de
terminaci6n de proyecto. ONG Meralvis y CEPF Costa
Rica.
http://www.eco-index.org/search/pdfs/713report_ .pdf
Carbonell, F. & Gonzalez, J. & Torrealba, I. 2001. Current
and potential habitat of the tapir in Volcin Tenorio
National Park and Miravalles Buffer Zone, Arenal,
Costa Rica. Poster presentado en The Wildlife Society:
8" Annual Conference in Reno/Tahoe, Nevada, EEUU,
25-29 Sep/2001.
http://cgi.ebay.com/Wildlife-Society-8th-Annual-Conference-
2001-Reno-TahoeWOQQitemZ 140037723512QQcategor
yZ29223QQcmdZViewItem
Jorgenson, J. P 1993. Gardens, wildlife densities and
subsistence hunting by Maya Indians in Quintana Roo,
Mexico. A dissertation presented for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy. University of Florida. USA.
Foerster, C. 2001. Results of five years telemetry study of
Baird's tapir in Costa Rica. Abstracts. I International
Tapir Symposium San Jos6. Costa Rica. http:
//tapirs.org/Downloads/tsg-meeting-reports/abstracts/
2001-costa-rica-abstracts.pdf
Glanz, W 1991. Mammals densities at protected versus
hunted sites in central Panama. Paginas 163-173 en J.
G. Robinson y K. H. Redford, eds. Neotropical Wildlife
Use and Conservation. The University Chicago Press.
USA.
Naranjo, E. J. 1995a. Abundancia y uso de habitat del
tapir (Tapirus bairdii) en un bosque tropical humedo
de Costa Rica. Vida Silvestre Neotropical 4(1): 20-31.
Naranjo, E. J. 1995b. Habitos de alimentaci6n del tapir
(Tapirus bairdii) en un bosque tropical humedo de
Costa Rica. Vida Silvestre Neotropical 4(1): 32-37.


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/1 0 No. 21 0 June 2007






30 CONTRIBUTED PAPERS


Segura, O., & Moreno, M. L. 2002. Innovaci6n econ6mica
y political forestal en Costa Rica. En: O. Segura &
M. L. Moreno editorses, "Politicas econ6micas para
el comercio y el ambiente", pp.: 187 -218. Centro
International de Politica Econ6mica para el Desarrollo
Sostenible (CINPE). Universidad Nacional.
http://www.cinpe.una.ac.cr Editorial Porvenir. San Jos6,
Costa Rica.
Taylor, S. & Bodgan, R. 1998. Introduction to qualitative
research methods. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York.
USA.


Valdez, J. 2004. Aspectos ecol6gicos de la danta (Tapirus
bairdii) en un bosque humedo tropical, Parque Nacional
Corcovado. Tesis para Magister Scientiae. Universidad
Nacional, Heredia, Costa Rica. http://tapirs.org/
Downloads/tsg-meeting-reports/2nd-tapir-sympos-
report04.pdf
Williams, K. 1984. The central american tapir (Tapirus
bairdii) in northwestern Costa Rica. Ph.D. Thesis.
Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan,
U.S.A.


The Asian Tapir in Jambi Lowland Forest

and Commercial Landscape

Elva Gemita', Dr.Amy Louise Hall2, and Dr. Tom Maddox3


ZSL Indonesia, PO.BOX 2002, JAMBI-SUMATRA, 36001,Jambi-Sumatera, Indonesia. E-mail: elvagemita@yahoo.co.uk
Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust, Les Augres Manor,Trinity, Jersey, Channel Islands, JE3 5BP, Great Britain. E-mail: amy.hall@durrell.org
ZSL Indonesia, PO.BOX 2002, JAMBI-SUMATRA, 36001,Jambi-Sumatera, Indonesia. E-mail:Tom.Maddox@zsl.org; t.m.maddox@gmail.com


Abstract

T his study was conducted in an oil palm plan-
tation that borders a forest logging concession
in Jambi province, Sumatra. Data were collected
during 2003-2004 by using a camera trap grid com-
bined with a tiger camera trap survey and transect
sampling for animal tracks. The camera grid shows
the presence or absence of tapirs in three distinct
habitat types: an oil palm plantation, deforested
areas (unplanted oil palm trees mixed with shrubs)
and forest. Transects provide an index of abundance
of the Asian tapir (# of tracks per 1 km of transect).
Results from both these methods indicate that tapirs
use forested and deforested habitats, but seem to
avoid oil palm plantations. This result suggests a
possible threat to tapir populations in Sumatra if oil
palm plantations continue to spread.



Introduction

Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia represent the
world's stronghold for the Asian tapir (Novarino et al,
2004). The Asian tapir is an elusive animal, primarily
nocturnal; it is most commonly seen in the dry season
and moves into mountainous areas with the onset of
the rainy season (Holden et al. 2003; Colbert 2003;
Novarino et al. 2004). In Sumatra the species is found
in at least seven of eight provinces (Holden et al, 2003).


It often wanders outside forested areas (Novarino et
al. 2004) and in many parts of its range it occurs out-
side protected areas (Meijaard & Van Strien 2003).
Commercial landscapes, including oil palm plantations
and logging concessions, may therefore be important
habitats for Asian tapirs.
We used two different techniques to study Asian
Tapir. The techniques used were camera trapping and
transects to record the frequency of animal tracks.
These techniques were used in an analysis of the
temporal fluctuation in the sightings and tracks of the
Asian tapir. The Camera trapping effort will enable us
to determine the presence/absence and distribution
of Asian Tapir within study site; the transect records
enabled us to formulate an index of relative density of
Asian tapirs within the commercial landscape.


Materials & Methods

Study Area


The study was carried out in Jambi Province, at the oil
palm plantation PT Asiatic Persada (27,000 ha in size),
which borders a forest logging concession (PT Asialog).
The study site is approximately a two-hour drive
southwest from Jambi city (Figure 1). PT Asiatic is still
active, and currently PT Asialog is transferring manage-
ment to PT REKI (Restorasi Ekosistim Indonesia), a
consortium comprising Burung Indonesia, the Royal


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/1 0 No. 21 0 June 2007






CONTRIBUTED PAPERS 31


Figure I. Location of the study site in Jambi province,
Sumatra island.


Society for the Protection of Birds (UK), and BirdLife
International, created to manage and restore an area of
lowland forest located across the Indonesian provinces
of South Sumatra and Jambi.
The habitat of the study site is defined by defores-
ted lowland forests, which are predominantly oil palm
plantation, deforested land and commercial forest.
These three habitats were therefore used to define the
differing habitats within the study area. The oil palm
plantation is a habitat comprised of oil palms inter-
spersed by shrubs. The deforested habitat is located
inside the oil palm plantation and comprises areas
denuded of trees and not planted with oil palm trees;
it is characterized by dense shrubs and self-seeded
trees. The forest habitat comprises the forests inside
the logging concession.
Although the oil palm plantation and logging conces-
sion forests are not ideal for wildlife, endangered and
threatened species still use and live in these habitats,
such as Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris), Asian tapir
(Tapirus indicus), Clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulo-
sa), Dhole (Cuon alpinus), Pangolin (Manisjavanica),
Sambar (Cervus unicolor), Muntjac (Muntiacus munt-
jak), Malay civet (Vivera tangalunga) and Banded palm
civet (Diplogale derbyanus) (Maddox et al, 2004).


Camera Traps

Camera trapping is the most appropriate method for
mammal inventory in all environmental conditions
(Silveira et al, 2003). We used the CamTrakker camera
traps, which were placed in the three distinctive habi-
tat types. The camera trapping method was used to
ascertain the presence/absence of Asian tapirs in each
habitat of the study site by using a randomly placed
grid (Figure 2).


The points in the grid were located by using the
waypoint number from the Global Position System
(GPS). There were 16 camera traps in each grid set out
in 4 rows of 4 cameras each, with cameras placed at an
ideal site within 100 m of the random point to maxi-
mise the chances of photographing animals. Cameras
were placed 500m apart from each other. The camera
traps were positioned in the field for a month. Each
was maintained weekly by checking trigger sensitivity
(e.g., cleaning spider webs which would block the sen-
sor), cleaning the window lens, checking battery power
and also changing the films if they had run out.
Some cameras, referred to in the text as "tiger
cameras," were used to target tigers (as part of the
Jambi tiger project) and were set up on tracks with
known tiger activity, particularly at path junctions to
maximise the chances of photographing a tiger passing
(Maddox et al, 2004). The tiger camera traps were set
up permanently, primarily for monitoring tigers, but
were triggered by and record other large animals.
Films were collected during camera trap checks.
These were developed as negatives, then scanned and
studied for data entry. Individual tigers and other ani-
mals (including tapirs Novarino et al. 2005) can be
distinguished based on fur colour patterns and other
distinctive features, such as scars or cuts. The num-
ber of tapirs occasions from the camera trapping grid
and tiger camera traps showed us where tapirs where
most commonly found and their activities in the three
habitat types.


Transects

Transect counts were chosen as an additional method
for studying the Asian tapirs at the study site by recor-
ding the frequency of footprints along transects; these
counts could be used to calculate an index of relative
density. Transects were set up on old logging road
with varied in length from 1 km to 8 km; habitat types
were also unevenly sampled. The average number
of transects walked per month in the oil plantation
habitat was 11.7 km (range: 0 21.6 km), the average
for forested areas was 130.6km (range: 5.6 255.6
km), and for deforested areas an average of 171.6 km
transects per month (range: 23 327 km). We samp-
led the oil plantations less often than the other habi-
tat types because we soon realized tapirs were never
seen there and opted to put more effort sampling the
other habitat types (see results below). On average,
306.5 km of transects were walked each month. Each
transect was given a unique number, and had a start
and end point which were identifiable GPS waypoints.
At least two people, in a team, walked each transect at
a normal speed (1 km/hr); on several occasions more
than one team walked a transect in a given day.


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/1 0 No. 21 0 June 2007






32 CONTRIBUTED PAPERS


Results


Camera Traps

The camera traps within the grid were operated from
April 2003 April 2004. Sampling with grid camera
traps resulted in few Asian tapir photos; most photos
of tapirs were captured on the tiger camera traps.
There were a total of 17 camera locations, in both
grid and tiger camera traps, from which photographs
of Asian tapirs were obtained. At these 17 locations a
total of 53 photographs were taken (Figure 3). Within
the grid, a total of 12 photos of tapirs were taken in
3 separate locations. This represents 22.6 % of total
photographs taken in 17.6 % of the total photograph
locations. Of the photographs taken in the grid, 83.3 %
were taken in forest and 16.7 % in deforested habitat.
Allowing for more intensive camera trapping regime in
the forests, tapir activity appears highest in this habitat
type.
Within the tiger camera setup, a total of 41 tapir
photographs (77.4 %) were taken at 14 (82.4 %) of total
camera locations. Just looking at the 14 tiger camera
trap locations and the associated photographs, 56 % of
photographs were taken in deforested habitat and 44 %
in forests. No photographs of tapirs were taken in oil
palm plantations.


Figure 2. Location of the nine randomly placed camera
trap grids. Each grid is made of 16 camera traps (4 x 4).


Camera traps data indicate that the Asian tapir is
mostly captured during night-time (Figure 4), corrobo-
rating the nocturnal habit of the species. Accordingly,
highest tapir activity occurs between 19.00-00.00 and
03.00-05.30, with a lower activity level between 00.00-
03.00.
The mean number occasions of Asian Tapir passed
through camera traps placement show was highest in
July 2003 and May 2004 which where in deforested
and forest habitat types. The data is the combined
results from the tiger camera and grid camera traps
data. The dry season starts from May to September,
and the wet season between November to March, which
means that tapir sightings are highest in the dry season
for both habitat types which also shows that tapirs acti-
vities in these habitat types seem doesn't affect with
seasonal change.


Transects

The total distance of transects walked was 6933.4 km.
Within these transects, there were 478 tapir tracks
recorded. On average, the number of tapir tracks seen
was 0.07 per km walked.
Figure 5 also shows that the mean number of Asian
tapir tracks found in transect walks is about the same
between the rainy and the dry season. We found no


Figure 3. Location of tapir photographs in camera
traps.


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/1 0 No. 21 0 June 2007


I f t L b,,
4L a

" ,,fJlr


0 i.I .Yrn


I --


d'L.


I7d 7.~ is
U-nm






CONTRIBUTED PAPERS 33


*Fe~rst
* D~ixuesd Iwi


JI 11


1900- 21,00-
21.00 00.00


00- 0300 N0 t
03.00 05.30
Tin


Figure 4. Tapir photographs during night time in each
habitat type.The "night" bar reflects records without
time but known to have happened at night.

evidence of tapirs occurring in the oil palm plantati-
on. All tracks were found in the deforested and forest
habitats. It is possible that the frequency of tracks seen
in the field relates to the seasonal weather change in
Sumatra. In the forest habitat tapir abundance was
highest (0.18 tracks/km) in May '04 and November
'04. No tracks were seen in June 03 and April 04. In
the deforested habitat the highest frequency values
occurred in January '04 and April '04 (0.15 and 0.2
tracks/km respectively). The lowest index value occurs
in September '04 and November '04, (0.011 and 0.008
tracks/km, respectively).


',_... .ii



Figure 5. Number of Asian tapir tracks per km seen each
for each habitat type.


Discussion & Conclusions

There were no photos or tracks of tapirs found in the
oil palm habitat (Figures 3 & 5). This could be mean
that tapir does not use the oil palm habitat and prefers
to use the forest and deforested habitats. There are
no reports from local workers that tapirs damage the
oil palm saplings or trees, indicating that the species
might avoid this habitat type. If the numbers of oil
palm plantations increases, it will lead to habitat loss
and probably to further decline of the Asian tapir popu-
lations (Kinnaird et al. 2003).
Photographic trapping is a very successful method
for gathering evidence on the biology of the Asian tapir,
an animal that is difficult to study (Holden et al, 2003).
The Asian tapir is a very elusive species during the
patrol transect none of the survey teams saw the tapirs.
The only one seen was an opportunistic sighting on one
evening when one team saw a tapir whilst returning
from radio tracking tapirs in the field. It's potential a
good idea to use the camera trapping methods combi-
ned foot prints transect method to collect the evident
of Asian Tapir as an elusive animal.
The 17 camera locations, with total 53 photographs
of tapir, show that 52.8% of the tapirs were recorded in
the forest habitat and 47.16% in the deforested habi-
tat. From these results is can be concluded that tapirs
used both of the habitats (forest logging concession and
deforested areas in plantations) (Figure 3). Our highest
track indices throughout the year alternated between
these habitats. This shows that tapir live and used
these two habitats, which mean that they are important
for tapir distribution and conservation.
The index of abundance
(tapir tracks/km Figure 5)
of the Asian tapir was high-
est in April 2004 where an
overall density of 0.19 tapir
tracks per km walked was
recorded, despite walking
only 32 km of transects that
*--Fomt month. This result could be
0* ~m because the tapir tracks are
.-rju seen more easily in the defo-
rested areas than in forests
or oil palm habitats; we did
not sample in oil palm habi-
tats, and only walked 9 km
in the forests, that month.
The data were collected
during the 2003 and 2004,
and so it is still difficult to
conclude if these results are
representative of tapir acti-
month in transect walks vity and abundance in the
commercial landscape.


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/1 0 No. 21 0 June 2007


E O't






34 CONTRIBUTED PAPERS E TSG MEMBERSHIP DIRECTORY


Acknowledgements

The research was accomplished as part of the DESMAN
course taught in Jersey, U.K.; we are thankful to ZSL
Jambi Tiger Project for supporting and letting us use
their tapir data, and thank you to many people assis-
ting us who we cannot name for brevity of space.



References

Madox, T.M., Priatna, D., Gemita, E., Salampessy,A.
2004. Pigs, Palms, People and Tigers: Survival of
the Sumatran Tiger in a commercial landscape.
Unpublished Report, ZSL-Jambi Tiger Project, Jambi,
Indonesia.
Colbert, M. 2003. "Tapirus indicus" assessment.
http://digimorph.org/specimens/Tapirus_indicus/
Silveira. L., Jacomo. A.T.A., Diniz-Filho. J. A.F. 2003.
Camera trap, line transect census and track surveys:


a omparative evaluation. Biological Conservation 114:
351-355.
Holden, J., Yanuar, A., & Martyr, D. 2003. The Asian Tapir
in Kerinci Seblat National Park, Sumatera: evidence col-
lected through photo-trapping. Oryx 37: 34-40.
Kinnaird, M. E, Sanderson, E. W., O'Brien, T. G., Wibisono,
H.T., & Woolmer, G. 2003. Deforestation Trends in a
Tropical Landscape and Implications for Endangered
Large Mammals. Conservation Biology 17: 245-257.
Meijaard, E., and van Strien, N. 2003. The Asian Tapir
(Tapirus indicus). In: Briefing Book, Malay Tapir
Conservation Workshop. Krau Wildlife Reserve,
Malaysia
Novarino, W, Karimah, S. N., Jarulis, Silmi, M., & Syafri,
M. 2004. Habitat Used by Malayan Tapir (Tapirus indi-
cus) in West Sumatra, Indonesia. Tapir Conservation
13(2): 14-18.
Novarino, W, Kamilah, S.N., Nugroho, A., Janra, M. N.,
Silmi, M., Syafri, M. 2005. Habitat used and Density of
the Malayan Tapir (Tapirus indicus) in Taratak Forest
Reserve, Sumatra, Indonesia. Tapir Conservation 14 (2):
28-30.


TSG MEMBERSHIP DIRECTORY


Currently, the TSG has 110 members, inclu-
ding field researchers, educators, veterinarians,
governmental agencies and NGO representatives, zoo
personnel, university professors and students, from
27 different countries worldwide (Argentina, Australia,
Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica,
Denmark, Ecuador, France, French Guiana, Germany,
Guatemala, Honduras, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico,
Myanmar, Republic of Panama, Paraguay, Peru,
Thailand, The Netherlands, United Kingdom, United
States, and Venezuela).






TAPIR SPECIALIST GROUP


ABD GHANI, SITI KHADIJAH (Malaysia)
E-mail: cobra7512081 @hotmail.com

AMANZO, JESSICA (Peru)
Seccion Ecologia, Sistematica y Evolucion, Departamento Academico
de Ciencias Biologicas y Fisiologicas
Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofia, Universidad Peruana Cayetano
Heredia
E-mail: jessica amanzo@yahoo.com


ANGELL, GILIA (United States)
Designer, Amazon.com
E-mail: giliaangell@earthlink.net

APARICIO, KARLA (Republic of Panama)
M.Sc. Specialist in Wildlife Conservation and Management
Scientific Committee, Patronato "Amigos del Aguila Harpia"
Associate Researcher, Earthmatters.Org
E-mail: k aparicio@yahoo.com

ARIAS ALZATE,ANDRES (Colombia)
Biol6go, Researcher, Laboratorio de Ecologia Evolutiva de Mamiferos,
Institute de Biologia, Universidad de Antioquia
E-mail: andresarias3@yahoo.es

AYALA CRESPO, GUIDO MARCOS (Bolivia)
M.Sc. Bi6logo, Investigador de Vida Silvestre,WCS Wildlife
Conservation Society Bolivia
Northern La Paz Living Landscape Program
E-mail: gayala@wcs.org; guidoayal@gmail.com

BARONGI, RICK (United States)
Director, Houston Zoo Inc.
Former Chair / Member,American Zoo and Aquarium Association
(AZA) Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)
E-mail: RBarongi@aol.com; rbarongi@houstonzoo.org

BAUER, KENDRA (United States)
Ph.D. Graduate Student, University of Texas at Austin
E-mail: kendrabauer@mail.utexas.edu


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/1 0 No. 21 0 June 2007






TSG MEMBERSHIP DIRECTORY 35


BECK, HARALD (Germany I United States / Peru)
Ph.D.Assistant Professor & Curator of the Mammal Museum
Department of Biological Sciences,Towson University
E-mail: hbeck@towson.edu

BENEDETTI,ADRIAN (Republic of Panama)
Director, Parque Municipal Summit
E-mail: panasummit@gmail.com

BERMUDEZ LARRAZABAL, LIZETTE (Peru)
General Curator / Jefe de Fauna, Parque Zoologico Recreacional
Huachipa
E-mail: lizettelarrazabal@yahoo.com

BLANCO MARQUEZ, PILARALEXANDER (Venezuela)
D.V.M. Director Tecnico, Fundaci6n Nacional de Parques Zool6gicos e
Acuirios (FUNPZA) Ministerio del Ambiente (MARN)
E-mail: pblanco@minamb.gob.ve; albla69@yahoo.com.mx;
albla69@hotmail.com

BODMER, RICHARD E. (England)
Ph.D. Lecturer in Biodiversity Conservation, Durrell Institute of
Conservation and Ecology (DICE), University of Kent
E-mail: R.Bodmer@ukc.ac.uk

BUSTOS, SOLEDAD DE (Argentina)
Licenciada en Ciencias Biol6gicas, Proyecto de Investigaci6n y
Conservaci6n del Tapir Noroeste Argentina
E-mail: soledaddebustos@yahoo.com.ar

CALVO DOMINGO, JOSE JOAQUIN (Costa Rica)
Coordinador deVida Silvestre, Sistema Nacional de Areas de
Conservaci6n, Ministerio del Ambiente y Energia (MINAE)
E-mail: joaquin.calvo@sinac.go.cr

CAMACHO, JAIME (Ecuador)
Coordinator, Programa Parques en Peligro, Fundaci6n Ecuatoriana de
Estudios Ecol6gicos EcoCiencia
E-mail: pep@ecociencia.org; jcamacho@interactive.net.ec

CARBONELL TORRES, FABRICIO (Costa Rica)
Coordinador de Proyectos Ambientales,Asociaci6n Meralvis
E-mail: carbon_f@yahoo.com.mx

CARTES,JOSE LUIS (Paraguay)
M.Sc. Coordinador de Conservaci6n de Sitios, Guyra Paraguay
E-mail: jlcartes@guyra.org.py

CASTELLANOS PENAFIEL,ARMANDO XAVIER (Ecuador)
Director,Andean Bear Project, Fundaci6n Espiritu del Bosque
E-mail: iznachi@yahoo.com.mx; zoobreviven@hotmail.com

CHALUKIAN, SILVIA C. (Argentina)
M.Sc. Proyecto de Investigaci6n y Conservaci6n del Tapir Noroeste
Argentina
E-mail: schalukian@yahoo.com.ar; tapiresalta@argentina.com

COLBERT, MATTHEW (United States)
Ph.D. Research Associate, Jackson School of Geological Sciences,
University of Texas at Austin
E-mail: colbert@mail.utexas.edu

CONSTANTINO, EMILIO (Colombia)
E-mail: econch@gmail.com


CRUZ ALDAN, EPIGMENIO (Mexico)
M.Sc. Researcher, Instituto de Historia Natural y Ecologia
E-mail: pimecruz59 10@hotmail.com; ecruz59 10@prodigy.net.mx

CUARON,ALFREDO D. (Mexico)
Ph.D. Departamento de Ecologia de los Recursos Naturales, Instituto
de Ecologia, UNAM
E-mail: cuaron@oikos.unam.mx

DEE, MICHAEL (United States)
General Curator, Los Angeles Zoo
Member, American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA) Tapir Taxon
Advisory Group (TAG)
E-mail: mdee@zoo.lacity.org

DESMOULINS,AUDE (France)
Assistant Director, ZooParc de Beauval
Lowland Tapir Studbook Keeper, European Association of Zoos and
Aquaria (EAZA) Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)
E-mail: aude.desmoulins@zoobeauval.com

DOWNER, CRAIG C. (United States)
BA, M.Sc., President,Andean Tapir Fund
E-mail: ccdowner@terra.es; ccdowner@yahoo.com

ESTRADAANDINO, NEREYDA (Honduras)
M.Sc. SAID MIRA
E-mail: nerestr@yahoo.com

FLESHER, KEVIN (United States I Brazil)
E-mail: KevinFlesher@yahoo.com

FLOCKEN,JEFFREY (United States)
International Affairs Specialist, Division of International Conservation,
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service
E-mail: jeffflocken@fws.gov

FOERSTER, CHARLES R. (United States / Costa Rica)
M.Sc. Leader, Baird's Tapir Project, Corcovado National Park,
Costa Rica
E-mail: CRFoerster@aol.com

FRANKLIN, NEIL (Indonesia)
Director, Indonesia Program, The Tiger Foundation (Canada) -
The Sumatran Tiger Trust (United Kingdom)
E-mail: franklin@pacific.net.id

GARCIAVETTORAZZI, MANOLO JOSE (Guatemala)
Licenciado, Investigador, Centro de Estudios Conservacionistas,
Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala
E-mail: manelgato@gmail.com

GARRELLE, DELLA (United States)
D.V.M. Director of Conservation and Animal Health, Cheyenne
Mountain Zoo
E-mail: dgarelle@cmzoo.org; dgarelle@yahoo.com

GLATSTON,ANGELA (The Netherlands)
Ph.D. Curator of Mammals, Rotterdam Zoo
Member, European Association of Zoos and Aquaria (EAZA) Tapir
Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)
E-mail: a.glatston@rotterdamzoo.nl


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/1 0 No. 21 0 June 2007






36 TSG MEMBERSHIP DIRECTORY


GOFF, DON (United States)
Assistant Director, Beardsley Zoological Gardens
Lowland Tapir Studbook Keeper,American Zoo and Aquarium
Association (AZA) Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)
E-mail: dgoff@beardsleyzoo.org

GONCALVES DA SILVA,ANDERS (Brazil I United States)
Ph.D. Graduate Student, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Program
Center for Environmental Research and Conservation (CERC)
Department of Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Biology (E3B),
Columbia University
E-mail: ag2057@columbia.edu

GREENE, LEWIS (United States)
Director, Fresno Chaffee Zoo
E-mail: Igreene@fresnochaffeezoo.com

GUERRERO SANCHEZ, SERGIO (Mexico)
D.V.M. Manager, Clinic Laboratory, Zool6gico Regional Miguel Alvarez
del Toro (ZooMat)
Institute de Historia Natural y Ecologia
E-mail: ekio@yahoo.com

GUIRIS ANDRADE, DARIO MARCELINO (Mexico)
D.V.M. M.Sc.Jefe de Operaciones, UN.A.CH., Policlinica y Diagn6stico
Veterinario
E-mail: dmguiris@hotmail.com

HANDRUS, ELLIOT (United States)
E-mail: ebh 12345@hotmail.com

HERNANDEZ DIVERS, SONIA (United States)
D.V.M.Adjunct Professor, College of Veterinary Medicine,
University of Georgia
E-mail: shernz@aol.com

HOLDEN,JEREMY (Indonesia)
Photographer, Flora and Fauna International
E-mail: pop@padang.wasantara.net.id; jeremy_holden I @yahoo.co.uk

HOLST, BENGT (Denmark)
M.Sc.Vice Director and Director of Conservation and Science,
Copenhagen Zoo
Convener, IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG)
- Europe Regional Network
Chair, European Association of Zoos and Aquaria (EAZA) Tapir Taxon
Advisory Group (TAG)
E-mail: beh@zoo.dk

JANSSEN, DONALD L. (United States)
D.V.M. Ph.D. Director,Veterinary Services, San Diego Wild Animal Park
E-mail: djanssen@sandiegozoo.org

JULIA,JUAN PABLO (Argentina)
Ph.D. Coordinador, Reserva Experimental Horco Molle
Universidad National de Tucumrn
E-mail: jupaju@yahoo.es

KAEWSIRISUK, SUWAT (Thailand)
Chief, Hala-Bala Wildlife Sanctuary Department of National Parks,
Wildlife and Plant Conservation
Royal Forest Department of Thailand
E-mail: king@btv.co.th


KANCHANASAKA, BUDSABONG (Thailand)
Wildlife Research Division Department of National Parks,Wildlife
and Plant Conservation
Royal Forestry Department of Thailand
E-mail: Budsa@hotmail.com

KASTON FLOREZ, FRANZ (Colombia)
D.V.M. Scientific Director, Fundaci6n Nativa
E-mail: tapirlanudo@hotmail.com

KAWANISHI, KAE (Malaysia)
Ph.D.Technical Advisor, Division of Research and Conservation
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (DWNP)
E-mail: kae@wildlife.gov.my; kae2000@tm.net.my

KONSTANT,WILLIAM (United States)
Director of Conservation and Science, Houston Zoo Inc.
E-mail: bkonstant@houstonzoo.org

LIRATORRES, IVAN (Mexico)
D.V.M. M.Sc. Consultor del Programa Bosques Mexicanos,
Regi6n Selva Zoque,WWF Mexico
E-mail: ilira@zicatela.umar.mx; ilira 12@hotmail.com

LIZCANO, DIEGO J. (Colombia)
Ph.D. Universidad de Pamplona
E-mail: dj.lizcano@gmail.com

LOZANO BARRERO, CAROLINA MARIA (Colombia)
Docente de Catedra, Facultad de Medio Ambiente y Recursos
Naturales
Universidad Distrital Francisco Jose de Caldas
E-mail: carolinalozanob@yahoo.com; alozano@multiphone.net.co

LUIS, CRISTINA (Portugal)
Ph.D. Graduate Student, Centro de Biologia Animal,
Departamento de Biologia Animal
Faculdade de Ciincias, Universidade de Lisboa
E-mail: cmluis@fc.ul.pt

LYNAM,ANTONY (Thailand)
Ph.D.Associate Conservation Scientist & Regional Advisor,Wildlife
Conservation Society -Asia Program
E-mail: tlynam@wcs.org

MANGINI, PAULO ROGERIO (Brazil)
D.V.M. M.Sc. Research Associate, IPE Instituto de Pesquisas Ecol6gicas
(Institute for Ecological Research)
Scientific Coordinator,Vida Livre Medicina de Animais Selvagens
E-mail: pmangini@uol.com.br; pmangini@ipe.org.br

MANOPAWITR, PETCH (Thailand)
Deputy Director,Wildlife Conservation Society -Thailand Program
E-mail: pmanopawitr@wcs.org; pmanopawitr@hotmail.com

MARTYR, DEBORAH (Indonesia)
Team Leader, Flora and Fauna International
E-mail: ffitigers@telkom.net

MATOLA, SHARON (United States I Belize)
Director, Belize Zoo and Tropical Education Center
E-mail: matola@belizezoo.org


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/1 0 No. 21 0 June 2007






TSG MEMBERSHIP DIRECTORY 37


MEDICI, PATRICIA (Brazil)
M.Sc.Wildlife Ecology, Conservation and Management
Research Coordinator, IPE Instituto de Pesquisas Ecol6gicas (Institute
for Ecological Research)
Ph.D. Candidate, Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology
(DICE), University of Kent, United Kingdom
Convener, IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG)
- Brazil Regional Network
E-mail: epmedici@uol.com.br; medici@ipe.org.br

MEIJAARD, ERIK (The Netherlands / Indonesia)
Ph.D. Senior Forest Ecologist,The Nature Conservancy (TNC),
East Kalimantan Provincial Office
E-mail: emeijaard@tnc.org

MENDOZA,ALBERTO (Mexico I United States)
D.V.M. Chair,American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA) Tapir
Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)
E-mail: alumen@aol.com

MOLLINEDO, MANUELA. (United States)
Director, San Francisco Zoological Gardens
E-mail: manuelm@sfzoo.org

MONTENEGRO, OLGA LUCIA (Colombia)
Ph.D. Universidad Nacional de Colombia (UNAL)
E-mail: olmdco@yahoo.com; olmontenegrod@unal.edu.co

MORALES, MIGUELA. (Paraguay I United States)
Ph.D. Protected Areas Management Advisor
People, Protected Areas and Conservation Corridors, Conservation
International (CI)
E-mail: mamorales@conservation.org

NARANJO PINERA, EDUARDO J. (Mexico)
Ph.D. El Colegio de la Frontera Sur (ECOSUR)
E-mail: enaranjo@sclc.ecosur.mx

NOGALES, FERNANDO (Ecuador)
Researcher, Fundaci6n Ecol6gica Arcoiris
Professor, Escuela de Gesti6n Ambiental de la Universidad Tecnica
Particular de Loja
E-mail: fernogales@yahoo.com

NOVARINO,WILSON (Indonesia)
Lecturer, Jurusan Biologi FMIPA, Universitas Andalas
E-mail: wilsonnid@yahoo.com

O'FARRILL, GEORGINA (Mexico I Canada)
Ph.D. Graduate Student, Biology Department, McGill University
E-mail: xoxo ofarrill@yahoo.com.mx

ORDONEZ DELGADO, LEONARDO (Ecuador)
Coordinator, Proyecto Corredores de Conservaci6n, Fundaci6n
Ecol6gica Arcoiris
E-mail: paramos@arcoiris.org.ec; tsg.ecuador@gmail.com

PARAS GARCIA,ALBERTO (Mexico)
D.V.M. Gerente del Departamento deVeterinaria,Africam Safari
E-mail: pago@servidor.unam.mx; pago@africamsafari.com.mx


PAVIOLO,AGUSTIN (Argentina)
Biologist, Ph.D. Graduate Student, CONICET- LIEY, Universidad
National de Tucumin
E-mail: paviolo4@arnet.com.ar

PEDRAZA PENALOSA, CARLOS ALBERTO (Colombia)
Institute de Investigaci6n de Recursos Biol6gicos "Alexander von
Humboldt"
E-mail: cpedraz@gmail.com; cpedraza@humboldt.org.co

PRAYURASIDDHI,THEERAPAT (Thailand)
Ph.D.Technical Forest Official Department of National Parks,
Wildlife and Plant Conservation
Royal Forest Department of Thailand
E-mail: theerapat@hotmail.com

QUSE,VIVIANA BEATRIZ (Argentina)
D.V.M. Senior Veterinarian, Fundaci6n Temaiken
E-mail: vquse@temaiken.com.ar

RESTREPO, HECTOR FRANCISCO (Colombia)
M.Sc. Fundaci6n Wii
E-mail: restrepof@gmail.com

RODRIGUEZ ORTIZ,JULIANA (Colombia)
Institute de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia
(UNAL)
E-mail: mjuli2@gmail.com

ROJAS ALFARO, JUAN JOSE (Costa Rica)
Director, Zoocriadero de Dantas La Marina
E-mail: rescatela@yahoo.com; galouno@racsa.co.cr

ROMAN, JOSEPH (United States)
Curator,Virginia Zoological Park
Baird's Tapir Studbook Keeper,American Zoo and Aquarium
Association (AZA) Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)
E-mail: Joseph.Roman@norfolk.gov

RUBIANO,ASTRITH (Colombia I United States)
University of Connecticut / Conservation and Research Center,
Smithsonian Institution
E-mail: astrith.rubiano@uconn.edu; astrithrubiano@yahoo.com

RUIZ FUAMAGALLI,JOSE ROBERTO (Guatemala)
Professor & Researcher, Escuela de Biologia, Universidad de San
Carlos de Guatemala
E-mail: rruizf@yahoo.com

RUSSO, KELLY J. (United States)
Manager of Interactive Marketing,Web Communications Department,
Houston Zoo Inc
E-mail: krusso@houstonzoo.org

SALAS, LEONARDO (Venezuela I United States)
Ph.D.Animal Population Biologist
Post-Doctoral Fellow, Redwood Sciences Laboratory
U.S. Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station
E-mail: leoasalas@netscape.net


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/1 0 No. 21 0 June 2007






38 TSG MEMBERSHIP DIRECTORY


SAMUDIO JR., RAFAEL (Panama)
Ph.D. President, Sociedad Mastozoologica de Panama (SOMASPA)
Director, Proyecto de Biodiversidad de Mamfferos (PROBIOMA)
E-mail: samudior@si.edu

SANDOVAL ARENAS, SERGIO (Colombia)
Vice-President, Tapir Preservation Fund (TPF)
E-mail: dantascol@yahoo.com.mx

SANDOVAL CANAS, LUIS FERNANDO (Ecuador)
Licenciado en Ciencias Biol6gicas, Universidad Central del Ecuador,
Estaci6n Cientffica Amaz6nica Juri Juri Kawsay
E-mail: luissandoval79@gmail.com

SARMIENTO DUENAS,ADRIANA MERCEDES (Colombia)
M.Sc. Candidate, Universidad Nacional de Colombia
E-mail: adrianasarmi@hotmail.com; adriana-s@wildmail.com

SARRIA PEREA, JAVIERADOLFO (Colombia)
D.V.M. M.Sc. Genetics & Animal Improvement
Coordinator, Mamapacha Project
E-mail: jasarrip@yahoo.com

SEITZ, STEFAN (Germany)
Ph.D. Captive Research on Tapirs: Behavior and Management
4TAPIRS Information Centre
E-mail: dr.stefan.seitz@t-online.de; info@4tapirs.de

SHEFFIELD, RICHARD (Mexico)
Curador General, Parque Zool6gico de Le6n
Miembro,Asociaci6n de Zool6gicos, Criaderos yAcuarios de Mexico
(AZCARM)
Coordinador, Programa de Recuperaci6n de Especies del Tapir
Centroamericano de AZCARM
E-mail: curador@zooleon.org

SHOEMAKER,ALAN H. (United States)
Permit Advisor, American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA) Tapir
Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)
E-mail: sshoe@mindspring.com

SMITH, BRANDIE (United States)
Assistant Director, Conservation and Science, American Zoo and
Aquarium Association (AZA)
Advisor, American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA) Tapir Taxon
Advisory Group (TAG)
E-mail: bsmith@aza.org

STANCER, MICHELE (United States)
Animal Care Manager, San Diego Zoological Society
Malayan Tapir Studbook Keeper,American Zoo and Aquarium
Association (AZA) Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)
E-mail: mstancer@sandiegozoo.org

SUAREZ MEJIA,JAIMEANDRES (Colombia)
Jardin Botanico, Universidad Tecnol6gica de Pereira
E-mail: suarmatta@yahoo.com; jsuarezmejia@gmail.com

TAPIA,ANDRES (Ecuador)
Centro Tecnol6gico de Recursos Amaz6nicos de la Organizaci6n de
Pueblos Indigenas de Pastaza (OPIP) CENTRO FATIMA
E-mail: centrofatima@andinanet.net; centrofati@panchonet.net


THOISY, BENOIT DE (French Guiana)
D.V.M. Ph.D. Kwata Association
E-mail: thoisy@nplus.gf; bdethoisy@pasteur-cayenne.fr

TOBLER, MATHIAS (United States / Peru)
Ph.D. Graduate Student, Botanical Research Institute of Texas
E-mail: matobler@gmx.net

TODD, SHERYL (United States)
President,Tapir Preservation Fund (TPF)
E-mail: tapir@tapirback.com

TORRES, NATALIA (Ecuador)
Estudiante, Escuela de Gesti6n Ambiental, Universidad Tecnica
Particular de Loja
E-mail: naty 75@yahoo.com; natyl75@hotmail.com

TRAEHOLT, CARL (Denmark I Malaysia I Cambodia)
Ph.D. Research Coordinator, Malayan Tapir Project, Krau Wildlife
Reserve, Copenhagen Zoo
E-mail: ctraeholt@pd.jaring.my

VALDEZ LEAL, JUAN DE DIOS (Mexico I Costa Rica)
M.Sc.Apartado 1350-3000, H. Cirdenas, 86550,Tabasco, MEXICO
E-mail: jdvaldezleal@yahoo.com.mx

VAN STRIEN, NICO (The Netherlands / Indonesia)
Ph.D. SE Asia Coordinator, International Rhino Foundation
E-mail: strien@compuserve.com; Strien@indo.net.id

VARELA, DIEGO (Argentina)
Licenciado Ciencias Biologicas, Ph.D. Graduate Student, Universidad de
Buenos Aires / Conservaci6n Argentina
E-mail: diegomv@arnet.com.ar

VIEIRA FRAGOSO,JOSE MANUEL (United States)
Ph.D.Associate Professor, Botany Department, University of Hawaii at
Manoa
E-mail: fragoso@hawaii.edu

WALLACE, ROBERT B. (England I Bolivia)
Ph.D.Associate Conservation Ecologist,Wildlife Conservation Society
(WCS) Madidi
E-mail: rwallace@wcs.org

WATERS, SIAN S. (United Kingdom)
BA, M.Phil. Conservation Zoologist
E-mail: sian s waters@hotmail.com; sian s waters@yahoo.co.uk

WILLIAMS, KEITH (Australia)
Ph.D. Private Consultant
E-mail: kdwilliams56@yahoo.co.uk

WOHLERS, HUMBERTO (Belize)
General Curator, Belize Zoo
E-mail: animalmgt@belizezoo.org; humbertowohlers@yahoo.com

ZAINUDDIN, ZAINAL ZAHARI (Malaysia)
Malaysian Department of Wildlife and National Parks (DWNP)
E-mail: rhinosrcc@hotmail.com; zainal@wildlife.gov.my


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/1 0 No. 21 0 June 2007






THE NEWSLETTER OF THE IUCN/SSC TAPIR SPECIALIST GROUP 39


Chair
Patricia Medici, Brazil, epmedici@uol.com.br
Deputy-Chair
William Konstant, United States, bkonstant@houstonzoo.org
Baird's Tapir Coordinator
Eduardo J. Naranjo Pihera, Mexico, enaranjo@sclc.ecosur.mx
Lowland Tapir Coordinator
Viviana Beatriz Quse,Argentina, vquse@temaiken.com.ar
Malay Tapir Coordinator
Carl Traeholt, Denmark / Malaysia, ctraeholt@pd.jaring.my
Mountain Tapir Coordinator
Diego J. Lizcano, Colombia, dj.lizcano@gmail.com
Red List Authority
Alan H. Shoemaker, United States, sshoe@mindspring.com
Tapir Conservation Newsletter Editors
Leonardo Salas,Venezuela / Papua New Guinea, leoasalas@netscape.net
Stefan Seitz, Germany, info@4tapirs.de
Kelly J. Russo, United States, krusso@houstonzoo.org
Rick Barongi, United States, rbarongi@houstonzoo.org
Virtual Library Manager
Mathias Tobler, United States / Peru, matobler@gmx.net
Harald Beck, Germany / United States, hbeck@towson.edu
Fundraising Committee Coordinator
Patricia Medici, Brazil, epmedici@uol.com.br
Action Planning Committee Coordinator
Patricia Medici, Brazil, epmedici@uol.com.br
Zoo Committee Coordinator
Viviana Beatriz Quse,Argentina, vquse@temaiken.com.ar
Veterinary Committee Coordinator
D.V.M.Javier Adolfo Sarria Perea, Colombia, jasarrip@yahoo.com
Genetics Committee Coordinators
Anders Gongalves da Silva, Brazil / United States, ag2057@columbia.edu
Cristina Luis, Portugal, cmluis@fc.ul.pt
Education & Outreach Committee Coordinator
Kelly J. Russo, United States, krusso@houstonzoo.org
Marketing Committee &Website Coordinator
Gilia Angell, United States, gilia angell@earthlink.net
Task Force Re-Introduction & Translocation
Patricia Medici, Brazil, epmedici@uol.com.br
Anders Goncalves da Silva, Brazil / United States, ag2057@columbia.edu
Task Force Action Plan Implementation
Patricia Medici, Brazil, epmedici@uol.com.br
Working Group Human/Tapir Conflict
Sian S.Waters, United Kingdom, sian s waters@hotmail.com
Working Group MalayTapir
Ethics Committee
Evolution Consultant
Matthew Colbert, United States, colbert@mail.utexas.edu


Scope
This newsletter aims to provide information regarding all
aspects of tapir natural history. Items of news, recent events,
recent publications, thesis abstracts, workshop proceedings
etc concerning tapirs are welcome. Manuscripts should be
submitted in MS Word.

Deadlines
There are two deadlines per year: 3 I March for publication
in June and 30 September for publication in December.

Please include the full name and address of the authors
underneath the title of the article and specify who is the
corresponding author.

Full length articles on any aspect of tapir natural history
are accepted in English, Spanish or Portuguese language. They
should not be more than 5,000 words (all text included). In
any case, an English abstract up to 250 words is required.

Figures and Maps
Contributions can include black and white photographs, high
quality figures and high quality maps and tables. Please send
them as separate files (formats preferred: jpg, pdf, cdr, xls).

References
Please refer to these examples when listing references:

journal Article
Herrera, J.C.,Taber,A.,Wallace, R.B. & Painter, L. 1999.
Lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) behavioral ecology in a
southern Amazonian tropical forest. Vida Silv.Tropicale
8:31-37.

Chapter in Book
Janssen, D.L., Rideout, B.A. & Edwards, M.S. 1999.Tapir
Medicine. In: M.E. Fowler & R. E. Miller (eds.) Zoo and Wild
Animal Medicine, pp.562-568. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia,
USA.

Book
Brooks, D.M., Bodmer, R.E. & Matola, S. 1997.Tapirs: Status,
Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN, Gland,
Switzerland.

ThesislDissertation
Foerster. C.R. 1998.Ambito de Hogar, Patron de Movimentso
y Dieta de la Danta Centroamericana (Tapirus bairdii) en
el Parque Nacional Corcovado, Costa Rica. M.S. thesis.
Universidad Nacional, Heredia, Costa Rica.

Report
Santiapilli, C.& Ramono,WS. 1989.The Status and
Conservation of the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) in Sumatra,
Indonesia. Unpublished Report,Worldwide Fund for Nature,
Bogor, Indonesia.

Contact
Please send all contributions to Leonardo Salas, e-mail:
LeoASalas@netscape.net


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 16/1 0 No. 21 0 June 2007







Tapir Conservation

The Newsletter of theTapirSpeci.a st Gro


Volume 16/1 U No. 21 E June 2007


I~ Cotet


Contents ....................................... ........... 2

Editorial Board .................................... ........ 2

From the Chair ............................................... 3

Letter from the Chair
By Patricia Medici ....................... .................... 3

Tapir Conservation Workshops
Population and Habitat Viability Assessment (PHVA)
By Patricia Medici ................ ......... ................. 7

TSG Committee Reports ............................... 13

TSG Marketing and Website Report
January June 2007
By Gilia Angell .............................................. 13

TSG Veterinary Committee Report
By Paulo Rogerio Mangini .................................. 14

Contributed Papers ..................................... 16

Tungurahua Volcano:
An Estrategic Refuge for Mountain Tapirs in Ecuador
By Juan Pablo Reyes Puig, Nelson Palacios
and Andr6s Tapia ................. ................... 16


Occurrence of Baird's Tapir Outside
Protected Areas in Belize
By Sian S. Waters and Oscar Ulloa ................... 17

About the Possible Return of Baird's Tapir
to El Salvador
By Edmundo Sinchez-Nunez,
Rodrigo Samayoa-Valiente,
Stefany Henriquez-Ortiz,
Veronica Guzman-Serrano ................................ 20

Conservaci6n en Ecotonos Interculturales y
Transfronterizos: La Danta (Tapirus bairdii) en el
Parque Internacional La Amistad, Costa Rica-
Panama
By Fabricio Carbonell e Isa Torrealba ................. 24

The Asian Tapir in Jambi Lowland Forest
and Commercial Landscape
By Elva Gemita, Dr. Amy Louise Hall,
and Dr. Tom Maddox ..................................... 30

Tapir Specialist Group Members ................. 34

Tapir Specialist Group Structure ................ 39

Notes for Contributors ............................... 39


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