Group Title: Tapir conservation (Print)
Title: Tapir conservation
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Title: Tapir conservation the newsletter of the IUCNSSC Tapir Specialist Group
Uniform Title: Tapir conservation (Print)
Abbreviated Title: Tapir conserv. (Print)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group
IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group
Publisher: IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group
Place of Publication: Houston TX
Houston TX
Publication Date: June 2005
Copyright Date: 2009
Frequency: semiannual
regular
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Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
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Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began in 1990.
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 12, no. 2 (Dec. 2003); title from cover.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00095885
Volume ID: VID00017
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 56897961
lccn - 2004215875
issn - 1813-2286

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ISSN 1813-2286
Volume 14/1 U No. 17
June 2005


TAPIR SPECIALIST GROUP


Tapir Conservation


www.tapirspecialistgroup.org


Edited by Leonardo Salas and Stefan Seitz

S4 U Letter from
the Chair
7 TSG
Committee
Reports
0 Ask the
Experts
0 News from
the Field
a Contributed
Papers
Conservation
News
TSG
Membership
SDirectory


Printing and distribution of the Tapir Conservation Newsletter is supported by the
Houston Zoo Inc., 1513 N. Mac Gregor, Houston,Texas 77030, United States,
http://www.houstonzoo.org


NATURALLY
WILD






2 THE NEWSLETTER OF THE IUCN/SSC TAPIR SPECIALIST GROUP


Conent


Volume 14/1 U No. 17 E June 2005

From the Chair
Letter from the Chair Patricia Medici


TSG Committee Reports 6
Marketing Committee 6
Genetics Committee 7
Education & Outreach Committee 8

Ask the Experts 8
Fragmentation of Tapir Populations and the Loss of
Heterozygosity 8
News from the Field II
BRAZIL II
The Influence of Large Herbivores on Neotropical Forests II
Tapir Extinction in the Atlantic Forests between the Rio de
Contas and the Rio Paraguaqu 13
COLOMBIA 15
Current Distribution and Conservation Status of the
Colombian Lowland Tapir (Tapirus terrestris colombianus)
and the Baird's or Central American Tapir (Tapirus bairdii)
in Colombia 15
Red Book of Mammals of Colombia 18
Linking Mountain Tapir Populations in South-western
Colombia 19

Contributed Papers 21
Manejo en Semi-cautiverio del Tapir Amaz6nico (Tapirus
terrestris) en Bosque Secundario Amaz6nico Ecuatoriano,
Provincia de Pastaza 21
Preferencia por Fecas de Tapir Amaz6nico (Tapirus terrestris)
de Escarabajos Estercoleros (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae:
Scarabaeinae) en Bosque Secundario Amaz6nico 24

Conservation News 29
Red Danta -A Report of Activities 29
Footprinting Tapirs -The Development of a Footprint
Identification Technique (FIT) 30
Erratum 30

IUCNISSC Tapir Specialist Group
Membership Directory 31

Cover Photograph 38

IUCNISSC Tapir Specialist Group
Structure 39

Notes for Contributors 39


The views expressed in Tapir Conservation are those of the
authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the IUCN/SSC
Tapir Specialist Group or Houston Zoological Gardens. This
publication may be photocopied for private use only and the
copyright remains that of the Tapir Specialist Group. Copyright
for all photographs herein remains with the individual photo-
graphers.


Tapi Consevatio


Abbreviation


ISSN


Editorial Board


Collaborators


Editors


Production
& Distribution


Subscriptions






Website


Tapir Cons.

1813-2286


William Konstant
E-mail: bkonstant@houstonzoo.org


Leonardo Salas
E-mail: LeoASalas@netscape.net

Diego J. Lizcano
E-mail: dl36@ukc.ac.uk

Alan H. Shoemaker
E-mail: sshoe@mindspring.com

PilarAlexander Blanco Marquez
E-mail: albla@telcel.net.ve; albla69@hotmail.com

Matthew Colbert
E-mail: colbert@mail.utexas.edu

Anders Gongalves da Silva
E-mail: ag2057@columbia.edu

Angela Glatston
E-mail: a.glatston@rotterdamzoo.nl

Patricia Medici
E-mail: epmedici@uol.com.br; medici@ipe.org.br


Sheryl Todd
E-mail: tapir@tapirback.com

Leonardo Salas
LeoASalas@netscape.net

Stefan Seitz
tapirseitz@web.de

Kelly J. Russo
krusso@houstonzoo.org

Rick Barongi
rbarongi@houstonzoo.org


This issue is kindly sponsored by Houston Zoo
Inc., Cons. Program Asst., Kelly Russo, 1513 North
Mac Gregor, Houston,Texas 77030, USA.

Members of the Tapir Specialist Group receive the
newsletter free of charge. Subscriptions for non-
members are $10.00 per year and can be obtained
from Sheryl Todd, Tapir Preservation Fund,
tapir@tapirback.com.

www.tapirspecialistgroup.org


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 14/1 0 No. 17 0 June 2005






FROM THE CHAIR 3



Fro th hi


Letter from the Chair

Patricia Medici


Here we are again ... six months have passed since
the publication of the last issue of the Tapir Con-
servation Newsletter and it is time to prepare another
report and update all of you on our most recent activi-
ties. I have to be honest and admit that it is becoming
harder and harder to write this Letter from the Chair!
Every time I sit down in front of my computer to write
this letter I realize how much our group has been doing
and how much we have progressed in our effectiveness
in terms of conservation of the four tapir species. It is
really difficult to select the topics I want to mention!
There is so much going on, so many activities being
conducted, so many actions being put into practice, so
many competent, incredible people working so hard ...
but ... I know I have to select the highlights; otherwise
this letter would end up having dozens of pages! Let
me give it a try!
Before I say anything else, I would like to welcome
our new Tapir Conservation Newsletter Contributions
Editor, Leonardo Salas ... Known to the tapir com-
munity as Leo! As you will remember, our previous
contributions editor was Sian Waters who, working
together with Stefan Seitz and Kelly Russo and with
funding from the Houston Zoo Inc., did the most ama-
zing job and brought this publication to a whole new
level, improving its design and, most importantly, its
scientific quality. Despite the fact that I am sure that
our editorial team will miss her a great deal, we abso-
lutely understand the reasons why Sian had to pass
the torch ... after all, she is one of our most active
members and has a number of other jobs within the
TSG, including Co-Deputy Chair and Coordinator
of the Zoo Committee! So ... without further ado, I
would like thank Sian for all her hard work putting
this newsletter together over the past two years. Thank
you, Sian. We are extremely grateful for all your help.
Now ... the torch is with you Leo and ... I would already
like to congratulate you for the great job putting your
first issue together! Excellent job!!!
Moving on ... I would like to let you know that
our TSG Action Planning Committee keeps working
very hard towards achieving the goal of revising and
updating the first version of the IUCN/SSC Tapir
Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan (Brooks
et al. 1997). As you will probably remember, our first
step towards achieving this goal was the organization


of the Malay Tapir PHVA Workshop held in Malaysia in
August 2003. A total of 35 participants from Malaysia,
Indonesia and Thailand, as well as TSG representati-
ves from several other countries, produced a revised
and updated Action Plan for the Malay tapir, listing and
prioritizing strategies and actions for the conservation
of the species. The document has been distributed to
all workshop participants and other interested parties
in Southeast Asia, and made available online on the
TSG Website.
During the Second International Tapir Symposium
held in Panama in January 2004, TSG members agreed
that the next PHVA should focus on mountain tapirs.
As a result, the Mountain Tapir PHVA Workshop was
held in Colombia in October 2004. Approximately 70
representatives from the three mountain tapir range
countries Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru as well as
TSG officers from other countries, attended the work-
shop and produced a revised and updated Action Plan
for the Mountain
Tapir, once
again, listing
and prioritizing
the most appro-
priate strategies
and actions for
the conservation
of the species.
The final report
of the workshop
is currently
being reviewed
and, as soon as
it is finalized, it
will be widely
distributed in
both Spanish
and English,
and made avai-
lable online
on the TSG
Website. (For The Baird's Tapir (Tapirus bairdii)
further inf orma- will be the focus of the next
tion about the Population and HabitatViability
Mountain Tapir Assessment (PHVA) Workshop
PHVA Workshop organized by the IUCN/SSC Tapir
please see the Specialist Group (TSG).
article included CreditWilliam Konstant.
in this issue).
Considering that two of four tapir species have been
the focus of the abovementioned PHVA workshops, we


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 14/1 0 No. 17 0 June 2005






4 FROM THE CHAIR


can now say that we do have 50% of the second version
of the Tapir Action Plan revised and updated. The next
species we will focus on is the Baird's tapir, and we
are currently in the process of organizing the "Baird's
Tapir Conservation Workshop: Population and Habitat
Viability Assessment (PHVA)", which will be held at
The Belize Zoo and The Tropical Education Center
(TEC), Belize, Central America, from August 15 to 19,
2005. Approximately 70 representatives, including
field and captivity researchers and conservationists,
representatives from governmental agencies, non-


The Belize Zoo and The Tropical Education Center are
two of the main institutional supporters of the Baird's
Tapir PHVAWorkshop to be held in Belize, in August
2005.


governmental organizations, local and international
conservation organizations, universities, research
institutes, members of local communities, zoological
institutions, etc., from the eight Baird's tapir range
countries Belize, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala,
Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua and Panama are expec-
ted to attend the workshop. The Tapir Specialist Group
is the organization undertaking the project, and our
main partner is the IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding
Specialist Group (CBSG), which will be responsible for
the design and facilitation of the workshop, as well as
production of workshop materials and final reports.
The institutional supporters of this project are the
American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA) Tapir
Taxon Advisory Group (TAG), European Association of
Zoos and Aquaria (EAZA) Tapir Taxon Advisory Group
(TAG), The Belize Zoo & The Tropical Education
Center (TEC), Belize, and Houston Zoo Inc., United
States. At present, we have been able to raise approxi-
mately 63% of the funds needed to conduct this work-
shop. The organizations that have committed support
to the meeting are the American Zoo and Aquarium
Association (AZA) Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG);


Houston Zoo Inc., USA; U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service,
USA; Milwaukee County Zoological Gardens, USA;
XCARET Zoo, Mexico; World Association of Zoos and
Aquariums (WAZA), Switzerland; Nashville Zoo, USA;
Sedgwick County Zoo, USA; Bergen County Zoological
Park, USA; Los Angeles Zoo, USA; San Diego Zoo, USA;
Franklin Park Zoo, USA; Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo,
USA; Jacksonville Zoo and Gardens, USA; Louisiana
Purchase Zoo, USA; Wuppertal Zoo, Germany; BREC's
Baton Rouge Zoo, USA; Connecticut's Beardsley Zoo
Conservation Fund, USA; Brevard Zoo, USA; Lee
Richardson Zoo, USA; and a few private donors.
Still on the subject of action planning, I would like
to mention that our TSG Country Coordinators conti-
nue to work hard on the development of our National
Action Plans for Tapir Research and Conservation.
Our Country Coordinators for Argentina (Silvia
Chalukian), Costa Rica (Fabricio Carbonell), Ecuador
(Fernando Nogales and Leonardo Ordofiez Delgado),
Honduras (Nereyda Estrada) and Peru (Richard
Bodmer and Jessica Amanzo) are doing an excellent
job, and should have their plans finalized in time to
be presented during the next Tapir Symposium in
Argentina. However, we are still lacking country coor-
dinators for Malaysia, Nicaragua, and Venezuela. If you
know of any professionals or organizations that would
be willing to take over these positions, please let us
know as soon as possible. We would greatly appreciate
any suggestions.

Speaking of TSG meetings, I would like to mention
that we have decided the dates for the Third
International Tapir Symposium, which will be held
in Buenos Aires, Argentina, from January 26 to
31. The main organizers of the conference are the
Tapir Specialist Group, Houston Zoo Inc., Fundaci6n
Temaik6n in Argentina, AZA Tapir Taxon Advisory
Group (TAG), and EAZA Tapir Taxon Advisory Group
(TAG). A small committee of TSG members sponsored
by the Houston zoo traveled to Argentina in May, visited
the hotel facilities, looked into the logistical aspects for
the organization of the symposium in Buenos Aires, and
kicked off the organization process. During the next
months we will be promoting the conference, raising
the necessary funds to hold it, and contacting potential
speakers for our different sessions. We will make
sure to keep you all posted about any developments
regarding the next symposium, and we hope to see you
all in Buenos Aires in January 2006!!!
Another important recent event for tapir conserva-
tion was organized by the Wildlife Conservation Society
(WCS), in partnership with the TSG and the IUCN/SSC
Pigs, Peccaries and Hippos Specialist Group. The
"Lowland Tapir and White-lipped Peccary Range-Wide
Priority Setting Workshop", was held in Santa Cruz,
Bolivia, from April 3 to 10. The organization of this


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 14/1 0 No. 17 0 June 2005






FROM THE CHAIR 5


workshop was listed as one of the priority actions
included in the TSG Plans for Action 2004-2005
document produced during the Second International
Tapir Symposium in Panama in January 2004. The
major goals of this workshop were the establishment
of a network of tapir and peccary researchers in order
to facilitate information exchange and standardize
research methods, assessment of the knowledge on
distribution and conservation status of lowland tapirs
and peccaries throughout their respective ranges,
prioritization of current threats to the survival of these
species across their ranges and creation of a framework
to assess and alleviate these threats, and finally, the
identification of priority areas for the implementation
of tapir and peccary conservation efforts, prioritizing
topics for further research. All tapir and peccary
experts invited to attend this workshop, including all
TSG Coordinators for the countries within the lowland
tapir range and several TSG members, have contributed
their own data and results for this process, which will
be a significant step forward for the conservation of
lowland tapirs and peccaries. Information and final
results generated through the conduction of this
workshop will be used for and included in the next
version of the Lowland Tapir Action Plan.

Our TSG Committees continue to work tirelessly
in putting the actions included in the TSG Plans
for Action 2004-2005 into practice. I would like to
highlight the excellent work done by our Zoo, Genetics
and Education committees over the past six months.
Sian Waters, coordinator of our Zoo Committee,
is spending a lot of time and energy disseminating
information about the TSG to regional zoological
associations worldwide. A short article entitled "The
TSG and its Relationship with Zoos" was published
in International Zoo News at the end of 2004. The
same information will also be published in the UK Zoo
Federation's upcoming newsletter. EAZA News will
also be publishing an article on field projects, which
European zoological institutions and the TSG are sup-
porting or coordinating. Additionally, TSG informati-
on was also sent to the AZA Communiqu6, ARAZPA,
SEAZA and Canadian Zoo Association. TSG members
volunteered to translate the articles to both Spanish
and Portuguese and they were sent to the Brazilian,
Mexican, and Venezuelan Zoo Associations, as well as
to the Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG)
coordinators for Mesoamerica and Mexico.
Still on the matter of the Zoo Committee, I would
like to let you know that thanks to Alan Shoemaker's
incredible efficiency the "AZA Husbandry Standards
For Tapirs" was modified for international use and
translated into Portuguese, French and German.
Additionally, the "Minimum Husbandry Standards for
Tapirs", an article published by Rick Barongi in 1999,


has been translated into Spanish, Bahasa Indonesia,
and Bahasa Malay (the Malaysian language). All versi-
ons for both documents are online on the TSG website
and can be downloaded in PDF format. Alternatively,
any TSG members or other persons interested in recei-
ving electronic copies of these documents should con-
tact Alan Shoemaker at sshoe@mindspring.com.
The coordinators of our Genetics Committee -
Anders Goncalves da Silva, Javier Sarria Perea, and
Cristina Luis spent the last six months shaping a new
format for the "International Tapir Genetics Project",
and the role of the Committee within the TSG. While
on one hand the replies we got from the survey showed
a wide variety of necessities, and attempts to secure
direct funding for the project have so far been unsuc-
cessful, on the other hand individual projects involving
genetics of tapirs developed by researchers in and
outside range countries are progressing at an amazing
pace. To this effect, the emphasis of the International
Project has changed into capacity building, technical
advise, networking and when possible assistance in
finding and securing financial support, rather than
direct involvement. The committee coordinators have
decided that by stimulating individual projects in range
countries, these researchers might be inclined to share
their results with the group, and these results could
then be compiled from all or most range countries,
thereby helping to define conservation priority areas
as far as genetics is concerned. All information will,
of course, be properly credited and researchers will
actively participate in the analyses and making sugges-
tions for recommendations. Projects currently wor-
king with the TSG Genetics Committee include Carlos
Pedraza's Genetics of Mountain Tapirs in Colombia,
Javier Sarria and Carlos Pedraza's Genetics of Captive
Mountain Tapirs in North American Zoos, Jeffrey
Ortiz's Genetics of Baird's Tapirs in Costa Rica, Anders
Goncalves da Silva and Patricia Medici's Genetics of
Lowland Tapirs in the Pontal do Paranapanema, Sao
Paulo, Brazil, Andr6s Tapias Arias' work with lowland
tapirs in Ecuador, Jessica Amanzo's work with moun-
tain tapirs in Peru, and Bengt Hoist and Carl Traeholt's
work with Malay tapirs in Malaysia. Furthermore, the
Genetics Committee is working on their web pages,
which will be included in the TSG Website. The pages
will provide information about ongoing projects and
Committee members, as well as guides for collection
and analyses of molecular information in all three lan-
guages used by the group.
Kelly Russo, the coordinator of our Education &
Outreach Committee, in conjunction with Gilia Angell,
our Webmaster and coordinator of our Marketing Com-
mittee, has spent the better part of the past months
working on the development of our TSG educational
brochures and CD-ROM. The educational brochure
will be designed in English and translated into Span-


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 14/1 0 No. 17 l June 2005






6 FROM THE CHAIR U TSG COMMITTEE REPORTS


ish, Portuguese, Bahasa Malay, and French. Printed
copies of the brochure will be distributed at tapir hold-
ing zoos worldwide, and mailed to institutional part-
ners, conservation organizations, agencies that have
provided grant funding opportunities for tapir conser-
vation projects, and range country governmental and
non-governmental organizations, as well as schools,
universities, local communities etc. In-country TSG
Members, TSG Country Coordinators, and other con-
tacts will help us to distribute the brochure, which will
also be made available in downloadable format from
the TSG Website. Additionally, Kelly has been work-
ing on our educational CD-ROM that will include tapir
information and high-resolution photos for zoo exhibit
graphics, and for the placement of our materials on
other Websites.
Last but DEFINITELY NOT least, I would like
to remind you all that our TSG Conservation Fund
(TSGCF) continues to work on our fundraising
campaigns and, most importantly, that if you would
like to make a contribution to the TSGCF PLEASE DO
NOT HESITATE TO DO SO!


All you have to do is to make a check payable to the
IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group (TSG) and mail it
to: Kelly Russo, Conservation Program Assistant,
Houston Zoo Inc., 1513 North MacGregor, Houston,
Texas 77030, United States. See!?! Pretty easy!!! We
certainly appreciate any support and we thank you in
advance!
You will be hearing from me in another six months
and I am sure we will have a lot more to share!
Best wishes from Brazil,

Patricia Medici
M.Sc. in Wildlife Ecology, Conservation and Management
Research Coordinator, Lowland Tapir Project,
IPE Institute for Ecological Research
Chair, IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group (TSG)
Convener, IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist
Group (CBSG) Brasil Regional Network
Avenida Perdizes, 285, Vila Sdo Paulo Teodoro Sampaio,
CEP: 19280-000, Sdo Paulo, Brazil
Phone & Fax: +55-18-3282-4690; +55-11-4597-1327
Cell Phone: +55-18-9711-6106
E-mail: epmedici@uol.com.br; medici@ipe.org.br


S Comite Reors


Marketing Committee

By Gilia Angell


2004 Fundraising Campaign

In October 2004, the TSG Marketing and Fundraising
Committees worked together to produce and send
out 500 color brochures to individuals, zoos and other
conservation organizations on our mailing list. Our
letters to past contributors included notes of thanks
for past support and an invitation to give again to our
growing TSG Conservation Fund (TSGCF). Our prin-
ting and mailing costs were kindly underwritten by a
TSG donor and the Woodland Park Zoo. Forty-eight
donors responded with a total of US$ 3,846 towards
tapir conservation. Bill Konstant, Kelly Russo, and
Kim LaFon at the Houston Zoo Inc. have graciously
administered the fund and sent thank you letters to
donors. Considering that totals from our 2003 mai-
ling campaign were US$ 2,394, the increase in con-
tributions from individual donors in 2004 was 62%!
Wholehearted thanks to those who generously gave to
the TSG Conservation Fund in 2004. For 2005 we will
conduct an online fundraising effort. Look for E-mails


about this later this year. We have many brochures left
over from the mailing campaign that are available for
TSG fundraising events. If you would like some for
your fundraising activities, please contact Gilia Angell
(gilia_angell@ earthlink.net).

Tapirs in the Media

Awareness about tapirs is growing in the media
recently, especially in the UK. BBC Wildlife magazine
and photojournalist Dale Morris worked with TSG
member Charles Foerster on the article aptly titled
"Face to face with big nose" in the March 2005 issue.
Dale Morris has generously donated his photos from
this article for TSG's use on our site, in print, and
marketing materials. British production company
Tiger Aspect also contacted TSG asking for a resear-
cher with an ongoing project suitable for filming for
their documentary series "Last Chance to Save..." It
was determined that Charles Foerster's project was
a match and Charlie generously agreed to work with
the film crew at his site. Popular British comedian Vic
Reeves will host the tapir episode of this series and
visited Charlie's Costa Rica site in May. Due to the
celebrity endorsement aspect of this television feature,
the potential is high for large media exposure to British


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 14/1 0 No. 17 0 June 2005






TSG COMMITTEE REPORTS 7


television viewers. TSG Marketing chair Gilia Angell
spoke with the producers of this series to ensure TSG
is mentioned in this programme.

TSG Website

We are striving to maintain an ever-growing website
that maximally assists TSG in all its activities. Over
the next 6 months, we plan to add navigation improve-
ments, project profiles, a genetics database, an image
gallery, and tie-ins to the online fundraising campaign.

Gilia Angell
Web/Graphic Designer, Amazon.corn
Coordinator, TSG Marketing Committee
Webmaster, TSG Website www.tapirspecialistgroup.org
270 Dorffel Drive East, Seattle, Washington 98112,
United States
Phone: +1-206-266-2613; +1-206-568-1655
Fax: +1-206-266-1822
E-mail: giliaangell@earthlink.net




Genetics Committee

By Anders Gongalves da Silva


Little over a year has gone by since the creation
of the Genetics Committee within our group, and
growth and pace of activities have been incredib-
le. News include changes in the coordination of the
group's activities, a webpage, and substantial changes
to our International Tapirs Genetics Project, which is
now associated with many new projects. Additionally,
the Committee underwent a restructuring of its organi-
zation and procedures in order to be able to meet the
demands for information and unified methodologies
by tapir genetics researchers the world over. These are
truly some exciting times for the Committee.
I would like to start by announcing a change in our
ranks. Emilio Constantino joined us at the beginning
and has worked with us for the first year. However,
for personal reasons, he will not be able to continue
as one of the Committee's coordinators. I would like
to take this opportunity to thank Emilio on behalf of
the Committee and the Group for his efforts. To fill
in for him, a young scientist from Portugal has gladly
accepted our offer to assist in the coordination of the
Committee, to help us develop the International Tapir
Genetics Project and other activities. I would like to
introduce Cristina Luis to the TSG. Cristina is from
Portugal and, along side Javier Sarria and I, will be
forming the coordination team for the Committee.
Cristina is a competent geneticist, who will soon be


obtaining her PhD from the University of Lisbon, and
she is particularly interested in Malay tapirs.
Another exciting news is that soon the Committee
will have its own webpage within the Group's site. The
webpage will include information, documents and
links regarding methods of collection and preservation
of samples for genetic analyses, as well as funding opti-
ons. We would also like to have a section on licenses
and permits for each range country, so please send in
reports of your experiences to any of the coordinators.
The page will display small texts regarding the useful-
ness of genetics to conservation, and possible research
questions, in the hope to give visitors an initial guide to
the work we do. The page will also contain up-to-date
information on the many projects involving genetics
that are endorsed by the Group. In a way, we belie-
ve that the website can be used to attract funding to
the individual projects, to the Group, and to act as a
venue to acknowledge funding that has been obtained.
Furthermore, it is a way of communicating our work to
the public in general through a very dynamic form of
media. Therefore, we hope that this space will be taken
advantage of, and that project PI's will be quick to send
us small summaries of their projects, with maybe a
photo or two, so that we can add them to the webpa-
ge. When writing these summaries, we would like to
suggest keeping them fun and simple, so as to appeal
to the broadest public possible. Finally, the webpage
will be initially launched in English, but Spanish and
Portuguese versions are on their way.
Moving along, our International Tapir Genetics
Project has been restructured due to several factors.
As our Chair mentions in her letter, there was only a
moderate response rate to our surveys, and even in
these limited responses it was clear that researcher's
needs, and resources, varies greatly. Additionally, ini-
tial attempts to find funding were unsuccessful, and
we were advised to break up the project into areas, or
species. As this was progressing, quite a few individual
projects started up, which sought our endorsement
and cooperation. We then realized that a more efficient
path to reach the ITGP objectives would be to encou-
rage individual projects by providing technical advice,
networking opportunities, and letters of endorsement
and recommendation for funding agencies; in exchange
the ITGP would have access to the data (respecting
ownership), and count with researchers' experience
and expertise to help other Group members. To this
end, we are now endorsing in situ projects in Argentina,
Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana,
Peru, and hopefully soon in Southeast Asia. We are also
endorsing two ex situ projects, one analyzing genetic
diversity within the captive population of mountain
tapirs in USA zoos led by Colombian researchers,
and a second analyzing genetic diversity of the captive
population of lowland tapirs within Argentinean zoos,


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 14/1 0 No. 17 0 June 2005






8 TSG COMMITTEE REPORTS 0 ASK THE EXPERTS


being led by Temaik6n. Some of these projects are in
advanced stages, while others are still on the drawing
board, but all are very promising, and will certainly
make important contributions to our tapir conservati-
on efforts.
Finally, because of the growth that we have been
experiencing, and the increase in the number of endor-
sement requests, the Committee coordinators have
been in discussions on how to create a systematic
protocol to ensure objective and critical evaluation of
proposals and projects in a timely fashion. The new
organization of the Committee will be announced soon,
and we hope that this will allow us to continue to grow
and offer support and space for as many projects as
possible, ensuring a steady progress towards guaran-
teeing the future of tapirs and their habitat.

Anders Gongalves da Silva
PhD. Graduate Fellow, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Program, Center for Environmental Research and
Conservation (CERC)
Department of Ecology, Evolution and Environmental
Biology (E3B), Columbia University
Coordinator, Genetics Study, Lowland Tapir Project,
IPE Institute for Ecological Research
Coordinator, TSG Genetics Committee
Staff Member, IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist
Group (CBSG) Brasil Regional Network
1200 Amsterdam Ave MC5556, New York, New York
10027, United States
Phone: +1-212-854-0377 / Fax: +1-212-854-8188
E-mail: ag2057@columbia.edu


Education & Outreach

Committee

By Kelly Russo


The Education & Outreach Committee has been
working hard in past few months on developing an
educational brochure about tapirs. The finished result
is a full-color, 8 page booklet incorporating Stephen
Nash's beautiful tapir illustrations. The English versi-
on of the brochure is currently available for download
on the TSG website. Look for alternate translations
of the brochure in the coming months Spanish,
Portuguese, French and Bahasa Malay.
Our next project is an educational CD-Rom contai-
ning high resolution photos, range maps and informa-
tion on tapirs. These CDs will be distributed and uti-
lized as a reference tool for exhibit graphics, websites
and curriculum development. If you have materials you
would like to contribute to this CD, please contact Kelly
Russo (krusso@houstonzoo.org).

Kelly Russo
Conservation Program Assistant, Houston Zoo Inc.
Coordinator, TSG Education & Outreach Committee
1513 North MacGregor Drive, Houston, Texas 77030,
United States
Phone: +1-713-533-6556/ Fax: +1-713-533-6762
E-mail: krusso@houstonzoo.org


As th Exprt


Fragmentation of

Tapir Populations and the

Loss of Heterozygosity

By Leo Salas


Ecological processes, relative to our own perception
of time, run by many clocks. There are some that
are relatively fast, say, within one year successions
of microbes in ponds, or the occupation of habitats
by successful invader plants. Other processes go by
slowly, taking several decades or more the full rege-
neration of forest gaps, or the recovery of whale popu-
lations. The changes in tapir populations in fragmen-
ted forests, I may argue, lie somewhere in the middle.


Granted, the processes that create the fragmented
forests will cause great reductions of tapirs per unit
area in a short period of time, but once these are frag-
mented, other processes affecting the remaining tapir
populations (hereafter referred to as "fragmentation")
may be relatively slow. For example, if fragmentation
is not directly affecting the survival of the adult tapirs
(because tapirs can and do forage in disturbed habi-
tats), but is instead affecting the recruitment of juveni-
les, individuals may persists for several years or even
decades in forest fragments. In such situations, the
population might become extinct many years after the
forests have been fragmented.
Several small populations of tapirs are becoming
isolated from their core (i.e., larger) populations.
Consider for example Baird's tapirs below (and east
of) the Panama Canal isolated from the northern
populations. The same can be said for several popula-


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 14/1 0 No. 17 0 June 2005






ASK THE EXPERTS 9


tions of Andean tapirs. In the case of Malay tapirs on
the island of Sumatra, according to a seminal paper
by Santiapillai and Ramono in 1990, extensive defore-
station in the past 50 years has caused a reduction of
>80% of the island's forest cover, likely creating sever-
ely fragmented populations.
A complication in determining the impact of frag-
mentation on tapir populations living in these patches
is the difficulty in measuring population dynamics
parameters, such as birth rates, survival of newborns,
juveniles, sub-adults and adults. The simple count of
tapirs to detect trends would require drastic changes
in numbers, because typically large effort is needed to
count just a few individuals. The counts come asso-
ciated with high sampling error. To have an acceptable
chance to detect trends through the usual methods, if
the changes in tapir numbers are relatively small (i.e.,
population numbers change slowly over time), many
counts over many years may be required at a signi-
ficant cost.
The reader may note that a population of tapirs in
a forest fragment may be maintained so long there is
outside recruitment of individuals i.e., migrants. In
this state, the fragment may maintain a stable number
of animals thanks to the influx of "new blood" from a
nearby larger "source" population. In such case, deter-
mining the real effect of a fragmented habitat on a tapir
population may be impossible through simple popula-
tion counts. But what if the influx of migrants is not
fast enough? What if the source population is too far
away or non-existent? What if it was decimated too?
Genetic diversity, or heterozygosity, loosely inter-
preted here as the diversity of alleles in a population of
genes or individuals, is directly related to population
size. Breeding systems and other factors affecting the
maintenance of heterozygosity levels aside, a decrease
in numbers of tapirs will be evidenced by a percent loss
in heterozygosity. An overly simplistic idea can then
be devised: by comparing two once-connected popula-
tions in two forest fragments, one fragment large and
one small, it may be possible to evidence through their
heterozygosity levels, if the population in the smaller
fragment is losing heterozygosity related to the popula-
tion in the larger patch of forest. This is a very simpli-
fied idea that assumes that the amount of genetic diver-
sity in a population is governed by a stochastic process
called "genetic drift." The drift is simply the result of
some genes lost due to chance (i.e., randomness in
determining which genes pass to the next generation
due to various factors, including the randomness of
pairings of parental genotypes). Clearly, if there is
a selective advantage for a certain gene to be passed
on to the next generation, it will not be lost by genetic
drift. Hence, the loss of heterozygosity, as portrayed
here, pertains to the "neutral genetic diversity" of the
fragmented populations. The loss due to genetic drift


in a fragmented population will depend, among other
things, on the time since isolation, the speed at which
population numbers were reduced, and for how long
they have remained small.
Following the same logic, we could conceivably
think of a standard heterozygosity level for a healthy
tapir population; that is, the level of heterozygosity of
a population likely to survive on its own for, say, 500
years. Using this standard, we can assess the status
of other populations in fragmented forests to determi-
ne which are at highest risk of extinction. Consider
the following: quick-and-dirty simulations show that a
population of 100 breeding tapirs in the best of con-
ditions (that is, where each male has equal chance to
mate with any of the females in the population, with-
out hunting pressure and with intrinsic growth rate as
predicted by allometric approximations and data from
captive animals) may lose as much as 5 to 6% of its
heterozygosity in 5 generations (where a generation is
10 years, or half the reproductive lifespan of tapirs).
A population of 500 breeding tapirs shows no loss of
heterozygosity in the same time span.

We asked our tapir experts about the feasibility
of such an approach to determine the health of
tapir populations in fragmented forests. Briefly put,
something similar to the above can be done, so long as
ecological and historic data on the populations is also
available. However, the above unmentioned factors
"left aside" creep back onto the proposal, extremely
limiting its use. Keep reading, please.
Dr. Harald Beck, at the Center for Tropical
Conservation in Duke University and a member of our
panel of experts, supports the idea but suggests the
inclusion of museum samples as well. He pointed to
a similar study conducted on extirpated grey wolves in
the US and Mexico vs. the populations in Alaska and
Canada. The study, published in the journal Molecular
Ecology of January of this year (full reference below),
shows how the authors used museum records to assess
the level of heterozygosity present in the remaining
populations after glaciation refugia and human perse-
cution drew populations in the lower 49 US states and
Mexico extinct. The previous populations of grey wol-
ves had more than twice the diversity of the present-day
remnant populations. To fully understand Harald's
suggestion, we must understand the problems associa-
ted with the comparisons. The challenges are certainly
manifold. "There isn't a single accepted benchmark of
heterozygosity (...) to strive for," commented Brandie
Smith, Director of Conservation and Science for the
American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA) and a
Ph.D. candidate at the University of Maryland. That
is because species differ in the level of heterozygosity
(due to events in the history of the species, such as the
glaciation refugia and the grey wolves).


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 14/1 0 No. 17 0 June 2005






10 ASK THE EXPERTS


Anders Goncalves da Silva, co-head of the TSG
Genetics Committee and a PhD candidate at Columbia
University, explained in more detail the problem of lack
of heterozygosity benchmarks brought up by Brandie.
"Much of what has been done in population genetics is
extremely difficult to replicate (...) when we deal with
wild populations." He reminds us that environmental
conditions tend to vary greatly between sites and that
these and other factors, not perceptible to our eyes,
may affect the distribution of genes in populations.
Thus "many of the population genetics concepts make
sense [only] when it is specified the place and time in
which measurements were taken (...), which makes
any comparison between populations a tremendous
challenge." Scales of time and space for genetic expe-
riments may be too big to replicate too and, says he:
"thus, we commonly use simulations [instead]."
Many statistical tools have been created to over-
come these problems, Anders explains, but these
come loaded with assumptions that are almost always
violated in field studies and use little of the available
data "(these use means and the likes, discarding the
variance in the data)." Still, a lot can be done with
the available techniques. Yet, "...an advantage is that
[these techniques] allow us to describe the genetic vari-
ability as a single number (that can be compared bet-
ween populations with some reservations), that along
with information on the natural history of the species
and some other information, can be very useful in
determining the genetic status of the populations, and
the possible risks of doing nothing." The key is to have
these ecological and historical data to make sense of
the differences observed.
Following Anders, Harald and Brandie, then, there
is truly no standard against which to compare the hete-
rozygosity status of any given population, rendering
the question of monitoring fragmented populations
unanswerable through genetics. Proper comparisons,
Anders notes, simply state if populations differ in
diversity and make no speculation about genetic diver-
sity lost, because such claims "would be very difficult
to demonstrate!" He thus adds that "genetic informa-
tion can be very useful, if only with a good understan-
ding of the ecology and history (of the populations).
They walk hand in hand." The study on grey wolves
mentioned above certainly relied on decades of data
and studies on the history and population genetics of
the species. This is why Harald's suggestion to use
museum records is so very important.
If such a study were to be undertaken with tapirs,
information on the ecology and history of tapir popu-
lations should be used, lest we commit the sins the
experts mentioned. Assuming we have the necessary
information and museum data, Brandie suggested to
sample several populations of each tapir species using
several micro satellite loci. Added she, "You could also


compare heterozygosities between the different tapir
populations (looking at fixation indices to see if there is
limited gene flow between populations of the same spe-
cies), and between the different species (do the more
endangered populations have less heterozygosity?)."
Brandie also suggested looking at allelic diversity "(the
average number of alleles per locus)," and concluded
that "the work could eventually lead to recommendati-
ons for preservation (which areas/populations should
we focus on preserving?) and management (transloca-
ting tapirs between subpopulation to increase overall
genetic diversity)." The latter would be based on the
prior knowledge that the differences observed are
related to well-documented events in the history of the
populations; events shown to have reduced the genetic
diversity of the endangered populations (i.e., fragmen-
tation events).
If the genetic comparison between two populations
is not limited to heterozygosity levels, but includes
population markers, it would shed light on other
aspects of the effects of the fragmentation on both
tapir populations that would help elucidate the history
of these populations. It would evidence if there is, or
was, any gene flow through migrants between both
populations. Moreover, mutations acquired in fast-
changing segments of DNA in both populations may
give an indication of time elapsed since the isolation
between the populations, which can then be correlated
to the habitat changes that led to the isolation. If these
kinds of information could be derived from the genetic
studies, the basis for a comparison in heterozygosity
levels for management, as proposed here, would have
a more reasonable basis. Yet, the fact that there seem
to be no research on this subject is perhaps the best
indicative that a lot more needs to be known before we
can conclude anything about heterozygosity lost bet-
ween populations through simple comparisons, and
likely also that the technology is not yet there to make
such comparisons.
One expert took the extra step to comment on the
management strategy alluded to by Brandie above:
translocation. Zoe Bremer, a student of Heritage
Management at the University of Derby who completed
a study on Malay tapirs, is interested in looking at a
similar problem with a closely related species the
Exmoor pony. She explained that "In the UK, the
Rare Breeds Survival Trust is looking at the genetic
profiles of equines at the moment. As you may know,
the Exmoor is not a 'breed' in the usual sense since it
pre-dates any human intervention in horse-breeding.
The problem, given the small numbers of animals
available for the Breed Society to use, is to maximize
genetic variation whilst maintaining official breed stan-
dards and in this case, the standard is very restricted
in terms of size, shape and color." I confess I did not
know of the existence of the Exmoor pony.


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 14/1 0 No. 17 0 June 2005






ASK THE EXPERTS 0 NEWS FROM THE FIELD 11


After speaking to a retired veterinary surgeon who
maintains a herd of the ponies, Zoe learned that there
is "...a high level of homozygocity in Exmoors (about
46%) but there are no known hereditary diseases
amongst them." She was also informed "...that feral
sheep populations on Scottish islands (e.g. Soay, part
of St. Kilda) seem perfectly healthy with the intro-
duction of one new ram per community every second
generation. I know that on Shetland the ponies have a
stallion taken round the islands (by rowing boat!) for
breeding. This is probably a better exercise with which
to compare tapir populations than the breeding of
sheep due to the genetic similarity between horses and
tapirs. Perhaps the introduction of traveling entries is
the answer, whereby captive raised tapirs are taken to
visit isolated populations." Indeed, translocations may
be called for in many of the currently fragmented tapir
populations. But first, we must know which ones truly
need it and in what order of priority. This is not a
simple question of genetic diversity; it involves serious
health issues as well. Also, warns Anders, "...care
should be taken in translocation, to avoid outbreeding
depression, which is analogous to inbreeding depres-


sion and happens because the introduced genes may
disrupt adaptive gene sequences in the [fragmented
population's] genome."
To end in a more positive note, Anders concludes
that "there are many other things we can do with a
bunch of feces. Lots of information related to the
ecology and demography of a species is nowadays
obtained through genetic studies. Therefore, I remain
convinced that it can be a useful tool for the monitoring
of populations."

Leonardo Salas
Ph.D. Animal Population Biologist, Wildlife Conservation
Society (WCS)
Editor, TSG Tapir Conservation Newsletter
PO. Box 106, Waigani, NCD, Papua New Guinea
Phone: +675-323-1532; +675-324-5432; +675-688-4577
E-mail: LeoASalas@netscape.net


Reference on grey wolves (thanks to Dr. H. Beck):
Leonard, J. A., C. Vila, and R. Wayne. 2005. Legacy lost:
genetic variability and population size of extirpated US
grey wolves (Canis lupus). Molecular Ecology 14(1): 9-17.


New fro th Fied


BRAZIL


The Influence of

Large Herbivores on

Neotropical Forests

By Patricia Medici


The project "Influence of Large Herbivores on
Neotropical Forests" is a coordinated research
initiative of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group (TSG)
that is being carried out in five countries of Latin America:
El Rey National Park in Argentina, Morro do Diabo State
Park in Brazil, Los Nevados National Park in Colombia,
Corcovado National Park in Costa Rica, and Los Amigos
Ecological Station in Peru. The coordinators of the
project Silvia Chalukian (Argentina), Patricia Medici
(Brazil), Diego Lizcano (Colombia), Charles Foerster
(Costa Rica), and Harald Beck (Peru) are all members
of the TSG. The primary goal of this project is to describe
the influence large herbivores (tapirs, peccaries and deer)


exert on shaping and maintaining the understory plant
communities of five different Neotropical ecosystems
in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica and Peru,
and provide evidence that these animals are vital to the
health of tropical forests and that more efforts should
be made for their protection. Specifically, the main
objective of the study is to examine how the removal of
large herbivores will affect the physical structure and
floristic diversity of the understory plant communities
in primary and secondary forest habitats at each site.
In order to simulate the removal of large herbivores
from the forests (low densities or local extinction), we
constructed exclosures to prevent them from foraging
on vegetation in selected areas. Data has been gathered
on different variables to describe structural and floristic
changes in the plant communities over time.
The Brazilian component of the project The
Influence of Large Herbivores on the Atlantic Forest
of Morro do Diabo State Park, Sio Paulo State, Brazil
- was established in July 2004. The ecosystem under
study in Brazil is the Atlantic Rainforest, and the spe-
cies targeted are Lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris),
red brocket deer (Mazama americana), gray brocket
deer (Mazama gouazoubira), white-lipped peccary
(Tayassu pecari), and collared peccary (Tayassu


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 14/1 0 No. 17 0 June 2005






12 NEWS FROM THE FIELD


control plots (1x4 m) were established 10 meters to the
right from each exclosure. Each exclosure measures
3x6 meters, with a height of 1 meter. A 20 cm high gap
was left at the bottom of the barrier to allow access to
smaller animals such as agouti, armadillo, coati etc.
The 1x4 m sampling area in the center of the exclosure
was divided into four lxl m quadrants. The outer 1 m
wide buffer zone was not sampled because the vegeta-
tion may be browsed from outside the exclosure. Also,
this vegetation is subjected to influences of investiga-
tor traffic. Plots are visited twice monthly in order to
inspect for damage and any necessary repairs.
For each exclosure and control plot, two lxl m
quadrants within the 1x4 m sampling area were cho-
sen randomly. As a result, 2 m2 of forest were sampled


View of one of the exclosure plots.
Credit Patricia Medici


tajacu). The funding for this part of the project, as
well as for the Costa Rican component, came from the
Houston Zoo Inc.
The materials used for the construction of the
exclosure plots in Morro do Diabo State Park were
wooden fence posts, wire chicken fence, and plastic
ties to attach the fence to the posts. Fifty (50) exclos-
ures were constructed along transects in two different
habitat types found in Morro do Diabo State Park: 25
exclosures in secondary forest and 25 in mature forest.
The distance between exclosures was 50 meters, and

View of
one of the
exclosure
plots.
Credit
Patricia
Medici


in each exclosure and control
plot. All plants > than 10 cm
high and with diameter < 5
cm were measured (height
and diameter), separated into
morpho-species and marked
with PVC tags. Each plant
was assigned a reference
number for analysis. Plants
with height < 10 cm (consi-
dered to be seedlings) were
counted. Horizontal cover
was assessed through the
needle method: a wooden
stick is vertically placed in
the geometrical center of
each lxl m quadrant and the
number of leaves touching the
stick is counted.
The first measurements
(baseline data) were coll-
ected between August and
October 2004, and reflect the
diversity and structure found
within the exclosures and
control plots right after their
construction. For the mature


HOUSTON


z00


NATURALLY

WVILD
The Houston Zoo Inc.
is the major donor
of the Brazilian
component of this
project.


forest, a total of 2,456


plants were marked and measured, including 1,292
plants in the exclosure plots (25.84 plants/m2) and
1,164 plants in the control plots (23.28 plants/m2).
The number of morpho-species in the mature forest
was 162, and 3,492 seedlings were counted. For the
secondary forest, a total of 1,400 plants were marked
and measured, including 788 plants in the exclosure
plots (15.76 plants/m2) and 612 plants in the control
plots (12.24 plants/m2). The number of morpho-spe-
cies in the secondary forest was 88, and 1,258 seed-
lings were counted.
After the initial data collection, species-area curves
were drawn for both mature and secondary forest in
order to carry out a preliminary assessment of our


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 14/1 0 No. 17 0 June 2005






NEWS FROM THE FIELD 13


The 20-cm high gap left at the bottom of the exclosure
barrier to allow access to smaller animals.
Credit Patricia Medici


ability to capture the diversity of plants in the areas.
Both curves seemed to have stabilized and reached an
asymptote. As we move forward with the subsequent
data collections, more sophisticated statistical analysis
will be conducted in order to determine this ability.
The same sampling quadrants and plants will
be measured twice a year, at the end of the wet
season (April-May) and at the end of the dry season
(September-October). At the end of the last data coll-
ection period (April-May 2009) a decision will be made

Resear-
chers
taking
measure-
ments
and
collecting
baseline
data.
Credit
Patricia
Medici


whether to continue the project or not based on the
results obtained by then.

Patricia Medici
M.Sc. in Wildlife Ecology, Conservation and Management
Research Coordinator, Lowland Tapir Project, IPE -
Institute for Ecological Research
Chair, IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group (TSG)
Convener, IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist
Group (CBSG) Brasil Regional Network
Avenida Perdizes, 285, Vila Sdo Paulo Teodoro Sampaio,
CEP: 19280-000, Sdo Paulo, Brazil
Phone & Fax: +55-18-3282-4690; +55-11-4597-1327
Cell Phone: +55-18-9711-6106
E-mail: epmedici @uol.com.br; medici @ipe.org.br




Tapir Extinction in the

Atlantic Forests Between the

Rio de Contas and the

Rio Paragua;u

By Kevin Flesher


regret to report that tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) are
extinct in the Atlantic Forest remnants between the
Rio de Contas and the Rio Paraguacu, in Bahia State,
Brazil, with the only memory of their existence being
two place names on the map a town named Poco
d'Anta between Jequi6 and Jaguaquara and a rural
area west of Taperoa called Cabeca d'Anta. Over the
past seven years I have worked explored what is left
of the Atlantic Forest surrounding the coastal town of
Itubera, in a region of southern Bahia known as the
Costa do Dend& (Palm Oil Coast). The focus of my dis-
sertation research is to try to identify the factors that
determine the distribution and relative abundance of
medium and large mammals in this agro-forestry land-
scape in order to understand how human resource use
affect the long-term persistence of these species. Early
on in the study I found out that tapirs were extinct,
but the when and why of this extinction only became
clear after studying historical documents and inter-
viewing old farmers who lived before the large-scale
deforestation and landscape-transforming events of the
1950/60s.

History of Land Use and Hunting in Itubera

There were two distinct peoples living in the Itubera
region when the Portuguese settled here in the mid-
16th century: the Tupiniquins, who lived in villages


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 14/1 0 No. 17 0 June 2005






14 NEWS FROM THE FIELD


along the coast with a subsistence economy based
on manioc cultivation, hunting and fishing; and the
Botocudos (or Aimor6s), who were wandering hunter-
gatherer people whose territory incorporated all of the
land beyond the coastal palisades. Along the coast just
to the north lived the Tupinambas, whose culture was
similar to that of the Tupiniquim. Soares de Sousa
opens his classic 1587 treatise on the wildlife of Bahia
with an account of the tapir and describes how the
Tupi peoples hunted tapirs with bows and arrows, and
sometimes raised young animals in their villages as
pets. Prince Maximilian Wied-Neuwied (1821) gives the
best account of the Botocudos and other hunter-gathe-
rer peoples of the interior Atlantic Forests of Bahia; he
describes them as expert long-bow hunters capable of
killing any animal they encountered. While these peop-
les hunted tapirs, tapirs were not extirpated during
their tenure of southern Bahia, probably because
human population densities were low and the landsca-
pe was largely forested, and because of the temporally
shifting spatial impact of human land use and hunting.
The Botocudos stayed in an area as long as the hun-
ting was good, after which they moved long distances
to more plentiful hunting grounds. The Tupiniquins
moved when soil fertility in their gardens decreased. In
both cases, these movements alleviated hunting pres-
sure in a given area, presumably allowing the wildlife
to recover. At least in the case of the Tupiniquins, their
garden fallows may have actually increased the value of
the habitat for tapirs.
In the 1540s the Itubera region became the provin-
ce of the Jesuits, who established several towns along
the coast by incorporating the defeated Tupiniquins
and using their expertise to learn how to survive. The
Jesuit tenure lasted until 1759 and, while they had
increased the scale of agriculture through the com-
mercial production of manioc flour, their settlements
remained small and restricted to the coastal hills and
islands because of conflicts with the Botocudos. The
Botocudos thwarted attempts at inland migration by
killing those who tried and by periodically sacking and
burning the Jesuit settlements. Even with the final def-
eat of the Botocudos by the end of the 18th century,
the colonists remained restricted to coastal towns and
the region languished, remaining a sparsely populated
backwater with a subsistence-based economy. Logging,
while also limited to the coastal forests, remained
selective and gradually intensified over the centuries.
The landscape was still almost completely forested well
into the 20th century. Hunting never stopped being an
important subsistence activity. Although tapirs may
have been shot out of the areas within several kilome-
ters of the permanent settlements, they continued to
persist in the forests beyond at least as late as the early
19th century, when Wied-Neuwied saw them in the hin-
terlands of Ilh6us and along the Rio Mucuri.


By the end of the 19th century Ituberi is described
as an economic backwater with a populace of several
thousand farmers subsisting on manioc cultivation.
There is no indication that the landscape had funda-
mentally changed, and yet, this is the period during
which tapirs were extirpated. The hinterlands were
forested and inhabited by posseiros living on scattered
homesteads in the hills (people who lived on vacant
government land [terra devoluta] without legal title).
These posseiros were the descendents of Tupiniquins,
African, and European peoples who mixed all along
the coast of Bahia; their way of life, based on mani-
oc cultivation and the hunt, mostly resembled that of
their Tupi ancestors. By all accounts, the population
density in the hills surrounding Itubera was very low
with almost no one living more than 10 km from town.
Forest disturbance was limited to small swidden plots
and fallows, some small scale selective logging, and
natural tree falls on steep slopes during times of heavy
rain. I had the fortune of interviewing 8 people (75-84
years old) who were born into the life of the posseiros,
themselves sons of posseiros. As hunting was a central
part of this culture by being one of the main subsistence
and leisure activities, people had a great knowledge of
wildlife. Had tapirs existed in their lifetime, they would
have been aware of the animals. Only one of these infor-
mants recollects hearing about tapirs during conversa-
tions between older people when he was young (60-70
years ago), but remembers nothing specific about the
animal. The other informants do not remember the
species being mentioned by their fathers, so it probably
was gone at least during their grandfathers' generation,
some 120-150 years ago (circa 1850-1880). This sug-
gests that tapirs were extirpated when the landscape
was almost completely forested and human population
densities were relatively low, confirming the assertions
that even subsistence hunters are capable of extirpa-
ting tapirs and that tapirs are particularly vulnerable
to hunting pressure.
The tapir was the first mammal species to become
extinct in Itubera, proving to be more vulnerable than
any other animal with the possible exception of the
green and red macaw (Ara chloroptera), which disap-
peared at about the same time. Other species that were
extirpated when the landscape was still forested inclu-
de the giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus), last seen
in the 1920s, and the white-lipped peccary (Tayassu
pecari), shot out sometime in the 1930/40s. The jaguar
(Panthera onca) was extirpated in the 1950s during the
large scale forest clearing, while the red-billed curas-
sow (Crax blumenbachi) held out until the 1970s. The
yellow-breasted capuchin monkey (Cebus xanthoster-
nos) and the capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris)
are today on the brink of extinction.


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 14/1 0 No. 17 0 June 2005






NEWS FROM THE FIELD 15


Tapir Extinctions in the Forests
beyond the Study Landscape

I visited the other main forest areas between the Rio de
Contas and the Rio Paraguaqu in 2002 and 2003, and
found a similar situation to that of Itubera. All of the
forests have been heavily logged and hunting pressure
is chronic throughout. No one I interviewed had ever
heard of tapirs in any of these areas and, although we
interviewed very few people (2-4 in each region), the
informants were hunters who showed good knowledge
of the wildlife (i.e., details of natural history) and had
lived there all or most of their lives. Deforestation for
timber occurred as long ago as the early 19th centu-
ry along the Rio Jequirica, but the major landscape
transformation began with the spread of cacao culti-
vation north from Ilh6us during the late 19th century.
Systematic and industrial scale logging for timber
began in the 1950/60s for those areas that had not
been already cleared for cattle pasture and cacao; no
forests were spared. The best remaining tracts of forest
are those on the high ridges of the Rio Preto and Rio
Jequirica watersheds, and those on the ridges most
remote from highways BA-001 and BR-101 between
Camamu and Valenca.

Lessons Learned

Despite the continued existence of 100,000s of hecta-
res of forest between the Rio de Contas and the Rio
Paraguacu in Bahia, including up to 60,000 ha in the
Itubera region and an equal amount in the upper Rio
Preto watershed, these forests are not appropriate for
tapirs. Habitat is not lacking even the disturbed
forests of my study landscape retain a diverse flora
(>400 species of trees and lianas); wetlands, riparian
forests, and secondary forests with dense herbaceous
growth and saplings are abundant. Hunting, however,
is rampant and while 82.5% of the wildlife community
studied persists, most species survive tenuously as
reduced populations of skittish animals. There are
no adequately protected reserves, even on properties
of landowners who claim to be protecting their forests,
and this situation is not likely to change in the near
future. Tapirs have no place in landscapes such as
these where the culture of hunting is deeply rooted and
where there is virtually no law enforcement, regardless
of habitat availability. Perhaps as the only source for
hope, informants say that fewer youths are interested
in hunting than ever before, so maybe one day tapirs
can be brought back to roam in these hills again.

Kevin Flesher
Ph.D. Graduate Student, Rutgers University
55 Dudley Road, 21' Floor, New Brunswick, New Jersey
08901, United States / Phone: +1-732-932-9153 Ext. 351
E-mail: KevinFlesher@yahoo.com


COLOMBIA


Current Distribution and

Conservation Status of the

Colombian Lowland Tapir

(Tapirus terrestris colombianus)

and the Baird's or

Central American Tapir

(Tapirus bairdii) in Colombia

By Emilio Constantino


Introduction

Colombia is the only country to have the three
American tapir species living within its borders,
Tapirus bairdii (Central American, Choc6 or Baird's
tapir), T. terrestris (Lowland or Amazon tapir) and
T. pinchaque (Mountain or Woolly tapir); also, a rare
form or subspecies of the lowland tapir, known as
Colombian tapir or T. terrestris colombianus. That
richness reflects the great biodiversity of this country
and the unique ecosystems it harbors. Regrettably, as
highlighted in this report, little is known about the vast
majority of the species and ecosystems at a time when
they face high and tangible risks of extinction.
The Colombian tapir, T. terrestris colombianus,
was classified from a few individuals collected by the
American vertebrate taxonomist Phillip Hershkowitz
during the 1940's and 50's in northern Colombia.
The taxon is currently assigned to a population of the
lowland tapir occurring in trans-Andean eco-regions,
or regions located to the west of the Eastern cordillera
of the Colombian Andes. Very little-known, over hun-
ted and with most of its original habitat transformed,
today this sub-species is considered critically endange-
red throughout all its distribution range.
The Baird's tapir was said to occur from southern
Mexico, southwards across Central America and along
the pacific coast of South America, south to north wes-
tern Ecuador. Today doubts are cast about its southern
distribution, but there are several references about the
occurrence of this species in Colombia. In this country,
the species is currently known to occur only in a few
places of the Darien and northern Choc6 eco-regions,
and it is also considered critically endangered.
Urgent actions are needed to prevent these tapir
species from becoming extinct in the near future: a
complete ban on their hunting, the creation of nature


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 14/1 0 No. 17 0 June 2005






16 NEWS FROM THE FIELD


reserves and education of people living within their
ranges. If these three actions (at least) are not taken
seriously and resources are not invested, we may be
witnessing the extinction of these remarkable animals
in the next decades.
This report is the result of several years of field
work by the author in the Colombian Darien, the Sini,
the Choc6, the Magdalena Medio and the Sierra Nevada
de Santa Marta regions while promoting the creation of
private nature reserves.

Historical Distribution of the Species

2a. Tapirus terrestris colombianus or Colombian
tapir:
This species was first observed and described by an
American scientist about 60 years ago in northern
Colombia, but it was known long before by the
indigenous peoples that inhabited the country, as can
be deduced from the names given to many localities
within its rage: "Las dantas", "la danta", and so on. It is
believed that the common American name for the tapir,
"danta", has an aboriginal origin. It is very similar to the
name used by the Embera people for these animals. The
Embera lived in the Uraba region at the moment of the
Spanish colonization, where the town of Santa Maria la
Antigua del Dari6n was founded; it was the first Spanish
settlement in continental America and port of entrance
to South America.
The species used to inhabit all the jungles and
savannas, from sea level to up to 1500 meters above sea
level, between the western and eastern Andean ranges,
including the Magdalena Medio region, the inter Andean
valleys and the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta Range.
Also, it was known to occur in the Catatumbo, a Trans-
Andean eco-region shared with Venezuela.
In the Upper Sini valley, it was found by
Hershkowitz (1954) to be sympatric with the Baird's
tapir. The North-westernmost distribution locality for
the species is currently believed to be the Atrato River,
which drains from the northern Choc6 watershed to
the Caribbean Sea.
The Colombian tapir was originally found in the
upper and mid Cauca, and in the upper Magdalena
watersheds, where they have become extinct recently
- in the last hundred years or so. It is present today
in some remaining forest fragments along the mid and
lower Magdalena region, the upper Sini watershed
and the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta Range. There is
some evidence that it also inhabited dry and semi-dry
ecosystems in northern Colombia's Caribbean eco-re-
gion; eastwards, the lowland tapir also occurred in the
Catatumbo watershed, where it was hunted by the Bari
people; a damaged skull deposited in a Venezuelan mu-
seum collection is the only tangible evidence, but again,
the region has many places known as Las Dantas or La


Danta, and it exists in the Bari mythology.
Today, most of the above mentioned areas have
been transformed into grass fields for cattle ranching,
oil palm plantations and rice fields. Most of the timber
used for home furniture in Colombia has been taken
from the Magdalena Medio jungles. In the last 20 years
this region also has been one of the main places to grow
coca for the cocaine foreign markets and the ground
for intense warfare between left- and ultra right-wing
subversive forces. The oil industry has also been an
important factor for the colonization and destruction
of these jungles.

2b. Tapirus bairdii or Baird's tapir:
This species is known to occur from tropical Mexico,
southwards, across Central America and Panama,
and up to North-western Colombia, even though the
literature says that it reached North-western Ecuador,
along the Choc6 or pacific jungles of Colombia. Our
recent search in museum collections all over the world
showed that there is no proof of its presence in Ecuador
or even in the Pacific coast of Colombia, except from the
northern most sector of the Choc6, along the Serrania
del Darien Range, along the border with Panama. The
easternmost distribution range locality was the Upper
Sini valley, where it was found to be sympatric with the
Colombian tapir.
Again, there are many places called Las Dantas or La
Danta, along the pacific coast of Colombia, but only
scattered unconfirmed records from hunters or natives
indicate that the species occurred or may be currently
present there.
There is also the belief among Afro-Americans and
Indigenous peoples of central Choc6 that if a newborn's
navel is belted with tapir skin, the child will develop
the strength of this animal. So far, no animals have
been seen, nor collected south of the Baud6 mountain
range in northern Choc6. There are some reports from
old hunters that knew the tapir in the Choc6 jungles, in
places such as the Anchicaya, Calima and Naya rivers,
but there is not a single skin or bone to prove it.
The central and southern sectors of the Choc6 have
been inhabited by peoples of African ascendance who
settled in these remote regions after escaping slavery.
These peoples obtain most of their protein from fishing
and bush meat, and may have had a great impact on
the tapir population since three hundred years ago.
Although these jungles remain fairly well conserved,
over hunting, timber extraction, and farming along the
rivers are common activities today. To make matters
worse, coca for cocaine is being grown in large fields
today. Warfare between left-wing guerrillas, ultra right-
wing paramilitary, narco-traffickers and the official
Colombian army has gained intensity in the last five
years. This has been also the case for the upper Sini
region and the Darien Range, where combats, civilian


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 14/1 0 No. 17 0 June 2005






NEWS FROM THE FIELD 17


displacement and casualties are happening daily. These
jungles still provide important amounts of timber and
paper pulp for the markets.

Current Distribution of the Species (2005)

3a. T. terrestris colombianus:
Today the jungles that existed in most of the eco-regi-
ons are gone, except for a few large tracts in the Sierra
Nevada de Santa Marta Range, Magdalena Medio
Region, Serrania de San Lucas Range, the lower Cauca
River and the Upper Sinu watershed.
In the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta Range a frag-
mented population has been identified in the Palomino
River watershed, where they are being protected by the
indigenous Arhuaco community and by the Coopera-
tiva de Pescadores del Rio Palomino (a local activism
group), by means of declaration of a nature reserve
and by the direct education efforts of the inhabitants
of the locality. More recently (August 2003), several
tracks were observed on a dry creek in very dry forest
ecosystems located in the Tayrona National Park (Jesus
Castafieda, Tayrona National Park Ranger, pers. com.).
Another population has been identified in the upper
Guatapuri watershed, and there are indications that the
species is still present in the Sierra Nevada National
Park, today under the management of the Kogui and
Arhuaco indigenous people, but no recent research has
been conducted to confirm so. The political situation
of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta Range has made it
difficult for researchers the access to the region.
In the Magdalena Medio region, where the jungles
have been affected by logging and deforestation, several
large and medium size patches of forest remain, inclu-
ding the Serrania de San Lucas Range, where there
are reports of presence of tapirs. Several records
from the El Encanto Nature Reserve, located in the
Cimitarra River watershed, and in a new reserve along
the lower Ermitafio River, where a nature reserve for
the protection of the blue knobbed curassow has been
declared, evidence that the species still present in the
region. Other large patches of forest in the Antioquia
Department, in the lower Cauca watershed, seems to
have the species, but again, the difficult access to the
region, due mainly to the political situation, has made
it impossible for researchers to visit the area.
No recent records exist neither for the upper Sinfi
region nor the Catatumbo watershed, but the species
may still present there, as large patches of forest
remain in those areas, unfortunately heavily affected
by warfare and drug crops.
Today, the species is considered extinct in the
Upper Cauca valley, the Upper Magdalena valley, the
Caribbean dry plains and the southern slopes of the
Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta Range.


3b. T. bairdii:
Nowadays, only a fragmented population has been lo-
cated near the visitor's centre of the Los Katios National
Park, in the northern Choc6 eco-region, and it has been
documented on video by Hector Restrepo, who esti-
mates a total of eight to ten individuals still present in
the park.
During 2004 several tracks and dung piles were
observed near the Sasardi Integrated Nature Reserve,
located in the Darien region. Occasional reports of
tracks and sightings were obtained from local residents
of the Colombian Darien, but the reports were made
as something new and interesting, maybe because of
the partial recovery of the species' population in those
sectors. The species is probably still present along the
Darien Range, but the political and warfare situation
has made it impossible to visit in recent years.
Since its discovery in the upper Sinu by
Hershkowitz, no more reports of the species have been
obtained. The director of the Paramillo National Park,
Mr. H. Martinez, reports the presence of tapirs there,
but without distinguishing between T. terrestris or T.
bairdii.
Embera indigenous people and several field resear-
chers consider the species extinct in the Utria National
Park in the south. No more records for this species
exist in Colombia, but occasional reports from hunters
and locals indicate that the species may be present in
remote areas of the Baud6 Range, and in the western
foothills of the western cordillera in the departments of
Choc6, Risaralda and Valle del Cauca.
Some places that need verification of presence are:
Upper Baud6 River; Las Orquideas National Park;
Paramillo National Park; Upper San Juan River /
Tatama National Park; Upper Fugiad6 River; Middle
Calima watershed / Ordofiez creek; and Western slopes
of the Farallones de Call National Park. The Awa indi-
genous people of western Narifio, near the Ecuadorian
border, do not know the species and do not recognize
it from pictures.

Project Activities

* Five (5) visits to the Darien eco-region;
* Five (5) visits to the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta
eco-region;
* Four (4) visits to the Magdalena Medio eco-region;
* Distribution of 50 posters of Tapirus bairdii
among local people and organizations in the
Darien eco-region, kindly provided by
Dr. Eduardo Naranjo, from Mexico;
* Presentations to local people and organizations
within the three eco-regions about the endangered
status of the tapir species present in each;
* Promotion of the Civilian Society initiative for
nature reserves in the three eco-regions;


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 14/1 0 No. 17 0 June 2005






18 NEWS FROM THE FIELD


* Confirmation of sightings and tracks in several
places;
* Verification of presence in the Farallones de Cali
National Park, so far negative for T. bairdii and
T. pinchaque;
* Development of the Red Book data for T. bairdii
(attached).

Recommendations

Both species, T. bairdii and T. terrestris colombianus,
are considered critically endangered (CR) in Colombia
by the recent Red Book of Colombian Mammals pro-
duced by the Humboldt Institute; urgent activities to
reverse this trend include:

* Creation of more nature reserves and national
parks in the species' ranges;
* Total ban of the hunting of tapirs;
* Awareness and education campaigns for local
peoples and local authorities;
* Verification of actual presence for both species in
some remote areas;
* Biological and ecological research on both species.

Acknowledgments

This report was made possible through the kind sup-
port of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group (TSG),
Tapir Preservation Fund, Lowry Park Zoo, and Red
Colombiana de Reservas Naturales de la Sociedad
Civil. Special thanks to Sheryl Todd, Patricia Medici,
Dr. Eduardo Naranjo, Ivan Lira Torres, Rick Barongi,
Charles Foerster, Tomas Diaz, Franz Kaston, Hector
Restrepo, Sergio Marquez, Andr6s Upegui, Sr. Cayo
from Palomino River and all the people that gave
us information, both in the jungles and cities of
Colombia.

Emilio Constantino
World Wildlife Fund (WWF)
Avenida 2A, No. 43-07, Barrio El Lido, Cali, Colombia
Phone: +57-2-552 4611 /
E-mail: emilio@visionsatelite.com.co


References

Hershkowitz, P 1954. Mammals of Northern Colombia,
preliminary report No. 7: Tapirs (genus Tapirus), with
a systematic review of American species. Proceedings of
the United States National Museum 103: 465-496.
Terwilliger, V J. 1978. Natural History of Baird's tapir on
Barro Colorado Island, Panama Canal Zone. Biotropica
10: 211-220.
Janzen, D. 1982. Removal of seeds from horse dung by tro-
pical rodents: influence of habitat and amount of dung.
Ecology 63: 1887-1900.


ATTACHMENT

Red Book of Mammals of Colombia

Autores:
Emilio Constantino, Josd Vicente Rodriguez,
Clara Solano.

DANTA CHOCOANA Tapirus bairdii (Gill 1885)



Categoria Global UICN 2004: En Peligro EN

Categoria Nacional: En Peligro Critico CR

Otros nombres comunes: Danta, Danto, Anta, Macho
de monte,Anteburro, Tzimin (Maya), Tapir Centroamericano,
Danta Centroamericana, Dandi (Emberi-Katio)

Distribuci6n: Se encuentra desde el sur de Mexico hasta
el Golfo de Guayaquil en Ecuador. En Colombia se encuen-
tra en las tierras bajas del Pacifico y en el flanco occidental
de la Cordillera Occidental, en altitudes hasta de 1000 m
(HERSHKOVITZ 1954; MATOLA et al. 1997).Aun no es clara su
distribuci6n en el Pacifico; actualmente el sitio mis al sur
conocido es el Parque Nacional Natural Ensenada de Utria,
donde la especie es hoy reportada como recientemente
extinta. Los demis sitios al sur de esta localidad estin por
comprobarse, al igual que el report para el Ecuador, del que
no existen registros. En Costa Rica y Honduras la especie
habitat > 3000 msnm. En Colombia existen reports anecd6ti-
cos de cazadores para el cerroTorri,y los rios Calima Medio
(Quebrada Ord6iez),Anchicayi y Naya.

Descripci6n: La Danta Centroamericana es el mamife-
ro mis grande de Centroamerica, pudiendo Ilegar a pesar
hasta 300 kg y medir 2 mts de longitud y I m de alzada
(HERSHKOVITZ 1954; PADILLA & DOWNER 1994).

Habitat: Frecuenta los bosques humedos y secos (e.g.,
Parque Nacional Guanacaste, en Costa Rica) de tierras bajas,
aunque en algunas ocasiones se le ha visto en bosques mon-
tanos y piramos centroamericanos (MATOLA et al. 1997).

Historia Natural: Como todos los tapires, la Danta
Centroamericana es un animal solitario. Su dieta se compone
principalmente de hojas, frutas, cortezas y brotes tiernos de
gran variedad de plants, que ramona mientras camina en
zigzag (TERWILLIGER 1978; NARANJO 1995a, 1995b; NARANJO &
CRUZ 1998). Para algunas plants el tapir es un important
dispersor de semillas, especialmente de las de gran tamaio
que no son dispersadas por otras species; para otras
species actla como depredador (JANZEN 1982). La Danta
Centroamericana es una especie principalmente noctur-
na. Sus periods de mayor actividad son 04:00-07:00 h y
18:00-20:00 h. Su imbito hogareio varia entire 0,27 km2 a
1,8 km2 (NARANJO 1995a).Ademis del hombre, otros depre-


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 14/1 0 No. 17 0 June 2005






NEWS FROM THE FIELD 19


dadores importantes del tapir centroamericano son el Jaguar
(Panthera onca), el Puma (Puma concolor) y el Caimin del
Magdalena (Crocodylus acutus).

Estado Actual y Amenazas: Su principal amenaza es la
caceria, que ha Ilevado a la especie a la extinci6n en algu-
nas localidades, especialmente en el Urabi, las serranias de
Tripogadi y del Darien, asi como en el Sinu, y en general
en toda la costa Pacifica. El gran tamaio del tapir hace que
este sea una de las press mis buscadas por los cazadores.
La care es aprovechada para la subsistencia y en algunas
ocasiones los excedentes son vendidos en los mercados
locales como care de monte. Al igual que los demis tapires,
T. bairdii es una especie muy sensible a la intervenci6n de su
habitat y a la caceria (BROOKS et al. 1997). Aparentemente
s6lo las poblaciones del Parque Nacional Natural Los Katios
y algunas ireas aledaias en la Serrania del Darien serian el
ultimo remanente de esta especie en Colombia. Aun ahi, la
continue presi6n de caza ejercida por los pobladores vecinos
al parque, que viven en una situaci6n social muy compleja por
el conflict armado, puede eventualmente estar poniendo en
serio riesgo su viabilidad poblacional.Ya ha sido considerada
como extinta en el Parque Nacional Natural Ensenada de
Utria por los propios cazadores Embera (ULLOA et al. 1996).
Esta situaci6n ha motivado a considerar las poblaciones
colombianas bajo el criterio A de ripida reducci6n en el
tamaio poblacional, en virtud de una obvia reducci6n pobla-
cional proyectada o sospechada en los ultimos diez aios en
niveles mayores o iguales al 80%, lo que implica una catego-
rizaci6n de En Peligro Critico CR (A2cd+3cd) siguiendo las
definiciones de la Uni6n Internacional para la Conservaci6n
de la Naturaleza (UICN).

Medidas de Conservaci6n Tomadas: Debido a las dri-
sticas reducciones poblacionales causadas mayormente por
la caceria indiscriminada, la especie se encuentra incluida en
el Apendice I de la CITES. Se sospecha que aun exista una
poblaci6n en el Alto Sinu, Parque Nacional Natural Paramillo,
done la report Hershkowitz; podria existir en los Parques
Nacionales Naturales Orquideas,Tatami y Farallones de Cali,
pero aun no hay evidencia.

Medidas de Conservaci6n Propuestas: La restaura-
ci6n de los bosques chocoanos, con vocaci6n forestal y un
adecuado manejo de estos recursos, podria compensar la
perdida de habitat que ha sufrido la especie. Se requieren
studios de campo para determinar su presencia en muchos
lugares, especialmente, en la Serrania del Darien y de Los
Saltos, asi como en el Alto Sinu, Parque Nacional Natural
Paramillo, done aparentemente se ha extinguido. Se requie-
ren studios de disponibilidad de habitat y monitoreo de sus
poblaciones con el objeto de plantear un eventual program
de reintroducci6n con alta participaci6n comunitaria que
garantice un minimo de exito. La evaluaci6n de los efectos
de la mineria y extracci6n forestal y la integraci6n de esta
especie a programs de educaci6n ambiental son actividades
altamente recomendables.


Linking Mountain Tapir

Populations in

South-Western Colombia

By Sergio Sandoval Arenas


The mountain tapir (Tapirus pinchaque) is perhaps
the most endangered species in the family
Tapiridae. Remnant populations of the species inha-
bit Andean ecosystems of Colombia, Ecuador and
northern Peru, mainly at elevations between 2,000
and 4,500 m above sea level. Current total counts
probably number less than 3,500 individuals and
70% (nearly 2,500 individuals) among these inhabit
the Colombian Andes, along the southern part of the
Central and Eastern Cordilleras (Lizcano et al. 2002).
Unfortunately, the species' distribution range overlaps
with areas of high human development in the country.
With humans occupying and transforming the Andean
forests at the lower limits of its distribution, the moun-
tain tapir has been displaced to the thick, high Andean
forests and paramos to search for food and refuge.
Habitat loss is not the only threat that the moun-
tain tapir faces in Colombia. Although animals could
seemingly disperse along the higher elevation areas
of the Andean cordilleras, habitat fragmentation is
probably disrupting this continuity, breaking apart
the last mountain tapir populations (Figure 1). Expert
analysis suggests that a viable mountain tapir popula-
tion must be composed of at least 1,000 individuals
living in a continuous area of nearly 300,000 hectares
(Montenegro 2002). This scenario is difficult to find
inside any currently protected area in the Andes of
Colombia, where the largest section of continuous
protected habitat for the species hardly encompasses
20% of this extension (59,900 ha. in Sumapaz National
Park; Lizcano et al. 2002; Figure 1).
Because it is unlikely that there will be a viable
population of mountain tapirs inside just one national
park, the integration of various protected areas may be
an alternative for the conservation of this species. One
of the places where this kind of integration could be
successful in Colombia is at the southern limit of the
Central Cordillera, in an area known as the Colombian
Massif. A nearly continuous belt of paramos and
Andean forests runs along the ridge of the cordillera,
representing a potential high Andean corridor. Along
this belt, three national parks have been established
(Purac6, Nevado del Huila and Las Hermosas) and the
areas between them seem to have relative low levels of
human disturbance (Figure 1).
During 2004, a pilot project took place in the north-
ern sector of Purac6 National Park. The objective of the


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 14/1 0 No. 17 0 June 2005






20 NEWS FROM THE FIELD


P Poternha hatial for mountain tapir
1b wi hatalNAbut at kw eIOvabon
Paramo eoaWsstem is abseit in iis w"re
S Apiodm~rri~g lkaon of WP5 in Uh cmnidor

7i8 760 74*

Figure I. Remaining habitat of the mountain tapir in
Colombia (Based on Colombian Ecosystems Map,
Etter 1998).


project was to evaluate human threats and assess the
status of mountain tapir populations in a representa-
tive area of the belt. Furthermore, after several mee-
tings, agreements where secured with local agencies
responsible for the environmental management of the
areas included in the corridor. After one year of work
it was concluded that the establishment of the corridor
is possible and that the mountain tapir could be one
of the focal species to be used in the monitoring pro-
cess to evaluate the effectiveness of management of the
area. It is necessary to initiate environmental educati-
on activities; young people in the area are ignorant of
the existence of the mountain tapir and, although the
adults have a positive attitude toward the species, the
only benefit they perceive from it is the use of its body
parts for traditional medicine.
There are several factors threatening the moun-
tain tapir in the area, but maybe the worst of them
is habitat degradation due to livestock introductions.
The frequency of mountain tapir signs found in areas
where livestock is kept tends to be low. Hunting is not
very evident, but it occurs; it is probably not for sub-
sistence purposes and may be an opportunistic activity
(Figure 2).
Although at a large scale (1:2,000,000; Etter 1998)
the corridor appears to be in place, upon closer inspec-


tion there could be several areas where the connectivity
is lost due to habitat degradation. The goal on a second
phase of the project will be to identify those critical
gaps in order to implement site-specific ecological
studies focused on mountain tapir dispersal patterns,
and to develop environmental education programs for
local people. If possible, future activities may inclu-
de the use genetic and telemetry data as part of the
monitoring process. The use of camera traps is being
considered too.

Acknowledgements

I wish to thank the Los Angeles Zoo (USA), the Cali
Zoological Foundation, the Colombian National Parks
Unit and the Environmental Studies Group (GEA) of
Cauca University at Popayan, for their support in the
initial phase of this project. Special thanks to the peo-
ple of Resguardo Indigena de Purac6 for their assis-
tance in the field.

Sergio Sandoval Arenas
IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group (TSG)
E-mail: dantascol@yahoo.com.nmx


References
Etter, A. 1998. Mapa General de Ecosistemas de Colombia.
Escala 1:2,000,000. Institute de Investigaci6n de
Recursos Biol6gicos Alexander von Humboldt.
Lizcano, D. J., Pizarro, V., Cavelier, J. And J. Carmona.
2002. Geographic distribution and population size of
the mountain tapir (Tapirus pinchaque) in Colombia.
Journal of Biogeography. 29. 7-15.
Montenegro, O. L. 2002. Evaluaci6n del estado actual de
la danta o tapir de paramo (Tapirus pinchaque) en la
region andina oriental. Corpochivor. Garagoa. 17 pp.


Figure 2. An injured mountain tapir found in the
northern sector of Puracd National Park in 2003.
The wound (inset) was presumably caused by a hunter
using a machete. Photo by Juan Carlos Gaitdn 2003


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 14/1 0 No. 17 0 June 2005






CONTRIBUTED PAPERS 21








Manejo en Semi-Cautiverio del Tapir Amaz6nico

(Tapirus terrestris) en Bosque Secundario Amaz6nico

Ecuatoriano, Provincia de Pastaza

Andres Tapia1, Medardo Tapia1, & Ruth Arias1


Centro Tecnol6gico de Recursos Amaz6nicos "Fatima" de la Organizacion de Pueblos Indigenas de Pastaza OPIP
Pastazamanda Runaguna Tandanakuy
Casilla Postal 16-01-800, Puyo-Pastaza-Ecuador
Phone: +593-022-544799: +593-032-887399
E-mail: centrofati@panchonet.net: centrofatima@andinanet.net


Resumen

Al iniciar la experiencia de domesticaci6n y manejo de mamiferos silvestres, tuvimos que averiguar qu6
exactamente comia cada especie del proyecto. En el caso de la danta o tapir (Tapirus terrestris Linnaeus),
o "Sachawagra" (como se le llama en la lengua Kichwa), se tenia alguna informaci6n preliminary que debia
probarse. Debido a que apremiaba el tiempo, decimos Ilevar a "Bambi" nuestro tapir hembra, en ese
entonces todavia un beb6 a la selva virgen y averiguar de primera mano qu6 es lo que comia. "Bambi" nos
ahorr6 futures costs en insumos externos como alimento y medicine, y nos ensen6 cuan important era
conservar el bosque en su estado natural para ser aprovechado sin danarlo. Fue evidence que el concept de
modernizaci6n que destruye a cuenta de ampliar la frontera agricola, era un retraso, una involuci6n. Por el
contrario, la experiencia nos demostr6 que aquella tecnologia que valora la practice indigena ancestral de
domesticaci6n y crianza de animals es la apropiada para trabajar con la fauna native amaz6nica en el con-
texto amaz6nico indigena, conservando species que, como el tapir, enfrentan fuertes amenazas de extin-
ci6n. El Centro Tecnol6gico de Recursos Amaz6nicos "Fatima" de la Organizaci6n de Pueblos Indigenas
Kichwas de Pastaza (OPIP) ha realizado trabajos dentro de esta filosofia por mas de 10 afos, presentando
tecnologias relatives a la domesticaci6n, crianza y manejo del tapir amaz6nico. El Centro busca promover
tecnologias alternatives de manejo de recursos que disminuyan la dependencia cada vez mas creciente de
mercados externos y que fomenten las iniciativas familiares, locales y comunitarias de manejo de la fauna
como una fuente reconocida y traditional de protein animal.


Sobre el Centro Fatima

E1 Centro Tecnol6gico de Recursos Amaz6nicos de
la Organizaci6n de Pueblos Kichwas de Pastaza
OPIP es un proyecto de domesticaci6n, manejo y con-
servaci6n de la fauna native amaz6nica, ubicado en la
Parroquia Fatima, Provincia de Pastaza en el km 9 de
la via Puyo-Tena a 953 m.s.n.m. en la Alta Amazonia
del Ecuador. Desde hace 16 afios el Centro Fatima se
estableci6 como un Zoocriadero que maneja species
nativas de fauna amaz6nica como tapir (Tapirus ter-
restris), capibara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris), saino
o pecari de collar (Tayassu tajacu), guanta (Agouti
paca), entire otras, con miras al manejo sustentable


de los recursos amaz6nicos aprovechados tradicional-
mente por los pueblos indigenas amaz6nicos. Un parte
de la finca fue convertida en pastizal para el establec-
imiento de ganaderia insustentable y en la actualidad
se encuentra en un process de regeneraci6n/sucesi6n
vegetal, distingui6ndose species pioneras como Pol-
lalesta sp, Cecropia sp, etc. En la superficie restante
se ha realizado tala selective de madera pero ain con-
serva caracteristicas de bosque hfimedo tropical con
species como Iriartea deltoidea, Bactris sp, Socratea
sp, etc.


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 14/1 0 No. 17 0 June 2005






22 CONTRIBUTED PAPERS


Amor en una pareja de tapires amaz6nicos.
Credit Fernando Coloma


El Contexto IndigenaAmaz6nico

El agotamiento de los recursos es una realidad que
las poblaciones originarias de la Amazonia vienen
afrontando desde hace much tiempo. El privilegio de
la explotaci6n irracional e insustentable de los recur-
sos responded a process hist6ricos. Practicamente
desde la conquista, se inici6 el deterioro de recursos,
pues se veia a la Amazonia como fuente inagotable. Se
ha evidenciado extracci6n descontrolada del caucho, el
"boom" del petr6leo y la Reforma Agraria que, a cuenta
de ampliar la frontera agricola como formula para el
"desarrollo", promovi6 la tala de bosques para el esta-
blecimiento de pasturas insustentables.
A consecuencia de estos cambios, los pueblos indi-
genas han experimentado un process de dependencia
hacia los mercados externos lo cual ha causado la p6r-
dida de la prActica traditional de manejo de la fauna.
El tapir y otros mamiferos amaz6nicos constituyen una
fuente fundamental de protein animal para los pue-
blos indigenas de toda la cuenca amaz6nica. Durante
un period de 4 meses, el consume de care de tapir
represent el 24% del total de care silvestre consu-
mida por cuatro comunidades y el 2% de la caceria de
fauna silvestre en la Parroquia Curaray, en la Amazonia
Ecuatoriana. (Freire 1997). Pero la fauna no es sola-
mente component del requerimiento alimentario,
todo el context cultural gira entorno a las species
nativas a quienes se consider series con espiritus
poderosos. No es possible entender, por lo tanto, al
ser human lejos de sus recursos (Pachamama) en el
entorno cultural indigena.
Por otro lado, el manejo de la fauna se ha practi-
cado tradicionalmente y se pueden encontrar ejemplos
de esto en varias comunidades. Permanentemente se
manejan species con miras al aprovechamiento de su
care, para consume interno y para mantener control


y seguridad sobre su abundancia (soberania alimenta-
ria). Es frecuente encontrar sainos (Tayassu tajacu),
venados (Mazama americana) o tapires siendo cuida-
dos por nifios en comunidades indigenas, credndose
un important vinculo entire ser human y fauna sil-
vestre.



Experiencias de Domesticaci6n,
Manejo y Conservaci6n del Tapir

Hace mis de 10 afios "Bambi", una cria de 2 meses
de edad, lleg6 al proyecto proveniente de la parte baja
de la Amazonia. Se tenia cierta experiencia previa en
el manejo de un macho adulto que por problems
de infraestructura escap6. Para ese entonces, en la
Amazonia ecuatoriana se habia hecho muy poco por
el manejo de recursos y se miraba a lo externo como
una alternative que excluia a iniciativas locales. Con
el tiempo esta vision ha cambiado y en la actualidad
se mira al manejo y la conservaci6n como alternatives
sustentables. El policultivo es una estrategia a seguir;
la crianza de varias species nativas simultaneamente
ofrece ventajas porque disminuye la dependencia por
un unico recurso. El trabajo en policultivo se inici6
con corrales pequefios para posteriormente establecer
parcelas de /2, 1, 2 o mis hectareas como zonas de
manejo intensive, asi como parcelas de varias hec-
tareas para manejo extensive y reintroducci6n de indi-
viduos (Figuras 1 y 2).
El objetivo del Proyecto es no agotar al bosque,
manteniendo un nfmero adecuado de animals, los
que pueda soportar el fragmentado ecosistema en
el que trabajamos. Se han obtenido 7 crias en semi-
cautiverio con un promedio de 1 cria cada 19 meses.
Solamente un animal falleci6 por enfermedad, mien-
tras el resto ha llegado a edad reproductive sin pro-
blemas. Los animals nacidos son trasladados a otros
criaderos en distintas parties de la Amazonia para
fomentar iniciativas similares. Tambi6n se ha intenta-

Figura I.
Corrales
para manejo
intensive y
extensive del ..
tapir. f
Diselo: r o, T
Ivan Jacome -


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 14/1 0 No. 17 0 June 2005






CONTRIBUTED PAPERS 23


Figura 2. Zona para el plan de manejo de fauna
amaz6nica en comunidades indigenas amaz6nicas.
Disefio: Ivan Jacome

do reintroducir individuos en las zonas circundantes.
Debido al comportamiento solitario de la especie, algu-
nos individuos han escapade y revertido naturalmente
a su estado salvaje. Tres individuos frecuentan sende-
ros en los limits de la finca y ocasionalmente entran a
la misma, en particular en 6poca de celo.
La alimentaci6n se basa fundamentalmente en la
flora de la localidad, el gasto en insumos externos es
minimo. Se ha elaborado una lista de las 70 species
mis importantes para el consume del tapir. Este
nimero es alto, considerando el tipo de bosque (bos-
que secundario) en el que nos encontramos. Las espe-
cies mis consumidas son hojas de la familiar Araceae
y frutos de la familiar Arecaceae. Una guia de manejo,
cria y conservaci6n basada en estas experiencias ha
sido elaborada para establecer un plan de manejo del
tapir en diferentes comunidades.



Conservaci6n y Educaci6n Ambiental

A trav6s de nuestras actividades de conservaci6n,
podemos educar y reclutar a mis personas en las acti-

Andres, en
1996,jugando
con Ulises, el
primer bebe
de Bambi.
Credit Ruth
Arias


vidades de protecci6n del medio ambiente. Asi como
los concepts de manejo y conservaci6n, conservaci6n
y educaci6n son dos concepts que se complementan.
En este sentido, se han brindado cursos de capacita-
ci6n a pobladores locales que en parte han asimilado
esta experiencia para desarrollar sus propias inicia-
tivas locales, no solamente con manejo de tapir sino
de otras species: Guanta, guatuza (Dasyprocta fuli-
ginosa), saino, capibara, etc. El florecimiento de estas
experiencias nos proporciona confianza en el trabajo
realizado. Adicionalmente la elaboraci6n de guias de
manejo y conservaci6n es una herramienta adecuada
para capacitaci6n y educaci6n. Por otro lado, el ecotu-
rismo nos brinda la posibilidad potential de general
conciencia entire los visitantes.



Otras Experiencias Amaz6nicas

Una experiencia exitosa con tapires en una comunidad
indigena amaz6nica es la de la comunidad Kichwa
Sarayacu, Provincia de Pastaza, ubicada en las riberas
del rio Bobonaza en la Baja Amazonia. En esta se ha
llegado a plantear el tema de la conservaci6n con fines
de seguridad alimenticia. Sarayaku es comunidad de
base de la Organizaci6n de Pueblos Indigenas Kichwas
de Pastaza OPIP. Actualmente se ha establecido una
reserve donde se han reintroducido tapires y se
domestic un tapir de seis meses que se mantiene en
la comunidad; generalmente los nifios se encargan de
esta actividad (observaci6n personal). Este proyecto
genera plazas de trabajo para quienes trabajan como
guardabosques rotativos. Solamente en este afio, 48
personas se han beneficiado como guardabosques. El
proyecto cumple ya cinco afios en funcionamiento con
opci6n a cinco mis de pr6rroga y esti dirigido por
lideres de la comunidad.



Agradecimientos

El Centro Fatima represent y defiende los principios
de la Organizaci6n de Pueblos Indigenas Kichwas de
Pastaza (OPIP). Agradecemos a los presidents que ha
tenido OPIP desde su fundaci6n hasta el present y a
todos los compafieros que en mayor o menor media
han estado a nuestro lado: Ashka pagrachu!!!
A Patricia Medici por su apertura para la publicaci6n
de este document.

Mayor informaci6n sobre el Centro Fatima se puede
encontrar en www.puce.edu.ec/investigaci6n/fitima yen
la GUIA PARA EL MANEJO, CRIA Y CONSERVATION
DEL TAPIR (disponible a trav6s del autor).


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 14/1 0 No. 17 0 June 2005






24 CONTRIBUTED PAPERS


Preferencia por Fecas de Tapir Amaz6nico (Tapirus terrestris)

de Escarabajos Estercoleros (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae:

Scarabaeinae) en Bosque Secundario Amaz6nico

Andres Tapia


Centro Tecnol6gico de Recursos Amaz6nicos "Fdtima" de la Organizacion de Pueblos Indigenas de Pastaza OPIP
Pastazamanda Runaguna Tandanakuy
Casilla Postal 16-01-800, Puyo-Pastaza-Ecuador
Phone: +593-022-544799: +593-032-887399
E-mail: centrofati@panchonet.net; centrofatima@andinanet.net



Resumen

La importancia del tapir amaz6nico (Tapirus terrestris Linnaeus) en el ecosistema puede evidenciarse
conociendo las relaciones animal-planta, animal-animal y animal-entorno. En este context se enmarca la
relaci6n Tapir-Escarabajo (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). La abundante masa fecal expulsada por el tapir, el
mamifero terrestre mas grande del Neotr6pico, ofrece a los escarabajos estercoleros un medio adecuado
para la formaci6n de sus bolas-nido y el desarrollo de su ciclo vital. El present studio trata de determinar,
mediante el empleo de fecas de tapir como cebos de trampa para escarabajos estercoleros, la preferencia
que muestran los escarabajos por este alimento y la importancia del tapir en el ciclo de vida de los mismos
en dos areas: Disturbada (AD) y Medianamente disturbada (AMD) de bosque secundario amaz6nico. Para
motives de comparaci6n, se muestre6 tambi6n con trampas utilizando carrofa como cebo. Se encontraron
13 species de escarabajos que se alimentan de los dos tipos de cebo: 7 species fueron exclusivas para
fecas de tapir y 6 comunes para fecas y carrofa. La especie mas abundante en fecas de tapir fue Ontherus
sp. Se encontraron 119 individuos de 13 species en el area medianamente disturbada y 20 individuos
de 4 species en el area disturbada. Es important comparar las dos areas pues nos dan una idea de c6mo
el tapir esta contribuyendo a la coprofauna incluso en zonas alteradas por la intervenci6n antropog6nica
(bosques con tala selective de madera, bosques secundarios en regeneraci6n, pastizales, etc).


Introducci6n

Las relaciones inter-especificas que ocurren en el
ecosistema amaz6nico, uno de los mas diversos del
planet, se presentan ain entire organismos de carac-
teristicas diversas pertenecientes a taxones distantes.
Si se piensa en el tapir amaz6nico (Tapirus terrest-
ris Linnaeus), el mamifero terrestre mas grande del
Neotr6pico, y en los pequefios escarabajos peloteros/
estercoleros (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae Scarabaeinae),
aparentemente no se encuentra relaci6n entire ambos.
Ademas de su funci6n como dispersor de semillas
(Emmons, 1999), la gran masa fecal product de las
deposiciones del tapir, proporciona un sustrato que
varias species de aracnidos, lepidopteros, orthop-
teros, coleopteros, etc., aprovechan para desarrollar
sus ciclos de vida. Dentro de la Clase Insecta, Orden
Coleoptera, los escarabajos peloteros, estercoleros o
rodacacas, son el tax6n que mayor beneficio obtiene
de la masa fecal del tapir, utilizandola como medio de


incubaci6n para huevos y desarrollo de sus funciones
vitales.
Mediante el monitoreo biol6gico es possible descri-
bir la relaci6n existente entire el tapir y los escarabajos
peloteros y el provecho que 6stos ultimos obtienen de
las heces de los primeros. La ecologia de los escara-
bajos estercoleros esta basada en la explotaci6n de un
recurso nutricionalmente rico como el excremento de
grandes vertebrados (Bustos-Gomez y Lopera 1999),
debido a su contenido de F6sforo y Potasio. Halffter
(1959) menciona que los escarabajos estercoleros pre-
fieren los excrementos de ungulados por sobre los de
carnivores. Sin embargo, muy pocos studios han con-
siderado las heces del tapir como un recurso alimen-
ticio para los escarabajos estercoleros. Las numerosas
investigaciones emplean como m6todos de colecci6n
heces humans. Bustos y Lopera (1999) described
al excremento de omnivoros humanso) como el mas
apropiado, por sobre carrofia, frutos y excremento de
vaca.


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 14/1 0 No. 17 0 June 2005






CONTRIBUTED PAPERS 25


Los escarabajos estercoleros cumplen la important
funci6n de reciclaje de desechos organicos del suelo.
En condiciones naturales los ecosistemas silvestres no
tienen problems sanitarios o desequilibrios causados
por la acumulaci6n de sustratos organicos sobrantes
del metabolismo (excrementos) de los animals debido
a la labor de los escarabajos (Locarno 1997); un solo
individuo puede sepultar hasta 2 kg de heces en una
noche. Por otra parte, al sepultar la material fecal, el
escarabajo impide la proliferaci6n de parisitos presen-
tes en las fecas (Halffter 1959). Por ejemplo, al enterrar
el esti6rcol los escarabajos estercoleros impiden que
los dipteros coloquen sus huevos y puedan multiplicar-
se y asi contribuyen al control de la diseminaci6n de
enfermedades infectocontagiosas (Moron 1984). Por
otra parte, Mor6n (1984) destaca la importancia m6di-
ca de los escarabajos, los cuales pueden convertirse
en vectores de enfermedades parasitarias al cumplir
la funci6n de hu6spedes intermediaries de diferentes
species parisitas del hombre y otros animals que al
ingerir al escarabajo adquieren el parisito. El tapir es
hu6sped de una gran variedad de parisitos entire los
cuales se destacan a los Ciliados Buisionella tapiri (da
Cunha y Muniz 1925), Balantidium coli, Prototapirella
intestinalis (da Cunha 1918), etc., detectados en
el ciego y colon de los tapires y a los Nematodos
Neumorshidia monostichia (Chabaud 1957), Teseraia
(Chabaud y Bain 1981), Probstmayria tapiri (van
Waerebeke 1988), etc., presents en el est6mago del
tapir. Escarabajos de los g6neros Cetonia, Melolontha,
Phyllophaga, Scarabeus han sido reportados como
hu6spedes de diversos parisitos (Moron 1984).
Hasta el moment, poco se ha investigado sobre la
contribuci6n del tapir a la entomofauna y la relaci6n
Tapir-Escarabajo en el ecosistema. Mor6n (1984)
menciona que los escarabajos estercoleros pueden
mostrar predilecci6n por las fecas de tapir. Martinez
(1951) hace menci6n de escarabajos estercoleros
(Glaphyrocanthon proseni) encontrados cerca de
la region anal de Tapirus terrestris. Existen pocos
trabajos que utilizan como cebos heces de monos
Alouatta sp y estudian la coincidencia en las rutas de
movimiento de monos y escarabajos estercoleros. Se
han empleado en menor cantidad cebos con heces de
vacas, venados, etc., mientras que la mayor parte de
studios emplean heces humans. Anduaga y Halffter
(1991) realizaron un studio de escarabajos asociados
a excremento de roedores y existen en Norteam6rica
studios de escarabajos relacionados con heces de tor-
tugas de la Florida (Gopherus polyphemus) (Anduaga
y Halffter 1991). No existen studios que avalen las
trampas con cebos de heces de tapir para la colecci6n
de escarabajos estercoleros.
El hecho de no digerir completamente el alimento,
en el que se pueden encontrar abundantes fibras vege-
tales y semillas, puede influir en la preferencia de los


escarabajos por las heces fecales del tapir. Especies
sapr6fagas y copr6fagas de las subfamilias Aphodiinae
y Scarabaeidae pueden encontrarse en heces fecales de
tapir. En un analisis macrosc6pico de 2 kg de masa
fecal de una hembra en semi-cautiverio se encontraron
13 larvas y 4 adults de Aphodius sp. (Coleoptera:
Aphodinae) y 20 adults de Onthophagus sp.
(Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) (observaci6n personal).
Por cuanto los escarabajos peloteros son bioindica-
dores de la alteraci6n del ecosistema y son utilizados
en los monitoreos biol6gicos, el tapir, al contribuir con
su ciclo de vida, permit que process biol6gicos en los
que estos escarabajos participan se desarrollen. Esta
funci6n poco descrita con respect al tapir brinda
important informaci6n que realza la importancia de la
especie por su contribuci6n a la coprofauna y destaca
la prioridad de su conservaci6n, pues su desaparici6n
podria afectar las relaciones planta-animal, y animal-
animal, alteraci6n de la cadena tr6fica, etc. (Sandoval
2004).
Este aporte del tapir a la coprofauna no es exclusive
para ecosistemas con poca intervenci6n antropog6nica.
Remanentes de bosque, bosques donde se ha realizado
tala selective e incluso bosques secundarios en regene-
raci6n o pastizales podrian poseer una coprofauna que
se veria beneficiada por la presencia del tapir, en caso
de que se hayan realizado reintroducciones, sistemas
de crianza en semi-cautiverio, etc en estos tipos de bos-
que. Es important, por tanto, comparar la diversidad
de escarabajos entire un bosque alterado y uno medi-
anamente alterado, para determinar c6mo el tapir -en
caso de existir- en zonas alteradas e incluso en zoocri-
aderos, centros de rescate, etc., estaria contribuyendo
con el ciclo vital de los escarabajos estercoleros.


Materiales y Metodos

El present studio se realize en el Centro Tecnol6gico
de Recursos Amaz6nicos de la Organizaci6n de Pue-
blos Indigenas Kichwas de Pastaza (OPIP), Parroquia
Fatima, Provincia de Pastaza ubicado en el km 9 de la
via Puyo-Tena a 953 m.s.n.m. en la Alta Amazonia del
Ecuador. Segun el Mapa Bioclimitico y Ecol6gico del
Ecuador, el area de studio se encuentra en la forma-
ci6n vegetal de Bosque Muy Hfimedo Tropical (Caria-
das, 1983) con una precipitaci6n annual y una temper-
atura media de 4.000 mm y 220C respectivamente. La
humedad relative es del 85%.
El Centro Fatima es una finca de 28 ha. de bosque
secundario amaz6nico colonizada hace 40 afios a
partir de la expedici6n de la Ley de Reforma Agraria y
Colonizaci6n. Aproximadamente 6 ha (Area disturbada
AD) fueron convertidas en pastizal para ser dedicadas
a la actividad ganadera. Actualmente, 6sta area se en-
cuentra en regeneraci6n, distingui6ndose species pi-


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 14/1 0 No. 17 0 June 2005






26 CONTRIBUTED PAPERS


oneras de bosque secundario como Piptocoma discolor
y Cecropia sp. (Melendrez y Vogel 2000). Dos tapires
-una madre con su cria- son mantenidos en semi-cau-
tiverio en esta extension. En las 22 ha. restantes (Area
Medianamente Disturbada, AMD) se ha realizado tala
selective de madera. Otros dos tapires tienen senderos
en los limits de 6sta area y los frecuentan ocasional-
mente.
Para el studio se realizaron dos transectos de 130
m en cada sitio (AD y AMD). En cada transecto se ceb6
con una trampa de caida ("pitfall") cada 10 m (en total
13 trampas). En el primer transecto de ambos sitios se
colocaron 13 trampas utilizando como cebo fecas de ta-
pir y en el segundo transecto de cada sitio se colocaron
13 trampas con carrofia. Las trampas fueron revisadas
cada 24 horas. El muestreo se efectu6 entire junior y
julio del 2004. Las muestras de fecas de tapir fueron
colectadas hasta un dia posterior a su deposici6n. Se
registry el area donde se obtuvo la muestra (cuerpo de
agua o tierra firme) y las condiciones de la misma.
El material colectado se identific6 en el
Departamento de Entomologia del Museo de Ciencias
Naturales de la Escuela Polittcnica Nacional del
Ecuador siguiendo la sistematica de guias para la
identificaci6n de taxa mediante claves estandar para
escarabajos Ecuatorianos. Se examinaron las colecci-
ones de especimenes de Scarabaeinae y se consult a
estudiantes del Museo.


Resultados

Se colectaron 139 individuos de Scarabaeidae per-
tenecientes a 13 species utilizando cebos con heces
de tapir y carrofia con la siguiente composici6n: 119
individuos de 13 species en AMD y 20 individuos de
cuatro species en el AD.
Cincuenta y un individuos (36,7% de la colecta)
pertenecientes a siete species se alimentaron exclu-
sivamente de fecas de tapir. La composici6n fue la
siguiente: Dichotomius satanas (29), Eurysternus
caribeus (14), Eurysternus foedus (2), Dichotomus
quinquedens (2), Uroxys sp. (1), Canthon luteicolle
(1), Oxysternus conspicillatum (2).
Ochenta y ocho individuos (63,6% de la colecta)
pertenecientes a seis species se alimentaron tanto de
fecas de tapir como de carrofia. Su composici6n fue la
siguiente: Coprophanaeus telamon (11), Ontophagus
sp (4), Deltochilum parile (12), Ontherus sp (45),
Deltochilum amazonicum (4), Eurysternus plebejus
(12).
En total, 119 individuos (86%) se encontraron en
trampas con heces de tapir y 20 (14%) en trampas
con carrofia. (Tabla 1). La especie mas abundante en
ambos tipos de trampa fue Ontherus sp con 45 indivi-
duos. El indice de Diversidad de Shanon-Weiner (H')
denot6 mayor diversidad en el AMD (1,86 = Diversidad
Media) que en el AD (1,31= Diversidad Baja). El Indice
de Diversidad de Shanon-Weiner en el AMD utilizando
exclusivamente cebos con heces de tapir fue de 1,6
y asi evidencia diversidad median para este tipo de
cebo.


Tabla I. Preferencia de escarabajos estercoleros por cebo con heces de tapir y carrofia.


AbundaWa a bbsol AbuJndwcIb iWlvu (%)
Epl Cabo con hCm e Cobo can Cb cn he bo C con
S!____& cro ______apr Ca rrote
COpCopq eon.W!s!rmon 6 6 4,21 30
DWwMckw P 2 10) 1.48 50
DIchotomin sate a 29 24,37
Onathrs p 44 1 3B,97 5
EwydVrus ca&wus 14 11,76
08lochou smsaroeukwn 3 1 2,52 5
icfys a' 1. 0.84
Crfli t AokLb I 0.4 ___ -
Ewuysenw piebqe 11 1 9.25 5
Oxyste8m s cnspi~ietu 2 1,68
otop Au Sp 3 1 2,52 5
ELysmrs fts 2 1,68 -______
DOic s qwrusqWuens 2 1.8 -



Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 14/1 0 No. 17 June 2005






CONTRIBUTED PAPERS 27


Abundancia do escarabajos estercoleros
en cebos con heces de tapir y carrofa






0
S 20


1 Mueatfeo 2


Cuadro I. Abundancia de escarabajos estercoleros en tram[
heces de tapir y carrofia.



Discusi6n
ei
Los resultados que arroja el present studio demu- c
estran la importancia del tapir en el ecosistema
amaz6nico por su contribuci6n a la coprofauna. La tr
baja riqueza y abundancia de escarabajos en el Area
Disturbada (AD) responded a las caracteristicas hete- le
rog6neas del ecosistema. Debido a la p6rdida de la
cobertura vegetal, las lluvias arrastran gran cantidad
de material e inundan los senderos. En bosque menos in
intervenido, los arboles retienen la luvia y el agua no
se acumula. Las funciones de los escarabajos esterco-
leros se ven seriamente afectadas en areas sin cobertu-
ra vegetal. Asi, la riqueza y abundancia fue mayor en el d
AMD que en el AD. Estos resultados se esperaban pues te
el area disturbada corresponde a una zona colonizada b
hace 40 afios para el establecimiento de pastizales y se d
encuentra actualmente en regeneraci6n. LA alta preci- ti
pitaci6n (4.000 mm anuales) impide las funciones de
los escarabajos.
Los resultados coinciden con los presentados por m
Bustos-Gomez y Lopera (1999), quienes encontraron fr
diferencias significativas entire bosque y potrero (12 ai
species unicas para bosque, 2 para pastizal y 7 com- se
partidas entire ambos) Los pastizales soportan una la
menor riqueza de species y numero de individuos
con respect al bosque native debido a que dentro de la
los bosques las condiciones son menos variables y es ei
possible encontrar un mayor numero de microhibitats b
que soportan una rica fauna de escarabajos copr6fa- d
gos. (Bustos-Gomez y Lopera 1999) Esto explicala d
ausencia de Oxysternon conspicillatum, especie cc
cominmente encontrada en areas abiertas pero con 3
parches de vegetaci6n que evitan la escorrentia. ta
Se encontraron cuatro species compartiendo los cc


dos sitios muestreados; dos pertenecieron
al g6nero Eurysternus. Eurysternus ple-
bejus fue la especie mis frecuente en los
dos sitios de studio. Esta especie eutr6-
pica present tolerancia encontrandose en
habitats perturbados. Es ademas impor-
tante para el monitoreo biol6gico, por
cuanto su abundancia crece en areas con
mayor nivel de intervenci6n antropog6ni-
ca, informando el estado del bosque si su
abundancia aumenta cuando disminuye
la de las species estenotr6picas. (Bustos-
Gomez y Lopera 1999).
Debido al cese de la actividad ganade-
ra, la riqueza de escarabajos estercoleros
podria aumentar en el future en el AD en
regeneraci6n. Las 13 species identifica-
das en este studio fueron encontradas
en fecas de tapir, siete de ellas exclusivas
para trampas con fecas y seis comunes en
trampas con fecas y carrofia: 119 indivi-
uos (86%) fueron encontrados en fecas de tapir y 20
i carrofia (14%). Coprophaneus telamon, descrita
)mo una especie carrofiera tambi6n pudo encontrar-
e en fecas de tapir, si bien en menor numero que en
ampas con carrofia. La unica especie que demostr6
layor predilecci6n por carrofia fue Deltochilum pari-
mientras las species restantes se encontraron en
layor cantidad en fecas de tapir.
La poca disponibilidad de material fecal, por la
existencia de mamiferos grandes como felinos y pri-
Lates en el area, puede influir en la afluencia mostrada
i las fecas de tapir. Sobre este punto, Bustos-Gomez
Lopera (1999) mencionan que una parte important
e la dieta de los escarabajos son las bacteria presen-
s en gran cantidad en las heces de omnivoros. Estas
acterias pueden ser fundamentals en el metabolismo
e los escarabajos y determinar la preferencia por este
po de heces. Mientras tanto Halffter (1959) menciona
ue los escarabajos estercoleros prefieren los excre-
entos de ungulados sobre los de carnivores. Sobre lo
encionado, huelga decir que el AMD posee senderos
ecuentados ocasionalmente por tapires desde hace 5
ios (Tapia 1999), por lo que sus fecas podrian haber-
Sconstituido en el principal recurso alimenticio para
I coprofauna del sector.
El tipo de alimentaci6n del tapir puede influir en
I afluencia de escarabajos a sus heces. La diferencia
i la alimentaci6n entire la parte alta (900 m.s.n.m) y
aja (200 m.s.n.m.) de la Regi6n Amaz6nica podria ser
eterminante. En estado native se ha reportado la dieta
el tapir a base de Muriti (Mauritiaflexuosa) con un
)ntenido de grasa del 53.2%, 43% de carbohidratos y
.8% de proteinas (Bodmer 1990). Esta especie vege-
Il no existe en la Alta Amazonia. La Baja Amazonia,
)n mayores recursos vegetables ofrece al tapir una gran


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 14/1 0 No. 17 0 June 2005






28 CONTRIBUTED PAPERS


variedad de frutos comestibles, mayor a la disponible
en la Alta Amazonia. Hacen falta, por tanto, studios
similares a diferentes altitudes.
Una limitaci6n para el acceso de los escarabajos
a las fecas constitute el hecho de que el tapir general-
mente defeca en cuerpos de agua o en sus cercanias.
En este caso, los escarabajos no podrian acceder a
las fecas y el uso de las fecas estaria condicionado al
tipo de habitat del tapir. La misma consideraci6n debe
hacerse para zonas de inundaci6n temporal de la Baja
Amazonia, en este caso, el uso de las fecas por parte de
los escarabajos seria estacional.
Las species colectadas en fecas de tapir ofrecen
nuevos datos que realzan la importancia del tapir ama-
z6nico en el ecosistema por su contribuci6n a la copro-
fauna. Su desaparici6n puede acarrear la alteraci6n de
las relaciones tapir-escarabajo, desencadenando la
extinci6n o migraci6n de la coprofauna y la consiguien-
te p6rdida de diversidad del ecosistema amaz6nico.
A la gran cantidad de studios sobre escarabajos
estercoleros podria incorporarse el empleo de cebos
con heces de tapir, animal que por su tamafio y habi-
tos alimenticios contribute con la masa fecal utilizada
por los escarabajos para el desarrollo de sus funciones
vitales. La escasa metodologia publicada con cebos con
heces de tapir impide una mayor discusi6n al respect.
Sin embargo, los resultados presentados en los estu-
dios de escarabajos copr6fagos asociados a heces de
roedores (Anduaga y Halffter 1991), tortugas terrestres
de California (Halffter 1959), etc., permiten establecer
la potential utilidad de las fecas de tapir para futuras
investigaciones.



Agradecimientos

La presentaci6n de este trabajo fue possible gracias a la
valiosa ayuda del Bi6logo William Chamorro quien co-
labor6 con la identificaci6n de especimenes y la correc-
ci6n de este articulo, y del personal del Departamento
de Entomologia de la Escuela Polit6cnica Nacional del
Ecuador por permitir el acceso a las colecciones ento-
mol6gicas.



Bibliografia

Anduaga, S., y Halffter, G. 1991. Escarabajos asociados a
madrigueras de roedores (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae,
Scarabaeinae). Folia Entomol6gica Mexica 81: 185-197.
Bodmer, R. E. 1990. Fruit patch size and frugivory in the
lowland tapir, Tapirus terrestris. Journal of Zoology 222:
121-128.
Bustos-G6mez, L. F, y Lopera, A. 1999. Preferencia por cebo
de los escarabajos copr6fagos (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae:
Scarabaeinae) de un remanente de Bosque Seco Tropical


al Norte de Tolima. Escarabajos de Latinoamerica 3: 59-
65.
Cafiadas, L. 1983. El mapa Bioclimatico y Ecol6gico del
Ecuador. MAG-PRONAREG. Banco Central del Ecuador.
Quito, Ecuador.
Chabaud A. G. y Bain, O 1981. Description of Spirobakerus
weitzeli new genus new species and remarks on spiro-
cercial nematodos. Annales de Parasitologie Humaine et
Comparee, 56: 73-80.
Chabaud, A. G. 1957. Revue critique es nematodos du genre
Quelonia et du genre Murshidia. Annales de Parasitologie
Humaine et Comparee, 32:98-131.
da Cunha, M. 1918. Sobre os ciliados intestinaes dos mam-
miferos. Brasil-Medico, 32:161.
da Cunha, M. y Muniz, J. 1925. Contribution to the know-
ledge of ciliata parasitic in Mammalia of Brazil. Sciencia
Medica, 3: 740-747.
Emmons, L. 1999. Mamiferos de los bosques hfmedos
de America Tropical. Editorial EA.N. Santa Cruz de la
Sierra, Bolivia.
Escobar, F y Medina. C. A. 1991 Coleopteros copr6fagos
(Scarabaeidae) de Colombia: Estado actual de su conoci-
miento. Institute de Investigaci6n de Recursos Biol6gicos
Alexander von Humboldt. Cali, Colombia.
Favila, M. y Halffter, G. 1997. The use of indicator groups for
measuring biodiversity as related to community structu-
re and function. Acta Zool6gica 72: 1-25
Halffter, G. 1959. Etologia y Paleontologia de Scarabaeinae
(Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Ciencia 29: 164-178
Halffter, G., Halffter, V y Huerta, C. 1980. Mating and nes-
ting behavior of Eurysternus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae).
Quaestiones Entomologicae 16: 599-620
Locarno, L. C. 1997. Registros yNotas Ecol6gicas Preliminares
de los Escarabajos (Col, Scarabaeoidea). XXIV Congreso
de la Sociedad Colombiana de Entomologia. Pereira,
Colombia.
Martinez, A. 1951. Scarabaeidae nuevos o poco conocidos II.
Misi6n Est. Pat. Reg. Arg. 222 (80): 23-36.
Melendrez, M y Vogel, J. 2000. Los impacts de las emisiones
y fijaciones del di6xido de carbon y el metano en un
bosque secundario en la Amazonia del Ecuador. Centro
Tecnol6gico de Recursos Amaz6nicos de la OPIP Puyo,
Ecuador.
Moron, I. 1984. Escarabajos estercoleros del Ecuador.
Brigada Ecol6gica. Quito, Ecuador.
Padilla, M. y Dowler, R. 1994. Tapirus terrestris. Mammalian
species 481: 1-8
Sandoval. L. F. 2004. Abundancia relative del Tapir
Amaz6nico (Tapirus terrestris) en una gradiente de inter-
venci6n humana en el Parque Nacional Yasuni, Amazonia
Ecuatoriana. Tesis de grado. Universidad Central del
Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador.
Tapia, M. 1999. Guia para el manejo, cria y conservaci6n
del Tapir. Centro Tecnol6gico de Recursos Amaz6nicos.
Puyo, Ecuador.
van Waerebeke, D. 1988. Probstmayria tapiri, new species,
parasitic nematode of a tapir from the New World.
Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle.
Section A. Zoologie, Biologie, et Ecologie Animales, 10:
3-8.


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 14/1 0 No. 17 0 June 2005






CONSERVATION NEWS 29



Cosevto News


Red Danta -

Report of Activities

By Diego J. Lizcano, Jaime Andres Suarez,
Sandra Correa & Sergio Sandoval


During 2004 The Red Danta was committed to the
organization, development and logistic support of
The Mountain Tapir Population and Habitat Viability
Assessment (PHVA) Workshop, which was carried out
in Santuario de Fauna y Flora Otin Quimbaya in the
city of Pereira, in October 2004. To the meeting atten-
ded more than 60 mountain tapir conservationist,
experts, policy makers and indigenous people repre-
senting Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, USA, Mexico and
Brazil.
A major change occurred in Red Danta. After con-
sensus within its members, the Red Danta is not "only
Colombian" any more. Starting this year, we hope to
incorporate more Spanish-speaking people from other
countries involved in tapir conservation projects or
just interested in information about tapirs in Spanish.
In 2005 we have grown from 46 to 61 members from
Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela. Following
this major change, the Red Danta web page is been
re-built and re-designed. We hope to finish this task by


Figure I. The number of exchanged emails within the
Red Danta list group is continuously growing during
time.


Figure 2. The Red Danta poster contributes to the
awareness and education programs of local people
and local authorities involved in mountain tapir
conservation.


middle 2005. The number of exchanged emails within
our list (fig. 1) and visits to our web page are growing
fast. In February of 2005 alone, we had 497 visits, with
the largest number of visits (56%) coming from Latin
American servers. You are welcomed to check our web
site at: http://tapiruscol.tripod.com
As a small contribution to the awareness and edu-
cation programs of local people and local authorities
involved in mountain tapir conservation, we designed
a poster (fig. 2). It was designed jointly by Red Danta
members Jaime Andres Suarez and Diego J. Lizcano;
and Sandra Correa from Matecafia Zoo of Pereira,
with Denis Torres' design advices. The funds to print
1,500 posters were provided by Matecafia Zoo and
Corporaci6n Aut6noma Regional del Quindio (CRQ).
The poster was presented and initially distributed
in a mountain tapir workshop in Matecafia Zoo in
November 2004. During this workshop, local people
from Los Nevados National Park and La Florida region
were invited to spend a day at the zoo free of charges,
to attend to two presentations on mountain tapir con-
servation. Additionally posters have been distributed
to local people by Red Danta representatives: Carlos
Pedraza in Nevado del Huila National Park, Andr6s
Guarnizo in several localities in the Eje Cafetero (a
coffee-producing region) and widely in Quindio State
by CRQ. The original graphics files of the posters are
available upon request from Red Danta. Users may
print their own posters using these files, but keeping


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 14/1 0 No. 17 0 June 2005


Omwhk d Euu .ittdings In Rod 0ini Lce ago


I
U m


I"




u
0


4 au






30 CONSERVATION NEWS


the logos of the original designers and sponsors, and
adding the logos of their own organizations. For more
details, please contact us.

Diego J. Lizcano
Ph.D. Graduate Student, Durrell Institute of Conservation
and Ecology (DICE)
Eliot College, University of Kent at Canterbury
Country Coordinator for Colombia, IUCN/SSC Tapir
Specialist Group (TSG)
Red Danta, IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group (TSG)
Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NS, United Kingdom
E-mail: dl36@ukc.ac.uk




Footprinting Tapirs -

The Development of a

Footprint Identification

Technique (FIT)

By Zoe Jewell & Sky Alibhai


In 2004 we established WildTrack, a small, indepen-
dent research organization (www.wildtrack.org), to
help census and monitor endangered species using
non-invasive techniques. One of the tools we are using
for this purpose is an award-winning footprint identi-
fication technique (FIT), which we developed for two


species of rhino, and have recently adapted successful-
ly for the Bengal tiger. We are now working with several
research groups to develop FIT for other endangered
species.
We recently met with Patricia Medici, Chair, IUCN/
SSC Tapir Specialist Group (TSG) and discussed the
possibility of extending this research for the benefit of
the TSG as a whole. We mentioned that we had been
working for some months with TSG member Silvia
Chalukian in Argentina, and that the preliminary
analysis of the footprint images Silvia has sent us of


lowland tapirs is very encouraging, suggesting that the
technique will work well for this and other tapir spe-
cies.
Because there has been much interest shown in the
possible application of this technique, we are hoping to
form a tapir footprinting group under the umbrella of
the TSG, and hope to work with TSG members to deve-
lop FIT for use with their different species. Several
members have contacted us already, and we hope we
will be able to interest many more in participating.
FIT is non-invasive and cost-effective, and can
produce highly accurate data for censusing and moni-
toring. These are objectively obtained and able to with-
stand scientific scrutiny. Because FIT is based on a
traditional indigenous tracking technique, it is also an
intuitive technique for many field trackers and scouts,
and their expertise can be incorporated into the use
of the technique. In contrast, some other, often inva-
sive, monitoring techniques usually rely on expensive
imported expertise and equipment. FIT is therefore
particularly appropriate for developing countries and
will also work well as a complementary technique with
existing methods.
For each tapir species, we need to develop a specific
FIT algorithm. Our aim is then to field-test the FIT by
working closely with the participating field projects.
Once the FIT algorithm is validated, we then hope to
transfer all the necessary technology for FIT to be used
on-site by the respective research groups when con-
ducting their own census or monitoring activities, or
(if so desired) to continue to offer this tool on a consul-
tancy basis from off-site. For more information please
contact Zoe Jewell (address below) or Patricia Medici.

Zoe Jewell & Sky Alibhai
Project Directors WildTrack
Apartado 210, 8550-909 Monchique, Portugal
Phone: +351-282-911439/ Fax: +351-282-913761
E-mail: rhinowatch@clix.pt
Website: www.wildtrack.org


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 14/1 0 No. 17 June 2005


Erratum

In our last issue, the article by Lizcano and Cavalier (Tapir
Conservation 16: 18-23) mentions that in the only previous
radio-tracking study of mountain tapirs (T pinchaque), three
animals were followed for one year. The data reported in
that study (Downer, C. C. 1996; Oryx 30: 45-58) is in fact
from two adult followed for tree years and one adult follo-
wed for two years.






TSG MEMBERSHIP DIRECTORY 31



IUNS Tapi Spcals Gru Members


Currently, the TSG has 92 members, including
field researchers, educators, veterinarians,
governmental agencies and NGO representatives,
zoo personnel, consultants, university professors
and students, from 26 different countries world-
wide (Argentina, Australia, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil,
Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica, Denmark, Ecuador,
French Guiana, Germany, Guatemala, Honduras,
Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Paraguay, Republic of
Panama, Peru, Taiwan, Thailand, The Netherlands,
United Kingdom, United States, and Venezuela).









TAPIR SPECIALIST GROUP



ABD. GHANI, SITI KHADIJAH (Malaysia)
Local Research Coordinator, Malayan Tapir Project,
Krau Wildlife Reserve
PERHILITAN Bukit Rengit, Krau Wildlife Reserve,
28500 Lanchang Temerloh, Pahang State, MALAYSIA
Phone & Fax: +609-276-2348
E-mail: cobra7512081@hotmail.com

AGORAMOORTHY, GOVINDASAMY (Taiwan)
Director (Research & Conservation), Singapore
Zoological Gardens
Ph.D. Associate Professor, Tajen Institute of
Technology
Yanpu, Pingtung 907, TAIWAN
Phone: +886-916752019 / Fax: +886-7525-3623
E-mail: agoram@mail.nsysu.edu.tw

AMANZO, JESSICA (Peru)
Seccion Ecologia, Sistematica y Evolucion,
Departamento Academico de Ciencias Biologicas y
Fisiologicas
Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofia, Universidad Peruana
Cayetano Heredia
Apartado Postal 4314, Lima 100, PERU
Phone: +51-01-9304-2727
E-mail: jessica amanzo@yahoo.com


ANGELL, GILIA (United States)
Web/Graphic Designer, Amazon.com
270 Dorffel Drive East, Seattle, Washington 98112,
UNITED STATES
Phone: + 1-206-266-2613; + 1-206-568-1655
Fax: + 1-206-266-1822
E-mail: giliaangell@earthlink.net

APARICIO, KARLA (Republic of Panama)
M.Sc. Specialist in Wildlife Conservation and Manage-
ment
Scientific Committee, Patronato "Amigos del Aguila
Harpia"
Associate Researcher, Earthmatters.Org
Apartado Postal 810-337, Zona 10, Panama City,
REPUBLIC OF PANAMA
Phone & Fax: +507-222-1781
E-mail: k_aparicio@yahoo.com

BARONGI, RICK (United States)
Director, Houston Zoo Inc.
Former Chair / Member, American Zoo and Aquarium
Association (AZA) Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)
1513 North MacGregor, Houston, Texas 77030,
UNITED STATES
Phone: + 1-713-533-6800 / Fax: + 1-713-533-6802
E-mail: RBarongi@aol.com; rbarongi@houstonzoo.org

BECK, HARALD (Germany / United States / Peru)
Ph.D. Research Associate, Center for Tropical
Conservation, Duke University
3705-C Erwin Rd., Durham, North Carolina 27705,
UNITED STATES
Phone: + 1-919-490-9081
E-mail: harald@duke.edu

BLANCO MARQUEZ, PILAR ALEXANDER
(Venezuela)
D.V.M. Fundaci6n Nacional de Parques Zool6gicos e
Acuarios (FUNPZA)
Associate Researcher, Earthmatters.Org
Urbanizaci6n Los Caobos, Calle Apure, Edificio
Residencia Los Caobos
Piso 9, Apartamento 9-A, Maracay, Estado Aragua,
VENEZUELA
Phone: +58-243-246-0185; +58-414-477-1262
Fax: +58-243-246-0185
Cell Phone: +58-014-454-3193
E-mail: albla@telcel.net.ve; albla69@hotmail.com


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32 TSG MEMBERSHIP DIRECTORY


BODMER, RICHARD E. (England)
Ph.D. Lecturer in Biodiversity Conservation, Durrell
Institute of Conservation and Ecology (DICE)
Eliot College, University of Kent at Canterbury
Canterbury, Kent, CT2 7NS, ENGLAND (U.K.)
Phone: +44-1227-823-233
Fax: +44-1227-827-289 E-mail:
R.Bodmer@ukc.ac.uk

BUSTOS, SOLEDAD DE (Argentina)
Licenciada en Ciencias Biol6gicas, T6cnica de la
Delegaci6n Regional NoA, Parques Nacionales
Florida 466, 4400 Salta, ARGENTINA
Phone: +54-0387-432-0645
Fax: +54-0387-431-0255
E-mail: soledebustos@hotmail.com

CAMACHO, JAIME (Ecuador)
Coordinator, Programa Parques en Peligro, Fundaci6n
Ecuatoriana de Estudios Ecol6gicos EcoCiencia
Francisco Salazar E14-34 y Av. Corufia, Sector La
Floresta, Quito, ECUADOR
Phone & Fax: +593-2-252-2999
E-mail: pep@ecociencia.org

CARBONELL TORRES, FABRICIO (Costa Rica)
Coordinador de Proyectos Ambientales, Asociaci6n
Meralvis
Apartado 1854-3000, Heredia, COSTA RICA
Phone & Fax: +506-262-5927
E-mail: carbonf@yahoo.com.mx

CASTELLANOS PENAFIEL, ARMANDO XAVIER
(Ecuador)
Director, Andean Bear Project, Fundaci6n Espiritu del
Bosque
Reina Victoria 17-37 y La Nifia, Quito, ECUADOR
Phone: +593-2-223-9703
Fax: +593-2-250-4452
E-mail: iznachi@yahoo.com.mx;
zoobreviven@hotmail.com

CHALUKIAN, SILVIA C. (Argentina)
M.Sc. Researcher, El Rey National Park
Rio Negro 2508, 4400 Salta, ARGENTINA
Phone: +54-387-424-0861
E-mail: silviach@sinectis.com.ar

CHONG, MIKE H. N. (Malaysia)
Coordinator, Freelance Naturalist, Bird Guide
Asian Raptor Research & Conservation Network-
Information Centre / Nature Tours
208 Jalan H-8, Taman Melawati, 53100 Kuala
Lumpur, MALAYSIA
Phone & Fax: +603-4107-1958
E-mail: mikechn@pc.jaring.my


COLBERT, MATTHEW (United States)
Research Associate, Department of Geological
Sciences, University of Texas
Austin, Texas 78712, UNITED STATES
Phone: + 1-512-471-0260 / Fax: + 1-512-471-9425
E-mail: colbert@mail.utexas.edu

CONSTANTINO, EMILIO (Colombia)
World Wildlife Fund (WWF)
Avenida 2A, No. 43-07, Barrio El Lido, Cali,
COLOMBIA
Phone: +57-2-552 4611
E-mail: emilio @visionsatelite.com.co

CRUZ ALDAN, EPIGMENIO (Mexico)
M.Sc. Researcher, Instituto de Historia Natural y
Ecologia
Calzada Cerro Hueco S/N, A. P 6, C. P 29000, Tuxtla
Guti6rrez, Chiapas, MEXICO
Phone: +52-961-614-4765; +52-961-614-4459;
+52-961-614-4701
Fax: +52-961-614-4700
E-mail: cruz5910@prodigy.net.mx

CUARON, ALFREDO D. (Mexico)
Ph.D. Departamento de Ecologia de los Recursos
Naturales, Instituto de Ecologia, UNAM
Apartado Postal 27-3 (Xangari), Morelia, Michoacan
58089, MEXICO
Phone: +52-4-322-2786; +52-5-623-2786;
+52-4-322-2777 Ext. 32786
Fax: +52-4-322-2719; +52-5-623-2719
E-mail: cuaron@oikos.unam.mx

DEE, MICHAEL (United States)
General Curator, Los Angeles Zoo
Member, American Zoo and Aquarium Association
(AZA) Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)
5333 Zoo Drive, Los Angeles, California 90027,
UNITED STATES
Phone: + 1-323-644-4254 / Fax: + 1-323-662-9786
E-mail: mdee@zoo.lacity.org

DOWNER, CRAIG C. (United States)
BA, M.Sc., President, Andean Tapir Fund
PO. BOX 456, Minden, Nevada 89423-0456, UNITED
STATES
Phone: + 1-775-267-3484 / Fax: + 1-775-747-1642
E-mail: ccdowner@terra.es; ccdowner@yahoo.com

ESTRADA ANDINO, NEREYDA (Honduras)
M.Sc. Graduate Student, Posgrado en Biologia,
Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR)
San Pedro de Montes de Oca, San Jos6, COSTA RICA
Phone & Fax: +506-234-7137
E-mail: nerestr@yahoo.com


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TSG MEMBERSHIP DIRECTORY 33


FLESHER, KEVIN (United States / Brazil)
Ph.D. Graduate Student, Rutgers University
55 Dudley Road, 2nd Floor, New Brunswick, New
Jersey 08901, UNITED STATES
Phone: +1-732-932-9153 Ext. 351
E-mail: KevinFlesher@yahoo.com

FOERSTER, CHARLES R.
(United States / Costa Rica)
M.Sc. Leader, Baird's Tapir Project, Corcovado
National Park, Costa Rica
445 CR 221, Orange Grove, Texas 78372, UNITED
STATES
Phone & Fax: + 1-719-228-0628
E-mail: CRFoerster@aol.com; foerster@racsa.co.cr

FRANKLIN, NEIL (Indonesia)
Director, Indonesia Program, The Tiger Foundation
(Canada) The Sumatran Tiger Trust (United
Kingdom)
Prima Lingkar Asri B2/12, Jatibening, Bekasi,
INDONESIA 17412
Phone & Fax: +62-0-21-865-0114
Cell Phone: +62-0-811-998-881
E-mail: franklin@pacific.net.id

GARRELLE, DELLA (United States)
D.V.M. Director of Conservation and Animal Health,
Cheyenne Mountain Zoo
4250 Cheyenne Mountain Zoo Road, Colorado
Springs, Colorado 80906, UNITED STATES
Phone: +1-719-633-9925 Ext. 120
Fax: +1-719-633-2254
E-mail: dgarelle@cmzoo.org; dgarelle@yahoo.com

GLATSTON, ANGELA (The Netherlands)
Ph.D. Curator of Mammals, Rotterdam Zoo
Member, European Association of Zoos and Aquaria
(EAZA) Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)
PO. BOX 532, 3000AM Rotterdam, THE
NETHERLANDS
Phone: +31-10-443-1410
Fax: +31-10-443-1424
E-mail: a.glatston@rotterdamzoo.nl

GOFF, DON (United States)
Director of Animal Programs, Beardsley Zoological
Gardens
Lowland Tapir Studbook Keeper, American Zoo and
Aquarium Association (AZA) Tapir Taxon Advisory
Group (TAG)
1875 Noble Avenue, Bridgeport, CT 06610,
UNITED STATES
Phone: + 1-203-394-6564
Fax: +1-203-394-6577
E-mail: dgoff@beardsleyzoo.org


GONqALVES DA SILVA, ANDERS
(Brazil / United States)
PhD. Graduate Fellow, Ecology and Evolutionary
Biology Program
Center for Environmental Research and Conservation
(CERC)
Department of Ecology, Evolution and Environmental
Biology (E3B), Columbia University
1200 Amsterdam Ave MC5556, New York, New York
10027, UNITED STATES
Phone: + 1-212-854-0377 / Fax: + 1-212-854-8188
E-mail: ag2057@columbia.edu

GREENE, LEWIS (United States)
Director, Virginia Zoological Park
Chair, American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA)
Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)
3500 Granby Street, Norfolk, Virginia 23504,
UNITED STATES
Phone: + 1-757-441-2374
E-mail: lgreene@virginiazoo.org

GUERRERO SANCHEZ, SERGIO (Mexico)
D.V.M. Manager, Clinic Laboratory, Zool6gico Regional
Miguel Alvarez del Toro (ZooMat)
Institute de Historia Natural y Ecologia
Calzada Cerro Hueco S/N, A. P 6, C. P 29000, Tuxtla
Guti6rrez, Chiapas, MEXICO
Phone: +52-961-614-4701
Fax: +52-961-614-4700
E-mail: ekio@yahoo.com

GUIRIS ANDRADE, DARIO MARCELINO (Mexico)
D.V.M. M.Sc. Jefe de Operaciones, UN.A.CH.,
Policlinica y Diagn6stico Veterinario
Blvd. Angel Albino Corzo # 635, Zona Militar, Tuxtla
Guti6rrez, Chiapas, MEXICO 29079
Phone & Fax: +52-961-614-4214
E-mail: dmguiris@hotmail.com;
dguiris @web. correosdecuba. cu

HERNANDEZ DIVERS, SONIA M. (United States)
D.V.M. Adjunct Professor, College of Veterinary
Medicine, University of Georgia
197 East Creek Bend, Athens, Georgia 30605,
UNITED STATES
Phone: + 1-706-548-3414
E-mail: shernz@aol.com

HOLDEN, JEREMY (Indonesia)
Photographer, Flora and Fauna International
PO. BOX 42, Kantor Pos, Sungai Penuh Kerinci,
Jambi, Sumatra INDONESIA 371000
Phone & Fax: +0-7482-2267
E-mail: pop@padang.wasantara.net.id;
jeremyholden 1 @yahoo.co.uk


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34 TSG MEMBERSHIP DIRECTORY


HOLST, BENGT (Denmark)
M.Sc. Vice Director, Copenhagen Zoo
Convener, IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist
Group (CBSG) Europe Regional Network
Chair, European Association of Zoos and Aquaria
(EAZA) Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)
Sdr. Fasanvej 79, DK-2000 Frederiksberg, DENMARK
Phone: +45-72-200-200; +45-72-200-220
Fax: +45-72-200-219
E-mail: beh@zoo.dk

JANSSEN, DONALD L. (United States)
D.V.M. Ph.D. Director, Veterinary Services, San Diego
Wild Animal Park
15500 San Pasqual Valley Road, San Diego, California
92027-7017, UNITED STATES
Phone: + 1-760-291-5401
Fax: + 1-760-747-3168
E-mail: djanssen@sandiegozoo.org

KAEWSIRISUK, SUWAT (Thailand)
Chief, Hala-Bala Wildlife Sanctuary Department of
National Parks, Wildlife and Plant Conservation
Royal Forest Department of Thailand
PO. Box 3, Waeng District, Narathiwat Province,
THAILAND 96160
Phone: +6697-333101
E-mail: king@btv.co.th

KANCHANASAKA, BUDSABONG (Thailand)
Wildlife Research Division Department of National
Parks, Wildlife and Plant Conservation
Royal Forestry Department of Thailand
61 Paholyothin Road, Jatuchak, Bangkok 10900,
THAILAND
Phone: +66-2-940-7159
Fax: +66-2-579-9874
E-mail: Budsa@hotmail.com

KASTON FLOREZ, FRANZ (Colombia)
D.V.M. Scientific Director, Fundaci6n Nativa
Carrera 64 #22B-10, Int 03. Apto 703, Bogota,
COLOMBIA
Phone: +57-315-798-3086
E-mail: tapirlanudo@hotmail.com

KAWANISHI, KAE (Malaysia)
Ph.D. Technical Advisor, Division of Research and
Conservation
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (DWNP)
Km. 10, Jalan Cheras, 56100 Kuala Lumpur,
MALAYSIA
Phone: +603-9075-2872
Fax: +603-9075-2873
E-mail: kae@wildlife.gov.my; kae2000@tm.net.my


CONSTANT, WILLIAM (United States)
Director of Conservation and Science, Houston Zoo
Inc.
1513 North MacGregor, Houston, Texas 77030,
UNITED STATES
Phone: + 1-215-233-9318
Fax: + 1-215-402-0469
E-mail: bkonstant@houstonzoo.org

LIRA TORRES, IVAN (Mexico)
D.V.M. M.Sc. Research Associate, Universidad del Mar
- Campus Puerto Escondido
Puerto Escondido, San Pedro Mixtepec, Juguila,
Oaxaca, MEXICO C.P 71980
Phone: +01-954-588-3365
Fax: +01-954-582-3550
E-mail: ilira@zicatela.umar.mx; ilira 12@hotmail.com

LIZCANO, DIEGO J. (Colombia)
Ph.D. Graduate Student, Durrell Institute of
Conservation and Ecology (DICE)
Eliot College, University of Kent at Canterbury
Carrera 2, No. 16-72, Torre 3, Apto. 404, Bogota,
COLOMBIA
Phone: +57-1-281-4256
E-mail: dl36@ukc.ac.uk

LUIS, CRISTINA (Portugal)
Ph.D. Student, Centro de Biologia Animal,
Departamento de Biologia Animal
Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa
Edificio ICAT, Lab. 0.1.2, Campo Grande, 1749-016,
Lisboa, PORTUGAL
Phone: +351-21-750-0006 Ext. 20115
Fax: +351-21-750-0172
E-mail: cmluis@fc.ul.pt

LYNAM, ANTONY (Thailand)
Ph.D. Associate Conservation Ecologist, Wildlife
Conservation Society (WCS) Thailand
PO. BOX 170, Laksi, Bangkok 10210, THAILAND
Phone & Fax: +66-2-574-0683
E-mail: tlynam@wcs.org

MANGINI, PAULO ROGERIO (Brazil)
D.V.M. M.Sc. Research Associate, IPE Instituto
de Pesquisas Ecol6gicas (Institute for Ecological
Research)
Scientific Coordinator, Vida Livre Medicina de
Animals Selvagens
Rua Professor Alvaro Jorge, 795, Apto. 15C BL 3,
Curitiba CEP: 80320-040, Parana, BRAZIL
Phone: +55-41-343-2871
Cell Phone: +55-41-9996-5138
E-mail: pmangini@uol.com.br; pmangini@ipe.org.br


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TSG MEMBERSHIP DIRECTORY 35


MARTYR, DEBORAH (Indonesia)
Team Leader, Flora and Fauna International
PO. BOX 42, Kantor Pos, Sungai Penuh Kerinci,
Jambi 13007, Sumatra, INDONESIA
Phone: +00-0-7482-2267; +00-0-7462-1846
Fax: +00-0-7482-2267
E-mail: tigers@ja.mweb.co.id; DebbieKerinci@aol.com

MATOLA, SHARON (United States / Belize)
Director, Belize Zoo and Tropical Education Center
PO. BOX 1787, Belize City, BELIZE
Phone: +501-813-004/ Fax: +501-813-010
E-mail: matola@belizezoo.org

McLAIN, JENNIFER (United States)
Registrar, Houston Zoo Inc.
Malay Tapir Studbook Keeper, American Zoo and
Aquarium Association (AZA) Tapir Taxon Advisory
Group (TAG)
1513 North MacGregor Drive, Houston, Texas 77030,
UNITED STATES
Phone: + 1-713-533-6510 / Fax: + 1-713-533-6755
E-mail: jmclain@houstonzoo.org

MEDICI, PATRICIA (Brazil)
M.Sc. Research Coordinator, IPE Instituto de
Pesquisas Ecol6gicas (Institute for Ecological
Research)
Convener, IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist
Group (CBSG) Brazil Regional Network
Avenida Perdizes, 285, Vila Sao Paulo, Teodoro
Sampaio CEP: 19280-000, Sao Paulo, BRAZIL
Phone & Fax: +55-18-3282-4690
Cell Phone: +55-18-9711-6106
E-mail: epmedici@uol.com.br; medici@ipe.org.br

MEIJAARD, ERIK
(The Netherlands / Australia / Indonesia)
Post-Graduate Researcher, Department of Archaeology
and Anthropology, Australian National University
1/14 Portus Place, Bruce, 2617 ACT, Canberra,
AUSTRALIA 0200
Phone: +61-2-6125-3557
Fax: +61-2-6251-0193
E-mail: erik.meijaard@anu.edu.au

MENDOZA, ALBERTO (Mexico / United States)
D.V.M. Coordinator of Latin American Programs,
Houston Zoo Inc.
Education Advisor, American Zoo and Aquarium
Association (AZA) Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)
1513 North MacGregor, Houston, Texas 77030,
UNITED STATES
Phone: + 1-713-533-6548 / Fax: + 1-713-533-6768
E-mail: amendoza@houstonzoo.org


MOLLINEDO, MANUEL A. (United States)
Director, San Francisco Zoological Gardens
1 Zoo Road, San Francisco, CA 94132, UNITED
STATES
Phone: +1-415-753-7080; +1-415-753-7119
Fax: +1-415-681-2039
E-mail: manuelm@sfzoo.org

MONTENEGRO, OLGA LUCIA
(Colombia / United States)
Ph.D. University of Florida
Av. 1 de Mayo, # 39 A 49 Sur, Bogota, COLOMBIA
Phone: +57-1-203-5582
E-mail: olmdco@yahoo.com; olmd@ufl.edu

NARANJO PINERA, EDUARDO J. (Mexico)
Ph.D. El Colegio de la Frontera Sur (ECOSUR)
Carr. Panamericana, Ap. 63, San Cristobal de Las
Casas, Chiapas, MEXICO 29290
Phone: +52-9678-1884/Fax: +52-9678-2322
E-mail: enaranjo@sclc.ecosur.mx;
enaran7@prodigy.net.mx

NAVEDA RODRIGUEZ, ADRIAN JOSE (Venezuela)
T.S.U. en Recursos Naturales Renovables, Museo de la
Estaci6n Biol6gica de Rancho Grande
Apartado Postal 4845, Maracay, 2101-A Aragua,
VENEZUELA
Phone: +58-416-433-2160 /Fax: +58-243-235-8238
E-mail: adrian.naveda@cantv.net

NERIS, NORA (Paraguay)
Humaita 1161, Barrio Corrales, Fernando de la Mora,
Zona Sur, Paraguay
Phone & Fax: +595-21-511-746; +595-21-211-571
E-mail: flamar(@highway.com.py;
noraneris@hotmail.com.py

NOGALES, FERNANDO (Ecuador)
Researcher, Fundaci6n Ecol6gica Arcoiris
Professor, Escuela de Gesti6n Ambiental de la
Universidad T6cnica Particular de Loja
Segundo Cueva Celi 03-15 y Clodoveo Carri6n, Casilla
Postal 11-01-860, Loja, ECUADOR
Phone: +593-7-257-7449 Ext. 116
Fax: +593-7-257-2926
E-mail: anfibios@arcoiris.org.ec

NOVARINO, WILSON (Indonesia)
Lecturer, Jurusan Biologi FMIPA, Universitas Andalas
Kampus Limau Manis Padang, Sumatera Barat, PO.
BOX 093, Padang, INDONESIA 25163
Phone: +062-0751-777-425; +062-0751-497-952
Fax: +062-0751-71343
E-mail: wilson n id@yahoo.com


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36 TSG MEMBERSHIP DIRECTORY


ORDONEZ DELGADO, LEONARDO (Ecuador)
Coordinator, Proyecto Corredores de Conservaci6n,
Fundaci6n Ecol6gica Arcoiris
Segundo Cueva Celi 03-15 y Clodoveo Carri6n, Casilla
Postal 11-01-860, Loja, ECUADOR
Phone: +593-7-257-7449 Ext. 116
Fax: +593-7-257-2926
E-mail: paramos@arcoiris.org.ec

ORTMEIER VELASTIN, GEORGE (Brazil)
D.V.M. Staff Member, Vida Livre Medicina de
Animals Selvagens
Researcher, IPE Instituto de Pesquisas Ecol6gicas
(Institute for Ecological Research)
Rua Petit Carneiro, 77, Agua Verde, Curitiba CEP:
80240-050, Parana, BRAZIL
Phone & Fax: +55-41-343-2871
Cell Phone: +55-41-9105-0765
E-mail: velastin@uol.com.br

PARAS GARCIA, ALBERTO (Mexico)
D.V.M. Gerente del Departamento de Veterinaria,
Africam Safari
11 Oriente 2407, Col. Azcdrate, Puebla,
MEXICO 72007
Phone: +22-360-933 / Fax: +22-363-049
E-mail: pago@servidor.unam.mx;
pago@africamsafari.com.mx

PEDRAZA PENALOSA, CARLOS ALBERTO
(Colombia)
Biology Student, Laboratorio de Ecologia de
Vertebrados, Universidad de los Andes (UNIANDES)
Calle 138 Bis # 25-27, Bogota, Cundinamarca,
COLOMBIA
Phone: +57-1-626-1098; +57-1-339-4949 Ext.3770
E-mail: c-pedraz@uniandes.edu.co

PRAYURASIDDHI, THEERAPAT (Thailand)
Ph.D. Technical Forest Official Department of
National Parks, Wildlife and Plant Conservation
Royal Forest Department of Thailand
61 Paholyothin Road, Jatuchak, Bangkok 10900,
THAILAND
Phone: +66-2-561-4292 Ext. 797
Fax: +66-2-579-7048
E-mail: theerapat@hotmail.com

QUSE, VIVIANA BEATRIZ (Argentina)
D.V.M. Senior Veterinarian, Fundaci6n Temaik6n
Ruta 25 y km 0.700, Escobar, 1625, Buenos Aires,
ARGENTINA
Phone & Fax: +54-3488-436805
E-mail: vquse@temaiken.com.ar


RODRIGUEZ ORTIZ, JULIANA (Colombia)
Institute de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional
de Colombia (UNAL)
Bogota, COLOMBIA
Phone: +57-1-316-5000 Ext. 11525
E-mail: mjuli2@gmail.com; mjuli@msn.com;
mjuli@terra.com.co

ROMAN, JOSEPH (United States)
Curator, Virginia Zoological Park
Baird's Tapir Studbook Keeper, American Zoo and
Aquarium Association (AZA) Tapir Taxon Advisory
Group (TAG)
3500 Granby Street, Norfolk, VA 23504,
UNITED STATES
Phone: + 1-757-441-2499 Ext. 267
Fax: + 1-757-624-9939
E-mail: Joseph.Roman@norfolk.gov

RUIZ FUAMAGALLI, JOSE ROBERTO (Guatemala)
Professor & Researcher, Escuela de Biologia,
Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala
Escuela de Biologia, Edificio T-10, Ciudad
Universitaria, Zona 12, Guatemala, GUATEMALA
Phone & Fax: +502-476-9856
E-mail: rruizf@yahoo.com

RUSSO, KELLY J. (United States)
Conservation Program Assistant, Houston Zoo Inc.
1513 North MacGregor Drive, Houston, Texas 77030,
UNITED STATES
Phone: + 1-713-533-6556
Fax: + 1-713-533-6762
E-mail: krusso@houstonzoo.org

SALAS, LEONARDO
(Venezuela / Papua New Guinea)
Ph.D. Animal Population Biologist, Wildlife
Conservation Society (WCS)
PO. Box 106, Waigani, NCD, PAPUA NEW GUINEA
Phone: +675-323-1532; +675-324-5432;
+675-688-4577
E-mail: LeoASalas@netscape.net

SAMUDIO JR., RAFAEL (Panama)
Director, Mammal Diversity Program, Smithsonian
Tropical Research Institute
Apartado 2072, Balboa, Ancon, Panama City,
REPUBLIC OF PANAMA
E-mail: samudior@tivoli.si.edu


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TSG MEMBERSHIP DIRECTORY 37


SANDOVAL ARENAS, SERGIO (Colombia)
Coordinator, Mountain Tapir Project, Call Zoo and Los
Angeles Zoo
Cr. 2 Oeste Cl 14 Esquina, Call, Valle del Cauca,
COLOMBIA
Phone: +2-892-7474 Ext. 115
Cell Phone: +310-490-5189
E-mail: dantascol@yahoo.com.nmx

SANDOVAL CANAS, LUIS FERNANDO (Ecuador)
Biologist, Licenciado en Ciencias Biol6gicas, Universi-
dad Central del Ecuador
Javier Loyola y Nueva Avenida Oriental, Conjunto
Carolina 2, Casa # 38, Quito, Pichincha, ECUADOR
Phone: +593-22-320-548
E-mail: Ifsandoval c@hotmail.com

SARMIENTO DUENAS, ADRIANA MERCEDES
(Colombia)
M.Sc. Candidate, Universidad Nacional de Colombia
Diagonal 41 No 46-05, Bogota, Cundinamarca,
COLOMBIA
Phone & Fax: +57-1-315-0850
E-mail: adrianasarmi@hotmail.com;
adriana-s @wildmail.com

SARRIA PEREA, JAVIER ADOLFO (Colombia)
D.V.M. M.Sc. Genetics & Animal Improvement
Cra 58A, No. 74 A-31 Interior 3, Apartamento 102,
Bogota, COLOMBIA
Phone: +57-1-250-8020
E-mail: jasarrip@fcav.unesp.br; jasarrip@yahoo.com

SEITZ, STEFAN (Germany)
Ph.D. Zoo Biologist
4TAPIRS Information Centre
Bonndorfer Strasse 19, 68239 Mannheim, GERMANY
Phone & Fax: +49-621-471-428
E-mail: tapirseitz@web.de; info@4tapirs.de

SHOEMAKER, ALAN H. (United States)
Permit Advisor, American Zoo and Aquarium
Association (AZA) Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)
330 Shareditch Road, Columbia, South Carolina
29210, UNITED STATES
Phone: + 1-803-772-6701
E-mail: sshoe@mindspring.com


SMITH, BRANDIE (United States)
,,Interim" Asst. Director, Conservation and Science,
American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA)
Advisor, American Zoo and Aquarium Association
(AZA) Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)
8403 Colesville Road, Suite 710, Silver Spring, MD
20910-3314, UNITED STATES
Phone: + 1-301-562-0777 Ext. 241
Fax: +1-301-562-0888
E-mail: bsmith@aza.org

STAMATI, MARIANA VICTORIA (Argentina)
Licenciada en Ciencias Biol6gicas, Investigadora
Asociada, Conservaci6n Argentina
Migueletes 1046, 20 "B", Ciudad Aut6noma de
Buenos Aires, 1426, ARGENTINA
Phone: +54-011-4774-8042
Fax: +54-011-4612-7832
E-mail: maristamati@yahoo.com.ar;
tapirproject@yahoo.com.ar

SUAREZ MEJIA, JAIME ANDRES (Colombia)
Environmental Manager, Enviromental Sciences,
Universidad Tecnol6gica de Pereira
Carrera 4 bis #24-33, Pereira, Risaralda, COLOMBIA
Phone & Fax: +57-6-321-2443
E-mail: suarmatta@yahoo.com

THOISY, BENOIT DE (French Guiana)
D.V.M. Ph.D. Kwata Association
BP 672, F-97335 Cayenne cedex, French Guiana -
France
Phone & Fax: +594-25-43-31
E-mail: thoisy@nplus.gf; thoisy@kwata.org

TILSON, RONALD (United States)
Ph.D. Director of Conservation, Minnesota Zoo
13000 Zoo Blvd., Apple Valley, Minnesota 55124,
UNITED STATES
Phone: + 1-952-431-9267
Fax: +1-952-431-9452
E-mail: r-tilson@mtn.org; rtilson@5tigers.org

TODD, SHERYL (United States)
President, Tapir Preservation Fund (TPF)
PO. Box 118, Astoria, Oregon 97103, UNITED
STATES
Phone: + 1-503-325-3179
E-mail: tapir@tapirback.com


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 14/1 0 No. 17 0 June 2005






38 TSG MEMBERSHIP DIRECTORY


TRAEHOLT, CARL
(Denmark / Malaysia / Cambodia)
Ph.D. Research Coordinator, Malayan Tapir Project,
Krau Wildlife Reserve, Copenhagen Zoo
B1-18 Menara Mutiara, Taman TAR, 68000 Ampang,
Selangor, MALAYSIA
Phone & Fax: +60-3-4256-6910
Mobile: +60-19-352-1399
E-mail: ctraeholt@pd.jaring.my

VALDEZ LEAL, JUAN DE DIOS
(Mexico / Costa Rica)
M.Sc. Apartado 1350-3000, H. Cardenas, 86550,
Tabasco, MEXICO
Phone: +506-2-377039/ Fax: +506-2-377036
E-mail: jdvaldezleal@yahoo.com.mx

VAN STRIEN, NICO (The Netherlands / Indonesia)
Ph.D. SE Asia Coordinator, International Rhino
Foundation
Julianaweg 2, 3941DM, Doom, THE NETHERLANDS
Phone: +31-343-420-445/ Fax: +31-343-420-447
E-mail: strien@compuserve.com; Strien@indo.net.id

VIEIRA FRAGOSO, JOSE MANUEL (United States)
Ph.D. Associate Professor, Botany Department, Univer-
sity of Hawaii at Manoa
3190 Maile Way, Honolulu, HI 96822,
UNITED STATES
Phone: +808-956-5950
E-mail: fragoso@hawaii.edu

VILLEGAS, CAROLINA (Colombia)
Photographer / Veterinary Student, Universidad CES
Medellin
Cra. 39, #5d-2, Apt 502, Medellin, Antioquia,
COLOMBIA
Phone: +57-4-266-5350/ Fax: +57-4-312-2870
E-mail: timo@epm.net.co

WALLACE, ROBERT B. (England / Bolivia)
Ph.D. Associate Conservation Ecologist, Wildlife
Conservation Society (WCS) Madidi
Calle 13 de Obrajes No. 594, Entre Veintemillas y 14
de Septiembre, La Paz, BOLIVIA
Phone: +591-2-278-6642; +591-2-211-7969;
+591-2-212-6905 / Fax: +591-2-278-6642
E-mail: rwallace@wcs.org

WATERS, SIAN S. (United Kingdom)
BA, M.Phil. Conservation Zoologist
14 Lindsay Gardens, Tredegar, Gwent NP22 4RP
UNITED KINGDOM
Phone: +44-0-1495-722-117
E-mail: sian s waters@hotmail.com;
sian s waters@yahoo.co.uk


WILLIAMS, KEITH (Australia)
Ph.D. Private Consultant
16 Kneebone Street, Bonython, ACT 2905,
AUSTRALIA
Phone: +612-6293-2539
E-mail: kdwilliams56 yahoo.co.uk

WOHLERS, HUMBERTO (Belize)
General Curator, Belize Zoo
PO. BOX 1787, Belize City, BELIZE
Phone: +501-220-8004
Fax: +501-220-8010
E-mail: animalmgt@belizezoo.org;
humbertowohlers @yahoo.com

WORTMAN, JOHN (United States)
Collections Manager, Peace River Center for the Con-
servation of Tropical Ungulates
4300 SW County Road 769, Arcadia, Florida 34268,
UNITED STATES
Phone: +1-863-993-4529
Fax: + 1-863-993-4547
E-mail: peaceriver@desoto.net


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 14/1 0 No. 17 0 June 2005


Cover Photograph

A Baird's or CentralAmerican tapir cools down by wallowing
in a mud pool in Corcovado National Park, Costa Rica. The
photograph was taken by photojournalist Dale Morris while
preparing a BBCWildlife Magazine article on the Baird's tapir
and TSG member Charles Foerster's research and conserva-
tion work. For more details, see Tapirs in the Media.






THE NEWSLETTER OF THE IUCN/SSC TAPIR SPECIALIST GROUP 39


Chair
Patricia Medici, Brazil, epmedici@uol.com.br

Deputy-Chairs
Siin S.Waters, United Kingdom, sian s waters@hotmail.com
William Konstant, United States, bkonstant@houstonzoo.org

Baird's Tapir Coordinator
Eduardo J. Naranjo Pihera, Mexico, enaranjo@sclc.ecosur.mx

Lowland Tapir Coordinator
Viviana Beatriz Quse,Argentina, vquse@temaiken.com.ar

Malay Tapir Coordinator
Carl Traeholt, Denmark / Malaysia, ctraeholt@pd.jaring.my

Mountain Tapir Coordinator
Emilio Constantino, Colombia, emilio@visionsatelite.com.co

Red List Authority
Alan H. Shoemaker, United States, sshoe@mindspring.com

Tapir Conservation Newsletter Editors
Leonardo Salas,Venezuela/Papua New Guinea, LeoASalas@netscape.net
Stefan Seitz, Germany, tapirseitz@web.de
Kelly J. Russo, United States, krusso@houstonzoo.org
Rick Barongi, United States, rbarongi@houstonzoo.org

Fundraising Committee Coordinator
Patricia Medici, Brazil, epmedici@uol.com.br

Action Planning Committee Coordinator
Patricia Medici, Brazil, epmedici@uol.com.br

Zoo Committee Coordinator
Siin S.Waters, United Kingdom, sian s waters@hotmail.com

Veterinary Committee Coordinator
D.V.M. Pilar Alexander Blanco Marquez,Venezuela, albla@telcel.net.ve

Genetics Committee Coordinators
Anders Gongalves da Silva, Brazil/United States, ag2057@columbia.edu
D.V.M. Javier Adolfo Sarria Perea, Colombia, jasarrip@fcav.unesp.br
Cristina Luis, Portugal, cmluis@fc.ul.pt

Education & Outreach Committee Coordinator
Kelly J. Russo, United States, krusso@houstonzoo.org

Marketing Committee Coordinator
Gilia Angell, United States, gilia angell@earthlink.net

Webmaster
Gilia Angell, United States, giliaangell@earthlink.net

Evolution Consultant
Matthew Colbert, United States, colbert@mail.utexas.edu


Scope
This newsletter aims to provide information regarding all
aspects of tapir natural history. Items of news, recent events,
recent publications, thesis abstracts, workshop proceedings
etc concerning tapirs are welcome. Manuscripts should be
submitted in MS Word.

Deadlines
There are two deadlines per year: 31 March for publication
in June and 30 September for publication in December.

Please include the full name and address of the authors
underneath the title of the article and specify who is the
corresponding author.

Full length articles on any aspect of tapir natural history
should not be more than 15 pages in length (including
references). An abstract is required and British English
spelling is requested.

Figures and Maps
Articles etc can include black and white photographs, high
quality figures and high quality maps and tables. Please send
them as separate files (formats preferred: jpg, pdf, cdr, xls).

References
Please refer to these examples when listing references:

journal Article
Herrera, J.C.,Taber,A.,Wallace, R.B. & Painter, L. 1999.
Lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) behavioral ecology in a
southern Amazonian tropical forest. Vida Silv.Tropicale 8:
31-37.

Chapter in Book
Janssen, D.L., Rideout, B.A. & Edwards, M.S. 1999.Tapir
Medicine. In: M.E. Fowler & R. E. Miller (eds.) Zoo and Wild
Animal Medicine, pp.562-568. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia,
USA.

Book
Brooks, D.M., Bodmer, R.E. & Matola, S. 1997.Tapirs: Status,
Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN, Gland,
Switzerland.

ThesislDissertation
Foerster. C.R. 1998.Ambito de Hogar, Patron de Movimentso
y Dieta de la Danta Centroamericana (Tapirus bairdii) en
el Parque Nacional Corcovado, Costa Rica. M.S. thesis.
Universidad Nacional, Heredia, Costa Rica.

Report
Santiapilli, C.& Ramono,WS. 1989.The Status and
Conservation of the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) in
Sumatra, Indonesia. Unpublished Report,Worldwide Fund
for Nature, Bogor, Indonesia.

Contact
Please send all contributions to Leonardo Salas,
LeoASalas@netscape.net or by hard copy to this postal
address: P.O. Box 106,Waigani, NCD, Papua New Guinea.


Tapir Conservation a The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group a Vol. 14/1 0 No. 17 0 June 2005








Tapir Conservation

The Newsletter of theTapirSpeci.a t Grou


Volume 14/1 U No. 17 E June 2005


I~ Cotet


Contents .......................................... ........... 2
Editorial Board ............................................ 2
From the Chair ............................................... 3
Letter from the Chair Patricia Medici ..................... 3
TSG Committee Reports ................................. 6
Marketing Committee
By Gilia Angell ................................................... 6
Genetics Committee
By Anders Gongalves da Silva ............................ 6
Education & Outreach Committee
By Kello Russo ................................................. 8
Ask the Experts .............................................. 8
Fragmentation of Tapir Populations and the
Loss of Heterozygosity
By Leo Salas ..................................................... 8
News from the Field ..................................... 11
B RA Z IL ................... ................ .................. ... 1 1
The Influence of Large Herbivores on
Neotropical Forests
By Patricia Medici ......................................... 11
Tapir Extinction in the Atlantic Forests between the
Rio de Contas and the Rio Paraguacu
By Kevin Flesher ............................................. 13
COLOMBIA ............................................... 15
Current Distribution and Conservation Status of the
Colombian Lowland Tapir (Tapirus terrestris
colombianus) and the Baird's or Central American
Tapir (Tapirus bairdii) in Colombia
By Emilio Constantino ..................................... .. 15


Red Book of Mammals of Colombia
By Emilio Constantino, Jos6 Vicente Rodriguez,
Clara Solano .............................................. ...... 18
Linking Mountain Tapir Populations in
South-western Colombia
By Sergio Sandoval Arenas ............................... 19
Contributed Papers .................................... 21
Manejo en Semi-cautiverio del Tapir Amaz6nico
(Tapirus terrestris) en Bosque Secundario
Amaz6nico Ecuatoriano, Provincia de Pastaza
By Andr6s Tapia, Medardo Tapia, Ruth Arias ....... 21
Preferencia por Fecas de Tapir Amaz6nico (Tapirus
terrestris) de Escarabajos Estercoleros (Coleoptera:
Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) en Bosque Secundario
Amaz6nico
By Andr6s Tapia .......... .. ..... ...... ....... ......... 24
Conservation News ..................................... 29
Red Danta A Report of Activities
By Diego J. Lizcano, Jaime Andr6s Suirez,
Sandra Correa, Sergio Sandoval ....................... 29
Footprinting Tapirs The Development of a Footprint
Identification Technique (FIT)
By Zoe Jewell, Sky Alibhai ............................. 30
IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group Membership
Directory ...................................................... 31
IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group
Structure ..................................... ............ 39

Notes for Contributors ................................ 39


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