Group Title: Tapir conservation (Print)
Title: Tapir conservation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00095885/00019
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Title: Tapir conservation the newsletter of the IUCNSSC Tapir Specialist Group
Uniform Title: Tapir conservation (Print)
Abbreviated Title: Tapir conserv. (Print)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group
IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group
Publisher: IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group
Place of Publication: Houston TX
Houston TX
Publication Date: June 2006
Copyright Date: 2009
Frequency: semiannual
regular
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Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
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Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began in 1990.
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 12, no. 2 (Dec. 2003); title from cover.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00095885
Volume ID: VID00019
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 56897961
lccn - 2004215875
issn - 1813-2286

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ISSN 1813-2286
Volume 15/1 U No. 19
June 2006


TAPIR SPECIALIST GROUP


Tapir Conservation


www.tapirspecialistgroup.org


Edited by Leonardo Salas and Stefan Seitz

m Third International Tapir Symposium Report
Human/Tapir
Conflicts


* A Tapir for Sale
on the Web


Srof Baird's Tapir in
Oaxaca, c --

-Ethioz6oloy of
Aniazonian Xapi.r.






2 THE NEWSLETTER OF THE IUCN/SSC TAPIR SPECIALIST GROUP


I CONTENSI


TAPI CONSERVATIO


Volume 15/1 U No. 19 E June 2006


From the Chair
Letter from the Chair


TSG Committee Reports
Marketing Committee and Website
Veterinary Committee
Human/Tapir Conflicts Working Group:
Preliminary Data and Further Investigations


Symposium Report 9
Third International Tapir Symposium
Buenos Aires, Argentina, 26-3 I January 2006 9

Project Updates 17
Preliminary Analysis of Footprints for
Lowland Tapir Identification 17
The TSG Library becomes Virtual 18

News from the Field 19
Rescuing Lucia -A Tapir for Sale on the Web 19

News in Brief 20
Brian Bovyer Raises $ 450 for Tapirs 20

Contributed Papers 21
Status and Conservation of Baird's Tapir in Oaxaca, Mexico 21
Ethnozoology of the Amazonian Tapir (Tapirus terrestris
Linnaeus 1758) in the Sarayaku Community, Ecuador 28
Manilkara zapota: A New Record of a Species
Dispersed by Tapirs 32
Etnozoologia de la Danta (Tapirus terrestris) enVenezuela 36

News in Brief 38
Endangered Species Research: A New Journal
Well Designed for IUCN SSC Specialist Groups 38

TSG Members 39

TSG Structure 43

Notes for Contributors 43

The views expressed in Tapir Conservation are those of the
authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the IUCN/SSC
Tapir Specialist Group or Houston Zoological Gardens. This
publication may be photocopied for private use only and the
copyright remains that of the Tapir Specialist Group. Copyright
for all photographs herein remains with the individual photo-
graphers.

Photo credits: Paulo Andre Lima Borges (p. I, large and
background photo, taken at Brasilia National Park in Brasilia,
Distrito Federal, Brasil), Gilia Angell (p. 5, ), Bill Konstant (p. 10
fig. 4, p. 16 fig. 19), Diego Lizcano (p. 9-16 fig. 1-3, 5-12, 18, 21),
Patricia Medici (p.4, p. 14-16 fig. 14-17, 20).


Abbreviation


ISSN


Editorial Board


Collaborators


Editors


Production
& Distribution



Website


Tapir Cons.


1813-2286


William Konstant
E-mail: bkonstant@houstonzoo.org

Leonardo Salas
E-mail: LeoASalas@netscape.net

Diego J. Lizcano
E-mail: dl36@ukc.ac.uk

Alan H. Shoemaker
E-mail: sshoe@mindspring.com

Matthew Colbert
E-mail: colbert@mail.utexas.edu

Anders Gongalves da Silva
E-mail: ag2057@columbia.edu

Angela Glatston
E-mail: a.glatston@rotterdamzoo.nl


Patricia Medici
E-mail: epmedici@uol.com.br; medici@ipe.org.br


Sheryl Todd
E-mail: tapir@tapirback.com


Leonardo Salas
LeoASalas@netscape.net

Stefan Seitz
tapirseitz@web.de

Kelly J. Russo
krusso@houstonzoo.org

Rick Barongi
rbarongi@houstonzoo.org


This issue is kindly sponsored by Houston Zoo
Inc., Cons. Program Asst., Kelly Russo, 1513 North
Mac Gregor, Houston,Texas 77030, USA.


www.tapirspecialistgroup.org


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 15/1 0 No. 19 0 June 2006






FROM THE CHAIR 3


FROM THE CHAIR



Letter from the Chair

By Patricia Medici


It feels as if it were only yesterday that we were hos-
ting the First Tapir Symposium in Costa Rica. As I
always say, that first conference was without any doubt
the moment when things started happening for the
Tapir Specialist Group. Tapir researchers and conser-
vationists from all over the world, with many different
backgrounds and institutional affiliations, and doing
many different types of research, had the opportunity to
meet each other in person, exchange their experiences,
and establish short- and long-term partnerships. After
the First Symposium our TSG members became a lot
more involved, and the group went through a process
of growth and improvement never before seen in the
history of the TSG.
The success of the First Symposium and the enthu-
siastic feedback we received from our participants led
us to believe that we should keep holding this confe-
rence on a regular basis, and as a consequence we held
the Second Symposium in 2004 in Panama, another
extremely successful meeting.
Earlier this year we all got together once again
for the Third International Tapir Symposium held
in Buenos Aires, Argentina, from January 26 to 31.
On behalf of the main organizers of our third confe-
rence, including the Tapir Specialist Group, Fundaci6n
Temaiken, Houston Zoo Inc., American Zoo and
Aquarium Association (AZA) Tapir Taxon Advisory
Group (TAG), and European Association of Zoos and
Aquaria (EAZA) Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG),
I would like to let you know that the conference was
another very successful event of the TSG, and another
landmark for our group!!! The Symposium counted
with 95 participants, including tapir conservationists
from 18 countries worldwide (Argentina, Bolivia,
Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica, Denmark,
Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Indonesia, Malaysia,
Mexico, Peru, Spain, United Kingdom, United States,
and Venezuela).
I will never have enough words to thank all the
organizations and people who helped us to turn this
Third Symposium into reality. The conference had
the financial and/or institutional support from over
70 conservation organizations worldwide, mostly
tapir holding zoological institutions in North America,
Europe, Latin America and Asia. (Please see my note
on the Symposium, where I include a complete list of


all our supporters). We could not be more grateful
for their contributions and, most importantly, their
confidence in the importance of this meeting.
During the entire process of the organization of this
conference, we had the full support from our major
partner on this challenge, the Fundaci6n Temaiken,
and for that I will always remain thankful. On behalf of
the TSG membership and all symposium participants,
I would like to thank the entire Temaiken staff for all
their assistance in making this the best Tapir Symposi-
um ever. It was a pleasure working with all these amaz-
ing people that make Temaiken such a special place.
Another partner in the organization of this confer-
ence was as always the Houston Zoo, and for the
support from these people including Rick Barongi,
Bill Konstant, Alberto Mendoza, Kelly Russo, and Jen
McLain I will always be grateful. We, the Tapir Spe-
cialist Group, are extremely lucky to have the Houston
Zoo working with us and contributing their time, ef-
forts and financial resources to make the TSG what it
is today.


FIWJN I l II I &EKOI
Fig. I. Entrance of the Temaiken Zoo in Escobar,
Buenos Aires,Argentina, the main partner of the TSG
on the organization of the Third International Tapir
Symposium. Photo credit: Temaiken.

An important event conducted during the symposi-
um was an auction to raise funds for the TSG Conser-
vation Fund (TSGCF). Attendees were asked to bring
typical items from their home countries to sell at the
silent and live auctions. We were able to raise US$
3,000, and these funds will be distributed in the form
of small grants to tapir field and captivity conservation
projects through a selective process to be conducted in
August 2006.
The last session of the conference was the TSG
Plans for Action 2006-2007 Workshop. The main
goal of this session was evaluate what the TSG has
accomplished over the past two years and carry out
a new strategic planning for the group, setting short-
term goals and actions for the next two years in order


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 15/1 0 No. 19 0 June 2006






4 FROM THE CHAIR


to be more effective in terms of tapir conservation
worldwide. Dr. Bengt Hoist, an active member of the
Tapir Specialist Group and Convener of the European
Network of the IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding
Specialist Group (CBSG), facilitated the workshop.
The final outcome of the TSG Plans for Action
Workshop was a list of thirty-two (32) priority goals
and one hundred and two (102) specific actions that
the TSG will put into practice over the next two years
(2006-2007) in order to reach the goals between now
and the Fourth International Tapir Symposium to be
held in April 2008. Long-term issues directly related


Fig. 2. Members of the planning committee of the
Third International Tapir Symposium. From left to
right:Alberto Mendoza, Manager of Latin American
Initiatives, Houston Zoo, USA; Guillermo Ruitti,Jefe de
Operaciones, Fundaci6n Temaiken,Argentina;Viviana
B. Quse, SeniorVeterinarian, Fundaci6n Temaiken,
Argentina; and Patricia Medici, Chair,TSG, Brazil.


to the conservation of the four tapir species and their
habitats were not addressed during this workshop,
but have been carefully discussed throughout the
process of revision and updating of the first edition of
the IUCN/SSC Tapir Status Survey and Conservation
Action Plan (Brooks et al. 1997), which is well under-
way. The final version of the TSG Plans for Action
2006-2007 is already available online in downloadable
format from the TSG Website and I would like to ask all
TSG members and symposium participants to please
review the document and let me know if you have any
questions, comments, suggestions, criticisms etc. This
document is extremely important for the TSG and will
guide our work over the next two years. We need our
entire membership to be familiar with our priority
goals and actions as a group. Additionally, I would
like to invite all of you to please get involved with our
activities, committees, taskforces and working groups,
and contribute as much as you can. Most importantly,
each of the 102 actions is attached to the name of a


person responsible for completing it and we do expect
that those named will step up to the task.
For further, detailed information about the con-
ference please refer to the Third International Tapir
Symposium Report included in this issue.

D during the conference in Buenos Aires we made
several changes to the TSG Membership. A few
members were removed from the group, mostly becau-
se of lack of participation in the group's activities, and
new members were added. We now have 104 members,
including field researchers, educators, veterinarians,
governmental agencies and NGO representatives, zoo
personnel, university professors and students, from
27 different countries worldwide: Argentina, Australia,
Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica,
Denmark, Ecuador, France, French Guiana, Germany,
Guatemala, Honduras, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico,
Myanmar, Republic of Panama, Paraguay, Peru,
Thailand, The Netherlands, United Kingdom, United
States, and Venezuela.
Additionally, we made several changes in our TSG
Structure. We launched our Ethics Committee, which
comprises five TSG members who have kindly made
themselves available, should the need for this com-
mittee arise because of inappropriate behavior by
or amongst TSG members. Of course, we hope this
committee will never be needed; but it is better to be
prepared. We have replaced a few TSG officers: Diego
J. Lizcano from the Pamplona University in Colombia,
is our new Species Coordinator for Mountain Tapir;
Viviana B. Quse, Senior Veterinarian at the Temaiken
Foundation in Argentina, is our new Coordinator for
the TSG Zoo Committee; and Veterinarian Javier
Adolfo Sarria from Colombia is our new Coordinator
for the TSG Veterinary Committee.
Three Taskforces (Action Planning Implementation
Taskforce; Re-Introduction/Translocation Taskforce;
and Confiscated Tapirs Taskforce), and two Working
Groups (Human/Tapir Conflict Working Group, and
Malay Tapir Working Group) were created to deal with
specific tapir conservation issues.
The Action Planning Implementation taskforce will
be working hand-in-hand with the TSG Action Planning
Committee. It includes all TSG Species Coordinators
and a few other TSG members who will be responsible
for guaranteeing that the new TSG Action Plans pro-
duced through the PHVA Workshops will be constantly
reviewed and the actions fully implemented.
The Re-Introduction/Translocation taskforce is
formed by a small group of TSG members and will
be working in coordination with the IUCN/SSC Re-
Introduction Specialist Group (RSG) on the deve-
lopment of tapir re-introduction and translocation
guidelines. These guidelines with follow the format of
those developed for non-human primates and African


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 15/1 0 No. 19 0 June 2006






FROM THE CHAIR 5


Fig. 3. Group picture of participants of the Third International Tapir Symposium.


elephants and will eventually be available from the
websites of both the TSG and RSG websites.
The Confiscated Tapirs taskforce will be working
on the development of TSG guidelines for local wildlife
authorities to make the best decisions with regards to
confiscated tapirs. As more and more tapir habitat
is encroached upon by local populations and inter-
national development, there will, no doubt, be more
situations where the Tapir Specialist Group and local
zoo and field biologists will be asked to assist in the
confiscation and disposition of tapirs. See for example
the article on the confiscated tapir "Lucia" in this issue
of the TCN.
The Human/Tapir Conflict Working Group will be
addressing the human/tapir conflict issue where it
appears to be a significant problem. The first task of
this group will be the development of a standard ques-
tionnaire to assess the perceived levels of crop raiding
by tapirs in countries where it occurs.
The Malay Tapir Working Group was set up due to
concern being expressed about the ongoing problem
of the lack of research being conducted on the species
over its range and the difficulties experienced in obtai-
ning funding. The group consists of TSG members
and officers currently based in Asia. The group will
attempt to encourage researchers, conservation organi-
zations, governmental institutions, and donors, to turn
their attention to this endangered species.
The updated versions of both our TSG Membership
and TSG Structure directories are included in this
issue. Please review your name, title and details and
let us know if these must be updated.


An important announcement in this issue is the
launching of the TSG Virtual Library (TSGVL).
This is the brainchild of our TSG member Harald
Beck (Assistant Professor & Curator of the Mammal
Museum of the Department of Biological Sciences,
Towson University, USA), who hence becomes our
Virtual Library Manager. Harald has been working
on this project for almost one year and it is fantastic
news that most of the published works on tapirs will
be available in one website ours!! I know of no other
species or group of species that has all bibliographic
references compiled and available in one site. So, this
is not just a very useful website, but also pioneering
conservation work! I am thoroughly excited about the
TSGVL, as I am certain it will help many of us achieve
our conservation and research goals. Harald makes a
call to all of us to assist in completing and maintaining
the TSGVL updated. Speaking on behalf of all of us
members of the TSG, I would like to thank Harald for
this amazing achievement. It is now up to us to use it
to its full worth and keep it updated.
Also, I would like to take this opportunity to
announce that the "Lowland Tapir Conservation
Workshop: Population and Habitat Viability Assessment
(PHVA)", our last action planning workshop, will be
held in April 2007 in Sorocaba, Sgo Paulo State,
Brazil. The main organizers of this workshop will
be the TSG, Sorocaba Zoo in Brazil, Houston Zoo in
the United States, Brazilian Network of the IUCN/SSC
Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG), and
AZA and EAZA Tapir Taxon Advisory Groups (TAGs).
We are already actively working on the organization


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 15/1 0 No. 19 0 June 2006






FROM THE CHAIR 0 TSG COMMITTEE


and fundraising for this meeting, which will include
participants from all the lowland tapir range coun-
tries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador,
French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname and
Venezuela). We will make sure to keep you all posted
about the organization of our last PHVA Workshop.
Last but not least, we would like to remind you that
the new, updated versions of the Malay, Mountain and
Baird's tapirs Action Plans are available for download
on the TSG Website. The Mountain Tapir and Baird's
Tapir Action Plans are only available in Spanish, and
we are currently looking for volunteers to translate the
documents into English.


Patricia Medici
M.Sc.Wildlife Ecology, Conservation and Management
Research Coordinator, IPE Instituto de Pesquisas Ecol6gicas
(Institute for Ecological Research)
Ph.D. Candidate, Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology
(DICE), University of Kent, United Kingdom
Chair, IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group (TSG)
Convener, IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG)
- Brasil Network
Avenida Perdizes, 285,Vila Sao Paulo,Teodoro Sampaio
CEP: 19280-000, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Phone & Fax: +55-18-3282-4690
Cell Phone: +55-18-8119-3839
E-mail: epmedici@uol.com.br; medici@ipe.org.br


TSG COMMITTEE REPORTS




Marketing Committee

and Website

By Gilia Angell


The TSG Marketing Committee met in person at the
Third International Tapir Symposium. Together,
individuals from Colombia, Argentina, Ecuador and
the United States created new marketing goals for the
next two-year time frame. It became evident that the
TSG website needs to reach a broader Latin American
audience. Juliana Rodriguez of Colombia graciously
accepted my invitation to be co-coordinator with me,
and to manage the Spanish language projects. Thank
you Juliana!
Some of the Marketing Committee's short term
goals are shown in the following table:


Action Purpose Tools / Method
To create broader,
more accessible Posting on web-
Create a more more accessible site, distribution
materials for media
formal press kit for materials for media of electronic
media bodies to organizations copies via our
use; this includes FTP server or
pictures, informati- To offer support to disc, adding pho-
TSG members
on blurbs etc. tos submitted to
wishing to
wroah mdia photo collection
approach media
e Increase acces- Translation of key
Create
language sibility to Latin pages on the site
TSpanish-lanr e American by committee
TSG mirror site
audiences members
With the
TSG Education
Committee, create Information about
a CD-ROM to dis- tapirs easier to
tribute to country understand and
coordinators and more accessible
in-situ/ex-situ edu-
cational efforts
Response to a
demand from web Collection of
Collection of
users for kids materials and
materials and
Create a children's materials, the need ideas from TSG
ideas from TSG
page for the TSG to share materials
members that
site in Spanish and amongTSG mem- they have used
they have used
English bers, and a desire in the field when
in the field when
to reach the ,,next w g wh
S working with kids
generation of
conservationists"
2005 proved to UsingTSG mar-
be a lucrative year keting materials,
both in tapir awa- approach media
more tapir reness and in the organizations,
Secure more tapir
ea cee funding support pitch stories and
those media place- spread a con-
ments generated. sistent message
This motivated about tapir con-
new placements servation

(Additional goals from the TSG Symposium will be posted
in the Symposium Report. If you'd like to see the complete
Marketing list, please contact gilia angell@hearthlink.net)

As you can see from the list above, increased media
coverage of tapirs and the work of TSG is a paramount
priority. For all media coverage it is important that
the TSG message about tapirs is consistent. Carlos
Pedraza from Colombia has translated our press kit
into Spanish; it now resides on the Downloads page
on the TSG site. Our press kit should help all TSG
members explain what the TSG does in simple terms.


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 15/1 0 No. 19 0 June 2006


REPORTS






TSG COMMITTEE REPORTS 7


Feel free to distribute the press kit along with any other
information you share with the media.
As mentioned in the December 2005 Tapir
Conservation Newsletter, author Jeffery Masson
agreed to include a chapter on tapirs in his upcoming
book Jeffery Masson's 100 Favorite Animals. A photo
of a wild tapir by TSG member Gilia Angell will accom-
pany the chapter. The book is slated for publication
late 2006.
Please join us in helping to achieve increased
tapir awareness/tapir world domination! We welcome
any comments or materials. Please email Gilia Angell
(gilia_angell@earthlink.net) or Juliana Rodriguez
(mjuli2 @gmail.com).



Website Report

More materials and technology have been added and/or
is in the works for our site, including the achievements
listed below:

* TSG now has an FTP site for large file transfers!
* The site will host the first-of-its-kind virtual library
of tapir articles!
* The new Tapir Photo Collection an online resour-
ce for media and potential fundraising via photo
usage fees. We are always accepting your best pic-
tures to add to the collection.
* Spanish version of the Homepage launched by June
2006.
* Four committee pages posted and updated
(Veterinary, Genetics, Marketing & Zoo) Got a
committee? We need your info!
* Continued aesthetic and navigational improve-
ments to the website

Please contact Gilia Angell (giliaangell@earthlink.net)
with any comments or content for the site. I am always
willing to build your pages for you, if you give me words
and photos.

Thanks.


Gilia Angell
Designer, Amazon.com
Marketing Committee Coordinator,
IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group (TSG)
Webmaster, IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group (TSG),
www.tapirspecialistgroup.org
270 Dorffel Drive East, Seattle,Washington 98112, United States
Phone: + 1-206-266-2613; + 1-206-568-1655
Fax: + 1-206-266-1822
E-mail: giliaangell@earthlink.net


Veterinary

Committee

By Javier Sarria


Softer a recess, the TSG Veterinary Committee has
restarted its activities providing support to zoo and
field veterinarians facing tapir health matters and also
with new projects and activities, all focused onto bring
technical and scientific support to veterinarians and
other researchers working with tapirs, and the impro-
vement of tapir veterinary science.

The Committee will focus its efforts in:
* The creation of manuals for zoo and field professi-
onals:
The Tapir Necropsy Protocol and the Tapir
Disease Manual compiling information about
diseases that affect tapirs in captivity and in
the wild, sampling protocols and anesthesia
protocols, have been written and are under
revision.
* The re-design and improvement of the TSG
Veterinary Committee webpage, in order to provide
basic information about physiologic and anatomic
features to veterinarians and other researchers
working with tapirs.
The information of tapir normal parameters
from Med ARKS database has been kindly com-
piled and provided by Dr. Sonia Hernandez-
Divers, and the compilation on tapir anatomic
features is under development.
* To stimulate the creation of new research lines in
tapir medicine:
Contacts with specialists in wildlife andrology
have been established in order to develop tech-
niques for the semen collection in tapirs.
Contacts with pathologists will be established
in order to start research activities on the most
important diseases affecting tapirs.

For further information, feel free to keep in contact
with the TSG Vet Committee coordinator: Javier Sarria
(jasarrip @yahoo.com).


Javier Adolfo Sarria Perea
D.V.M. M.Sc. Genetics & Animal Improvement
Coordinator,Veterinary Committee,
IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group (TSG)
Cra 58A, No. 74 A-3 Interior 3,Apartamento 102, Bogota, Colombia
Phone: +57-1-250-8020
E-mail: jasarrip@yahoo.com


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 15/1 0 No. 19 0 June 2006






8 TSG COMMITTEE REPORTS


Human/Tapir Conflicts

Working Group

Preliminary Data and
Further Investigations

By Sidn S. Waters, Silvia Chalukian &
Diego Lizcano


Human/wildlife conflicts have been identified by
conservation organizations as one of the most
important threats to wildlife in this century. Most
studies of the problem have taken place in Africa,
where it has reached epidemic proportions and often
causes loss of both human and animal life.

The possibility that human/tapir conflicts might be
a threat to tapirs was brought up during the Baird's
Tapir PHVA Workshop held in Belize in August 2005.
Eight tapir skeletons had been found in a protected
area in Belize. These animals had been shot whilst
feeding from mammey apple trees (Mammea ameri-
cana). It appeared that paca also feed from the fallen
fruit of this particular tree and are shot for food (0.
Ulloa, personal communication; H. Wohlers, personal
communication). It is unclear whether the tapir meat
is utilized and/or whether the animals are killed merely
because they compete for the fruit with the favored prey
item, which is the paca. The extent of HTC in Belize will
be a focus for further research during a forthcoming
survey of Baird's tapir, Yucatan spider monkey and
black howler monkey that is being undertaken in col-
laboration with the Belize Department of Forestry.

Documented information regarding HTC was avai-
lable for the mountain tapir in Colombia, where tapirs
raided potato crops of subsistence farmers (Diego
Lizcano, personal communication), and for an extre-
me incident where both crop raiding lowland tapir
and avenging farmer lost their lives in Brazil (Haddad
et al. 2005). Requests for information from TSG
members prior to the workshop yielded further data
and prompted for more research. The problem also
exists in Sumatra, Indonesia, although its extent is still
unknown (Wilson Novarino, personal communication;
Deborah Martyr, personal communication), and there
have also been reports of incidents in Chiapas, Mexico
(Epigmenio Cruz Aldan, personal communication) and
in Costa Rica (Fabricio Carbonnel, in. litt.).

A workshop in human/tapir conflicts was held at
the recent Third International Tapir Symposium in
Argentina, in an initial attempt to assess if conflict with


humans was a potential threat to tapir conservation
over their range. The conflicts were expected to be
related to crop raiding tapirs and their retributive
killing, and this was indeed the case.

The occurrence of human/tapir conflict was dee-
med to be of significant concern for tapir conservation
to warrant further investigation. To this end, a TSG
Working Group was formed in order to coordinate
further work on this subject and to develop a standar-
dized questionnaire to be used in initial assessments
of local inhabitants' perceptions of the extent of the
problem. Further work will focus on developing ways
of mitigating the conflict using simple, inexpensive
but efficient methods of keeping tapirs out of crops.
The members of the Human/Tapir Working Group
are: Silvia Chalukian (Argentina), Epigmenio Cruz
Aldan (Mexico), Diego Lizcano (Colombia), Wilson
Novarino (Sumatra), Leonardo Salas (Venezuela/PNG),
Oscar Ulloa (Belize) and Sian Waters (UK Group
Coordinator).



Acknowledgements

Many thanks to TSG members Humberto Wohlers
& Oscar Ulloa, (Belize), Debbie Martyr & Wilson
Novarino (Indonesia), Fabricio Carbonnel (Costa Rica),
Epigmenio Cruz Aldan (Mexico) and Viviana Quse,
(Argentina) for sharing their information with us.
Thanks to Patricia Medici for encouraging us to hold
the workshop.



References

Haddad, V., Chaga Assuncao, M., Coelho de Mello, R., &
Ribeiro Duarte, M. 2005. A fatal attack caused by a
lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) in southeastern Brazil.
Wilderness and Environmental Medicine 16:97-100.
Suarez, J. A. & Lizcano, D. J. 2002. Conflict between
mountain tapirs (Tapirus pinchaque) and farmers in the
Colombian Central Andes. Tapir Cons. 11 (20:18-20


Siin S.Waters
BA, M.Phil. Conservation Zoologist
E-mail: sian s waters@hotmail.com

Silvia Chalukian
M.Sc. Proyecto de Investigaci6n y Conservaci6n
del Tapir Noroeste Argentina
E-mail: silviach@uolsinectis.com.ar

Diego Lizcano
Ph.D. Universidad de Pamplona
E-mail: dl36@ukc.ac.uk


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 15/1 0 No. 19 0 June 2006






SYMPOSIUM REPORT 9


SYMPOSIUM REPORT



Third International

Tapir Symposium


Buenos Aires, Argentina,
26-3 I January 2006

By Patricia Medici &Alberto Mendoza


The main purpose of the International Tapir Sym-
posium is to bring together a multi-faceted group
of tapir experts and conservationists, including field
biologists and researchers, educators, husbandry and
captive management specialists, veterinarians, govern-
ment authorities and non-governmental organization
representatives, academicians, politicians, and other
key players in the
TAPIR SYMPOSIUM development and im-
AI plementation of tapir
conservation and man-
agement programs. To
this end, participants
conduct overview of
current tapir research
(in-situ and ex-situ),
conservation and
management issues,
2006 ARGENTINA thereby generating the
necessary informa-
tion to promote action
planning in terms of priorities for tapir conservation in
Central and South America, and Southeast Asia. Also,
this conference aims to establish conservation partner-
ships, and develop and maintain a communication
network of tapir conservationists worldwide that would
facilitate the completion of conference recommenda-
tions and their evaluated in future meetings.
The First International Tapir Symposium was held
in November 2001, in Costa Rica, and attracted 95
participants from 22 countries, proving to be a major
boost for tapir conservation. Never before had there
been so many tapir experts and conservationists,
key players in the development of tapir conservation
programs, assembled under one roof to share know-
ledge and address the challenges ahead. In all, 48
papers and 9 posters were presented. The Second
International Tapir Symposium was held in January
2004, in Panama, and attracted 80 participants, inclu-
ding tapir conservationists from 19 countries. At that


Fig. I. Keynote SpeakerAlan H. Shoemaker, Permit
Advisor of the AZA Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)
andTSG Red List Authority.


,r RNACIONAL DETM
qJ JM


Fig. 2. Keynote Speaker Leonardo Salas, Population
Biologist with Wildlife Conservation Society Papua
New Guinea, and Editor of the Tapir Conservation
Newsletter.


Fig. 3. Keynote Speaker Matthew Colbert, Associate
Researcher with the Texas University at Austin, United
States, and TSG Evolution Consultant.


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 15/1 0 No. 19 0 June 2006






10 SYMPOSIUM REPORT


Fig. 4. Leonardo Salas and Keynote Speaker Dom
Alvaro Ovidio Paya, Governor of the Cabildo Indigena
de Gaitania of the NassaWesh indigenous people in
Tolima, Colombia.


Fig. 5. MalayTapir Paper Session. PresenterWilson
Novarino, Professor,Andalas University, Indonesia, and
TSG Country Coordinator for Indonesia.


Fig. 6. Baird'sTapir Paper Session. Presenter Eduardo
Naranajo, Professor & Researcher, El Colegio de la
Frontera Sur, Mexico, and TSG Coordinator for Baird's
Tapir.


meeting, 28 papers and 21 posters were presented.
The final session of the Second Symposium consisted
of a strategic planning workshop which developed a
list of 27 priority goals and 55 specific actions that the
TSG should put into practice during 2004 and 2005.
The Third International Tapir Symposium was
held in Buenos Aires, Argentina, from January 26
to 31, 2006. This was yet another very successful
meeting of the TSG. We counted with 95 participants,
including tapir conservationists from 18 countries
worldwide (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada,
Colombia, Costa Rica, Denmark, Ecuador, Guatemala,
Honduras, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Peru, Spain,
United Kingdom, United States, and Venezuela).
Approximately 50% of the Tapir Specialist Group
members attended the conference; therefore the group
was very well represented. Tapir experts from many
different backgrounds and institutional affiliations,
and who are carrying out a variety of research projects
had the opportunity to attend, meet each other in
person, exchange ideas and experiences, and establish
partnerships.

The first part of the conference consisted of paper
and poster sessions covering a wide range of issues
relevant to tapir conservation, such as tapir ecology,
field research, population management, threat assess-
ments, husbandry and captive management, veterinary
issues, genetics, implementation of action plans, habi-
tat evaluations, research methodologies, identification
of priority areas for tapir conservation, Geographical
Information Systems (GIS), environmental education
etc. Paper sessions were organized by species and
each speaker had 15 minutes for their presentations
and 5 minutes for questions. Presentations were
made in either English or Spanish and simultaneous
translation was available throughout the conference.
In total, 16 papers were presented: three in the Malay
Tapir Session, three in the Baird's Tapir Session,
three in the Mountain Tapir Session, and seven in the
Lowland Tapir Session. Twenty-three posters were
exhibited throughout the first three days of the con-
ference and presenters were on hand to discuss their
respective posters during the coffee breaks. Ten were
about lowland tapirs, two about Malay tapirs, six about
mountain tapirs, three about Baird's tapirs, and two
involving more than one species of tapir.
Four keynote speakers made presentations throug-
hout the conference. Alan Shoemaker from the United
States, Red List Authority for the Tapir Specialist
Group and Permit Advisor for the AZA Tapir Taxon
Advisory Group (TAG), was the first keynote speaker
of the conference and presented an overview of his
involvement with tapir conservation and the TSG, as
well as the importance of the group's activities in terms
of developing an updated action plan for tapirs. Don


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 15/1 0 No. 19 0 June 2006






SYMPOSIUM REPORT 11


Alvaro Ovidio Paya, governor of the Cabildo Indigena
de Gaitania of the Nassa Wesh indigenous people in
Tolima, Colombia, made a very inspiring presentation
about the view of this community on the conservati-
on of the mountain tapir in the region. Dr. Matthew
Colbert with the University of Texas, United States,
gave a speech about how to understand and inter-
pret tapirs in fossil records. Population biologist Dr.
Leonardo Salas, with Wildlife Conservation Society
- Papua New Guinea, made a presentation about tech-
niques for tapir population monitoring, discussing the
needs, tools and challenges involved in the use of these
methods.
Another session conducted in the first part of
the conference was the TSG Committees Reports
Session. Sian S. Waters, Former Coordinator of the
TSG Zoo Committee; Anders Goncalves da Silva,
Coordinator of the TSG Genetics Committee; Gilia
Angell, Coordinator of the TSG Marketing Committee,
and TSG Webmaster; and Kelly Russo, Coordinator
of the TSG Education & Outreach Committee, gave
reports about the work of those committees during the
past two years. Patricia Medici, Coordinator of both
the TSG Fundraising and Action Planning Committees
gave reports about the accomplishments of these com-
mittees during the Fundraising and Action Planning for
Tapir Conservation workshops.

The second part of the conference was devoted
to workshops addressing specific topics rele-
vant to the conservation of the four tapir species
and their remaining habitats in Central and South
America, and Southeast Asia: (1) Action Planning for
Tapir Conservation, (2) Fundraising, (3) Confiscated
Tapirs, (4) Tapir Re-Introduction and Translocation,
(5) Human/Tapir Conflicts, and (6) Tapir Husbandry
and Captive Management in Latin America.
The Action Planning for Tapir Conservation
Workshop included presentations about the many
action planning initiatives being currently carried out
by the Tapir Specialist Group. Patricia Medici, Chair of
the TSG and Coordinator of the TSG Action Planning
Committee, gave a complete report about the activities
of the committee over the past two years (2004 and
2005), including two PHVA workshops (mountain and
Baird's tapirs), and support for the development of the
National Action Plans. Diego J. Lizcano from Colombia,
TSG Coordinator for Mountain Tapir, made a presenta-
tion about the Mountain Tapir PHVA Workshop held in
Colombia in 2004, and provided the participants with
an overview of the outcomes of the meeting. Andrew
Taber, Executive Vice President for Programs of the
Wildlife Trust in the United States, gave a speech about
the preliminary results of a range-wide status analysis
that is currently being conducted for lowland tapirs.
Damian Rumiz, with Wildlife Conservation Society


Fig. 7. Lowland Tapir Paper Session. Presenter Patricia
Medici, Research Coordinator, IPE Instituto de
Pesquisas Ecol6gicas, Brazil, and TSG Chair.


.. -_ _


Fig. 8. Poster presenter Elliot Handrus, MountainView
Conservation Society, and TSG Member.


Fig. 9. Poster presenter Carlos Fernandez, Grupo
Ecol6gico Defensores de la Naturaleza, Palomino,
Colombia.


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 15/1 0 No. 19 0 June 2006






12 SYMPOSIUM REPORT


ORGANIZERS

IUCN Species Survival Commission (SSC)
Tapir Specialist Group (TSG)
Fundaci6n Temaiken, Argentina
Houston Zoo Inc., United States






TAPIR SPECALIS-TGROUP TK .

WLD

INSTITUTIONAL SUPPORT

American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA)
Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)
European Association of Zoos and Aquaria (EAZA)
Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)
Fundaci6n Temaiken, Argentina
Houston Zoo Inc., United States
Copenhagen Zoo, Denmark
IPE Institute for Ecological Research, Brazil


A.'BIJWKA Zo Av Am %in-i AypCnflw


TWMAIWKN




4B


CIPEAHAGEN


FINANCIAL SUPPORT

Albuquerque Zoo, United States
Alexandria Zoological Park, United States
American Association of Zoo Keepers (AAZK),
Central Illinois Chapter, United States
American Association of Zoo Keepers (AAZK),
El Paso del Norte Chapter, United States
American Association of Zoo Keepers (AAZK),
Houston Chapter, United States
American Association of Zoo Keepers (AAZK),
Minnesota Chapter, United States
American Association of Zoo Keepers (AAZK),
New England Chapter, United States
American Association of Zoo Keepers (AAZK),
Puget Sound Chapter, United States
Brevard Zoo, United States


Brookfield Zoo, Chicago Board of Trade Conservation Group,
United States
Cali Zoological Foundation, Colombia
Chester Zoo, North of England Zoological Society,
United Kingdom
Cheyenne Mountain Zoo, United States
Commonwealth Zoological Corporation (Franklin Park Zoo),
United States
Commonwealth Zoological Corporation (New England Zoo),
United States
Connecticut's Beardsley Zoo Conservation Fund,
United States
Continental Airlines, United States
Copenhagen Zoo, Denmark
Cotswold Wildlife Park, United Kingdom
Denver Zoological Foundation, United States
Department of Wildlife and National Parks, Malaysia
DisneyWildlife Conservation Fund, United States
El Colegio de la Frontera Sur (ECOSUR), Mexico
El Nispero Zoo, Republic of Panama
Fundaci6n Temaiken, Argentina
HenryVilas Zoo, United States
Houston Zoo Inc., United States
Institute de Historia Natural y Ecologia (IHNE), Mexico
Institute de Investigaci6n en Recursos Biol6gicos
"Alexander von Humboldt", Colombia
IPE Instituto de Pesquisas Ecol6gicas, Brazil
Jackson Zoological Park, United States
Jacksonville Zoo and Gardens, United States
Kyiv Zoo, Ukraine
Le6n Zoo, Mexico
Lisieux CERZA, France
Los Angeles Zoo, United States
Louisiana Purchase Gardens & Zoo, United States
Mesker Park Zoo, United States
Mountain View Conservation & Breeding Center, Canada
Nashville Zoo at Grassmere, United States
Omaha Zoological Society, Henry Doorly Zoo, United States
Palm Beach Zoo at Dreher Park, United States
Parc Zoologique d'Amn6ville, France
Parc Zoologiqu6 de Lille, France
Reid Park Zoo, United States
Rotterdam Zoo,The Netherlands
San Diego Zoo, United States
San Francisco Zoo, United States
Santa Ana Zoo, United States
Sedgwick County Zoo, United States
Singapore Zoological Gardens, Singapore
Ueno & Tama Zoological Gardens,
Tokyo Zoo Conservation Fund, Japan
Universidad Nacional de Colombia (UNAL), Colombia
Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala, Guatemala
Virginia Zoological Gardens, United States
White Oak Conservation Center, United States
Wildlife Conservation Society Papua New Guinea
WildlifeWorld Zoo Inc., United States
Woodland Park Zoo, United States
World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA), Switzerland
Zlin Zoo, Poland
Zoo Conservation Outreach Group (ZCOG), United States
Zool6gico "Miguel Alvarez del Toro" (ZOOMAT), Mexico


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 15/1 0 No. 19 0 June 2006


~i~lF~






SYMPOSIUM REPORT 13


(WCS) Bolivia, made a presentation about the perspec-
tives for the conservation of lowland tapirs in Bolivia.
TSG Country Coordinators attending the conference
made presentations about their progress on the deve-
lopment of National Action Plans for Tapir Conservation
in their respective countries. The countries represen-
ted were: Argentina (Silvia Chalukian), Brazil (Patricia
Medici), Colombia (Olga L. Montenegro), Ecuador
(Leonardo Ordofiez Delgado & Fernando Nogales),
Guatemala (Manolo Garcia on behalf of TSG Country
Coordinator Jos6 Roberto Ruiz Fuamagalli), Honduras
(Nereyda Estrada Andino), Mexico (Epigmenio Cruz
Aldan), Peru (Jessica Amanzo & Diego Lizcano on
behalf of TSG Country Co-Coordinator Richard E.
Bodmer), and Indonesia (Wilson Novarino).
The Fundraising Workshop included presenta-
tions about the TSG initiatives to raise funds for its
own activities, as well as for field projects. Patricia
Medici, Chair of the TSG and Coordinator of the TSG
Fundraising Committee, gave a detailed report about
the activities of the committee over the past two years
(2004 and 2005), including raising funds for the TSG
meetings such as the PHVA workshops and symposi-
um, as well as the committee's role in terms of assisting
tapir researchers on identifying potential donors for
their work. William Konstant, Director of Conservation
and Science of the Houston Zoo Inc., and Deputy-Chair
of the TSG, made a presentation including a complete
overview of the TSG's fundraising success over the past
years, and the partnerships the group has been able to
establish with zoological institutions worldwide. Diego
Lizcano, from the University of Pamplona in Colombia,
gave a speech about the potential competition between
the four tapir species and large, charismatic carnivores
for funding.
The Confiscated Tapirs Workshop, organized by
Rick Barongi, Director of the Houston Zoo Inc. in the
United States, promoted the discussion about tapir
confiscations addressing the complex issue of wildlife
protection in range countries. This workshop pro-
posed the development of TSG guidelines for local
wildlife authorities to make the best decisions with
regards to confiscated tapirs. As more and more tapir
habitat is encroached upon by local populations and
international development, there will, no doubt, be
more situations where the Tapir Specialist Group and
local zoo and field biologists will be asked to assist in
the confiscation and disposition of tapirs. To initiate
the discussions, two recent case studies of confiscated
tapirs in Colombia and Panama were reviewed, as well
as the different strategies and rationales involved in
each case.
The Tapir Re-Introduction and Translocation
Workshop was organized by Sian Waters, TSG Deputy-
Chair, and its main goal was to initiate the process of
developing re-introduction and translocation guide-


Fig. 10. Workshop Confiscated Tapirs. Presenter Rick
Barongi, Director, Houston Zoo, United States, and
TSG Member.


Fig. I I. Workshop Tapir Re-Introductions and
Translocations. Participant Juan Pablo Julia, Reserva
Experimental Horco Molle,Argentina, and TSG
Member.


Fig. 12. TSG Committees Reports. Presenter Gilia
Angell, Coordinator,TSG Marketing Committee &
Website.


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 15/1 0 No. 19 0 June 2006






14 SYMPOSIUM REPORT


Fig. 13. TSG Plans forAction 2006-2007Workshop.
Working Groups.


on behalf of Guillermo Nicolossi about the impact of
irrigated plantations of sugar cane and citrus fruit on
lowland tapirs, again in Argentina. Wilson Novarino
from the Andalas University in Sumatra, Indonesia,
gave a speech about the conflict between subsistence
farmers and Malay tapirs in Indonesia.
The Tapir Husbandry and Captive Management in
Latin America Workshop was organized by Viviana B.
Quse, Senior Veterinarian of the Fundaci6n Temaiken
in Argentina, and Alberto Mendoza with the Houston
Zoo Inc. in the United States. Alberto Mendoza gave a
speech addressing tapir captive management through-
out Latin America. Viviana Quse made a presentation
about the same topic, but focusing on Argentinean zoo-
logical institutions. Pedro Aguilar from the Zool6gico
Miguel Alvarez del Toro (ZooMat) in Mexico made a
presentation about tapir husbandry at his institution.

The last session of the conference was the TSG
Plans for Action 2006-2007 Workshop. The main
objective of this session was to carry out a strategic
planning for the Tapir Specialist Group, and set short-
term goals and actions that the group will be underta-
king over the next two years (2006-2007) in order to
be more effective in terms of tapir conservation world-
wide. Dr. Bengt Hoist, Member of the Tapir Specialist
Group and Convener of European Network of the
IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group
(CBSG) facilitated the workshop.
Initially, conference participants were asked to
prepare a list of five (5) issues they believed the TSG
should be addressing as a group over the next two
years. Participants were requested to ask themselves
"What issues should the TSG address in order to be


Fig. 14. TSG Plans forAction 2006-2007Workshop.
Prioritization of goals.


lines for tapirs in collaboration with the IUCN/SSC
Re-Introduction Specialist Group (RSG). Sian Waters
gave a brief introduction to the IUCN RSG Guidelines
for Non-Human Primate Re-Introductions, the poten-
tial need for actual tapir management was discussed,
and a Taskforce made up of TSG members was created
with the responsibility of developing the guidelines.
The Human/Tapir Conflict Workshop was also orga-
nized by Sian Waters, TSG Deputy-Chair, and included
presentations about human/tapir conflict case studies
in Argentina, Colombia and Indonesia. Sian Waters
gave a general overview about human/wildlife conflict
issues. Diego Lizcano, from the University of Pamplona
in Colombia, made a presentation about the conflict
between humans and mountain tapirs in the Andes of
Colombia. Silvia Chalukian made a first presentati-
on about the impact of cattle on lowland tapirs in the
Yungas Forest in Argentina, and a second presentation


Fig. 15.
TSG Plans
for Action
2006-2007
Workshop.
Prioritization
of goals.


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 15/1 0 No. 19 0 June 2006






SYMPOSIUM REPORT 15


more effective in terms of tapir conservation?" The
workshop facilitator reviewed the lists of issues pre-
pared by the symposium participants and defined the
workshop dynamics. Six (6) different working group
topics were identified based on the issues suggested
earlier: 1.) Research and Technical Guidelines; 2.)
In-Situ Conservation (Population and Habitat); 3.) Ex-
Situ Management; 4.) Marketing & Education / Public
Awareness; 5.) Fundraising; and 6.) Action Planning for
Tapir Conservation.
As a first step, each working group was given the
tasks of reviewing the issues and developing short-term
goals for TSG activities related to the main topics they
were covering. The goals identified by each one of the
working groups during these initial deliberations were
presented in a plenary session, to guarantee everyone
had an opportunity to contribute to the work of the
other groups, and to ensure that issues and goals were
carefully reviewed and discussed by the group. Once
all the identified goals were presented, each participant
was asked to rank them in order of priority. The work-
shop facilitator then compiled the individual scores in
order to obtain a group prioritization of TSG goals. As
a second step, all working groups re-assembled and
were then asked to develop a list of specific actions
that TSG needs to take in order to reach these higher-
priority goals. For each one of the actions, a deadline,
an estimated cost, a person to be responsible for its
achievement, potential collaborators, and indicators of
success were established.
The final outcome of the TSG Plans for Action
Workshop was a list of 32 priority goals and 102 spe-
cific actions that the TSG will put into practice over
the next two years (2006-2007) in order to reach the
goals between now and the Fourth International Tapir
Symposium to be held in April 2008.
The final version of the TSG Plans for Action
2006-2007 is available online in downloadable
format from the TSG Website. Please read it
carefully. We expect that, if you are named as
responsible for completing one of the actions, you
will step up to the task!
Another event conducted during the symposium
was an auction to raise funds for the TSG Conservation
Fund (TSGCF). Attendees were asked to bring typical
items from their home countries to sell at the silent
and live auctions. William Konstant with the Houston
Zoo Inc., United States, and Deputy-Chair of the TSG,
with the help of Gilia Angell with Amazon.com, United
States, and Kelly Russo and Jennifer McLain with the
Houston Zoo Inc., kindly organized and conducted the
auction and the symposium raised US$ 3,000 for the
TSGCF
The main organizers of the conference were the
Tapir Specialist Group (TSG), Houston Zoo in the
United States, and Fundaci6n Temaiken in Argentina.


Fig. 16. Live Auctions. Bill Konstant, Director of
Conservation and Science of the Houston Zoo, United
States, and TSG Deputy-Chair Our auctioneer in
Buenos Aires!


Fig. 17. Silent Auctions. Participants donated typical
handcrafts from their countries and these were auctio-
ned to raise funds for the TSG Conservation Fund.


Fig. 18. Participants of the Third International Tapir
Symposium had an entire morning to explore the
Temaiken Zoo and the Conservation and Reproduction
Center (CRET).


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 15/1 0 No. 19 0 June 2006






16 SYMPOSIUM REPORT


Fig. 19. Houston Zoo staff during visit to the CRET.
From right to left: Jennifer McLain, Rick Barongi, Don
Kendall, Kelly Russo, and Bill Konstant.


Fig. 20. Temaiken staff during barbecue offered by the
Fundaci6n Temaiken to symposium participants in the
last day of the conference.


Fig. 21. Typical gaucho dancers performed for symposi-
um participants in the last day of the conference.


The institutional supporters that collaborated with the
organization were the Copenhagen Zoo in Denmark,
American Zoo & Aquarium Association (AZA)
Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG), and European
Association of Zoos and Aquaria (EAZA) Tapir Taxon
Advisory Group (TAG). To all of them we want to
extend our very warmest thanks.
We also had the financial and/or institutional sup-
port from over 70 conservation organizations from
around the globe, mostly tapir holding zoological insti-
tutions in North America, Europe, Latin America and
Asia. (see page 12 for a complete list of institutional
and financial supporters of the Third International
Tapir Symposium). Thanks to the support from these
organizations we were able to cover the conference's
expenses and sponsor the participation of 19 key par-
ticipants from 8 tapir range countries, who otherwise
could not have attended the conference.
During the entire process of the organization of this
conference, we had the full support from our major
partner on this challenge, the Fundaci6n Temaiken,
and for that we could not be more grateful. Temaiken
is one of the most impressive zoological institutions in
the world and truly a special place. On behalf of the
entire TSG membership and all TSG officers, we would
like to thank the entire Temaiken staff for all their
assistance in making this the best Tapir Symposium
ever. We would like to give very special, huge thanks
to Viviana Quse, Guillermo Ruitti and Gabriel Aguado
for all their hard work in organizing the local logistics
and so many other aspects of the conference. Thank
you all very, very, very much for all your help, support
and friendship.


Patricia Medici
M.Sc.Wildlife Ecology, Conservation and Management
Research Coordinator, IPE Instituto de Pesquisas Ecol6gicas
(Institute for Ecological Research)
Ph.D. Candidate, Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology
(DICE), University of Kent, United Kingdom
Chair, IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group (TSG)
Convener, IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG)
- Brasil Network
Avenida Perdizes, 285,Vila Sao Paulo,Teodoro Sampaio
CEP: 19280-000, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Phone & Fax: +55-18-3282-4690
Cell Phone: +55-18-8119-3839
E-mail: epmedici@uol.com.br; medici@ipe.org.br

Alberto Mendoza
D.V.M. Manager, Latin American Programs, Houston Zoo Inc.
Education Advisor,American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA)
Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)
Member, IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group (TSG)
1513 North MacGregor, Houston,Texas 77030, United States
Phone: +1-713-533-6548 / Fax: +1-713-533-6768
E-mail: amendoza@houstonzoo.org


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 15/1 0 No. 19 0 June 2006






PROJECT UPDATES 17


PROJECT UPDATES



Preliminary Analysis of

Footprints for Lowland Tapir

Identification

By Zoe Jewell, Sky Alibhai &
Silvia Chalukian


W ildTrack worked with the Tapir Research and
Conservation Project of Northwest Argentina in
2004 to look at the feasibility of developing a footprint
identification technique (FIT) for tapirs, encouraged by
positive results obtained with rhinoceros (Jewell et al.,
2001). The FIT was thought to be particularly suitable
and inexpensive to use with tapirs in a National Park,
being a goal of this part of the project to count and
attempt to identify animals mainly through non-
invasive methods.
Fifty-seven digital photographs of left hind
footprints from six different known lowland tapirs
were submitted for a trial analysis to assess the
feasibility of the FIT. These footprints came from three
wild animals from El Rey National Park (two adults
and one juvenile) and three captive animals from the
Fauna Station of the Salta Provincial Government (two
males and one female) (Figs. 1 & 2).
We constructed the FIT algorithm (through cano-
nical analysis) to identify each animal based on its


Fig. I. Leo Lizirraga encourages a tapir to pass
through a sandy path in order to take footprint pho-
tographs, at the Fauna Station of the Salta Provincial
Government,Argentina.


Fig. 2.
Footprint
of Chiru,
a young
male from
the Fauna
Station,
Salta,
V Argentina.







0







footprint's geometric profile and the results were very
encouraging despite small sample sizes. All six tapirs
were identifiable using FIT. Figure 3 shows a clear
separation of all five adult tapirs along the two canoni-
cal variable axes; the sixth (juvenile) was even further
apart on the chart. Figure 4 shows the result of a test
by attempting to separate a subset of footprints of one
tapir and give them another name. The FIT still mat-
ches them to the correct animal.
These encouraging results have led to Silvia
Chalukian collecting more footprints for further testing,
which will be analyzed shortly. Recently, WildTrack
trials with tapirs have been helped greatly by Patricia
Medici, Chair of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group
(TSG), who has encouraged tapir researchers to collect
more print photographs for analysis, and by Jeremy
Radachowsky, who has submitted a collection of photo-
graphs of Baird's tapir prints. Preliminary analyses of
Jeremy's dataset suggest that FIT may also be able to
determine the sex and age category of Baird's tapirs.
WildTrack is looking forward to working with as
many members of the Tapir Specialist Group as pos-
sible to validate its FIT technique at field sites and
hopefully attract funding for further development.




References

Jewell, Z. C., S. K. Alibhai, and P R. Law. 2001. Censusing
and monitoring black rhino (Diceros bicornis) using
an objective spoor (footprint) identification technique.
Journal of the Zoological Society of London 254:1-16.


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 15/1 0 No. 19 0 June 2006






18 PROJECT UPDATES


nO
44ft~


Fig. 3. Clear separation of individual tapirs' mor-
phometric data from footprints along two canonical
variable axes. These are very promising results that
the FIT algorithm may work very well for tapirs.


Fig. 4. Testing the FIT a separate subset of footprin
measurements are matched to the correct animal.



Zoe Jewell & SkyAlibhai
WildTrack
Casa Ribeira Grande,Apartado 210, Monchique,
8550-909, Portugal
E-mail: wildtrack@clix.pt

Silvia C. Chalukian
Coordinator, Proyecto de Investigaci6n y Conservaci6n del Tapir
Florida 466 Dep. 508,4400 Salta, Argentina
E-mail: tapiresalta@argentina.com;
silviach@uolsinectis.com.ar


The TSG Library

becomes Virtual

By Harald Beck


'N .





_ l a

ma^


Harald Beck Ph.D.
Assistant Professor & Curator of the Mammal Museum
Department of Biological Sciences, Towson University,
Virtual Library Manager,
IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group (TSG)
8000 York Road, Towson, MD 21252-000 1, United States
Phone: + 1-410-704-3042 / Fax: + 1-410-704-2405
E-mail: hbeck@towson.edu


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 15/1 0 No. 19 0 June 2006


am very pleased to inform you that most articles
and publications on tapirs are now available as
electronic copies from our website (address to be
announced soon stay tuned). Currenly we have over
326 articles! I think we may have the largest and most
comprehensive tapir library that was ever compiled!
Thank to all of you who send articles! I also want to
acknowledge my graduate student Melissa Cameron
at Towson University, who worked very hard on this
library.
As you know, our library is only as good as the
materials it contains. I have made an effort to inclu-
de as much material as I could find, but I am also
certain that I have missed some of your papers. I
ask you to help us in this endeavour: please send me
electronic (scanned, PDF) copies of any publication
or theses on tapirs that you see missing in our Tapir
Specialists Group Virtual Library (TSGVL).
Send these please to: e-mail: hbeck@towson.edu
We also must make an effort to maintain the
TSGVL up to date. This is the easiest way to ensure
that we have a complete information account of any
works on tapirs. Please send me copies of any new
articles you publish or theses (other than in the TCN)
about tapirs, or any discoveries of new articles you
may find in your bibliographic searches.
It is my sincerest hope that the TSGVL will be a
vital tool assisting research and conservation work on
tapirs worldwide. Please note, articles published in
magazines and journals, and theses, are the property
of the publishing institutions. We are approaching the
publishers to request permission to offer download
of these articles from our site. We will post terms of
use on the website, as we must follow the copyright
it and ownership agreements reached. When we do so,
please make sure you read, understand, and agree to
these terms. If you have any comments or suggesti-
ons to make the TSGVL more useful to you, please do
not hesitate in contacting me.


I* *.-
I\, ilu





.- -.. .

t." / % ... _.N
....


I .






NEWS FROM THE FIELD 19


NEWS FROM THE FIELD



Rescuing Lucia -

A Tapir for Sale on the Web

By Adrian Benedetti


"In the forests of Darien a baby female tapir of
approximately 60-80 Ibs. was captured. She is
in good health. Those interested must provide
transportation out of Darien. Animal is currently
in the town of Boca del Tigre.

Price: 2,500"


Two weeks earlier, when I originally was notified
about the case, the price was $ 1,000. I had no
idea tapirs were in such high demand when I first
spoke with the middleman. We first talked when I was
verifying if this whole "sale" was true. It wasn't hard
to get his personal information since the man had
posted his name address and cell phone number on
the Internet. In the short conversation he informed me
that the tapir was in a distant location and needed to
be transported down the Chucunaque River. He said he
first needed to contact his brother in law in Dari6n in
order to see which day he could obtain a boat to travel
down river. He would keep me posted.
I really couldn't get a read on the situation. Either
these guys were incredibly stupid or extremely confi-
dent that no one was going to do anything. I mean, here
they were providing all the necessary information for
a conviction... on the world wide web! Now there are
a couple of reasons why I was notified, instead of the
national environmental authorities: I'm the director of
the national nature park which has a tapir collection
and the gentleman that notified me is a key advisor to
the foundation in charge of running it. The second is
because it was a national holiday weekend when the
posting was made, hence all government agencies were
closed. While passing as the manager of a rich man's
private animal collection, I had no way knowing if these
guys would realize I was lying or, for that matter, of
knowing whether they really had a tapir. Many here in
Panama mistake an owl for a Harpy Eagle, so you can
imagine my level of skepticism and complete bewilder-
ment.
While I waited to be contacted, I talked to the
local authorities and some friends at the Houston Zoo
about how to proceed. It was decided that I had to go


to Dari6n, since I had already made the initial contact.
I would go along with the middleman, a vet (in order
to insure the immediate inspection of the animal)
and undercover personnel from Panama's National
Environmental Service (ANAM). We would travel in an
unmarked car and arrest the men once the animal was
safely in our custody.
A week passed and I spoke to the middleman and
he said it was on for the weekend. I called ANAM and
relied this information. I called the middleman back to
confirm. He told me it was off because the canoe was
going to be used to transport agricultural products
before the dry season came in and the water levels in
rivers started to drop. I called ANAM and told them it
was off.
At this point I was beginning to think they were on
to me. Why on earth would you put $ 2,500 on hold
for crops? I thought, for sure, that would be the last I
would hear from them. That was a Friday. On Tuesday
of the next week I got a call saying it was on again for
that Sunday.


Fig. 1. Rescued Lucia.


Come Friday morning I thought that everything was
in place for Sunday. ANAM informed me that they had
the car and an undercover official that would accom-
pany me. I had the vet and about $ 500 just in case.
Friday evening I got a call saying the car had broken
down and the official was nowhere to be found. Late
Saturday morning an apprentice vet, an ex Noriega
body guard, the middleman and myself were on our
way to Dari6n in a rented car with the telephone num-
ber for the ANAM Dari6n office.
Since the confiscation I've been asked several
times if these men knew that what they were doing
was illegal. I know for sure the middleman was aware,


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 15/1 0 No. 19 0 June 2006






20 NEWS FROM THE FIELD 0 NEWS IN BRIEF


because he warned me several times that I would need
permits to get the tapir out of Dari6n, since there are
several check points along the one and only road. By
road I'm referring to the Panamerican Highway that
begins in Alaska stops in the Dari6n and begins again
in Colombia and goes all the way down South America.
These checkpoints are in place to check for the smugg-
ling of contraband, drugs, animals, wood, diseases and
people. I told him not to worry, it was all taken care of;
meanwhile I had no clue what we were going to do.
We arrived in Meteti, Dari6n, in the late afternoon
and the plan was for me to meet secretly with the local
ANAM officials and plan out the next day's operation.
After dinner the rest of the party settled down to watch
TV. I excused myself by saying I needed to call my boss.
None of the public telephones worked and I had no cell
phone reception so I just walked down to the station
I had seen earlier when we drove through town. Once
there, ANAM officials and I sat down to plan out the
next morning. There were three players in this operati-
on: ANAM, the local police, and us. The reason for nee-
ding the police was that ANAM did not have the training
to carry out the arrest. They were going to leave at 5 am
to make sure they were there before us. We would leave
at 7 am, go straight to port, inspect the animal, and put
her safely in the car which was the signal for the police
to come out and make the arrests. Once arrested, the
detainees would be transported to the ANAM station
for processing and we would be escorted out of Dari6n
in order to avoid any problems with the checkpoints.
I went back to the hotel a little nervous and sat
down to watch TV with the rest of my traveling com-
panions. The middleman never suspected a thing.
They informed me the hotel had Direct TV. I asked if I
could change the channel. There was a game I wanted
to watch. I flipped a few channels and relaxed a little
watching the Denver Broncos play the Buffalo Bills in
the middle of Dari6n.
The next morning everything went just as planned.
The ANAM personnel told me it was the first animal
trafficking arrest made since the new law came into
affect. The new law provided a basis for penalizing
offenders, which includes jail time and fines. Before,
they would only confiscate whatever the person was
trafficking and let him go.
Lucia, so named in honor of the person that ori-
ginally found the notice on the net, was a little mal-
nourished and showed minor scrapes and scratches
from all the moving around. She has now gained eight
pounds and her medical tests came out perfect. She is
now the sixth member of the tapir family at Summit
Nature Park, Panama.
This is a perfect example of why it is so important
to invest in creating good zoos in developing countries.
In these countries, individuals and well organized
NGO's can have a direct impact on what is going on.


These countries are both the battlegrounds and the
classrooms where quality information needs to be
exchanged between institutions, the public and policy
makers. What was done for Lucia is a drop of water
in the ocean compared to what could be achieved with
generation after generation of proper monitoring and
conservation actions. Parks like the Summit Nature
Park, Panama, will provide a space and a will for that.


Adrian Benedetti
Director, Summit Nature Park
Panama City, Panama
E-mail: arbs3@hotmail.com




NEWS IN BRIEF




Brian Bovyer

Raises $ 450 forTapirs

By Gilia Angell


Brian Bovyer of Ohio, is one cool 14-year old. He
contacted TSG out of the blue asking if we could
share any printable materials because he was raising
funds for tapir conservation! He explains his motiva-
tion and experience in creating tapir awareness: "Dr.
Martin Luther King Jr. believed that it was critical for
a person to have discovered something in life for which
it was worth dying... I have found that something in a
recent visit to Costa Rica with my family... There are
many endangered species in our world. And one of
them is the tapir."
Back home, after a lot of research on the tapir, he
and his mother organized a "Save the Tapir Drive". By
selling "LIVEstrong" type bracelets at school and pub-
lic places, the Bovyer family made $ 450 for the Tapir
Specialist Group. Brian's dad John made a check
available for TSG at the Houston Zoo in May 2006.
A detailed report will be published in the next issue
of Tapir Conservation.
Thank you, Brian! We are so grateful to have tapir
advocates like you!


Gilia Angell
Marketing Committee Coordinator,
IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group (TSG)
Webmaster, IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group (TSG),
E-mail: giliaangell@earthlink.net


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 15/1 0 No. 19 0 June 2006






CONTRIBUTED PAPERS 21


CONTRIBUTED PAPERS


Status and Conservation of Baird's Tapir

in Oaxaca, Mexico

Iv6n Lira Torres', Eduardo J. Naranjo Pifiera2, Daniel Hilliard3, Marco Antonio Camacho Escobar',
Alejandra de Villa Meza y Miguel Angel Reyes Chargoy'


Universidad del Mar Campus Puerto Escondido, Oaxaca, Mexico.
E-mail: ilira@zicatela.umar.mx
2 Departamento de Ecologia y Sistemrtica Terrestre, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, San Crist6bal de las Casas, Chiapas, Mexico.
E-mail: enaranjo@sclc.ecosur.mx
3 Zoo Conservation Outreach Group, Silver Spring, Maryland, U.S.A.
E-mail: dhilliard@Audubonlnstitute.org


Abstract

W within the country, it is suspected that tapirs
survive in some forested areas of the sou-
theastern states (Campeche, Chiapas, Oaxaca,
Quintana Roo, Veracruz and probably Tabasco).
Nonetheless, the presence of these mammals has
not been verified in most of the potential distributi-
on areas, especially those without protection. This
project aims to: (1) obtain field data to create a real
tapir distribution map for the first time in Oaxaca,
Mexico; (2) identify non-protected areas where tapir
populations survive in the state; and (3) to assess
the isolation of forest fragments large enough to
shelter viable tapir populations. The fieldwork
consisted of visits to potential tapir distribution
areas identified by Mexico's Committee for Tapir
Conservation and Recovery. Within twelve months,
tapir presence was recorded by searching for verifi-
able evidence (skulls, feces and footprints), as well
as through interviews with residents of communi-
ties near to potential distribution areas. The results
obtained suggest the presence of three populations:
Chimalapas Forest, Sierra Juarez and Oaxaca Coast.
The presence of the species in La Tuza de Monroy,
Municipio de Santiago Jamiltepec, Oaxaca, extends
the actual registered distribution to 377.4 km NW
of its known range. A current distribution map was
generated. Connectivity among forest patches with
tapir presence was assessed.

Key words:
Baird's Tapir, Conservation, GIS, Hunting, Mexico.


Introducci6n

Desde su l1egada a Am6rica, las sociedades humans
han utilizado extensivamente los ungulados y much-
as otras species de fauna silvestre como fuentes
de alimento, vestimenta, medicines, herramientas,
objetos rituales, simbolos, trofeos y compafiia (Ojasti
y Dallmeier, 2000). Muchos de los residents con-
tempordneos en el Neotr6pico ain consideran a la
caceria como una actividad important que les pro-
vee de alimento e ingresos econ6micos (Robinson y
Bennett, 2000; Shaw, 1991). Por lo que durante siglos,
los ungulados han sido species preferidas por los
cazadores Neotropicales, principalmente debido a su
rendimiento de care y pieles valiosas tanto para el
consume local como para el comercio (Bodmer et al.,
1996). Desafortunadamente, las prActicas de caceria
no sustentables han causado la sobreexplotaci6n de
numerosas poblaciones de estos mamiferos (Bennett
y Robinson, 2000).
La sobreexplotaci6n, sin embargo, no es la fmica
amenaza para las poblaciones de ungulados en la
actualidad. Las demands de recursos naturales
de poblaciones humans crecen rApidamente en
Latinoam6rica, lo que result en elevadas tasas de
deforestaci6n y fragmentaci6n de los bosques de la
region (Laurance y Bierregaard, 1997). La destrucci6n
de estos ecosistemas ha limitado severamente la distri-
buci6n y abundancia de las poblaciones de ungulados y
otros animals silvestres, ademAs de haber provocado
cuantiosas p6rdidas de fuentes potencialmente reno-
vables de alimento, madera y muchos otros recursos
valiosos para los pobladores locales (Cuar6n, 2000).


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 15/1 0 No. 19 0 June 2006






22 CONTRIBUTED PAPERS


Tabla I. Bases de datos y referencias bibliogrAficas consultadas para la elaboraci6n del
mapa de distribuci6n hist6rico y actual del tapir centroamericano (Tapirus bairdii)
en Oaxaca.

ACRd~ O NOMBRE

ECO-S C, Ca d, Mau~ie gle d El C le d l FmatMwm Bur. San Crh do ILC Cam.
Chipapo.
C;,m ClWd6r Muan0mq cd Irmait, diS Bkot do iv UnrsklWapd IrdpndW Au~n de
nxft*4-
QAMMA Cad6ih Melalo6gica d CDI4 Calcta.
AMusmZo dae ZMloli AfsLrw L. Herrrnw de tl Fctte d dCleirs d ia Univ+rCadd
Nasden Auid*na d* SaId&.
Arit. . y G. RdridCpua 2004. Padtnem gecOgflct de dk'erSad do il manrriso
OO4A iO teruetrs do AAricl 4el (nCfo. Irtusr *p Ec ~oI. UNAM. Si de DItos 8NIIB
COHBNO pmyWc o D00 MIdcD, D.F.
Unhnrsy of lMcthg, Muatm Sf Z.oology
Unrmniy of KJnmmu, I dS ry Rnueuc Cnr
R yal Otfrito MsUnr
Mi~~ an #lte Unhwrirtty nmTn
Motu n rat rn al mI Sdie Loutana SaWte Unvhity, Batn Roug
FeM Museum of Htural Hiseor,. Chkleao, IIEas
Mrer, I.J. 19. 8btuaSn 6r cai d1e lor im MH4tW CIES. Cotn do Irwwgop"coue
Eacas4r di Suriae, Srift UMoroAhk& W1. Sara CrktSUd d* Las Casa Chiapn.
Mixco. 41 pp
ooa4n. m 1. tume fmate Sftn Sk oatOaac. uMc. InfMw frtar Usrim olf
NHtiral K"isty. BMWth oiff Anwmican lusan of Hatur Hflhiy. IL 141: 1 HwYorkt

Hdk,. L.. K {(o). a194, Wiitaei de.w: Ec*~o mid nrmnagmunt. O sripuO olks
Harriabug, PA 870 pp.
Wbb, R.G. y R. H. Batr. 1900. Vo~brzd oelrreblre dre sumw d Oua ca. Anr e drl
Ihad da Biok a. L.niv~sid Nadlnrl Aidrtmnui de Mi6. Sa.ie Zddogli
__40(1: 13 152.
ULA, T. I y NHmF1 o.. P. 2006, Am pCld ds area di SlAucIOn do Taprps brwCAfMI
188W5{PWsa~dacM : TlrWidM) M CrnO ca, Milk A. Ae t Za Man.&J
2__i__1:107 110


El tapir centroamericano (Tapirus bairdii) se
consider, de acuerdo a la Uni6n Internacional para
la Conservaci6n de la Naturaleza (UICN) y el Grupo de
Especialistas en Tapires (TSG), en peligro de extinci6n
en todos los paises de Mesoamtrica. Esta especie tenia
una distribuci6n continue, desde el sureste de M6xico
hasta el noroeste de Colombia, extenditndose desde
los bosques tropicales lluviosos y humedales costeros
hasta los bosques mes6filos de montafia y paramos
sobre los 3,000 msnm. Sin embargo, los altos indices
de fragmentaci6n y p6rdida de habitat, y la caceria
de subsistencia han restringido la distribuci6n actual
del tapir a las areas naturales protegidas donde
aun subsiste, y a aquellas areas alejadas de los
asentamientos humans y sin alguna protecci6n legal.
Dado el rdpido crecimiento de la poblaci6n
humana en el sureste de M6xico y Mesoamtrica, es
esencial mantener grandes extensions de bosques y


selvas para asegurar
la sobrevivencia de
poblaciones viables
de esta especie. Asi
mismo, tambi6n
es muy important
identificar aquellos
grandes fragments
de bosque donde el
tapir centroamericano
sigue habitando
para promover la
conservaci6n de estos
hAbitats, asegurar
la regulaci6n de la
caceria, y realizar
otras practices de
conservaci6n en las
comunidades huma-
nas mis cercanas.
En M6xico, se
sospecha que el tapir
centroamericano
sobrevive en algunas
Areas boscosas del
sureste (Campeche,
Chiapas, Oaxaca,
Quintana Roo y
Veracruz).
No obstante, la
presencia de este
mamifero no ha
sido verificada en
la mayoria de los
estados en areas de
distribuci6n potential,
especialmente en
aquellos sitios que no


cuentan con figures de protecci6n (Alvarez del Toro,
1991; Lira et al., 2004; Lira et al., 2005; March, 1994;
Naranjo y Cruz, 1998; Naranjo y Vaughan, 2000).
Por ende, los objetivos de este studio en el estado
de Oaxaca son: 1) Identificar las Areas protegidas y
no protegidas, o que no se encuentran dentro del
sistema de Areas Naturales Protegidas (ANP) de la
Comisi6n Nacional de Areas Naturales Protegidas de
la Secretaria del Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales
(CONANP / SEMARNAT), y donde las poblaciones del
tapir sobreviven; 2) Determinar el grado de aislamiento
de los grandes fragments de bosque que albergan
poblaciones viables del tapir centroamericano; 3)
Identificar las principles amenazas hacia estas
poblaciones; y 4) Proponer estrategias de acci6n
prioritarias que contribuyan a la conservaci6n,
recuperaci6n y uso sustentable de las poblaciones del
tapir centroamericano a nivel estatal.


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 15/1 0 No. 19 0 June 2006






CONTRIBUTED PAPERS 23


Cobertura

Para la delimitaci6n de este studio se utiliz6 la
regionalizaci6n propuesta por la Comisi6n Nacional
para el Conocimiento y uso de la Biodiversidad
(CONABIO, 2000), donde se identifico sitios con un
alto valor de biodiversidad en ambientes terrestres del
Estado de Oaxaca utilizando criterios biol6gicos, de
amenaza para el mantenimiento de la biodiversidad y
de oportunidad para su conservaci6n. Como resultado
se seleccionaron siete regions terrestres prioritarias
(RTP) dentro del estado, delimitadas espacialmente en
funci6n de su correspondencia con rasgos topograficos,
eco-regiones, cuencas hidrol6gicas y areas naturales
protegidas donde posiblemente puedan existir
poblaciones viables del tapir centroamericano debido
a la interconexi6n con zonas de existencia verificada
(Figura 1).

Metodo

La informaci6n de este studio provino de tres fuen-
tes: a) Revisi6n de trabajos publicados y la consult
a bases de datos de colecciones biol6gicas naciona-


Figura I. Regiones terrestres prioritarias (RTP) con-
sideradas para este studio en el Estado de Oaxaca,
Mexico.Tomado de:Arriaga, L., J.M. Espinoza, C.Aguilar,
E. Martinez, L. G6mez y E. Loa (coordinadores). 2000.
Regiones terrestres prioritarias de Mexico. Escala
de trabajo 1:1 000 000. Comisi6n Nacional para el
Conocimiento y uso de la Biodiversidad. Mexico. Los
numeros correspondent a las siguientes regions: RTP
125: Cerros Negro Yucafio; RTP 126: Sierras Triqui -
Mixteca; RTP 127: EITlacuache; RTP 128: Bajo RioVerde
- Chacahua; RTP 129: Sierra Sur y Costa de Oaxaca;
RTP 130: Sierras del Norte de Oaxaca Mixe; RTP 132:
Selva Zoque ("Los Chimalapas").


les o extranjeras (Tabla 1); b) Visitas a las areas de
distribuci6n potential del tapir centroamericano en
Oaxaca, identificadas previamente por el Subcomit6
T6cnico Consultivo Nacional para la Conservaci6n y
Recuperaci6n del Tapir en M6xico, y principalmente
en aquellos sitios donde existen reports locales de
la presencia de la especie por pobladores, buscando
evidencias confiables (craneos, heces y huellas) sobre
su presencia/ausencia; y c) Entrevistas a los residents
de comunidades pr6ximas a las areas de distribuci6n
potential.
El studio se realize en 12 meses de trabajo en
campo, repartidos entire agosto del 2003 y julio del
2004. Para la realizaci6n de las entrevistas se apli-
caron dos models: a) entrevistas semi-estructura-
das (Furze et al., 1996) y b) entrevistas cortas sobre
avistamientos de tapires y conversaciones informales.
Un mapa de la distribuci6n actual e hist6rica del tapir
en Oaxaca fue generado geo-referenciando, con un
Sistema de Informaci6n Geografica en el Laboratorio
de Analisis Geografico de la UMAR, todos los registros
obtenidos. Se observe asimismo la conectividad entire
fragments de bosque.



Resultados y Discusion

Se compilaron y generaron un total de 36 registros de
distribuci6n para la especie en Oaxaca. Once registros
se obtuvieron de bases de datos de colecciones biol6-
gicas nacionales y extranjeras, cuatro se encontraron
en publicaciones con referencia de localidades especifi-
cas, y 21 en registros obtenidos en las visits a las siete
regions terrestres prioritarias (RTP) enmarcadas por
la CONABIO en el Estado de Oaxaca (Tabla 2).
Aunque los registros hist6ricos sobre la ocurrencia
del tapir en Oaxaca se restringen al sureste del Estado,
en las localidades de Tapanatepec, Zanatepec y La
Ventosa (Goodwin, 1969; Leopold, 1965; March, 1994;
Webb and Baker, 1969), los resultados de la consult a
bases de datos, visits a campo, entrevistas, colecta de
organismos y sus rastros, confirman que la especie se
distribuyo hist6ricamente a lo largo de la Sierra Madre
del Sur, Planicie Costera del Pacifico, Sierra Madre del
Sur de Oaxaca y Chiapas (Regi6n de los Chimalapas),
Sierra Madre de Oaxaca y Planicie Costera del Golfo
(Papaloapan) (Tabla 2). No obstante, en los ultimos 30
afios, la modificaci6n o destrucci6n de habitats oca-
sionada por los incendios forestales ha sido una de
las principles causes de p6rdida de areas extensas de
bosques y selvas en las distintas regions de Oaxaca,
principalmente en el Istmo de Tehuantepec, la Planicie
Costera del Pacifico, la Sierra Madre de Oaxaca y la
Sierra Madre del Sur. El cambio de uso de suelo para
actividades agropecuarias, el aprovechamiento forestal


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 15/1 0 No. 19 0 June 2006






24 CONTRIBUTED PAPERS


Tabla 2. Listado de registros de distribuci6n, presencia, fuentes de informaci6n, coordenadas, tipo de
vegetaci6n (segLin el sistema de clasificaci6n de GonzAles, 2004) y principles amenazas para el tapir
centroamericano (Tapirus bairdii) en Oaxaca.


LOCALIDU PRESECIA TIPO DE fREGISTAM COMPARE S UnN 'J
IDtaUM.: WGM4) VV'TAC

TWwpm pw Hat6nca Al,A3 37NE.. 1b llO1 C1, C2
isll0p0 HUsada Al, A3 356s8E. t8 107N Bi Ct, C2
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"AI = bases de datos; A2 = visit de campo; A3 = entrevistas; A4 = huellas; A5 = craneo; A6 = excretas; A7 = observaci6n direct
b BI = Selva Baja Caducifolia; B2 = Selva Mediana Subperennifolia o Perennifolia; B3 = Manglares; B4 = Bosque Mes6filo de Montaha
c C I = caceria; C2 = destrucci6n del habitat; C3 = introducci6n de enfermedades


clandestine y el narcotrAfico son otras causes que han
mermado la cobertura forestal del Estado y por ende
trasformado o eliminado la mayor parte del habitat
para el tapir centroamericano en estas regions (Figura
2) (Arriaga et al., 2000; Caballero, 2000; Gobierno del
Estado de Oaxaca, 1990; Instituto Estatal de Ecologia
de Oaxaca, 2003; GonzAlez et al., 2004; Ortiz et al.,
2004).
Los resultados obtenidos confirman la presencia
de cuatro poblaciones remanentes de esta especie en
el Estado de Oaxaca, mismas que no se encuentran
dentro del sistema de Areas Naturales Protegidas (ANP)
de la Comisi6n Nacional de Areas Naturales Protegidas
de la Secretaria del Medio Ambiente y Recursos
Naturales (CONANP / SEMARNAT), pero si se encuen-
tran en localidades que son consideradas Regiones
Terrestres Prioritarias por la Comisi6n Nacional para


el Conocimiento y uso de la Biodiversidad (CONABIO),
debido al alto valor de conservaci6n que presen-
tan (Arriaga et al., 2000). La primera poblaci6n se
encuentra localizada en la Tuza de Monroy, Municipio
de Santiago Jamiltepec (160 03' N y 970 51' 0), en la
region FisiogrAfica de la Planicie Costera del Pacifico.
La presencia del tapir se confirm mediante la obser-
vaci6n de huellas y echaderos a 3.7 km en linea recta
de la localidad de studio, cercano a la Laguna de
Miniyua. El tipo de vegetaci6n predominante es el
manglar, la Selva Baja Caducifolia y Selva Mediana
Sub-caducifolia (GonzAles, 2004). El Area cuenta con
una superficie de 203 km2, por lo que se infiere que
existe una poblaci6n de al menos 40 tapires.
La segunda poblaci6n se encuentra en la region
de IxtlAn, Municipio de IxtlAn de JuArez (170 20' N y
960 29' 0) en la Sierra Madre de Oaxaca. La presencia


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 15/1 0 No. 19 0 June 2006






CONTRIBUTED PAPERS 25


de la especie se confirm median-
te entrevistas a los residents de
las comunidades pr6ximas. El
tipo de vegetaci6n predominante
es el Bosque Mes6filo de Montafia
(Gonzales, 2004) y el area abarca
una superficie de 237 Km2 en
buen estado de conservaci6n; se
infiere que posee una poblaci6n
de aproximadamente 50 tapires.
La tercera poblaci6n se
encuentra localizada en la
Cordillera de Veinte Cerros, loca-
lizada en el Municipio de Santiago
Jocotepec (170 35' N y 950 53' 0)
en la Planicie Costera del Golfo
(Papaloapan). La presencia de
la especie se confirm con pre-
sencia de huellas, excretas y con
entrevistas a las comunidades
aledafias. Los tipos de vegetaci6n
predominantes son la Selva Alta
Perennifolia y Selva Mediana Sub-
perennifolia (Gonzales, 2004).
Esta cordillera cuenta con una
superficie boscosa de 522 km2
en buen estado de conservaci6n,
por lo que se infiere que en ella
habitan aproximadamente 100
tapires.


[Registros hist6rios y actualeS l tapir



P ftwumI crIm
F -

amp aB~4
a- wkwqr es
IPCIVNH
Sohn&
6k&W&
idp .-


) !H
*


I o m mi.eo I


Figura 2. Distribuci6n hist6rica y actual del tapir centroamericano
(Tapirus bairdii) en Oaxaca, considerando registros actuales, encuestas y
organismos depositados en colecciones nacionales e internacionales, asi
como tipos de vegetaci6n presents de acuerdo al Inventario Nacional
Forestal 2000.


La ultima poblaci6n esta localizada en la region
de los Chimalapas, Municipios de Santa Maria y San
Miguel Chimalapa (160 00' N y 930 21' 0), en la Sierra
Madre del Sur de Oaxaca y Chiapas. La presencia de
la especie se confirm con la observaci6n direct de
ejemplares, el registro de sus huellas y excretas, asi
como con la colecta de cinco crAneos de tapires adul-
tos, mismos que fueron depositados en colecciones
biol6gicas regionales, estatales y nacionales. En la
zona estAn presents la Selva Alta Perennifolia, Selva
Mediana Sub-perennifolia, Bosques de Pino, Bosques
de Encino, Bosques Mes6filos de Montafia, Selva Baja
Caducifoliay Selva Mediana Sub-caducifolia (Gonzales,
2004). Considerando que en esta localidad cuanta con
una superficie de 4,629 km2 de habitats en buen esta-
do de conservaci6n, se infiere que existe una poblaci6n
de mis de 900 tapires. Por lo anterior, se calcula para
todo el Estado de Oaxaca una poblaci6n de al menos
1,100 animals (Tabla 3).
Se ha propuesto un numero minimo de 50
individuos reproductivos para que una poblaci6n no
present problems de p6rdida de diversidad gen6tica
a corto plazo y de 500 individuos para asegurar la
conservaci6n a largo plazo (Aranda, 1996; Soul6,
1980). Estos nfmeros deben ser tomados con reserves.
No obstante, debe ser preocupante el hecho de que una


poblaci6n sea menor a 50 individuos. Posiblemente
la situaci6n mis critical para el tapir se present en
la Tuza de Monroy. Las poblaciones de tapires de
esta localidad, ademis de reducidas, se encuentran
aisladas. La Cordillera de Veinte Cerros es un area
pequefia, pero que afn conserve continuidad con la
Sierra Madre de Oaxaca y por ende con la poblaci6n de
Ixtin. Por iltimo, la unica localidad en Oaxaca, que por
su extension puede mantener una poblaci6n numerosa
de tapires, es la Regi6n de Los Chimalapas. La variedad
de los sistemas naturales, la escasa perturbaci6n y
aislamiento de la mayor parte de ellos y el hecho de
que el area ha funcionado, debido a peculiaridades
climiticas, ecol6gicas y de historic geol6gica, como
refugio de organismos del tr6pico humedo por miles
de afios, podria garantizar la viabilidad poblacional del
tapir en esta region, por lo que es possible considerar
a esta poblaci6n como una de las mis importantes
para la conservaci6n no s61o en Oaxaca y M6xico, sino
a nivel Mesoamericano (Caballero, 2000; Lira et al.,
2005; March, 1994; Matola et. al., 1997; Naranjo,
2001; Torres Colin, 2004).
En lines generals, las amenazas mis importantes
para la permanencia de los tapires en Oaxaca son
la p6rdida o deterioro del habitat, la caceria de
subsistencia, la competencia con species introducidas
como el ganado, la situaci6n del orden pfiblico en el


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 15/1 0 No. 19 0 June 2006






26 CONTRIBUTED PAPERS


Tabla 3. Estimados del nimero de tapires centroamericanos (Tapirus bairdii) en Oaxaca a trav6s de datos de
campo para tres valores de densidad poblacional, localidad, tipo de hAbitat y conectividad de las poblaciones, y
prioridad de asegurar viabilidad poblacional (con > 50 individuos adultss.

ABINIDAMCA ASAMDA EN BST'MACIOMES




TM nio! T m m 391.3 1D1e4 15.6Y-
OAUDADo REGIONH S*M urA TIPISOE EaaDp____ T o aSSVAWCO
WA f fii JA w nA AmLTA PCLU.LACKWAL




Iin BWn, Surrn alt"k
I ____________________ ____

TMul*ip saftg pIbpwot 5!2 5M i w64 10. 15011 SISIS, Pn7"f.














en: Naranjo, E.J. and R.E. Bodmer, 2002; Population ecology and conservation of Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) in the Lacandon Forest, Mexico; Tapir
Conservation Newsletter 1:25-33.


Estado y el desarrollo de infraestructura. La extinci6n
local del tapir en el Estado de Oaxaca por presi6n de
caceria posiblemente tiene efectos determinantes en
la composici6n y estructura de la vegetaci6n (Dirzo
y Miranda, 1991). Por ello, la conservaci6n de esta y
otras muchas species es fundamental para el man-
tenimiento integral de los process ecol6gicos en las
areas de habitat original. Algunas de las estrategias de
acci6n prioritarias que contribuyan a la conservaci6n,
recuperaci6n y uso sustentable de las poblaciones del
tapir centroamericano en el territorio Estatal son:

1. Desarrollar studios locales orientados a calcular
indices de abundancia relative, densidades, demo-
grafia (proporci6n de sexos y edades) y evaluar la
situaci6n actual del habitat potential para el tapir
centroamericano en las cuatro poblaciones identi-
ficadas.
2. Efectuar studios sobre la biologia basica y eco-
logia del tapir en estado silvestre en las cuatro
poblaciones identificadas.
3. Caracterizar la caceria en las areas alrededor de
estas cuatro poblaciones, e implementar progra-
mas de producci6n animal alternatives.
4. Disefiar e implementar corredores biol6gicos entire
habitats que garanticen flujos y eviten la extinci6n


de las poblaciones aisladas.
5. Buscar nuevos registros y confirmar reports de
presencia de Tapirus bairdii dentro del Estado.
6. Implementar una campahia de difusi6n en los
medios de comunicaci6n a nivel rural y urban
que cree concientizaci6n sobre la necesidad de
conservar a esta especie en Oaxaca.
7. Reforzar la legislaci6n existente en las areas prio-
ritarias para la conservaci6n donde se ha verifica-
do la presencia del tapir.
8. Reforzar la concientizaci6n, vigilancia y control de
los cazadores de subsistencia que incident en las
areas en donde se halla la especie.


Del 6xito o fracaso que se logre en los esfuerzos de
conservaci6n de las cuatro poblaciones remanentes en
el Estado de Oaxaca, dependera que en los pr6ximos
afios el tapir sea o no otra especie extinta del territorio
del Estado. Para ello es urgente que los organismos
gubernamentales, los centros de investigaci6n, las
instituciones acad6micas y las organizaciones conser-
vacionistas disefien e implementen estrategias coor-
dinadas de investigaci6n, conservaci6n y planes de
acci6n, bajo una estrecha y constant concertaci6n con
los pobladores y las agencies de desarrollo.


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 15/1 0 No. 19 0 June 2006






CONTRIBUTED PAPERS 27


Agradecimientos

Los autores agradecen a la Universidad del Mar
(UMAR) a trav6s del Proyecto "Verificaci6n en Campo
de la Distribuci6n del Tapir Centroamericano (Tapirus
bairdii) en Oaxaca, M6xico: Un Importante paso
hacia el Plan Nacional de Conservaci6n"; clave de
la Unidad Programatica (CUP): 21E0301. Asimismo
se agradece, por el financiamiento otorgado, apoyo
logistico brindado y equipo de campo donado, al
Grupo de Especialistas en Tapires de la Comisi6n de
Sobrevivencia de Especies de la Uni6n Internacional
para la Conservaci6n de la Naturaleza; IUCN/SSC
(Species Survival Commission) / Tapir Specialist
Group, al Zoo Conservation Outreach Group (ZCOG),
al Subcomit6 Thcnico Consultivo Nacional para la
Conservaci6n y Recuperaci6n del Tapir (Tapirus bair-
dii) y Pecari de Labios Blancos (Tayassu pecari) en
M6xico, y a Idea Wild.



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28 CONTRIBUTED PAPERS


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Mendoza, M. J. Ord6fiez Y M. Briones Salas (Eds.),
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Ethnozoology of the Amazonian Tapir

(Tapirus terrestris Linnaeus 1758)

in the Sarayaku Community, Ecuador

Andr6s Tapia' and Dionisio Machoa2


I Centro Tecnol6gico de Recursos Amaz6nicos "Fitima" Organizaci6n de Pueblos Indigenas de Pastaza
(OPIP Pastazamanda Runaguna Tandanakuy).
E-mail: centrofati@panchonet.net, centrofatima@andinanet.net
2 Proyecto para la Conservaci6n de los Tapires en el Territorio de Sarayaku.


,,At the beginning of the world there were no
wars, but once the peccaries killed a tapir. There
was in the forest a very powerful 'yachak' that
was a tapir and it revenged the death of his
brother, then there were wars in the world and
nothing went back to be the same."

Shipibo-Conibo narrative Ucayali, Peruvian
Amazon (Harbes Silvano, pers. comm.)




Abstract

T he present study was carried out in Sarayaku,
a Kichwa indigenous community of the Pastaza
Indigenous Peoples' Organization (OPIP) in the
Ecuadorian Amazon, Province of Pastaza, Ecuador.
Twenty one families were interviewed by means
of structured surveys about general knowledge of
Amazonian Tapir (Tapirus terrestris). Surveys
were directed toward hunters' families and com-


munitarian park-rangers. Tapir represented 6.34%
of the annual diet of the 21 surveyed families and
occupied sixth place among the most hunted spe-
cies. Preferred sites for hunting were: salt licks,
Mauritia flexuosa swamps, chacras (small gar-
dens), hills, plains and river edges. Interviewed
people described hunting techniques, hunting
histories and mythological knowledge about the
species. Six families attributed medicinal uses to
the hoof of the tapir. Another six indicated that tea
made of grated hooves fights cardiac afflictions,
epilepsy and rheumatism. The nine remaining
families did not attribute any medicinal use to the
species. Additionally, we consider the experience of
the "Tapir Conservation Project" held in the com-
munity through the establishment of communitari-
an reserves as an alternative for food security and
management of the biodiversity. This experience,
combined with the results of this study, give us
an idea of the ample knowledge of Kichwa indi-
genous peoples on the biodiversity of our house,
Pachamama.


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 15/1 0 No. 19 0 June 2006






CONTRIBUTED PAPERS 29


Introduction

Sachawagra ("cow of the jungle" in Kichwa lenguaje),
danta or tapir (Tapirus terrestris Linnaeus 1758) tra-
ditionally represents an important source of animal
protein for indigenous communities of the Ecuadorian
Amazon region (Tapia, 1999). Tapirs are mammals
with a low reproductive rate (Bodmer et al., 1997) and
thus very susceptible to negative impacts. The decline
that the species faces today is largely the responsibility
of the big industries (oil and limber) (Schultz, 1998),
as well as governmental laws that in the name of deve-
lopment stimulated unsustainable depredation of our
indigenous territory in the 70,s and 80,s (Agrarian
Reform and Colonization Law of 1964). In this con-
text, we wanted to know how the human being and the
wildlife species related in a same environment. That
is, we wanted to know the uses and values for tapirs
in the Kichwa indigenous tradition and how it relates
to its use. This study would help us understand better
what we stand to lose, economically and culturally, if
the species disappears.
Indigenous beliefs have rooted in their Cosmo visi-
on the idea that all beings own a spirit (supay) that
makes them belong to this world. All the animals are,
therefore, important to keep the equilibrium of life.
Amazonian indigenous nationalities tell many legends
about the genesis of the world; in these narrations, the
participation of all beings alive is defined. The tapir,
the largest terrestrial mammal of the Neotropics, is
said to own a powerful spirit, and therefore a strong
symbolic value. Tapir populations are seen like "peo-
ple" with their own social organization and with rules
for relations with other beings of nature (Sarmiento,
2004).
Despite these values, it must be understood that
increased dependency to external factors introduced in
the communities by the practice of extractive process,
like oil and timber industries, stimulate the deteriora-
tion of the natural resources in name of development.
In addition, organizational weakness of some com-
munities has made these problems more acute. The
increase of hunting with commercial aims is undeni-
able, even in remote communities. Commercialization
of wildlife has been stimulated by the abovementioned
factors. In the Amazonian departments of the Peru,
illegal sale of tapir parts has been registered. Ninety
eight percent among 120 interviews reported the use of
the snout to cure diseases such as cardiac problems,
epilepsy, asthma, osteoporosis, etc. (Figueroa, 2004).
Additionally use as pet has been described in some
communities of southeast Peru (Figueroa, 2004).
In the present study, we tried to understand the
pressure exerted by subsistence hunting, based on
the multiple factors that determine the reality of
Amazonian towns. In other words, we wanted to inter-


pret the uses of tapirs in the appropriate spiritual and
cultural context, understanding the intimate relation
between the human being and the forest. The power
of histories, the vitality of the mythologies and the
prescience of tradition of our people are aspects that
must be considered because they represent coherent
explanations to the phenomena that determine the life
of man in the forest.



Materials & Methods

We surveyed 21 families of the Sayaraku Kichwa
indigenous community of the Ecuadorian Amazon,
by means of structured interviews. The surveys were
directed mainly to hunters' families and communita-
rian park-rangers. Surveys were made through visits
to local families in coincidence with New Year eve fes-
tivities.
Some of the questions asked include: What are the
most hunted species in the community? Have you or
your relatives hunted tapirs? Where is it easier to find
tapirs (salt licks, palm swamps, river edges, etc)? How
many individuals do you hunt per year? How many
tapir species or varieties do you know? What functions
does the tapir perform in the rainforest? Do you know
any medicinal use of tapirs? Do you consider the
tapir as a sacred/symbolic animal? Have you tamed
tapirs and what do you think about its management
in captivity?



Results & Discussion

In at least 62 countries, hunting contributes approxi-
mately with 20% of animal protein in the diet of local
people (Stearman & Redford, 1995). Results from this
study indicate that the tapir represented 6.34% of the
annual diet of the 21 surveyed families and occupied the
sixth place between the more hunted species after the
lumucuchi (Tayassu tajacu), lumucha (Paca Agouti),
caruntzi (Penelope purpuransen), taruga (Mazama
americana) and chorongo (Lagothrix lagothricha).
All hunted species are destined for meat consumption
in the family (Belto Santi, pers. comm.). According to
Siren (2004), the percentage in weight of tapir meat in
the family diet in the same community is 8.7%. During
a study in northeastern Ecuadorian Amazon, tapir con-
tributed to local diets with a biomass of 595.80 kg (or
3.86% of all animal biomass consumed) in a period of
nine months (Zapata, 2001). During communitarian
festivities in central Ecuadorian Amazon, tapir repre-
sented 35,4% (200 kg) of total hunting (Freire, 1997).
In order of importance, the hunting sites preferred
were: Salt licks (25% in Kichwa: kachis), Mauritia


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 15/1 0 No. 19 0 June 2006






30 CONTRIBUTED PAPERS


Himted species in Sarytwu

2f lot r iTaygsus cu
g Puvu p rm
C Pmndope pzrpauesn
^Le erepio thprn functricns



SCot rr be rsubnet
E Daswqfla Ifl*u
Ra$ppps cue



Figure I. Frequency of hunted species in the diet of
21 families of the Sayaraku indigenous community,
Ecuador.


Local perception of tapir functions





4

2


CUpekon O(5S) Opening oloi b Symbol~ c wlue


Figure 2. Local perception of tapir functions in the
rainforest among 21 families of the Sayaraku
indigenous community, Ecuador.


flexuosa swamps (20% muriti turu), hills (20%
- urkus), plains (20% pamba), river edges (10%
- yaku) and chacras (small gardens 5%).
Hunting techniques were described by interviews.
Hunters usually wake up at 3:00 A.M, most of tapirs
are hunted between 5:00 and 6:00 A.M while walking
through their trails or at 12:00 noon, while resting.
Many hunters wait in platforms located in strategic
sites until tapirs appear and then kill them. Tapirs
could also be found in river edges and lakes while
hunters cruise in their canoes.
To the Sayaraku perceptions, two varieties of
the same species of tapir exist. These varieties are:
Atun wagra (great tapir) and Shinlu wagra or Ichilla
wagra (small tapir). Atun wagra is blacker and its
meat is clearer than Shinlu wagra. Shinlu wagra
feeds mainly on the Shinlu, a 1 m tall shrub with green
dark filamentous leaves.


People recognized the following functions of tapirs
in the ecosystem: seed dispersal (5), opening of trails
and footpaths that other animals and people use
(2) and symbolic value (2). People usually attribute
medicinal uses to tapir parts (Naveda, 2004). In this
study, several families (6) attributed medicinal uses to
the hoof of the tapir. They explained that the grated
hoof is given to sick people in order to cure cardiac
afflictions, epilepsy and rheumatism. People would
also use this preparation against the "mal aire" (a
weakness thought to be caused by spirits of forest),
grated and offered with tobacco, or to help women
become pregnant (grated and in drinks).
Five families had tamed tapir in the last years
before the interview for domestic consumption. At
the time of the interviews, one family owned a tamed
animal and two animals had been released to a com-
munitarian reserve as part of the Tapir Conservation
Project held in the community. Many interviewees (14)
said that semi-captivity is a good alternative for feeding
security, while one other indicated that it is not a good
choice due to the husbandry costs. At the present, an
on going project exists for the conservation of tapirs, a
natural resources and territory stewardship campaign
impelled by communitarian leaders. Through the esta-
blishment of reserves and hunting prohibitions people
have been involved in protection and ownership of
resources, as a strategy against the unsound develop-
ment plans promulgated by the State.
The oral tradition was enforced by Sayaraku elders
during the Spanish conquest and colony as the main
ideological weapon to oppose to the invading culture,
and it became an institution that maintained alive our
culture over the centuries since. Mythological aspects
and dreams are very important in hunting activities
of indigenous communities. During the preparatives
before any hunting expedition, dream and mythologi-
cal relates, chicha (traditional drink made of yucca,
Manihot sculenta) and oral histories transmitted from
one generation to another, conform a rich and variate
cultural context that guides the hunter. The following
are omens for good hunting among the Sayaraku: to
dream being embraced by a girl, to kiss a girl or a
relative, to dream constructing or hauling a canoe, to
dream being near family or good friends, to dream
being greeted by a fat person, or dream of weaving clo-
thes or necklaces. Most families (15) consider tapirs
as sacred animals and believe that they possess a
spirit (supay), male or female, which whistles like the
whinnying of a horse. This spirit lives in mountains
(urkus) or salt licks (kachis). In these spiritual rela-
tes of the Sayaraku, wildlife species and their spirits
- among them the tapir's play a pivotal role in the
equilibrium of nature and are seen much like societies
with their own organization, inter-related with all other
beings of the forest including humans.


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 15/1 0 No. 19 0 June 2006






CONTRIBUTED PAPERS 31


Figure 3. A tapir inside a family abode at the Sayaraku
indigenous community, Ecuador.


It is of paramount importance that the Sayaraku
people develop sustainable management alternatives
for its wildlife and forests, in response to unsustainab-
le development options promoted by the government,
to the economic interests of large extractive industries,
and to the various proposed models that alienate indi-
genous peoples and threaten to annihilate the cultural
traditions of native Amazon groups. Protecting biodi-
versity is, thus, not just about securing food sources
and conserving ecosystems; it is also about a strategy
for our people to maintain and preserve our cultural
legacy.



Acknowledgments

This study would not have been possible without the
collaboration of compafiero Franklin Santi, director
of the Tapir Conservation Project in the Territory
of Sarayaku and all the people from Sarayaku.
Thanks for their wisdom and practicality. ASHKA
PAGARACHU! Adrian Naveda, Judith Figueroa and
Adriana Sarmiento from the Tapir Specialist Group
(TSG) made important comments on an earlier version
of this manuscript.



Literature Cited

Bodmer, R. E., Eisenberg, J. F. & Redford, K. H. 1997.
Hunting and the likelihood of extinction of Amazonian
mammals. Conservation Biology 11: 460-466.
Figueroa, J. 2004. Use and commerce of individual
parts of the Amazonian Tapir (Tapirus terrestris) in
Peru. Proceeding of the Second International Tapir
Symposium. Ciudad de Panama, Panama. Tapir Specialists
Group. 42 pp. http://www.tapirspecialistgroup.org.
Figueroa, J. 2004. Mamiferos de la Zona Reservada
Megantoni. In: C. Vriensedorp, L. Rivera, D. Moskovits


& J. Shopland (eds). Rapid Biological Inventories N015,
pp 110-118, 215-230, 288-293. The Field Museum,
Chicago, II. EE.UU.
Freire, M. 1997. La caceria de mamiferos, aves y reptiles en
una comunidad Quichua y en destacamentos militares
Lorocachi-Pastaza 1995-1996. Thesis. Universidad del
Azuay, Cuenca, Ecuador.
Naveda, A. 2004. Ethnozoology of Lowland Tapir (Tapirus
terrestris) in Venezuela. Proceeding of the Second
International Tapir Symposium. Ciudad de Panama,
Panama. Tapir Specialists Group. 42 pp. http://www.ta-
pirspecialistgroup.org
Sarmiento, A. 2004. Classificatory systems of the Tapir
(Tapirus terrestris) in three ethnic groups of the Middle
Caqueta River: Migh there be subspecies or local popu-
lations?. Fundaci6n Tropenbos, Bogota, Colombia.
Sarmiento, A. 2004. Knowledge of the natural history of
the Tapir (Tapirus terrestris) by three ethnic groups of
the Middle Caqueta River region, Colombian Amazon.
Thesis. Fundaci6n Tropenbos, Bogota, Colombia.
Schultz, M. 1998. El tapir y el capibara, el ganado de la
selva. In: M. Schultz, A. Sandahl, K. Backstrom, P
Berger, M. Tapia & R. Arias (eds) Habla el amazonas,
pp.26-31. UBV/OPIP Puyo, Ecuador.
Siren, A. 2004 Changing interactions beetwen humans
and nature in Sarayaku, Ecuadorian Amazon. Thesis.
University of Agrarian Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
Stearman, A. M. & Redford, K. H. 1995. Game management
and cultural survival: the Yuqui ethnodevelopment pro-
ject in lowland Bolivia. Oryx 29: 29-34.
Tapia, M. 1999. Guia para el Manejo, Crianza y Conservaci6n
del Tapir (Tapirus terrestris Linnaeus 1758). Centro
Tecnol6gico de Recursos Amaz6nicos de la OPIP Puyo,
Ecuador.
Zapata, G. 2001. Sustentabilidad de la caceria de
subsistencia: el caso de cuatro comunidades Quichuas
en la Amazonia nororiental ecuatoriana. J. Neotrop.
Mammal 8(1):59-66.


Figure 4.
Workshop
diagram pro-
moting the
conservation
of wildlife at
the Sayaraku
indigenous
community,
Ecuador.


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 15/1 0 No. 19 0 June 2006






32 CONTRIBUTED PAPERS


Manilkara zapota:

A New Record of a Species

Dispersed by Tapirs

Georgina O'Farrill'*1, Sophie Calrme and Andrew Gonzalez'


SMcGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
2 El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Chetumal, Quintana Roo, Mexico
Corresponding author; McGill University, Biology Department. 1205
E-mail: elsa.ofarrill@mail.mcgill.ca


Abstract

Baird's tapir is the largest terrestrial Neotropical
mammal in Central and South America. Tapirs
are strict herbivores and they have been descri-
bed as important seed dispersers and predators.
However, it remains unclear to what extent the
Baird's tapir can be consistently classified as a
seed predator or disperser for a given tree species.
Manilkara zapota (zapote) seeds were previously
reported to be predated by tapirs because the seeds
were thought to be too weak to withstand the tapir's
molar mill. Here, we describe recent observations
from the Greater Calakmul Region (Mexico) that
show intact seeds and seedlings of zapote in tapir
dung. The implications of these observations for
zapote recruitment and distribution are the focus of
ongoing research.


Introduction

The Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) is the largest ter-
restrial Neotropical mammal in Central and South
America to have escaped the Late Pleistocene extinc-
tions between 22,000 to 10,000 years ago (Janzen,
1982; Brooks et al., 1997; Tobler, 2002). Populations
of this species were formerly found from Veracruz in
southeastern Mexico to the western cordillera of the
Andes in Ecuador (Tobler, 2002). It is now conside-
red extinct in El Salvador and endangered in all other
parts of its range (Foerster and Vaughan, 2002; Norton
and Ashley, 2004). It is probable that one of the big-
gest populations (between 1,000-4,800 individuals) is
located in Mexico in the Lacandon Forest of Chiapas
and in the Calakmul region in Campeche (Naranjo and
Bodmer, 2002), however there are no proper popu-
lation estimates (Brooks et al., 1997, Naranjo and
Bodmer, 2002).
Tapirs are strict herbivores (Padilla and Dowler,
1994; Brooks et al., 1997; Olmos, 1997; Foerster and


Dr. Penfield Ave. Montreal Quebec, Canada H3A I B I



Vaughan, 2002; Lira-Torres et al., 2004). They have
been described as important seed dispersers and
seed predators (Naranjo and Cruz, 1998; Foerster and
Vaughan, 2002; Tobler, 2002; Fragoso et al., 2003).
Seed predation is caused either by chewing or seed
digestion (Brooks et al., 1997; Olmos, 1997); addi-
tional disperser induced mortality may occur by the
deposition of seeds in unsuitable places (e.g. in water,
Salas 1996). The vulnerability of the seeds ingested
depends on the hardness and thickness of their coat,
their size, and the time spent in the digestive tract
(Brooks et al., 1997).
Tapirs have been defined as Pleistocene relicts
and are obvious candidates for the dispersal of large
seeds once dispersed by the mega fauna now extinct
(Janzen, 1982). Janzen and Martin (1982) suggested
that, during the Pleistocene, extant mega fauna of
Central America maintained unique biological rela-
tionships with the plants they ingested. This unique
ecological relationship between large mammals and
plants has been supported by field observations in
Africa and Asia (Chapman et al., 1992; Dinerstein and
Wemmer, 1988). However, the general validity of this
observation appears controversial for some species
such as the Baird's tapir, and it remains unclear to
what extent this species can be consistently classified
as a seed predator or disperser for any given tree spe-
cies. For example, Janzen (1981) reported that 100%
of carao seeds (Cassia emarginata) were killed during
the ingestion/digestion process despite the hardness of
their coats, whereas Williams (1984) found live carao
seeds in dung piles.
The zapote, chicle, chicozapote, or zapotillo, as
Manilkara zapota (L.) Royen (Sapotaceae) is common-
ly known (Morton, 1987), is an important component
of the tropical and subtropical vegetation of Mexico
(Cruz-Rodriguez and Lopez-Mata, 2004). It is found
in the Pacific and gulf coasts of Mexico and especial-
ly in the Yucatan Peninsula, as well as in Guatemala,
Northern Belize and the Atlantic coastal forest of
Nicaragua (Monton, 1987). The large, sweet, indehis-


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 15/1 0 No. 19 0 June 2006






CONTRIBUTED PAPERS 33


cent fruits of Manilkara zapota seem to have evolved
to enhance seed dispersal by large mammals. However,
precise field observations in Costa Rica suggest that
zapote seeds are too large and weak to withstand the
molar mill of a tapir (Janzen, 1982; Williams, 1984).
Naranjo and Cruz (1998) found evidence from faecal
analysis of species from the same genus in the diet of
Baird's tapir, but it is not known whether this observa-
tion referred to intact and viable seeds. Here we report
the results of recent observations of intact seeds and
seedlings of Manilkara zapota in the dung of Baird's
tapir.

Study Site and Species

Our work was carried out in the Greater Calakmul
Region (1915' to 17050'N and 9020' to 89000'W) that
includes the Municipality of Calakmul in the southern
state of Campeche, the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve
and the buffer and corridor areas around it (Galindo-
Leal et al., 2000). The Calakmul Reserve is the second
largest protected area, and the largest protected tropi-
cal forest in Mexico (CONABIO, 1998).
The region is a mosaic of different kinds of tropical
forests, from low-deciduous forest in the north, to tall-
evergreen forest in the southeastern part (Martinez et
al., 2002). More than 1,600 plant species have been
found in Calakmul, and this region contains more
than 80% of the plant species in the Yucatan Peninsula
(SEMARNAP 2000).
Manilkara zapota is a slow-growing, large tropical
tree that can reach 45 m in height. Its fruits vary from
5-10 cm in width and, when mature, are soft and juicy.
Although some fruits are seedless, normally there are
from 3 to 12 seeds per drupe (Morton, 1987; Heaton
et al., 1999). The seeds are brown or black, hard,
glossy, long-oval, flat, usually with a curved hook on
one margin and an elongate white scar (Morton, 1987;
Heaton, et al., 1999). Seeds range from 16-23 mm
long, 8-16 mm wide and of 0.3 g wet mass (Morton,
1987; Cruz-Rodriguez and Lopez-Mata, 2004).
There are 94 species of mammals reported in this
reserve that includes the last remaining natural areas
for several species with large habitat requirements
such as tapir (Tapirus bairdii), white-lipped peccary
(Tayassu peccari), jaguar (Panthera onca) and
king vulture (Sarcoramphus papa), among others
(SEMARNAT, 2000).
Tapir populations are declining due to habitat
destruction and hunting (Brooks et al., 1997). The
fragmentation and isolation of tapir populations
increases their risk of extinction due to demographic,
genetic, and environmental stochasticity (Norton and
Ashley, 2004). Baird's tapir have been observed to move
over 20 km a day in Costa Rica where food and water
availability are important factors in habitat selection


(Brooks et al., 1997, Foerster and Vaughan, 2002,
Naranjo and Bodmer, 2002). This species is catalogued
as "vulnerable" in CITES Appendix I (Tobler, 2002)
and are listed as endangered by Mexican law (Naranjo,
1995, SEMARNAP 2000). Very little is known on the
tapir populations in the Greater Calakmul Region and
there are no formal previous studies in this region.



Methods

In July 2005, we visited several waterholes (locally
known as aguadas) outside and inside the Calakmul
Biosphere Reserve. Dry waterholes and non-flooding
areas were also visited. The sites outside of the reser-
ve were located within the communal lands of Nuevo
Becal and Narciso Mendoza. We were accompanied by
local guides who are both skilled subsistence hunters
and chicle gum harvesters (chicle gum is the latex of
Manilkara zapota). Our guides were thus knowled-
geable about local aguadas, as they hunt and camp
nearby during chicle extraction.
Tapir dung samples were collected near waterho-
les. We focused on these areas as latrines were found
around flooded or potentially flooded areas in other
studies (Naranjo, 1995; Naranjo and Cruz, 1998; Lira-
Torres, 2004). Any sample found while searching for
the waterholes was also collected. A sample consisted
of all the boluses
found within a single
dung pile. Care was
taken to avoid any
soil and litter materi-
al while collecting the
sample.
Each sample was
sorted and complete
zapote seeds and
seedlings were coll-
ected and counted. Figure I. Germinated zapote
Zapote seeds were seeds in a tapir dung bolus.
previously identified
directly from trees and most seedlings where found
still attached to the seed coat (Figure 1). Field notes
and photographs were used to document seedlings that
germinated directly from seeds within the faeces.



Results

Tapir latrines were found around waterholes, some
of which were dry because the field work was carried
out at the very beginning of the rainy season. However,
some samples were found in areas that are known by
local people to be non-inundated (elevated) areas.


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 15/1 0 No. 19 0 June 2006






34 CONTRIBUTED PAPERS


During our field study we collected 85 samples
(dung piles). Table 1 summarizes relative frequency of
viable zapote seeds and seedlings in these samples. All
ungerminated seeds were found intact.


Table I. Frequency and percentages of samples with
seeds and seedlings.



TAMOK Yoe *soft31 3iii
FEEnd sung


Srimnm wF son*%
-5 a294
servno wte *a-Jed
m frm iann m pdr mpund g

(4ve WmapL preW nde 15 17 B%
more hin an *wMMg)


Discussion

Previous studies with Baird's tapir in Mexico
(Chiapas) and Costa Rica included aspects of their
diet, abundance and distribution, and human impacts
(Terwilliger, 1978; Naranjo, 1995; Naranjo and Cruz,
1998; Foerster and Vaughan, 2002; Tobler, 2002; Lira-
Torres et al., 2004). There are no previous studies
in the Yucatan Peninsula, and specifically on species
dispersed by tapirs. Naranjo and Cruz (1998) repor-
ted a species of the genus Manilkara (described up to
genus) as being consumed by tapirs in The Sepultura
Biosphere Reserve in Chiapas, Mexico. However these
authors do not mention the viability of these seeds or
of any zapote seedlings found in tapir dung. There is no
other record of Manilkara zapota either as part of the
tapir's diet or as a seed dispersed by tapirs.
Almost 40% of the dung samples contained seeds
or seedlings. The results of this preliminary study
contradict previous conjecture that Manilkara zapota
should be predated by tapirs (Janzen, 1982; Williams,
1984). We provide evidence that tapirs are moving
intact zapote seeds from one place to another, and
that these seeds are viable and can germinate; future
experiments will determine whether germination is
indeed facilitated by the dung. Alone these data sug-
gest that Manilkara zapota can now be added to the
list of species already reported as being dispersed by
Baird's tapir (Naranjo, 1995; Williams, 1984). Whether
dispersal of viable seeds and subsequent germination
by the tapir has a significant impact on the spatial dis-
tribution of zapote depends greatly upon whether the
dung is left in habitat suitable for subsequent seedling


growth and survival. The majority of dung samples
were found around aguadas where adult zapote trees
are often found, suggesting that these dung deposition
sites are not unsuitable for zapote growth. Current
seed germination experiments are addressing this
important issue directly.
The functional role of the Baird's tapir as a seed
disperser in this and other regions remains poorly
understood and further study is clearly necessary. Its
status as the largest extant forest-dwelling mammal in
Central America (Olmos, 1997) suggests a unique func-
tional role as the disperser of certain abundant large
seeded tree species (Fragoso and Huffman, 2000).
Whether this endangered species is a significant deter-
minant of the structure of tropical forests (Fragoso,
1997) throughout its range is a question of conside-
rable pure and applied relevance.



Conclusion

Although previous observations in Costa Rica sugge-
sted that Manilkara zapota seeds where too weak to
withstand the molar mill of tapirs (Janzen, 1982), this
paper presents field observations and the first record
on Manilkara zapota seed dispersal by Baird's tapir
in the Greater Calakmul Region in Mexico. Intact seeds
and seedlings of Manilkara zapota were observed in
tapir dung. However, further work on seedling estab-
lishment success is required to ascertain the impor-
tance of the Baird's tapir as a major determinant of
Manilkara zapota abundance and distribution.



Acknowledgements

We wish to thank those who assisted and worked
alongside us in the field. In particular, Nicolas Arias
Dominguez, Demetrio Cruz and Eduardo Carrera were
essential to the success of this study. We would also
like to express our gratitude to Mauro Sanvicente for
providing important logistical support. GOF is suppor-
ted by doctoral fellowship from the Consejo Nacional
de Ciencias y Tecnologias (CONACYT) in Mexico. AG is
supported by a Canada Research Chair in Biodiversity.
This research was funded by El Colegio de la Frontera
Sur through SC's current budget. Raja Sengupta pro-
vided funds for this project (NSERC Discovery Grant
RGPIN 298260). Samples were collected and transpor-
ted with the appropriate permits from the Secretaria
de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales, Mexico
(SEMARNAT): SGPA/DGVS/0627, SGPA/DGVS/06710.
Some samples were imported to McGill University with
the import permit P-2005-02472 from the Canadian
Food Inspection Agency, Government of Canada.


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 15/1 0 No. 19 0 June 2006






CONTRIBUTED PAPERS 35


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Lira-Torres, I., Naranjo-Pinera, E.J., Guiris Andrade, D. M.
& Cruz Aldan, E. 2004. Ecologia de Tapirus bairdii
(Perissodactyla: Tapiridae) en la Reserva de la Biosfera
El Triunfo (Poligono I), Chiapas, Mexico. Acta Zoologica
Mexicana 20(1):1-21.
Martinez, E., Ramos, C. & Sousa, M. 2002. Listados
floristicos de Mexico. XII. Region de Calakmul,
Campeche. Institute de Biologia, UNAM.
Morton, J. 1987. Sapodilla. p. 393-398. In: Fruits of warm
climates. USA.
Naranjo, E. J. & Bodmer, R. E. 2002. Population Ecology and
Conservation of Baird's Tapir (Tapirus bairdii) in the
Lacandon Forest, Mexico. Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC
Tapir Specialist Group 11(2):25-33.
Naranjo, P E. 1995. Habitos de alimentaci6n del tapir
(Tapirus bairdii) en un Bosque tropical humedo de costa
Rica. Vida Silvestre Neotrop 4:32-37.


Naranjo-Pinera, E. J. & Cruz Aldan, E. 1998. Ecologia del
Tapir (Tapirus bairdii) en la Reserva de la Biosfera La
Sepultura, Chiapas, Mexico. Acta Zool. Mexicana 73:
111-125.
Norton, J. E. & Ashley, M. V 2004. Genetic variability and
population structure among wild Baird's tapirs. Animal
Conservation 7:211-220.
Olmos, F 1997. Tapirs as Seed Dispersers and Predators.
Tapirs: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan.
IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Padilla, M. & Dowler R. C. 1994. Tapirus terrestris.
Mammalian Species. American Society of Mammalogists
481:1-8.
Salas, L. A. 1996. Diet of the Lowland Tapir (Tapirus ter-
restris L) in the Tabaro River Valley. Can. J. Zool. 74:
1444-1451.
Semarnap. 2000. Program de Manejo de la Reserva de
la Biosfera Calakmul. Institute Nacional de Ecologia,
Mexico.
Terwilliger, V J. 1978. Natural history of Baird's tapir on
Barron Colorado Island, Panama Canal Zone. Biotropica
10(3):211-220.
Tobler, M. W. 2002. Habitat use and diet of Baird's Tapirs
(Tapirus bairdii) in a Montane Cloud Forest of the
Cordillera de Talamanca, Costa Rica. Biotropica 34(3):
468-474
Williams, K. 1984. The Central American tapir in north-
western Costa Rica. PhD. Dissertation. Michigan State
University. East Lansing. Michigan. In Foerster, C. R. and
C. Vaughn. 2002. Home range, habitat use, and activity of
Baird's tapir in Costa Rica. Biotropica 34:423-437.










Manilkara
zapota:
The large
sweet fruits
attract large
N .herbivores.


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 15/1 0 No. 19 0 June 2006






36 CONTRIBUTED PAPERS


Etnozoologia de la Danta

(Tapirus terrestris) en Venezuela

Adri6n Naveda-Rodriguez yArmando L6pez


Ministerio del Ambiente. Museo de la Estaci6n Biol6gica de Rancho Grande.Apartado Postal 4845, Maracay 2101-A, Estado Aragua,Venezuela.
E-mail: adrian.naveda@cantv.net


Abstract

In order to know the relationship between local
peoples and tapirs we developed personal inter-
views to gather information about the uses of low-
land tapirs and their products (meat, bones, skin,
etc.). The methodology implemented consisted in
establishing conversations with local hunters and
their families living inside tapir habitat, and using
color plates with pictures of different wildlife spe-
cies (mammals and birds) so hunters could point
out the species they hunted. In addition, a literature
revision was done to gather information for other
areas of the country not visited during this study.
We conducted 118 interviews in Aragua and Yaracuy
States. Around 56% of the interviewed persons do
not hunt tapirs due to various reasons (mythic-
religious, legal penalties, species unknown, pity);
43,4% hunt tapirs for consumption and medical
use. We found five different uses given to Tapirus
terrestris in northern Venezuela. Low population
levels and possible local extinctions are suspected
in two states by means of indirect indicators.



Introducci6n

Un aspect a considerar para la conservaci6n de un
recurso natural renovable es su valor o importancia
para un pais o region determinada. La fauna silvestre
es un recurso para el hombre como alimento y como
proveedor de material prima para otros usos. Sin
embargo el manejo y aprovechamiento irracional a
los que han sido sometidas algunas species y los
habitats donde ellas resident estan comprometiendo la
permanencia de las mismas.
Las dantas no escapan de esta realidad; la
destrucci6n de habitats y la caza desmedida estan
afectando sus poblaciones. En Venezuela Tapirus
terrestris ha sido aprovechada como recurso
alimenticio, medicinal y artesanal por etnias indigenas
(Fernandez, 2000; Mondolfi, 1971; Sponsel, 1986).
Informaci6n sobre el uso de la danta por otros


habitantes es escasa debido a la carencia de studios
realizados (Gonzdlez-Ferndndez, 2002; Vispo, 1998).
El siguiente report present los resultados
obtenidos hasta Diciembre de 2003 y constitute un
diagnostic preliminary de la etnozoologia de la especie
en Venezuela, con el objeto de que sirva de base para el
disefio e implementaci6n de programs de manejo y/o
aprovechamiento sustentable del recurso a nivel rural,
tal como lo expone una de las lines estrat6gicas del
Plan de Acci6n de la Estrategia Nacional de Diversidad
Biol6gica (MARN 2001).



Metodologia

Llevamos a cabo entrevistas con cazadores y gente
local en dos estados al norte de Venezuela, Aragua y
Yaracuy, siendo este ultimo nuestra principal area de
interns y donde colocamos nuestro mayor esfuerzo.
En la media de lo possible, tratamos de establecer un
ambiente de confianza entire el entrevistado y entre-
vistador. El tema central de la entrevista fue sobre
fauna silvestre en general; se mostraron lIminas a
color de mamiferos y aves (Figura 1) sobre las que
los entrevistados indicaron las species conocidas y
presents en el area. Una vez identificada la danta,
buscamos averiguar indirectamente: si el entrevistado
o alguien conocido cazaba la especie, cudntos
ejemplares se cazaban por afio, y qu6 uso recibia la
danta o sus products caren, piel, huesos o visceras).
La informaci6n correspondiente a los demas estados
del pais se complement con revision bibliografica
y consult con especialistas (F Bisbal Museo de la
Estaci6n Biol6gica de Rancho Grande; A. Ferrer Museo
de Historia Natural La Salle; L. Salas Tapir Specialist
Group).



Resultados Preliminares

Se realizaron 118 encuestas, cinco en el norte de
Aragua y 113 en 22 localidades del estado Yaracuy. Los
entrevistados de Aragua sefialaron que desde hace mis


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 15/1 0 No. 19 0 June 2006






CONTRIBUTED PAPERS 37


Figura I. Realizaci6n de entrevistas a pobladores de
Cumboto en el estado Aragua,Venezuela.


de cinco afios no cazaban dantas, ni conocian a alguien
que lo hiciera. Los usos que le daban a la especie eran
alimenticio y medicinal (ufias usadas en el tratamiento
de la epilepsia).
En el estado Yaracuy el 56,6% de los consultados
no cazaban danta, pero si otras species de fauna, por
varias razones (e.g., mitico-religiosas, sanciones legis-
lativas, desconocimiento de la especie, lastima, etc.).
Cuarenta y nueve (43,4%) entrevistados dijeron que
han cazado o cazaban danta si la conseguian, dandole
un uso alimenticio (40) y medicinal (9), pero indicaron
que se ha vuelto una pieza escasa. Silva y Strahl (1996)
y Vispo (1998) reportan el uso del tapir s61o como
alimento por pobladores locales no indigenas al norte y
sur de Venezuela, respectivamente. La Figura 2 resume
los usos dados a la danta en el Estado Yaracuy.
El uso de tapires por indigenas en Venezuela ha sido
sefialado en la
literature (Bisbal,
1994, Fernandez,
2000; Gonzalez-
Fernandez,
2002; Mondolfi, 40
1971; Sponsel,
1986). Para 3,
ellos las dantas
constituyen una -
importante pieza
de caza. Las etnias
Yekuana y Panare,
en el estado
Bolivar, utilizan al AWmento Mdkcinal
tapir como fuente
de alimento,
consumiendo total


y parcialmente su care y visceras, respectivamente.
Estas etnias emplean las ufias para la fabricaci6n de
artesanias que luego pueden ser vendidas. Los Panare
usan la grasa como medicamento para afecciones
respiratorias. Para los Piaroa, en el estado Monagas, es
considerado un animal sagrado en el que reencarnan
sus antepasados, por esta raz6n no es cazado.
Adicionalmente los Yekuana suelen emplear el higado
como un augurio para la caza en un lugar determinado
(L. Salas com. pers.)
Tapirus terrestres es una pieza de caza de
subsistencia important en Venezuela, preferido por
la cantidad de biomasa que puede ofrecer, mas no por
el sabor de su care. Algunos sub-productos como las
ufias y la grasa son utilizados para la elaboraci6n de
amuletos, adornos y medicamentos.
Algunos cazadores no indigenas tienden a ser
oportunistas, pudiendo dar muerte a un tapir si lo
consiguen en su paso. Por otro lado, una pequefia parte
de la poblaci6n muestreada desconoce a la especie y
otro porcentaje la consider un animal sagrado; por
estas razones no la cazan.
Informaci6n indirecta, obtenida en este studio,
sugiere bajos niveles poblacionales y posibles extincio-
nes locales en las montafias de Cumboto y Cata en el
Estado Aragua y en las tierras bajas del Estado Yaracuy
especificamente en El Guayabo.



Agradecimientos

Este studio fue possible gracias al apoyo ofrecido
por la Oficina Nacional de Diversidad Biol6gica del
Ministerio del Ambiente y de los Recursos Naturales
de Venezuela, Fundaci6n AdigenA y el Fondo para la
Conservaci6n del Grupo de Especialistas de Tapires de
la Uni6n Mundial para la Naturaleza.


Figura 2.
Usos del Tapir
Amaz6nico
en el Estado
Yaracuy,
Venezuela.


MWdco- No cacc* No tmnn
F~tgtdlo
Um~gow


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 15/1 0 No. 19 0 June 2006






38 CONTRIBUTED PAPERS 0 NEWS IN BRIEF


Referencias Bibliograficas

Bisbal, F. 1994. Consumo de fauna silvestre en la zona de
Imataca, Estado Bolivar, Venezuela. Interciencia 19(1):
28-33
Fernandez, M. 2000. Etnozoologia campesina e indigena
Panare en la region del Rio Maniapure, Estado Bolivar,
Venezuela. Tesis de Grado, Facultad de Agronomia,
Universidad Central de Venezuela. Maracay.
Gonzalez-Fernandez, M. 2002. Diagn6stico preliminary del
uso de la fauna en la region del Rio Morichal Largo y
los Caflos Buja y Manamo, Estado Monagas. Informe
Tecnico, MARNR.


NEWS IN BRIEF




Endangered Species Research:

A New Journal

Well Designed for

IUCN SSC Specialist Groups

By Brendan Godley


Endangered Species Research (ESR) is a rela-
tively new journal but growing fast with 15 original
articles under review/production including manu-
scripts on plants, molluscs, fish, turtles, cetaceans,
otters and seabirds. We welcome submissions on all
taxa and ecosystems of conservation concern in ter-
restrial, freshwater and marine realm.
Our reviewing is very fast; with prompt action on
your behalf you can expect submission to publication
within six months. All papers are published online
within days of final completion and we can already
boast an average download rate of close to 200 per
article per month. Articles and all other ESR material
can be downloaded free of charge at the journal website
http://www.int-res.com/journals/esr/contents/
As articulated on the website, ESR "...publishes
contributions reporting research on all species (and
habitats) of conservation concern, whether they be clas-
sified as Near Threatened or Threatened (Endangered
or Vulnerable) by the International Union for the
Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN)
or highlighted as part of national or regional conser-
vation strategies. Submissions are also welcomed on


MARN. 200 la. Estrategia Nacional sobre Diversidad Biol6gica
y su Plan de Acci6n. Oficina Nacional de Diversidad
Biol6gica. Caracas. 135 pp.
Mondolfi, E. 1971. Mamiferos de Venezuela: La Danta o
Tapir. Defense de la Naturaleza. 1(3): 24-33.
Silva, J. L. Y S. Strahl. 1996. La caza furtiva en los Parques
Nacionales al Norte de Venezuela. Vida Silvestre
Neotropical 5(2): 126-139.
Sponsel, L. 1986. La caceria de los Ye'kuana bajo una
perspective ecol6gica. Montalban 17: 175-197.
Vispo, C. 1998. Uso criollo actual de la fauna y su context
hist6rico en el Bajo Caura. Memorias de la Sociedad de
Ciencias Naturales La Salle. Tomo LVIII No 149.





(among others) the following wider cross-cutting issues
and themes pertinent to the conservation of biodiver-
sity:


Captive breeding and re-introductions
Sustainable use
Conservation medicine (veterinary)
Conservation genetics
Population monitoring
Conservation economics
Restoration ecology
Invasive species
Effects of climate change
Fisheries bycatch
Bushmeat
Biodiversity assessment"


Submissions should be via the Managing Editor
Penny Khun at esr-submissions@int-res.com or contact
me if you would like to discuss anything further. If you
would like to receive additional updates about contents
to ESR you can subscribe for e-mail updates by send-
ing a message to: esr-contents-subscribe@int-res.com
containing the text "SUBSCRIBE esr-contents".

I look forward to hearing from you.


Dr. Brendan J. Godley
Lecturer in Conservation Biology
Editor-in-Chief, Endangered Species Research
Marine Turtle Research Group,
Centre for Ecology & Conservation
School of Biosciences, University of Exeter,
Cornwall Campus
Penryn,TRIO 9EZ, UK
Phone:01326 371 861
http://www.seaturtle.org/mtrg/


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 15/1 0 No. 19 0 June 2006






TSG MEMBERSHIP DIRECTORY 39


TSG MEMBERSHIP DIRECTORY



Currently, the TSG has 104 members, including
field researchers, educators, veterinarians, govern-
mental agencies and NGO representatives, zoo per-
sonnel, university professors and students, from 27
different countries worldwide (Argentina, Australia,
Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica,
Denmark, Ecuador, France, French Guiana, Germany,
Guatemala, Honduras, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico,
Myanmar, Republic of Panama, Paraguay, Peru,
Thailand, The Netherlands, United Kingdom, United
States, and Venezuela).


ABD GHANI, SITI KHADIJAH (Malaysia)
PERHILITAN Bukit Rengit, Krau Wildlife Reserve
E-mail: cobra7512081 @hotmail.com

AMANZO, JESSICA (Peru)
Seccion Ecologia, Sistematica y Evolucion,
Departamento Academico de Ciencias Biologicas y Fisiologicas
Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofia,
Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia
E-mail: jessicaamanzo@yahoo.com

ANGELL, GILIA (United States)
Designer,Amazon.com
E-mail:giliaangell@earthlink.net

APARICIO, KARLA (Republic of Panama)
M.Sc. Specialist in Wildlife Conservation and Management
Scientific Committee, Patronato "Amigos del Aguila Harpia"
E-mail: kaparicio@yahoo.com

BARONGI, RICK (United States)
Director, Houston Zoo Inc.
Member,American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA)
Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)
E-mail: RBarongi@aol.com; rbarongi@houstonzoo.org

BAUER, KENDRA (United States)
Ph.D. Graduate Student, University of Texas at Austin
E-mail: kendrabauer@mail.utexas.edu

BECK, HARALD (Germany I United States / Peru)
Ph.D.Assistant Professor & Curator of the Mammal Museum
Department of Biological Sciences,Towson University
E-mail: hbeck@towson.edu

BLANCO MARQUEZ, PILARALEXANDER (Venezuela)
D.V.M. Director Tecnico,
Fundaci6n Nacional de Parques Zool6gicos eAcuirios (FUNPZA)
Ministerio del Ambiente (MARN)
E-mail: albla69@yahoo.com.mx; funpza@marn.gov.ve

BODMER, RICHARD E. (England)
Ph.D. Lecturer in Biodiversity Conservation
Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology (DICE),
University of Kent
E-mail: R.Bodmer@ukc.ac.uk


BUSTOS, SOLEDAD DE (Argentina)
Licenciada en Ciencias Biol6gicas, Proyecto de Investigaci6n y
Conservaci6n del Tapir Noroeste Argentina
E-mail: soledaddebustos@yahoo.com.ar

CAMACHO, JAIME (Ecuador)
Coordinator, Programa Parques en Peligro,
Fundaci6n Ecuatoriana de Estudios Ecol6gicos EcoCiencia
E-mail: pep@ecociencia.org

CARBONELL TORRES, FABRICIO (Costa Rica)
Coordinador de Proyectos Ambientales,Asociaci6n Meralvis
E-mail: carbonf@yahoo.com.mx

CARTES,JOSE LUIS (Paraguay)
M.Sc. Coordinador de Conservaci6n de Sitios, Guyra Paraguay
E-mail: jlcartes@guyra.org.py

CASTELLANOS PENAFIEL,ARMANDO XAVIER (Ecuador)
Director,Andean Bear Project, Fundaci6n Espiritu del Bosque
E-mail: iznachi@yahoo.com.mx; zoobreviven@hotmail.com

CHALUKIAN, SILVIA C. (Argentina)
M.Sc. Proyecto de Investigaci6n y Conservaci6n del Tapir Noroeste
Argentina
E-mail: silviach@uolsinectis.com.ar; tapiresalta@argentina.com

COLBERT, MATTHEW (United States)
Ph.D. Research Associate, Jackson School of Geological Sciences,
University of Texas at Austin
E-mail: colbert@mail.utexas.edu

CONSTANTINO, EMILIO (Colombia)
E-mail: econch@gmail.com

CRUZ ALDAN, EPIGMENIO (Mexico)
M.Sc. Researcher, Instituto de Historia Natural y Ecologia
E-mail: pimecruz59 10@hotmail.com; cruz5910@tgz.megared.net.mx

CUARON,ALFREDO D. (Mexico)
Ph.D. Departamento de Ecologia de los Recursos Naturales,
Institute de Ecologia, UNAM
E-mail: cuaron@oikos.unam.mx

DEE, MICHAEL (United States)
General Curator, Los Angeles Zoo
Member, American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA)
Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)
E-mail: mdee@zoo.lacity.org

DESMOULINS,AUDE (France)
Lowland Tapir Studbook Keeper,
European Association of Zoos and Aquaria (EAZA)
Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)
E-mail: adesmoulins@mairie-lille.fr

DOWNER, CRAIG C. (United States)
BA, M.Sc., President, Andean Tapir Fund
E-mail: ccdowner@terra.es; ccdowner@yahoo.com

ESTRADAANDINO, NEREYDA (Honduras)
M.Sc. SAID MIRA
E-mail: nerestr@yahoo.com

FLESHER, KEVIN (United States I Brazil)
E-mail: KevinFlesher@yahoo.com


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 15/1 0 No. 19 0 June 2006






40 TSG MEMBERSHIP DIRECTORY


FLOCKEN,JEFFREY (United States)
Division of International Conservation, U.S. Fish &Wildlife Service
E-mail: jeff flocken@fws.gov

FOERSTER, CHARLES R. (United States / Costa Rica)
M.Sc. Leader, Baird's Tapir Project,
Corcovado National Park, Costa Rica
E-mail: CRFoerster@aol.com

FRANKLIN, NEIL (Indonesia)
Director, Indonesia Program,The Tiger Foundation (Canada) -
The Sumatran Tiger Trust (United Kingdom)
E-mail: franklin@pacific.net.id

GARCIAVETTORAZZI, MANOLO JOSE (Guatemala)
Licenciado, Investigador, Escuela de Biologia,
Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala
E-mail: manelgato@gmail.com

GARRELLE, DELLA (United States)
D.V.M. Director of Conservation and Animal Health,
Cheyenne Mountain Zoo
E-mail: dgarelle@cmzoo.org; dgarelle@yahoo.com

GLATSTON,ANGELA (The Netherlands)
Ph.D. Curator of Mammals, Rotterdam Zoo
Member, European Association of Zoos and Aquaria (EAZA)
Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)
E-mail: a.glatston@rotterdamzoo.nl

GOFF, DON (United States)
Director of Animal Programs, Beardsley Zoological Gardens
Lowland Tapir Studbook Keeper,American Zoo and Aquarium
Association (AZA) Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)
E-mail: dgoff@beardsleyzoo.org

GONCALVES DA SILVA,ANDERS (Brazil I United States)
Ph.D. Graduate Student, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Program
Center for Environmental Research and Conservation (CERC)
Department of Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Biology (E3B),
Columbia University
E-mail: ag2057@columbia.edu

GREENE, LEWIS (United States)
Director, Chaffee Zoological Society of Fresno
Chair, American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA)
Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)
E-mail: Igreene@fresnochaffeezoo.com

GUERRERO SANCHEZ, SERGIO (Mexico)
D.V.M. Manager, Clinic Laboratory, Zool6gico Regional Miguel Alvarez
del Toro (ZooMat), Instituto de Historia Natural y Ecologla
E-mail: ekio@yahoo.com

GUIRIS ANDRADE, DARIO MARCELINO (Mexico)
D.V.M. M.Sc.Jefe de Operaciones, UN.A.CH.,
Policlinica y Diagn6sticoVeterinario
E-mail: dmguiris@hotmail.com

HANDRUS, ELLIOT (Canada)
Curator, Mountain View Conservation Center
E-mail: elliot@mtnviewfarms.com

HERNANDEZ DIVERS, SONIA (United States)
D.V.M.Adjunct Professor, College ofVeterinary Medicine,
University of Georgia
E-mail: shernz@aol.com


HOLDEN,JEREMY (Indonesia)
Photographer, Flora and Fauna International
E-mail: pop@padang.wasantara.net.id; jeremy_holden I @yahoo.co.uk

HOLST, BENGT (Denmark)
M.Sc.Vice Director and Director of Conservation and Science,
Copenhagen Zoo
Chair, European Association of Zoos and Aquaria (EAZA) Tapir Taxon
Advisory Group (TAG)
E-mail: beh@zoo.dk

JANSSEN, DONALD L. (United States)
D.V.M. Ph.D. Director,Veterinary Services,
San Diego Wild Animal Park
E-mail: djanssen@sandiegozoo.org

JULIA,JUAN PABLO (Argentina)
Ph.D. Coordinador, Reserva Experimental Horco Molle
Universidad National de Tucumrn
E-mail: jupaju@yahoo.es

KAEWSIRISUK, SUWAT (Thailand)
Chief, Hala-Bala Wildlife Sanctuary Department of National Parks,
Wildlife and Plant Conservation
Royal Forest Department of Thailand
E-mail: king@btv.co.th

KANCHANASAKA, BUDSABONG (Thailand)
Wildlife Research Division Department of National Parks,
Wildlife and Plant Conservation
Royal Forestry Department of Thailand
E-mail: Budsa@hotmail.com

KASTON FLOREZ, FRANZ (Colombia)
D.V.M. Scientific Director, Fundaci6n Nativa
E-mail: tapirlanudo@hotmail.com

KAWANISHI, KAE (Malaysia)
Ph.D.Technical Advisor, Division of Research and Conservation
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (DWNP)
E-mail: kae@wildlife.gov.my; kae2000@tm.net.my

KONSTANT,WILLIAM (United States)
Director of Conservation and Science, Houston Zoo Inc.
E-mail: bkonstant@houstonzoo.org

LIRATORRES, IVAN (Mexico)
D.V.M. M.Sc. Research Associate, Universidad del Mar -
Campus Puerto Escondido
E-mail: ilira@zicatela.umar.mx; ilira 12@hotmail.com

LIZCANO, DIEGO J. (Colombia)
Ph.D. Universidad de Pamplona
E-mail: dl36@ukc.ac.uk

LUIS, CRISTINA (Portugal)
Ph.D. Graduate Student, Centro de Biologia Animal,
Departamento de Biologia Animal
Faculdade de Ciincias, Universidade de Lisboa
E-mail: cmluis@fc.ul.pt

LYNAM,ANTONY (Thailand)
Ph.D.Associate Conservation Scientist & Regional Advisor,
Wildlife Conservation Society -Asia Program
E-mail: tlynam@wcs.org


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 15/1 0 No. 19 0 June 2006






TSG MEMBERSHIP DIRECTORY 41


MANGINI, PAULO ROGERIO (Brazil)
D.V.M. M.Sc. Research Associate, IPE Instituto de Pesquisas Ecol6gicas
(Institute for Ecological Research)
E-mail: pmangini@uol.com.br; pmangini@ipe.org.br

MARTYR, DEBORAH (Indonesia)
Team Leader, Flora and Fauna International
E-mail: ffitigers@telkom.net

MATOLA, SHARON (United States I Belize)
Director, Belize Zoo and Tropical Education Center
E-mail: matola@belizezoo.org

McLAIN,JENNIFER (United States)
Registrar, Houston Zoo Inc.
Malay Tapir Studbook Keeper, American Zoo and Aquarium
Association (AZA) Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)
E-mail:jmclain@houstonzoo.org

MEDICI, PATRICIA (Brazil)
Research Coordinator, IPE Instituto de Pesquisas Ecol6gicas
(Institute for Ecological Research)
Ph.D. Graduate Student, Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology
(DICE), University of Kent, United Kingdom
E-mail: epmedici@uol.com.br; medici@ipe.org.br

MEIJAARD, ERIK (The Netherlands / Indonesia)
Ph.D. Senior Forest Ecologist,The Nature Conservancy (TNC),
East Kalimantan Provincial Office
E-mail: emeijaard@samarinda.org

MENDOZA,ALBERTO (Mexico I United States)
D.V.M. Manager, Latin American Programs, Houston Zoo Inc.
Education Advisor, American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA)
Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)
E-mail: amendoza@houstonzoo.org

MOLLINEDO, MANUELA. (United States)
Director, San Francisco Zoological Gardens
E-mail: manuelm@sfzoo.org

MONTENEGRO, OLGA LUCIA (Colombia)
Ph.D. Universidad Nacional de Colombia (UNAL)
E-mail: olmdco@yahoo.com

MORALES, MIGUELA. (Paraguay I United States)
Ph.D. Graduate Student, Land Resources Program
Gaylord Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies,
University of Wisconsin
E-mail: mamorales@wisc.edu

NARANJO PINERA, EDUARDO J. (Mexico)
Ph.D. El Colegio de la Frontera Sur (ECOSUR)
E-mail: enaranjo@sclc.ecosur.mx

NOGALES, FERNANDO (Ecuador)
Researcher, Fundaci6n Ecol6gica Arcoiris
Professor, Escuela de Gesti6n Ambiental de la Universidad Tecnica
Particular de Loja
E-mail: anfibios@arcoiris.org.ec

NOVARINO,WILSON (Indonesia)
Lecturer, Jurusan Biologi FMIPA, Universitas Andalas
E-mail: wilson n id@yahoo.com


O'FARRILL, GEORGINA (Mexico I Canada)
Ph.D. Graduate Student, Biology Department, McGill University
E-mail: xoxoofarrill@yahoo.com.mx

ORDONEZ DELGADO, LEONARDO (Ecuador)
Coordinator, Proyecto Corredores de Conservaci6n,
Fundaci6n Ecol6gica Arcoiris
E-mail: paramos@arcoiris.org.ec; tsg.ecuador@gmail.com

ORTMEIERVELASTIN, GEORGE (Brazil)
D.V.M. Staff Member,Vida Livre Medicina de Animais Selvagens
E-mail: velastin@uol.com.br

PARAS GARCIA,ALBERTO (Mexico)
D.V.M. Gerente del Departamento deVeterinaria,Africam Safari
E-mail: pago@servidor.unam.mx; pago@africamsafari.com.mx

PAVIOLO,AGUSTIN (Argentina)
Biologist, Ph.D. Graduate Student, CONICET- LIEY,
Universidad Nacional deTucumin
E-mail: paviolo4@arnet.com.ar

PEDRAZA PENALOSA, CARLOS ALBERTO (Colombia)
Institute de Investigaci6n de Recursos Biol6gicos
"Alexander von Humboldt"
E-mail: cpedraz@gmail.com

PRAYURASIDDHI,THEERAPAT (Thailand)
Ph.D.Technical Forest Official Department of National Parks,
Wildlife and Plant Conservation
Royal Forest Department of Thailand
E-mail: theerapat@hotmail.com

QUSE,VIVIANA BEATRIZ (Argentina)
D.V.M. Senior Veterinarian, Fundaci6n Temaiken
E-mail: vquse@temaiken.com.ar

RESTREPO, HECTOR FRANCISCO (Colombia)
M.Sc. Fundaci6n Wii
E-mail: restrepof@gmail.com

RODRIGUEZ ORTIZ,JULIANA (Colombia)
Institute de Ciencias Naturales,
Universidad Nacional de Colombia (UNAL)
E-mail: mjuli2@gmail.com

ROMAN,JOSEPH (United States)
Curator,Virginia Zoological Park
Baird's Tapir Studbook Keeper,American Zoo and Aquarium
Association (AZA) Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)
E-mail: Joseph.Roman@norfolk.gov

RUBIANO,ASTRITH (Colombia I United States)
University of Connecticut / Conservation and Research Center,
Smithsonian Institution
E-mail: astrith.rubiano@uconn.edu; astrithrubiano@yahoo.com

RUIZ FUAMAGALLI,JOSE ROBERTO (Guatemala)
Professor & Researcher, Escuela de Biologia,
Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala
E-mail: rruizf@yahoo.com

RUSSO, KELLY J. (United States)
Conservation Program Assistant, Houston Zoo Inc.
E-mail: krusso@houstonzoo.org


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 15/1 0 No. 19 0 June 2006






42 TSG MEMBERSHIP DIRECTORY U NEW JOURNALS


SALAS, LEONARDO (Venezuela I Papua New Guinea)
Ph.D.Animal Population Biologist,
Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS)
E-mail: LeoASalas@netscape.net

SAMUDIO JR., RAFAEL (Panama)
Ph.D. President, Sociedad Mastozoologica de Panami (SOMASPA)
Director, Proyecto de Biodiversidad de Mamfferos (PROBIOMA)
E-mail: samudior@si.edu

SANDOVAL ARENAS, SERGIO (Colombia)
E-mail: dantascol@yahoo.com.mx

SANDOVAL CANAS, LUIS FERNANDO (Ecuador)
Licenciado en Ciencias Biol6gicas, Escuela de Biolog(a,
Universidad Central del Ecuador
E-mail: Ifsandovalc@hotmail.com

SARMIENTO DUENAS,ADRIANA MERCEDES (Colombia)
M.Sc. Candidate, Universidad Nacional de Colombia
E-mail: adrianasarmi@hotmail.com; adriana-s@wildmail.com

SARRIA PEREA, JAVIERADOLFO (Colombia)
D.V.M. M.Sc. Genetics & Animal Improvement
E-mail: jasarrip@fcav.unesp.br; jasarrip@yahoo.com

SEITZ, STEFAN (Germany)
Ph.D. Zoo Biologist: Behavior and Management
4TAPIRS Information Centre
E-mail: tapirseitz@web.de; info@4tapirs.de

SHOEMAKER,ALAN H. (United States)
Permit Advisor, American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA)
Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)
E-mail: sshoe@mindspring.com

SMITH, BRANDIE (United States)
Assistant Director, Conservation and Science,
American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA)
Advisor,American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA)
Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)
E-mail: bsmith@aza.org

SUAREZ MEJIA,JAIMEANDRES (Colombia)
Jardin Botanico, Universidad Tecnol6gica de Pereira
E-mail: suarmatta@yahoo.com; jsuarezmejia@gmail.com

TAPIA,ANDRES (Ecuador)
Centro Tecnol6gico de Recursos Amaz6nicos de la
Organizaci6n de Pueblos Indigenas de Pastaza (OPIP)
E-mail: centrofatima@andinanet.net; centrofati@panchonet.net

THOISY, BENOIT DE (French Guiana)
D.V.M. Ph.D. Kwata Association
E-mail: thoisy@nplus.gf; bdethoisy@pasteur-cayenne.fr

TOBLER, MATHIAS (United States / Peru)
Ph.D. Graduate Student, Botanical Research Institute of Texas
E-mail: matobler@gmx.net

TODD, SHERYL (United States)
President,Tapir Preservation Fund (TPF)
E-mail: tapir@tapirback.com


TOFOLI, CRISTINA F. (Brazil)
M.Sc. Graduate Student, Sao Paulo University
(USP Universidade de Sao Paulo)
Researcher, IPE Instituto de Pesquisas Ecol6gicas
(Institute for Ecological Research)
E-mail: cftofoli@yahoo.com.br

TORRES, NATALIA (Ecuador)
Escuela de Gesti6n Ambiental de la Universidad
Tecnica Particular de Loja
E-mail: naty 175@yahoo.com

TRAEHOLT, CARL (Denmark I Malaysia I Cambodia)
Ph.D. Research Coordinator, Malayan Tapir Project,
Krau Wildlife Reserve, Copenhagen Zoo
E-mail: ctraeholt@pd.jaring.my

ULLOA, OSCAR (Belize)
Wildlife Officer, Conservation Division,
Ministry of Natural Resources
E-mail: belgreens@yahoo.com

VALDEZ LEAL, JUAN DE DIOS (Mexico I Costa Rica)
E-mail: jdvaldezleal@yahoo.com.mx

VAN STRIEN, NICO (The Netherlands / Indonesia)
Ph.D. SE Asia Coordinator, International Rhino Foundation
E-mail: strien@compuserve.com; Strien@indo.net.id

VARELA, DIEGO (Argentina)
Ph.D. Graduate Student, Universidad de Buenos Aires /
Conservaci6n Argentina
E-mail: diegomv@arnet.com.ar

VIEIRA FRAGOSO,JOSE MANUEL (United States)
Ph.D.Associate Professor, Botany Department,
University of Hawaii at Manoa
E-mail: fragoso@hawaii.edu

WALLACE, ROBERT B. (England I Bolivia)
Ph.D.Associate Conservation Ecologist,
Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) Madidi
E-mail: rwallace@wcs.org

WATERS, SIAN S. (United Kingdom)
BA, M.Phil. Conservation Zoologist
E-mail: sian s waters@hotmail.com; sian s waters@yahoo.co.uk

WILLIAMS, KEITH (Australia)
Ph.D. Private Consultant
E-mail: kdwilliams56@yahoo.co.uk

WOHLERS, HUMBERTO (Belize)
General Curator, Belize Zoo
E-mail: animalmgt@belizezoo.org; humbertowohlers@yahoo.com

ZAINUDDIN, ZAINAL ZAHARI (Malaysia)
Malaysian Department of Wildlife and National Parks (DWNP)
E-mail: rhinosrcc@hotmail.com; zainal@wildlife.gov.my








TAPIR SPECIALIST GROUP


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 15/1 0 No. 19 0 June 2006






THE NEWSLETTER OF THE IUCN/SSC TAPIR SPECIALIST GROUP 43


Chair
Patricia Medici, Brazil, epmedici@uol.com.br
Deputy-Chairs
Siin S.Waters, United Kingdom, sian s waters@hotmail.com
William Konstant, United States, bkonstant@houstonzoo.org
Baird's Tapir Coordinator
Eduardo J. Naranjo Pihera, Mexico, enaranjo@sclc.ecosur.mx
Lowland Tapir Coordinator
Viviana Beatriz Quse,Argentina, vquse@temaiken.com.ar
Malay Tapir Coordinator
Carl Traeholt, Denmark / Malaysia, ctraeholt@pd.jaring.my
Mountain Tapir Coordinator
Diego J. Lizcano, Colombia, dl36@ukc.ac.uk
Red List Authority
Alan H. Shoemaker, United States, sshoe@mindspring.com
Tapir Conservation Newsletter Editors
Leonardo Salas,Venezuela / Papua New Guinea, Isalas@global.net.pg
Stefan Seitz, Germany, tapirseitz@web.de
Kelly J. Russo, United States, krusso@houstonzoo.org
Rick Barongi, United States, rbarongi@houstonzoo.org
Virtual Library Manager
Harald Beck, Germany / United States, hbeck@towson.edu
Fundraising Committee Coordinator
Patricia Medici, Brazil, epmedici@uol.com.br
William Konstant, United States, bkonstant@houstonzoo.org
Action Planning Committee Coordinator
Patricia Medici, Brazil, epmedici@uol.com.br
Zoo Committee Coordinator
Viviana Beatriz Quse,Argentina, vquse@temaiken.com.ar
Veterinary Committee Coordinator
D.V.M.Javier Adolfo Sarria Perea, Colombia, jasarrip@yahoo.com
Genetics Committee Coordinators
Anders Gongalves da Silva, Brazil / United States, ag2057@columbia.edu
Cristina Luis, Portugal, cmluis@fc.ul.pt
Education & Outreach Committee Coordinator
Kelly J. Russo, United States, krusso@houstonzoo.org
Marketing Committee &Website Coordinator
Gilia Angell, United States, giliaangell@earthlink.net
Ethics Committee
Task Force Re-Introduction & Translocation
Siin S.Waters, United Kingdom, sian s waters@hotmail.com
Task Force Action Plan Implementation
Patricia Medici, Brazil, epmedici@uol.com.br
Task Force Confiscated Animals
Rick Barongi, United States, rbarongi@houstonzoo.org
Working Group Human/Tapir Conflict
Siin S.Waters, United Kingdom, sian s waters@hotmail.com
Working Group MalayTapir
Evolution Consultant
Matthew Colbert, United States, colbert@mail.utexas.edu


Scope
This newsletter aims to provide information regarding all
aspects of tapir natural history. Items of news, recent events,
recent publications, thesis abstracts, workshop proceedings
etc concerning tapirs are welcome. Manuscripts should be
submitted in MS Word.

Deadlines
There are two deadlines per year: 3 I March for publication
in June and 30 September for publication in December.

Please include the full name and address of the authors
underneath the title of the article and specify who is the
corresponding author.

Full length articles on any aspect of tapir natural history
are accepted in English, Spanish or Portuguese language. They
should not be more than eight pages in length (including
references). In any case, an English abstract is required.

Figures and Maps
Contributions can include black and white photographs, high
quality figures and high quality maps and tables. Please send
them as separate files (formats preferred: jpg, pdf, cdr, xls).

References
Please refer to these examples when listing references:

journal Article
Herrera, J.C.,Taber,A.,Wallace, R.B. & Painter, L. 1999.
Lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) behavioral ecology in a
southern Amazonian tropical forest. Vida Silv.Tropicale
8:31-37.

Chapter in Book
Janssen, D.L., Rideout, B.A. & Edwards, M.S. 1999.Tapir
Medicine. In: M.E. Fowler & R. E. Miller (eds.) Zoo and Wild
Animal Medicine, pp.562-568. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia,
USA.

Book
Brooks, D.M., Bodmer, R.E. & Matola, S. 1997.Tapirs: Status,
Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN, Gland,
Switzerland.

ThesislDissertation
Foerster. C.R. 1998.Ambito de Hogar, Patron de Movimentso
y Dieta de la Danta Centroamericana (Tapirus bairdii) en
el Parque Nacional Corcovado, Costa Rica. M.S. thesis.
Universidad Nacional, Heredia, Costa Rica.

Report
Santiapilli, C.& Ramono,WS. 1989.The Status and
Conservation of the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) in Sumatra,
Indonesia. Unpublished Report,Worldwide Fund for Nature,
Bogor, Indonesia.

Contact
Please send all contributions to Leonardo Salas,
LeoASalas@netscape.net or by hard copy to this postal
address: P.O. Box 106,Waigani, NCD, Papua New Guinea.


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 15/1 0 No. 19 0 June 2006








Tapir Conservation

The Newsletter of theTapirSpeci.a t Grou


Volume 15/1 U No. 19 U June 2006


I~ Cotet


Contents ....................................... ............ 2

Editorial Board ............................................. 2

From the Chair .............................................. 3
Letter from the Chair
By Patricia Medici ....................... .................... 3

TSG Committee Reports ................................. 6
Marketing Committee and Website
By Gilia Angell ............................................. 6
Veterinary Committee
By Javier Sarria ............................ ................... 7
Human/Tapir Conflicts Working Group:
Preliminary Data and Further Investigations
By Sian S. Waters, Silvia Chalukian & Diego Lizcano 8

Symposium Report ........................................ 9
Third International Tapir Symposium
Buenos Aires, Argentina, 26-31 January 2006
By Patricia Medici & Alberto Mendoza .................. 9

Project Updates ........................................... 17
Preliminary Analysis of Footprints for
Lowland Tapir Identification
By Zoe Jewell, Sky Alibhai & Silvia Chalukian ....... 17
The TSG Library becomes Virtual
By Harald Beck ............................................. 18

News from the Field ..................................... 19
Rescuing Lucia A Tapir for Sale on the Web
By Adrian Benedetti ........................... ...... 19


New s in Brief ............................................. 20
Brian Bovyer Raises $ 450 for Tapirs
By Gilia Angell .............................................. 20
Contributed Papers .................................... 21
Status and Conservation of Baird's Tapir
in Oaxaca, Mexico
By Ivan Lira Torres, Eduardo J. Naranjo Pihera,
Daniel Hilliard, Marco Antonio Camacho Escobar,
Alejandra de Villa Meza, and
Miguel Angel Reyes Chargoy ............................. 21
Ethnozoology of the Amazonian Tapir
(Tapirus terrestris Linnaeus 1758) in the
Sarayaku Community, Ecuador
By Andr6s Tapia and Dionisio Machoa ............... 28
Manilkara zapota: A New Record of a Species
Dispersed by Tapirs
By Georgina O'Farrill, Sophie Calm6 and
Andrew Gonzalez .............................................. 32
Etnozoologia de la Danta (Tapirus terrestris)
en Venezuela
By Adrian Naveda-Rodriguez y Armando L6pez .... 36

New s in Brief ............................................. 38
Endangered Species Research: A New Journal Well
Designed for IUCN SSC Specialist Groups
By Brendan Godley ...................................... 38
Tapir Specialist Group Members .................... 39
Tapir Specialist Group Structure ................... 43
Notes for Contributors ................................ 43


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