Group Title: Tapir conservation (Print)
Title: Tapir conservation
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Title: Tapir conservation the newsletter of the IUCNSSC Tapir Specialist Group
Uniform Title: Tapir conservation (Print)
Abbreviated Title: Tapir conserv. (Print)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group
IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group
Publisher: IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group
Place of Publication: Houston TX
Houston TX
Publication Date: June 2003
Copyright Date: 2009
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Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
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Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began in 1990.
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 12, no. 2 (Dec. 2003); title from cover.
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Volume ID: VID00013
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 56897961
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Volume 12 / Number 1


Tapir Conservation

The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group


Edited by Sidn S. Waters and Stefan Seitz


Contents


* Letter from the Chair
page 3

* General News
page 5

* Current Project Updates
page 6

* News from Captivity
page 11

* Contributed Papers
page 15

* Asking the Experts
page 33

* Tapir Specialist Group
Membership Directory
page 34


See back cover and
page 2 for details.


Lowland tapir
(Tapirus terrestris)
Photo by Carolina Villegas
Medellin Zoo, Colombia


Printing and distribution of the
Tapir Conservation Newsletter
is supported by the Houston Zoo,
1513 N. MacGregor, Houston, Texas 77030,
United States, http://www.houstonzoo.org


June 2003


C1'




t'






Tapir Conservation The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group


Contents


Letter from the Chair
General News
New Ramsar Site in the Pantanal


6 Current Project Updates
6 Argentina
6 Cattle Impact on Tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) in El Rey
National Park, Salta, Argentina
7 Brasil
7 Camera Trapping Reveals the Status of Lowland Tapir
Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758) in a Private Natural
Reserve in Southeastern Brazil
9 Lowland tapirs as Landscape Detectives of the Atlantic
Forest: An Innovative Conservation Approach
10 Bolivia
10 Tapir Diet (Tapirus terrestris) and Seed Dispersal in the
Bolivian Chaco
11 News from Captivity
11 AZA Tapir TAG Report
13 Nutritional Considerations for Feeding Baird's tapir
(Tapirus bairdil) in Captivity
14 One of the oldest tapirs in captivity dies at Wilhelma Zoo,
Stuttgart, Germany
15 Contributed Articles
15 Re-introductions: A Comprehensive Approach
17 Identification of Ecto and Endoparasites in Baird's Tapir
(Tapirus bairdil), in Chiapas, Mexico
21 Notes on the Distribution, and Conservation Status of
Mountain Tapir (Tapirus pinchaque) in North Peru
24 A Camera Trapping and Radio Telemetry Study of Lowland
Tapir (Tapirus terrestris) in Bolivian Dry Forests
33 Asking the Experts
33 Unequal Tapirs: A question of sex, age and the environment
34 IUCNISSC Tapir Specialist Group Membership Directory
39 IUCNISSC Tapir Specialist Group Structure & Positions
39 Notes for Contributors


Note of Correction

The conversion of the print files for the December issue of Tapir
Conservation unfortunately lead to the loss of some letters with special
characters. Most notable were omissions of special characters from
some Spanish and Portuguese names. We apologise for the mistake and
everyone concerned. For everyone who wishes to see a correct version
of his or her contribution or mention in the previous issue, the download
file on our web site shows the correct spelling.



a June 2003 Vol. 12 /N


Editors


Volume 12, Number I, June 2003
Abbreviation: Tapir Cons.


SiAn S. Waters Contributions
CEI Consultancy Ltd., 14 Lindsay Garden
Tredegar, Gwent NP22 4RP, UK
& P.O. Box 484 Cochrane, AB T4C 1A7 Canada
E-mail: sian s waters@yahoo.co.uk


Stefan Seitz Layout & Graphics
Bonndorfer Strasse 19
68239 Mannheim, Germany
Phone & Fax: + +49 (0)621 47 14 28
E-mail: tapirseitz@web.de


Editorial Board


Production
& Distribution



Subscriptions






Website


Patricia Medici Chair, Tapir Specialist Group (TSG)
Avenida Perdizes, 285, Vila Sao Paulo,
Teodoro Sampaio, Sao Paulo, Brazil 19280-000
Phone & Fax: ++55 (18) 3282 4690
E-mail: epmedici@uol.com.br or medici@ipe.org.br

Charles R. Foerster Deputy Chair, TSG
445 CR 221, Orange Grove, Texas, USA 78372
Phone & Fax: ++1 (719) 228 06 28
E-mail: CRFoerster@aol.com

Sheryl Todd Subscriptions & Webmaster
Tapir Preservation Fund (TPF)
P.O. Box 118, Astoria, Oregon, USA 97103
Phone & Fax: ++(503) 325 31 79
E-mail: tapir@tapirback.com

This issue is kindly sponsored by
Houston Zoo Inc.
General Manager, Rick Barongi
1513 North MacGregor, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

Members of the Tapir Specialist Group receive the
newsletter free of charge.
Subscriptions for non-members are $10.00 per year
and can be obtained from Sheryl Todd,
Tapir Preservation Fund, tapir@tapirback.com.

www.tapirback.com/tapirgalliucn-ssc/tsg/


The views expressed in Tapir Conservation are those of the authors and do not
necessarily reflect those of IUCN/SSC, the Tapir Specialist Group or Houston
Zoological Gardens. This publication may be photocopied for private use only
and the copyright remains that of the Tapir Specialist Group. Copyright for all
photographs herein remains with the individual photographers.


o. 1 Tapir Conservation Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group






From the Chair


LETTER FROM THE CHAIR


This year has already been an extremely busy one for the
Tapir Specialist Group. We continue to work hard to improve
our effectiveness in terms of the conservation of tapirs and
their remaining habitats in Latin America and Southeast Asia.
Most of our time and energy has been spent on structuring
the recently established Tapir Specialist Group Conservation
Fund (TSGCF), a vehicle to raise funds for tapir conservation
projects. We have been conducting a number of fundraising
campaigns in partnership with the Tapir Preservation Fund
(TPF), the American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA)
Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG), and the European
Association of Zoos and Aquaria (EAZA) Tapir Taxon
Advisory Group (TAG). This is the first time that all four
major tapir conservation groups have joined forces to raise
funds for tapir conservation. The following organizations etc
have been targeted to raise funds for the TSGCF and these
are conservation NGOs, corporations, trusts and foundations,
tapir-holding institutions and zoos worldwide and tapir
researchers and enthusiasts. The funds are being collected
and managed by the Tapir Preservation Fund. The TSGCF
will support in-situ and ex-situ research, promote education
work with local communities within the tapirs' range and
implement conservation recommendations. We should be
ready to announce our first call for proposals in the second
semester of 2003.
One of our TSGCF fundraising campaigns is the
"Friends of TSG" programme. The main approach of this
programme is to contact potential
private donors and invite them
Sto make an annual contribution
to the TSGCF We have several
i' different ranges of contribution
and each individual can decide
how much she/he would like to
Donate. With the invaluable help
and totally voluntary work of Kate
Wilson, TPF board member, and
Gilia Angell, web designer with
Amazon.com, both big tapir fans and supporters, we designed
a flyer explaining the programme and a donation form which
we then mailed to our entire mailing list ... over 550 people
worldwide. I am quite confident that all of you reading this
article received our flyer a few weeks ago! It is with much
satisfaction that I can tell you that donations are coming in on
a regular basis and Sheryl Todd, as always, has been working
hard to collect the funds and make sure they will soon be
ready for distribution. For further information about the
"Friends of TSG" project and the TSG Conservation Fund,
please visit the web page: http://www.tapirback.com/tapiraal/
TSGCF/. I would like to thank Sheryl, Gilia and Kate for all
their help with making this project a reality! Also, thank you
VERY MUCH to all of you who have made donations!


Also with regard to fundraising, the TSG has been trying
to help tapir researchers and conservationists approach speci-
fic funding agencies in order to raise funds for their projects.
We have been reviewing and endorsing a growing number
of very good proposals that has helped tapir researchers to
obtain the funds they need to conduct their activities. Additi-
onally, we have contacted a number of zoological institutions
worldwide over the past year, especially those holding tapirs,
and compiled a list of potential funding sources for tapir-rela-
ted projects. This compilation has been made available for
TSG members and other tapir researchers and we hope it will
help everyone who is seeking funds.

Another major priority for TAPIR SYMPOSIUM
the TSG right now is the
organisation of the Second In-
ternational Tapir Symposium, to
be held in Panama City, Republic
of Panama, from January 10 to
16, 2004. The main organizers
of the Second Symposium are
the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist 2004 PANAMA
Group (TSG), and the American
Zoo and Aquarium Association
(AZA) Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG). The Tapir Preser-
vation Fund (TPF) will also be involved. Phil Schaeffer with
Caligo Ventures, United States, will be our symposium mana-
ger once again, and ANCON Expeditions will be the ground
operator in Panama. The first symposium, held in Costa Rica
in November 2001, attracted 85 participants from 22 coun-
tries, and proved to be a major boost for tapir conservation.
The Second Symposium will once again bring together a
multi-faceted group of tapir experts, including field biologists,
educators, captivity specialists, academicians, researchers, ve-
terinarians, government authorities, politicians and other inte-
rested parties. The symposium's planning committee visited
Panama in January 2003 and met the Mayor of Panama City,
Juan Carlos Navarro. Mayor Navarro was the founding Exe-
cutive Director of ANCON, Panama's National Association for
the Conservation of Nature, one of the leading environmental
organizations of the region since 1985 and he also served
as Regional Councilor for IUCN. The mayor has not only
agreed to give the opening address at the symposium but has
committed the resources of his entire staff to assist us in pro-
moting this conference. As a result of our visit to Panama, the
AZA Tapir TAG and the Houston Zoo are already working on
improving the tapir facilities at the Summit Zoo, just outside
of Panama City. This addresses our holistic approach to the
Second International Tapir Symposium.
An important event planned for the Symposium is an auc-
tion to raise seed funds for the TSG Conservation Fund. At-
tendees will be asked to bring typical items from their countries


Tapir Conservation Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group Vol. 12 / No. 1 June 2003






From the Chair


Meeting with the Mayor of Panama City, Juan Carlos Navarro. From left to right: Luis Eduardo Ar
secretary), Phil Schaeffer (Caligo Ventures), Marco Gandasegui (ANCON Expeditions), Rick Baror
Zoo, AZA Tapir TAG), Mayor Juan Carlos Navarro, Patricia Medici (Chair, TSG), Charles Foerster (
TSG), and Alberto Mendoza (Houston Zoo). Credit: Rick Barongi


to sell at the auction. The auction conducted during the First
International Tapir Symposium in Costa Rica raised $10,000
to expand tapir habitat in Costa Rica. Mid-conference trips
will provide the opportunity for participants to either visit a
tapir breeding facility (Summit Zoo), or to spend the day at
Barro Colorado Island (BCI), one of the most studied patches
of tropical forest and one that is managed by the Smithsonian
Institution. Post-conference tours will also be available for
those who wish to stay and enjoy Panama's wonderful natural
resources. For more detailed information about the Second
International Tapir Symposium please visit the web site: htt=:
//www.caliqo.com/tapir/. The web site includes a request form
that you can complete and submit if you are interested on
being included in our mailing list and receiving information on
the Symposium programme schedule, registration and other
information as it develops.
The major goal of the Second Symposium is to review the
current conservation status of and threats to tapirs worldwide,
addressing and prioritising the most serious issues facing tapir
conservation and generating recommendations and strategies
necessary for their conservation, their remaining habitats, and
biological diversity as a whole. Any results and recommen-
dations coming from the Second Symposium will be incor-
porated into the upcoming revision of the 1997 IUCN/SSC
Tapir Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. Other
documents to be incorporated as chapters in the next edition
of the Tapir Action Plan are the National Programme for Tapir
Conservation and Recovery in Colombia, produced in 2002
by the Colombian Ministry of Environment and the Natural
Science Institute of the National University of Colombia; the
National Action Plan for Tapir Conservation and Recovery in
Mexico under development by the Mexican Committee for


SJune 2003 Vol. 12 / No. 1


Tapir Conservation and Recovery (MCT) spon-
sored by the Mexican Ministry of Environment
and Natural Resources; and the Malay Tapir
Action Plan, which will be developed during the
upcoming Malay Tapir Conservation Workshop
that will be held in Malaysia, from August 12 to
16, 2003. We were also recently informed that
the Panamanian Mammal Society (SOMASPA),
in partnership with the Autoridad Nacional del
Ambiente (ANAM) and the Smithsonian Tropical
Research Institute, has been conducting an evalu-
ation of the conservation status of tapirs in Pana-
ma, aiming to produce a regional action plan for
tapirs. This document may also be incorporated
into the new version of the Tapir Action Plan.

Due to a combination of unforeseen circum-
stances the Tapir Specialist Group, the Eu-
as (Mayor's ropean Association of Zoos and Aquaria (EAZA)
gi (Houston Tapir Taxon Advisory Group (TAG), and the
Deputy-Chair, IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist
Group (CBSG), in consultation with the Depart-
ment of Wildlife and National Parks (DWNP),
Malaysia, decided to postpone the Malay Tapir
Conservation Workshop until 12-16 August 2003. The work-
shop was originally scheduled for 12-16 April 2003. A consi-
derable number of participants indicated the necessity of ac-
quiring financial support and this requires more time in order
to raise the funds needed to make the workshop an event that
can be attended by all. Moreover the current world economic
situation is making fundraising more difficult than anticipated.
The location and the programme will remain the same. We
are confident that this decision has been made in the best
interest of everyone concerned, and that it will ultimately lead
to a better and more productive workshop. Nico van Strien
continues to work on the Malay Tapir central database that


Second International Tapir Symposium Planning Committee during visit to Republic
of Panama in January 2003. From left to right: Alberto Mendoza (Houston Zoo),
Phil Schaeffer (Caligo Ventures), Patrfcia Medici (Chair, TSG), and Rick Barongi
(Houston Zoo, AZA Tapir TAG). Credit: Patrfcia Medici


Tapir Conservation Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group





From the Chair / General News


will be produced to support the workshop in Malaysia.
I am very thankful to our new Zoo Coordinator, Sian Wa-
ters, who has been putting in a lot of time and energy in im-
proving the structure and effectiveness of our TSG Zoo Com-
mittee. Her first report will appear in the next newsletter.
The Houston Zoo graphic department continues to work
hard on the development of educational and organisational
brochures for the TSG. I had the chance to see the first drafts
during a meeting with Alberto Mendoza, Houston Zoo's Com-
munity Programmes Coordinator, during our visit to Panama
in January and I must tell you that the brochures look great! I
would like to thank the Houston Zoo, especially Alberto and
Kelly Russo, for all the hard work they have been putting into
this project!
Finally, I would like to stress once again how grateful I
am for the invaluable assistance of a number of volunteers
who help us to conduct our activities and projects. I receive


about 100 e-mail messages a day and there are always many
messages coming from people offering to help in some way.
It is incredible how many tapir fans there are out there! And,
it is with the help of these people that we have been turning
several projects we envisioned into reality! I will not mention
any more names here, but you know who YOU are!
THANK YOU!
My very best wishes,

Patricia Medici
Chair, IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group
Avenida Perdizes, no 285, Vila Sao Paulo,
Teodoro Sampaio
Sao Paulo, CEP: 19280-000, Brazil
Phone & Fax: +55-18-3282-4690
E-mail: epmedici@uol.com.br


GENERAL NEWS


New Ramsar Site

in the Pantanal
(An Area Where Lowland Tapirs Occur)

Contributed by Mike Chong, Malaysia

The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands is delighted to
announce that Brazil has designated a significant portion
of the Pantanal in Mato Grosso State as a Wetland of Interna-
tional Importance, to complement the related 135,000-hec-
tare Pantanal Matogrossense Ramsar site. An extraordinarily
interesting feature of Brazil's eighth site is the fact that it is an
extensive privately owned protected area, with government
authorization, and includes such management aids as 5 fire
control towers, an airplane, 6 boats, 6 all-terrain vehicles, and
26 professional staff and 16 trained rangers, and 1 airplane
pilot. The separately-managed hotel employs 100 people,
a 500-square-meter visitors' centre is in construction, and a
nearby social ecotourism lodge on the other side of the Cui-
aba River has 120 beds -- currently, around 10,000 visitors
come to enjoy the reserve per year. The Servigo Nacional
do Comercio (SESC) is a non-profit organization created by
law and funded through an annual contribution from private
enterprises, with branches in every state in the country. As
a Reserva Particular do Partim6nio Natural (RPPN), its legal
status is said to differ from a national park only in terms of
ownership; the owner could legally sell the area but, under the
RPPN law, only if the objective of nature protection would not
be altered. Here is a brief description of the site drawn from


Tapir Conservation Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group .


the Ramsar Information Sheet by Ramsar's Julio Montes de
Oca (Spanish below):

Reserva Particular do Patrimonio Natural SESC Pantanal.
06/12/02; Mato Grosso State; 87,871 ha; 16o39'S 05615'W.
Privately owned nature reserve. A significant and representa-
tive sample of the large Pantanal wetlands, known as Pocons's
Pantanal, a private estate fully owned by the Servigo Nacional
do Comercio (SESC) and established in 1998 as a reserve.
The site, a mix of permanent rivers, seasonal streams, perma-
nent and seasonal floodplain fresh water lakes, shrub-domina-
ted wetlands, and seasonally flooded forests, satisfies all eight
Ramsar criteria for designation as a Wetland of International
Importance and is an excellent ecological complement to the
Pantanal Matogrossense, already on the Ramsar List. The site
contains several endangered species including hyacinth ma-
caws (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus), giant otters (Pteronura
brasiliensis), and marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus), as
well as numerous nesting sites for the rare Jabiru (Jabiru myc-
teria). Populations of over 20,000 cormorants (Phalacrocorax
brasiliensis) and some of the Pantanal's healthiest nesting sites
for wood stork (Mycteria americana) are also found within.
Many of the 260 fish species in the Pantanal are also believed
to be found in the Reserva, a good number having a high
commercial value. Since sport and commercial fishing is pro-
hibited inside, the reserve provides essential ecological refuge
for fish in the Cuiaba and Sao Lourengo rivers. The SESC
administers this private reserve, under the supervision of the
Brazilian Intitute for the Environment and Natural Renewable
Resources (IBAMA), and is responsible for implementing its
management plan and carrying out environmental education


Vol. 12 / No. 1 June 2003






General News / Project Updates


activities and non-intensive ecotourism at the site. Ramsar site
n 1270.

Reserva Particular do Patrimonio Natural SESC Panta-
nal. 06/12/02; Estado de Mato Grosso; 87.871 ha; 16o39'S
05615'0. Reserva natural privada. Propiedad privada del
Servigo Nacional do Comercio (SESC), esta reserve estableci-
da en 1998 es conocida tambien como Pantanal de Pocon6,
y represent una muestra significativa del Pantanal brasilefio.
El sitio contiene rios y lagos permanentes y estacionales,
pantanos con vegetaci6n arbustiva y humedales boscosos
inundados estacionalmente, y satisface los ocho criterios de
Ramsar para designaci6n como Humedal de Importancia
International, siendo un excelente complement ecol6gico al
Pantanal Matogrossense, ya incluido en la Lista Ramsar. El
sitio contiene varias species en peligro, incluyendo guaca-
mayos jacintos (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus), lobos de rio
(Pteronura brasiliensis) y ciervos de los pantanos (Blastocerus
dichotomus), asi como numerosos sitios de nidaje para la
poco com6n ave Jabir6 (Jabiru mycteria). En el sitio se han


observado tambien poblaciones de mas de 20.000 cormora-
nes (Phalacrocorax brasiliensis), asi como algunos de los mas
saludables nidos de ciguefia o tantalo americano (Mycteria
americana). Se cree que muchas de las 260 species de peces
presents en el Pantanal tambien se encuentran en la Reserva,
muchas de ellas con alto valor commercial. Al estar prohibida la
pesca commercial o deportiva dentro del sitio, este proporciona
un refugio ecol6gico esencial a estas species en los rios Cui-
aba y SAo Lourengo. El SESC administra esta reserve priva-
da, bajo la supervision del Intstituto Brasilefio del Ambiente
y Recursos Naturales Renovables (IBAMA), y es responsible
por la implementaci6n de su plan de manejo, asi como de lle-
var a cabo actividades de educaci6n ambiental y ecoturismo
de baja intensidad dentro del sitio. Ramsar site no 1270.

Dwight Peck
Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar, Iran)
CH-1196 Gland, Switzerland
E-mail: peck@ramsar.org or dwight.peck@bluewin.ch
Web site: http://ramsar.org/


CURRENT PROJECT UPDATES


Argentina


Cattle Impact on Tapirs
(Tapirus terrestris) in El Rey
National Park, Salta, Argentina

By Silvia Chalukian


Very little is known about tapirs in Argentina, the southern-
most limit of Tapirus terrestris distribution. This species
is considered locally vulnerable due to habitat reduction and
disturbance and hunting. In the montane forests (Yungas)
tapirs seem to be competing with and are, in some places,
displaced by a domestic herbivore, the cow. This also hap-
pens inside protected areas and with unknown consequences
for the environment.
Tapirs are impacted by ranching mainly because of hu-
man activity, but cattle alone may also have direct effects such
as: 1) competition or interference; 2) alteration of the forest
structure 3) water contamination and 4) parasites and disease
transmission. Although there has been a lot of discussion
about the effects of cattle impact on natural communities, very
few data can be found for Neotropical forests, particularly re-
garding the impact on native animal species. Since October


u June 2003 Vol. 12 / No. 1


Competing herbivores: tapir and cow. Credit: Silvia Chalukian


2002 we have been working in El Rey National Park, an area
that presents a unique situation in which to study the impact
of cattle on the ecosystem without human influence, as feral
animals have remained inside the forest since it was declared
a protected area 54 years ago. Although there is an ongoing
project to control cattle, many animals still remain.
Our main objectives are to understand tapir habitat use,
and the impact of cattle on their habitat and habitat use, to
provide useful parameters for ecological corridors, buffer
zones and protected area design and management and to
contribute to knowledge about conserving the species.
El Rey National Park is located at 64040'W and 24015'S,


* Tapir Conservation Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group






Project Updates


Silvia Chalukian collecting samples in the study area.


in Salta Province, Northwestern Argentina. It covers an area
of 44,162 hectares and has a subtropical climate with sea-
sonal summer rains. The Yungas forest is the dominant type
of vegetation. The Park is almost completely surrounded by
mountains, whose heights range from 750 to 2,300 m asl.
We selected sites with and without cattle where we
marked, measured and positioned 8 km of transects per site
(16 km total) along stream beaches, where we counted tapir
tracks to assess frequency of habitat use. We also collected
foraged plants and faeces (both tapirs and cattle) for analysis
of food items and parasites. We performed "rainy season"
sampling and habitat structure analysis along the transects.
We recorded abundance and frequency of trees, shrubs, sap-
lings and herbaceous species, canopy, soil and vertical cover
using circular plots. Preliminary analysis shows a significant
difference on transect use by tapirs between areas with cattle
(less used) and without. Vegetation cover is obviously low
and sapling predation high in the first areas.
The project is supported by the Wildlife Conservation So-
ciety and Wildlife Trust and we have received equipment from
Idea Wild. It was declared of Institutional interest by the Na-
tional Parks Administration and has logistical support from the
Park's authorities and employees. We plan to continue our
research next year with the addition of another site outside the
Park, in order to assess the impact of ranching activities. We
are also looking for funding to survey the current distribution
and status of tapirs in other areas of northern Argentina.
The current work team consists of the following members:
Silvia C. Chalukian (M.Sc., wildlife management, team lead-
er), Soledad de Bustos (biologist, assistant), Maria Saravia (bi-
ologist), and Roberto L. Lizarraga (natural resources manage-
ment student, maps). The cattle control project coordinator,
Sergio Gimenez, gives us logistical support in the field, and
students of natural resources are invited to assist in field trips.

Silvia Chalukian
M.Sc. Researcher, El Rey National Park
Rio Negro 2508, 4400 Salta, Argentina
E-mail: silviach@sinectis.com.ar


Brazil


Camera Trapping Reveals the Status of
Lowland Tapir Tapirus terrestris
(Linnaeus, 1758) in a Private Natural
Reserve in Southeastern Brazil

By Edsel A. Moraes Jr., Joaquim A. Silva &
Rafael L. A. Freitas


Study to ascertain the status of lowland tapir in south-
eastern Brazil is being undertaken by IBIAUARA Bio-
diversity Research Group of Minas Gerais State in Brazil.
The project is based in the Serra do Caraga Natural Reserve
(10,188 ha). This area is located in the southern part of the
Espinhaqo Range (20005' S; 43o29' W) in Minas Gerais. This
orographic system is represented by a mountainous complex
that represents a contact zone between the "Cerrado" (sa-
vannas) and the Atlantic Forest, in its southern portion, and
transition zones of "Cerrado", Atlantic Forest, and "Caatinga"
(tropical deciduous forest), on its central and northern borders
(Giulietti & Pirani 1988; Harley 1955; Giulietti et al. 1997).
The reserve is comprised of three main vegetation formations
which are represented by seasonal semideciduous forests,
"campos de altitude" (high altitude grasslands), and "campos
rupestres" (rocky grasslands), these occur at elevations of be-
tween 850 and 2,072 m. The climate in this region has a rainy
summer (October-March) and a dry winter (April-September).
"Campos rupestres" consist of grasslands surrounded by
rocky outcrops, as well as shrubs and small trees (Fig. 1). Veg-
etation patches in different stages of ecological succession are
present in the region as a consequence of timber extraction
and "slash-and-burn" agricultural practices used in the past.
The reserve represents a rich artistic, cultural and historical
heritage resulting from over two centuries of human occupa-
tion (Andrade, 2000).
The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution
of lowland tapir along the elevational gradient of Serra do
Caraga, and to investigate habitat use by this species in differ-
ent vegetation and its relationships with water courses.
The camera trap was located in a trail near the forest edge.
During 20 trap/night the first results confirmed the presence of
lowland tapir in 1,380 m with three photos (Figs. 2, 3 and 4).
In addition, tapir presence was determined at high altitudes
(2,000 m) by tracks and faeces. A rugged relief marked by
abrupt elevations formed by quartzite rocks characterized the
area occupied by lowland tapir. In this region, large expanses
of flat areas are scarce or absent.
This is the first camera trapping project conducted in the
reserve and these results will be of the utmost importance in
the development of conservation strategies for the lowland
tapir, a species on the endangered list of Minas Gerais State.


Tapir Conservation Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group Vol. 12 / No. 1 June 2003






Project Updates


Figure I. Map of Acknowledgements
45' the Private Natural
B IL Heritage Reserve We would like to thank Wally Van Sickle (Idea Wild, USA), Pe
Serra do Caraca, C6lio Del'Amore, Marcelo E Vasconcelos, Consuelo Paganini
540. MG, Brazil. Graphic and the Caraga Reserve Rangers.
l20 Horizont by ]oaquim A.
__ 1000 Silva. References

Andrade, M. G. 2000. A educagao exilada, Colegio do Caraga.
Editora Autentica, Belo Horizonte.
Giulietti, A. M. & Pirani, J. R. 1988. Patterns of geographic
distribution of some plant species from the Espinhaqo Range,
Minas Gerais and Bahia, Brazil. In: P E. Vanzolini and W. R.
Heyer (Eds.) Proceedings of a workshop on Neotropical distribu-
tion patterns. Academia Brasileira de Ciencias. Rio de Janeiro,
Brasil.
Giulietti, A. M., Pirani, J. R. & Harley, R. M. 1997. Espinhaco
\irp y ~Range region, Eastern Brazil. In: S. D. Davis, V H. Heywood,
Hidrography
O. Herrera-MacBryde, J. Villa-Lobos and A. C. Hamilton (Eds.)
Centres of Plant Diversity, a Guide and Strategy for Their Con-
servation, v. 3. Information Press. Oxford, England.
Harley, R. M. 1995. Introduction. In: B. L. Standard, Y. B. Harvey
and R. M. Harley (Eds.) Flora of the Pico das Almas, Chapada
Diamantina Bahia, Brazil. Royal Botanic Gardens. Kew.


Edsel Amorim Moraes Jr, Joaquim de Araujo Silva
Vegetation and Rafael Luiz Aario Freitas
IBIAUARA Group for Research in Biodiversity
Rua Carangola no 75, Apt. 13, Bairro Santo Ant6nio
Belo Horizonte, CEP: 30330-240, Minas Gerais, Brazil
E-mail: edsel.bhz@terra.com.br; quincass@hotmail.com and
rafisco@hotmail.com





Topography



Figures 2, 3 and 4. Picture of a lowland tapir captured on film by an infrared camera-trapping system in Cara;a Reserve, MG, Brazil.
Photo Credit: IBIAUARA- Biodiversity Research Group.


June 2003 Vol. 12 / No. 1 Tapir Conservation Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group






Project Updates


Lowland tapirs as Landscape Detectives
of the Atlantic Forest:
An Innovative Conservation Approach

By Patricia Medici

This long-term research project investigates the conserva-
tion status of lowland tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) in the
Pontal do Paranapanema Region, located in the extreme west
of Saio Paulo State, Brazil. The Pontal region includes Morro
do Diabo State Park (35,000 ha), one of the last remnants of
Atlantic Forest of significant size, and surrounding forest frag-
ments (12,000 ha). Specifically, population size, conserva-
tion genetics, health status and dispersal pattern information
are continuously evaluated and monitored. The major goal
of this project is to use this database to facilitate the imple-
mentation of two management plans critical to the long-term
conservation of tapirs and the Atlantic Forest ecosystem itself:
1.) Metapopulation management of tapirs (e.g. the promo-
tion of genetic exchange between reduced or fragmented
populations), and 2.) Restoration of main wildlife corridors
to re-establish landscape connectivity, increase habitat avail-
ability and improve biological diversity in fragmented rural
landscapes. Metapopulation management and habitat con-
servation planning, which involves identification and restora-
tion of main animal routes and corridors, are seen as effective
conservation strategies. Consequently, future metapopulation
management may include the shifting (e.g. reintroductions,
translocations, managed long distance dispersal) of indi-
viduals between fragments. Additionally, research on tapirs
within the concept of landscape detectives is an innovative
conservation approach and will provide essential information
for the future management of highly fragmented landscapes.
Building upon the tapirs' ability to travel long distances, we
will develop a network of core reserves linked by biological
corridors to allow for the natural dispersal of tapirs and other
wide-ranging species and for genetic exchange between dif-
ferent populations.
This project is currently expanding in several different
ways. In December 2002, another experienced wildlife
veterinarian, Dr. George Velastin, was added to our team.
Dr. Velastin has been spending all his time in the field with
us and, together with Dr. Paulo Rogerio Mangini, who has
been working with us for the past five years, will help me to
increase our capture rate and improve the veterinary aspects
of the project. We have developed a specific proposal for the
veterinary aspects of the project which consists of a long-term
health assessment to investigate the prevalence and monitor
the incidence of etiological agents in free-ranging lowland ta-
pir populations in the Atlantic Forest fragments of the Pontal
region. Despite the considerable amount of data available
about tapir diseases in captivity, there is a notable lack of
information coming from the wild. Our initial objectives are
to evaluate the prevalence of infectious diseases and the pres-
ence of ectoparasites, hemoparasites and endoparasites and


Tapir Conservation Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group .


Construction of corral to be
tested as an alternative capture
method for lowland tapirs in
Morro do Diabo State Park.
Credit: Patricia Medici














Patrcia Medici getting ready
for tapir manipulation. Credit:
Jefferson Ferreira de Lima

















determine the hematological and biochemical parameters in
the lowland tapir populations at Morro do Diabo State Park
and surrounding forest fragments. Once gathered and ana-
lysed, the information on the prevalence of etiological agents
will be correlated with data on the prevalence of etiological
agents in the domestic livestock raised in the private farms
and agrarian-reform settlements surrounding the forest frag-
ments in the region, and with data on the level of landscape
fragmentation. The main goals of this health study are to
investigate the morbidity, mortality, transmission sources, as
well as vectors involved in the epidemiological chains occur-
ring in tapir populations, and potential outbreaks; to provide
the necessary tools to study the relationship between forest
fragmentation, tapir population ecology, and etiological
agents and apply all this information to the establishment of
effective tapir and livestock management programmes in the
Pontal region.
The high level of fragmentation in the Atlantic Forest of the
Pontal do Paranapanema region, and the fact that tapirs move


Vol. 12 /No. 1 June 2003






Project Updates


Veterinarian, Dr. George Velastin, working on the analyses of tapir feces' samples
searching for tapir endoparasites. Credit: Patrfcia Medici


throughout the landscape, obviously expose these animals to
infectious diseases and other etiological agents. Tapirs and do-
mestic livestock are living in close proximity, which facilitates
the transmission of infectious agents. Forest fragmentation
may cause diseases to emerge that threaten the persistence of
wildlife populations. Anthropogenic alteration of landscape
structure, and contact with domestic livestock, may introduce
diseases that can cause rarity or even the local extinction of
populations. Bacterial, viral and even parasitic outbreaks,
resulting from emerging infectious diseases or anthropogenic
zoonoses, are seen as potential risks for the survival of wildlife
populations and domestic livestock. Many diseases found in
wild animals can be derived from domestic animals. Likewise,
wild animals are frequently indicated as reservoirs or natural
vectors for some diseases that affect human populations or
domestic animals. The real interactions between these epide-
miological aspects must be carefully investigated. Therefore,
health assessments are crucial to understanding the conse-
quences of habitat fragmentation on population dynamics, to
establishing adequate population management strategies in
fragmented landscapes and should be used as an additional
tool in the analysis of population viability.
In the second semester of 2003 we will establish another
project called "The Influence of Large Herbivores on the At-
lantic Forest." This project is a new conservation initiative
and will investigate the role large herbivores (tapirs, deer and
peccaries) play in maintaining and shaping the plant commu-
nities of the Atlantic Forest. Specifically, we will examine how
the removal of large herbivores affects the physical structure
and floristic diversity of the understory vegetation of Morro
do Diabo State Park. Many ecologists have documented the
important roles played by large animals in seed dispersal,
seed predation, herbivory, pollination, and predation, but
until recently few have considered what would happen if large
animals were removed from the system. Tropical rainforests
are the most complex and important ecosystems on the face
of the earth. How would these forests change if the large her-
bivores were removed? How do large herbivores contribute


to the success and functioning of tropical ecosystems? Studies
on plant-animal interactions in the Neotropics show that the
disappearance of large herbivores may alter the structure and
species composition of the forest.
In order to simulate the removal of these herbivores from
the forest, we will construct exclosures that will prevent them
from foraging in selected areas. The results obtained will pro-
vide additional insights into the ecological functions of these
herbivores, which will in turn, enhance existing and future
management plans. Most people agree that rainforests are an
important resource that should be conserved, if only for the
benefit to mankind as water sources, pharmaceutical develop-
ment, climate control, and sources of food, etc. In this day
and age, conservation merely for the preservation of a species
or ecosystem does not seem to be enough of an incentive. Un-
fortunately, until an ecosystem or animal's "value" to the hu-
man race can be proven it is hard to convince the world that it
must be protected and saved. Our major goal for this study is
to provide evidence that tapirs, peccaries and deer are vital to
the health of tropical rainforests and that more efforts should
be made to protect them. We want to provide wildlife man-
agers and decision-makers with our results to enable them to
justify the implementation of programmes designed to prevent
the disappearance of large herbivores from the forest.

Patricia Medici
M.Sc. in Wildlife Ecology, Conservation and Management
Research Coordinator, Lowland Tapir Project,
IPE Institute for Ecological Research
Avenida Perdizes, no 285, Vila Siao Paulo, Teodoro Sampaio
Saio Paulo, CEP: 19280-000, Brazil
Phone & Fax: +55-18-3282-4690
E-mail: epmedici@uol.com.br




Bolivia


Tapir Diet (Tapirus terrestris) and
Seed Dispersal in the Bolivian Chaco

By Grimaldo Soto Quiroga

The lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) is the largest mammal
in the Bolivian Chaco and an important source of protein
for the indigenous Izocefio-Guarani communities of the Isoso,
who neighbour the Kaa-Iya del Gran Chaco National Park.
This ungulate also plays an essential role in forest regeneration
through the dispersal of intact seeds.
I conducted research at "Cerro Cortado" field camp (19
32' 16" S & 62 18' 35" W), on the border between the Kaa-
Iya del Gran Chaco National Park and the Isoso Indigenous
Territory, from October 1999 to June 2000. To determine
tapir diets I analysed faecal samples collected along trails and


June 2003 Vol. 12 / No. 1 Tapir Conservation Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group






Project Updates / News from Captivity


in the forest around the field camp. I also opportunistically
compiled data of fruit and leaf consumption from behavioral
observations and interviews with local residents of the Isoso.
I analysed a total of 153 faecal samples. After collecting
each faecal sample in the field, I placed it in a bag, numbered
it with a field tag and dried it in the open. In the laboratory, I
analysed the components of the tapirs' diet by separating four
principal components (fibre, leaves, fruit-seeds and others).
I collected faecal samples over four seasons: late dry season
(63 samples), early wet season (38), late wet season (27) and
early dry season (25). I separated seeds and identified them
by comparing them with samples from a pre-existing voucher
collection.
To verify whether the tapir is a legitimate seed disperser, I
obtained seeds from the five most common species found in
tapir faeces and evaluated germination under field conditions.
I planted a set of seeds from each species collected directly
from fruiting trees, and a second set of the same seeds col-
lected from faecal samples, and compared their germination
rates.
I identified a total of 44 plant species in the faecal sam-
ples. With respect to families, Cactaceae is the most important
with 16 species represented. The most frequent component in
the diet was fibre, principally from Cactaceae stems or stalks.
The fruits and seeds of "coropeta" (Agonandra brasiliensis,
Opiliaceae) were most frequently found in tapir faeces. This
plant could potentially be a key source of nutrients for the


tapir in the Chaco.
Diet composition varied according to the availability of
fruit during and across seasons, with a positive tendency be-
tween the frequency of fruit consumed by the tapir and the
phenology studies of Chacoan plant species.
According to our data, the tapir is a "legitimate" and
"escape" seed disperser for seeds of "sorimi" (Castela coc-
cinea, Simaroubaceae), "alcaparro" (Capparis speciosa, Cap-
paraceae), "coropeta" (Agonandra brasiliensis, Opiliaceae),
and "mistol" (Ziziphus mistol, Rhamnaceae). The seeds of
these plants showed similar germination ability after passing
through the tapir digestive tract, and tapir faeces provide a
favourable microhabitat for seed germination.
Tapirs are probably the main disperser of algarrobillo
(Caesalpinia paraguariensis, Leguminosae, Caesalpinioi-
deae), because I found entire fruits in their faeces that had
not been masticated. In relation to other ungulates found in
the Chaco, the tapir could be the principal if not the exclusive
disperser of C. paraguariensis. In conclusion, these results
provide another reason to conserve the tapirs of the Chaco
forest.
This study received financial support from WCS-Bolivia
and the KAA-IYA PROJECT SAIDI, CABI Capitania del Alto
y Bajo Isoso, WCS, Wildlife Conservation Society).

Grimaldo Soto Quiroga
E-mail: grim65@hotmail.com


NEWS FROM CAPTIVITY


AZA Tapir TAG Report

By Rick Barongi

The American Association of Zoos and Aquaria (AZA) Tapir
Taxon Advisory Group (TTAG) was created in 1992. It
includes Institutional Representatives (IR's) from all AZA ac-
credited zoos holding tapirs. A core group of these IR's are se-
lected to participate on the Steering Committee. The Steering
Committee is under the direction of a Chair and Vice Chair.
Included on the Steering Committee are Studbook Keepers
and Species Coordinators for individual tapir species. The
TAG also has a number of advisors (veterinary, nutrition, re-
productive, education, marketing/PR and field biologists).
The mission of the Tapir TAG is to enhance conservation
initiatives for all four species of tapirs in captivity and in the
wild. The critical components of the TAG are:
Regional Collection Plan
Three-Year Action Plan
Husbandry Standards


Tapir Conservation Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group .


Before I define each of the above topics let me give you a brief
summary of the present status of tapirs in the AZA accredited
zoos and non-AZA zoos in North America. Presently, there
are 143 tapirs (all four species) held in 76 institutions in North
America. The breakdown according to species is:

Malay tapir (T indicus):
58 (29.29) in 26 institutions
Baird's tapir (T bairdii):
35 (25.10) in 20 institutions
Lowland tapir (T terrestris):
44 (26.18) in 19 institutions
Mountain tapir (T pinchaque):
6 (4.2) in 3 institutions

It is significant to note that none of these numbers con-
stitute a viable long-term self-sustaining population without
exchange with other zoos outside North America. All four
species are currently listed as Endangered by the U.S. Fish
and Wildlife Service and three of the four (Malay, Baird's and
mountain) are listed on Appendix I of CITES. The mountain


Vol. 12 / No. 1 June 2003






News from Captivity


From left to right: Rick Barongi, Joe Roman, Jennifer McLain, Michael Dee, Charles Foerster,
Kirk Nemecheck, Patricia Medici, Lewis Greene, Patty Peters, Don Goff, Brandie Smith,
Phil Schaeffer, Alan Shoemaker, Liz Harmon, and Connie Phillip.

tapir is the most critically endangered in the wild and may
number only a few thousand individuals throughout its entire
fragmented range.
The AZA Tapir TAG meets at least once a year, usually
during the annual AZA Conference. These meetings are more
informational than decision-making. The working meetings
occur less frequently and consist of members of the steering
committee and various advisors. We have just conducted a
Tapir TAG workshop at the Houston Zoo from 9-11th of May,
2003. The participants are pictured in the accompanying
photograph.
While the findings and recommendations of this meeting
are still in draft form, and need to be approved by the AZA
management authorities, we would like to share some of the
key action plan items.

Regional Collection Plan (RCP)

The RCP is the key element of any AZA TAG and must be
continually updated. Essentially, it is a demographic and
space analysis of the captive population. The major discus-
sion centred on which of the four species of tapirs presently
held in North American zoos should be managed according
to SSP and PMP (population management plan) guidelines.
After much discussion it was decided that the AZA Tapir TAG
should concentrate its efforts on two species, Malay and
Baird's tapirs. The criteria that led to this decision were based
on both captive restraints and status in the wild. Like all cap-
tive animals, there is limited space for tapirs. They are large,
long lived animals and require significant space to exhibit and
breed. A target population of 75 Malay tapirs and 75 Baird's
tapirs was recommended. In order to accomplish this goal
more space will need to be allocated for these two species.


MJune 2003 Vol. 12 / No. 1


Why did we decide not to include the lowland and
mountain tapirs in the RCP?

The reasoning was different for each species. The low-
land tapir is still fairly common throughout its range and
has large captive populations in other regions (European
and South American zoos). Phasing this captive popula-
tion out will mean no future breeding by AZA institutions
and moving animals to non AZA facilities.
The mountain tapir decision was more difficult,
in that this is the most critically endangered tapir spe-
cies and one of the most endangered large mammals
in South America. The six animals currently held in
captivity are all descendants of one pair imported to the
Los Angeles Zoo in 1967. At the present time, there is
very little hope of acquiring more founders (unrelated
animals) for the captive population. Therefore, it was
decided that we direct our efforts to in situ conservation
rather than captive breeding programs. If the situation
changes, then the RCP will be modified to accommo-
date a different captive strategy.
In order to carry out these recommendations, we
are recommending the formation of two SSP's, one for
Malay and one for Baird's tapirs. Both species already
have international studbook keepers. A Species Coordinator
and Assistant Coordinator will be recommended for each SSP
The Chair of the TAG and the steering committee will still deal
with all issues pertaining to the other two non SSP species.
The RCP draft document was prepared by Brandie Smith
(AZA Assistant Director of Conservation and Science) with in-
put from all workshop participants. It will be distributed to all
Tapir TAG steering committee members for review and final
approval.

Three Year Action Plan

Every TAG and RCP must have a list of realistically achievable
goals and objectives. These action items were divided into
two categories, ex situ and in situ objectives.

Ex Situ Action Items:
Publish a tapir husbandry manual and standards for
care and exhibition.
Support basic zoo research, especially in the areas of
nutrition and reproduction.
Select advisors to the Tapir TAG in areas of:
veterinary medicine, education, reproductive
physiology, nutrition, marketing/PR and field
biologists.
Maintain accurate studbook data.
Eliminate commercial gain from the sale of tapirs,
unless the money raised is used for conservation
initiatives in tapir range countries.
Work with the EAZA Tapir TAG to conduct a joint
tapir workshop in 2005/2006.
Encourage more Tapir TAG Steering Committee


STapir Conservation Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group






News from Captivity


members to become members of the IUCN/SSC
Tapir Specialist Group (TSG).
Work closely with other conservation groups, such
as the AZA Meso American Captive Action Plan
(CAP), the Zoo Conservation Outreach Group
(ZCOG) and other TAG's with species in the same
native ranges.
Increase the number of holding spaces in North
American zoos.
Acquire additional founders from captive born
animals in other regions/zoos.

In Situ Action Items:
Identify and support tapir habitat preservation
projects.
Support field researchers and their conservation
programs.
Work closely with the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist
Group (TSG).
Enhance knowledge of population substructure and
metapopulation dynamics.
Build local capacity through training and increasing
availability of local veterinarians in range countries.
Evaluate and monitor effects of human influences,
including the impact of hunting and ecotourism.
Support in-country meetings, symposia and
workshops that encourage exchange of information
among and between captive and field biologists.

Tapir Husbandry Standards

A subcommittee of tapir specialists was selected to develop
a comprehensive husbandry manual for tapir care, manage-
ment and exhibition. The final draft of this manual will be
completed by September 2003. Alan Shoemaker will lead
this effort.

Tapir TAG Personnel Changes

Effective immediately, Lewis Greene will assume the duties of
Acting Chair of the Tapir TAG, replacing Rick Barongi. Rick
will remain very much involved with tapir conservation, but
concentrate his efforts on tapir fund raising and the Malay ta-
pir international studbook. A new steering committee will be
formed based on responses from member institutions. A Vice
Chair will be named after the steering committee is approved
by the AZA.


* Contact Information as of May 2003
AZA Tapir TAG Acting Chair:
Lewis Greene, Virginia Zoo, Norfolk, VA.
Baird's Tapir International Studbook Keeper:
Joe Roman, Virginia Zoo, Norfolk, VA.
Malay Tapir International Studbook Keeper:
Rick Barongi, Houston Zoo, Houston, TX.


Lowland Tapir Regional Studbook Keeper:
Don Goff, Beardsley Park, Bridgeport, CT.
Tapir Husbandry Standards:
Alan Shoemaker, Columbia, S. Carolina.
RCP and Genetic and Demographic Advisor:
Brandie Smith, AZA Executive Offices.

All recommendations by workshop participants are pending
approval by AZA.

Rick Barongi
Director, Houston Zoo Inc.
1513 N. MacGregor, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
E-mail: rbarongi@aol.com or rbarongi@houstonzoo.org




Nutritional Considerations for

Feeding Baird's tapir

(Tapirus bairdii) in Captivity

By Andrea Brenes Soto


im6n Bolivar National Zoo in Costa Rica has a Baird's
tapir male that arrived when he was approximately one
month old. He arrived at the Zoo in 1999, from Rinc6n de la
Vieja Volcano in Guanacaste, in the north area of Costa Rica,
where he had been confiscated. "Tot6" is now four years old
and we are evaluating some nutritional aspects of his diet.
Tapirs have digestive adaptations in their gastrointestinal
tract that allow the efficient use of high fibre foods, like other
perissodactyls such as horses or rhinos. They have a hind-
gut digestive process that involves the development of their
colon, used as a fermentation chamber for the digestion of
fibre which contains a microbial colony (similar to ruminants).
The animals obtain volatile fatty acids (VFA) that supply their
energy needs, as well as nutrients such as vitamin K and B
complex (Rojas, 1995).
Some studies on feeding preferences by tapirs have been
conducted in the field (Janzen 1983; Naranjo, 1995). Tapirs
are browsers and frugivores (Eisenberg, 1989), their diet con-
sists of leaves, stems and bushes and they also eat aquatic
plants and fruits (Ojasti, 1993).
Based on these characteristics and taking the wild diet into
consideration plus diet palatability and environmental enrich-
ment factors (much of the diet is presented as enrichment), the
zoo's nutrition department formulated a diet for "Tot6" (Table
2). This diet was formulated based on the NRC (Nutrient Re-
quirements for Horses) for protein, energy and Calcium and
Phosphorus values (Table 1).
The protein value is higher than the requirement, but is at
an acceptable value because of the tapir's age. Due to this, it
is recommended that the Calcium-Phosphorus ratio for tapirs


Tapir Conservation Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group Vol. 12 / No. 1 June 2003






News from Captivity


Table I. Nutritional Composition of the Tapir's Diet.

Nutrient NRC Requirement* Zoo's Diet Value
Crude Protein (%) 8-12 13.4
Energy (kcal/kg ME**) 3000 3240
Calcium (%) 0.30-0.50 0.31
Phosphorus (%) 0.20-0.30 0.29


Table 2. Diet for Baird's Tapir at Sim6n Bolivar Zoo, Costa Rica.

Food' Formula M%
Yucp (Aflniit ufu*nt)) .-9
Carrot Omuxs cnotM 9S
SWnKt pOto2 (imnOn 6"6ts) 5 __
SeeMl (e vnflgSus) 5 9_
Por (CfCIs on) 3.___ 4__
vuWemron (Ci auSn hanrtus) 4.
Loth"a fL*ach& &iv 11 -8J
BSfO (N&Vmt Lm oftintaMei 7r.4
Paoato (Sodanum tubmsfaum) 49
Barta (MWusa o__.) _
Baenam peel 4.9
HorNe cue oncfnmtsr 24.8
TOTAL 100

* Nutritional values adapted from Animal Nutrition and Diet Manual For
Wild Animals in Captivity
** Pellet concentrate for maintaining horses


be reviewed along with the effect of high energy diet on body
weight.
Tot6's food intake is 10 kg of fresh matter per day, and he
weighs approximately 150 kg. It means that he eats 1.5% of
his body weight in fresh matter. This is a normal value for do-
mestic animals. His feeding regime consists of two feeds per
day one in the morning and the other in the afternoon. His
body condition is good and he demonstrates normal activity
patterns and normal behaviour.
It is necessary to conduct more studies involving the study
of the effects of diet at each physiological stage, the fibre con-
tent of the diet, the dynamics of vitamins and minerals and
further laboratory analysis for more reliable data.

References

Diefenfeld E. & Graffam. W. 1996. Manual de Nutrici6n y
Dietas para Animales Silvestres en Cautiverio (ejemplos para
animals de America Latina). Wildlife Conservation Society.
68 p.
Eisenberg, J. E 1989. Mammals of the Neotropics. The North-
ern Tropics. Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyanas, Surinam.
Vol. II. First edition. The University of Chicago Press. Pp. 395-
397.
Janzen, D. H. 1983. Tapirus bairdii. In: D. H. Janzen (ed.) Costa
Rican Natural History. University of Chicago Press, U.S.A. pp.
496-497.


M June 2003 Vol. 12 / No. 1


* Probable requirements adapted from National Research
Council (NRC 1989) Nutrient Requirements for horses
** Metabolizable Energy


Murillo, S. & Ulate E. 1984. Composicion de alimentos y Tabla
de pesos para Costa Rica. Institute de Investigaciones en Salud
(INISA), Universidad de Costa Rica. 34 p.
Naranjo, E. 1995. Habitos de alimentaci6n del tapir en un bosque
tropical h6medo de Costa Rica. Vida Silvestre Neotropical 44
(1). Costa Rica.
Ojasti, J. 1993. Utilizaci6n de la Fauna Silvestre en America
Latina. Situaci6n Perspectivas para un Manejo Sostenible. Guia
FAO. No. 25. Roma, Italia. 250 p.
Rojas Bourrill6n, A. 1995. Conceptos Basicos en Nutricion de
Rumiantes. Escuela de Zootecnia, Universidad de Costa Rica.
177 p.

Andrea Brenes Soto
Zoo Nutritionist, Sim6n Bolivar National Zoo
Apartado 11594-1000, San Jose, Costa Rica
Fax: +506-223-1817
E-mail: fundazoo@racsa.co.cr


One of the oldest tapirs in captivity dies
at Wilhelma Zoo, Stuttgart, Germany

Report on one of the oldest Malay tapirs in captivity in the
last edition of the newsletter was in print when we heard
that she had died (cf. Tapir Cons. Vol. 11, No. 2). A report on
her death follows:
Lilith studbookk no 78) was born on the 1st June 1966 at
Nuremberg Zoo and arrived at Wilhelma Zoo on 17th April
1968 where she died on 16th December 2002 following an
attack of colic. She had suffered from constipation for some
days, and, although treatment was administered, it was to no
avail. The post mortem study showed that a "ball" of fibres
(probably mango fibres) had blocked her intestines. In old
animals (and humans, too), the passage can become a prob-
lem. Lilith had shown various signs of old age for a long time,
but was still in relatively good shape, enjoying her food and
her keepers' attention. She gave birth to two female and four
male offspring whilst at Wilhelma between 1970 and 1979.

Dr. Marianne Holtk6tter
General Curator / Assistant Director
Wilhelma Zoological-botanical Gardens, Stuttgart, Germany
e-mail: Marianne.Holtkoetter@wilhelma.de


* Tapir Conservation Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group






Contributed Papers


CONTRIBUTED PAPERS



Re-introductions: A Comprehensive Approach

By Pritpal S. Soorae


Introduction


ue to an increasing number of species translocations
worldwide the IUCN in 1987 developed the IUCN Po-
sition Statement on the Translocation of Living organisms
(IUCN, 1987). This position statement acknowledged that
translocation is a powerful tool in the management of the
natural environment and, when properly used, offers great
benefits to natural biological systems and to man but if mis-
used has the potential to cause enormous damage.
While the position statement helped to raise awareness
of the pros and cons of translocation it was subsequently felt
that there was a need for more detailed guidelines to provide
comprehensive coverage of the much wider issues of re-in-
troduction for conservation purposes. An international task
force was therefore established to draft more detailed guide-
lines and this led to the development of the IUCN Guidelines
for Re-introductions, a general policy document covering both
animals and plants, which was finalised in 1995 and became
official IUCN policy after an exhaustive international review
process. These guidelines have subsequently been translated
into French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese and Arabic (IUCN,
1998) and printed into booklets that have been extensively
distributed worldwide.
While the development of the general IUCN Guidelines
for Re-introduction provided valuable guidance on many of
the key issues concerning re-introduction, the increasing num-
bers of re-introduction projects worldwide involving a growing
number of taxa, have further highlighted the need for more
detailed species- or taxon-specific guidelines. As a first step in
this direction, the IUCN/SSC Re-introduction Specialist Group
(RSG) finalized in 2002, its first taxon-specific guidelines the
Guidelines for Nonhuman Primate Re-introductions to assist
primate re-introduction practitioners worldwide with "best-
practice" lessons for re-introducing primates and is currently
working on developing African Elephant Re-introduction and
Translocation Guidelines.


Aims, Objectives and Definition of Terms

Aim

According to the IUCN Guidelines for Re-introductions
(IUCN, 1998), the principal aim of a re-introduction should
be to establish a free-ranging viable population in the wild of
a species, subspecies or race, which has become globally or
locally extinct, or extirpated in the wild in that particular area.


Objectives

The main objectives of a re-introduction project are as fol-
lows:
To enhance the long-term survival of a species
To establish a keystone species (in the ecological or
cultural sense)
To maintain and/or restore natural biodiversity
To provide long-term economic benefits to the local
and/or national economy
To promote conservation awareness

Definition of terms

Re-introduction:
an attempt to establish a species in an area which
was once part of its historical range, but from which it
has been extirpated or become extinct ("Re-establish-
ment" is a synonym, but implies that the re-introduc-
tion has been successful).
Re-inforcement/Supplementation:
addition of individuals to an existing population of
conspecifics.
Conservation/Benign Introductions:
an attempt to establish a species, for the purpose of
conservation, outside its recorded distribution but
within an appropriate habitat and eco-geographical
area. This is a feasible conservation tool only when
there is no remaining area left within a species' his-
toric range.
Translocation:
deliberate and mediated movement of wild individu-
als or populations from one part of their range to an-
other.


Tapir Conservation Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group Vol. 12 / No. 1 June 2003






Contributed Papers


Phases of a re-introduction project


There are four main stages of a re-introduction project, these
are:
1. Feasibility,
2. Implementation,
3. Post-release Monitoring, and,
4. Lessons Learned stage.

I) FEASIBILITY

This stage involves the gathering of data on habitat suitability,
biological issues involving the species and on socio-political/
economic concerns. If the project proves feasible it should
proceed further. If there are concerns these should be ad-
dressed before proceeding to the implementation stage.
When considering a re-introduction project it is important
that the following three factors i.e. Habitat, Species and So-
cio-political/economic are considered equally. The success of
a project will depend on the proper evaluation of all three of
these factors.

a) Habitat


The choice of re-introduction site is very important and when
conducting a re-introduction (see above for definition) there
should be no remnant population to prevent the possibility of
disease spread, social disruption, and, introduction of alien
genes. If it is considered necessary to conduct a re-enforce-
ment, then there should only be a few remnant wild individu-
als.
The re-introduction should only take place where the
habitat and landscape requirements of the species are satis-
fied and changes since extirpation have been considered.
The area should have sufficient carrying capacity to support
a viable, self-sustaining population and the original cause of
decline must be identified and eliminated or reduced to a suf-
ficient level.
If the release site has undergone substantial degradation
then a habitat restoration must be carried out before a re-in-
troduction can proceed.

b) Species

When considering the species factor it is important to conduct
a background research into the species and also evaluate the
taxonomic and genetic status. Detailed studies on the status
and biology of wild populations must be undertaken and the
effect of species to be re-introduced, or one that has filled the
void must be evaluated. In some cases it may also be useful
to consider modeling and to conduct a population and habitat
viability analysis (PHVA) to guide long-term population man-
agement.
It is important to have the availability of suitable release


stock for any re-introduction project. Normally wild stock is
preferred but if the animals are from a captive source they
must have been managed both demographically and geneti-
cally. Also, if using captive-bred stocks their probability of sur-
vival must approximate those of a wild counterpart. It should
be remembered that re-introductions should not be carried
out because of the availability of surplus stock and that any
stock destined for a re-introduction must meet all necessary
health requirements.

c) Socio-economic and political

It is important to conduct a comprehensive socio-economic as-
sessment of human populations in the proposed re-introduc-
tion area and ensure that the project has long-term financial
and political support. It must be appreciated that re-introduc-
tions are long-term, expensive projects that require long-term
financial and political support. The impacts and costs and
benefits to local communities must be evaluated prior to a re-
introduction. If both, risks to and from human activities are
envisaged then adequate measures should be undertaken, if
these are inadequate, then alternative release areas should be
sought and the attempt abandoned.
A thorough review of both national and international poli-
cies should be undertaken. In the case of national or country
policies special attention should be made to existing provin-
cial, national and international policies. Full permission and
involvement of all relevant government agencies should be
taken well in advance and where re-introductions can occur in
border areas, or where species expand into states, provinces
or other territories.

2) IMPLEMENTATION

During the implementation stage it is important for re-intro-
duction practitioners to:
Establish a multidisciplinary team.
Obtain the approval of relevant government agencies,
landowners, NGO's (both local and international).
Identify both short- and long-term success indicators.
Secure funding for all phases of the project.
Project should be done as a carefully designed scien-
tific experiment.
Ensure all veterinary protocols are in place.
Welfare of animals should be of the highest concern
during all stages of the project.

3) POST-RELEASE MONITORING

This is the most important stage because without monitoring
the success indicators cannot be evaluated.

This can be done by monitoring all or a sample by us-
ing direct (e.g. tags, telemetry) or indirect (e.g. spoor,
informants) methods.
Long-term studies on adaptation, ecology and behav-


June 2003 Vol. 12 / No. 1 Tapir Conservation Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group






Contributed Papers


iour should be undertaken.
Mortalities should be thoroughly investigated.

4) LESSONS LEARNT

Results of projects, whether successful or not, should
be published in scientific and popular literature.
Future projects should learn from past successes and
failures to help design their projects more success-
fully.
A cost-benefit analysis should be carried out to gauge
the cost of the project.
Public relation activities and dissemination of infor-
mation through the mass media should be conducted
to ensure project information is available to a wide
audience.



Conclusion

We hope the information above provides some information
on issues to consider when planning re-introduction projects.
The IUCN/SSC Re-introduction Specialist Group would be
keen to work closely with the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist
Group in developing specific protocols to assist tapir re-in-
troduction projects. There have not been many attempts at
re-introducing tapirs but what little information exists out there


can be collated and merged with the existing IUCN Guidelines
for Re-introduction to provide specific guidelines that can be
useful to tapir re-introduction projects. This can be constantly
updated as new information becomes available. This initia-
tive would be similar to the specific guidelines the RSG has
developed for primates and is currently developing for African
elephants.



References

IUCN. 1987. The IUCN Position Statement on Translaocation of
Living Organisms. Prepared by the Species Survival Commis-
sion in collaboration with the Commission on Ecology and the
Commission on Environmental Policy, Law and Administration.
IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. 20 pp.
IUCN. 1998. Guidelines for Re-introductions. Prepared by the
IUCN/SSC Re-introduction Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland,
Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. 10 pp.


Pritpal S. Soorae
IUCN/SSC Re-introduction Specialist Group (RSG)
Program Officer
c/o Environmental Research & Wildlife Development Agency
P O. Box 45553, Abu Dhabi, UAE
E-mail: PSoorae@erwda.gov.ae


Identification of Ecto and Endoparasites in

Baird's Tapir (Tapirus bairdii), in Chiapas, Mexico

By E. C. Aldin1, I. L. Torres1, D. M. G. Andrade2, D. O. Sarabia3 & M. T. Quintero M.4


Abstract

The purpose of this study was to assess levels of
parasitism in Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) in
Chiapas, Mexico. We analyzed 19 samples of Baird's
tapir faeces from La Sepultura Biosphere Reserve
collected between March and July 1999. We also took
samples directly from a male tapir captured at Montes
Azules Biosphere Reserve. We used the techniques
of flotation, MacMaster, micrometric, sedimentation
of Ritchie formoll ether) for preserved samples, and
Ferreira's quantitative. In addition, we collected
ectoparasites from animals captured at both La
Sepultura and Montes Azules reserves as well as from
a pair maintained in captivity at the Miguel Alvarez


Tapir Conservation Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group


del Toro Regional Zoo (ZooMAT) in Tuxtla Gutierrez,
Chiapas. The following new genera of gastrointestinal
nematodes and protozoa were found: Agriostomum
sp, Lacandoria sp, Neomurshidia sp, Trichostrongylus
sp, Strongylus sp, Brachylumus sp, and a species of
Ancylostomatidae. We also detected the presence of
Eimeria sp, and Balantidium coli, as well as the mites:
Dermacentor hall, Dermacentor latus, Amblyomma
cajannense, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma ovale,
Anocentor nitens and Ixodes bicornis.







Vol. 12 / No. 1 June 2003






Contributed Papers


Introduccion


E ntre la numerosa diversidad de animals del sureste mexi-
cano el Tapir Centroamericano Tapirus bairdii (Gill, 1865)
destaca por constituir un recurso alimenticio y peletero para
los pobladores rurales, sin embargo, las poblaciones de este
ungulado son vulnerable a la extinci6n local ocasionada por
la perdida y fragmentaci6n del habitat, caceria y a la traslo-
caci6n de species dom&sticas (Emmons, 1990; Vos, 1995;
Brooks et al., 1997; An6nimo, 2000).
Con respect a este ultimo punto, la traslocaci6n de species
domestic es un tema poco evaluado e investigado en nuestro
estado, ademas esta actividad represent indirectamente un
potential de enfermedades infectocontagiosas y parasitarias
para la especie dentro de las areas naturales protegidas del
sureste de M6xico (Overall, 1980; Cunningham, 1995).
En base a que no existen studios sobre parasit6sis
en tapires de vida silvestre en el estado de Chiapas y
las condiciones ambientales del Estado son favorables
temperaturea, precipitaci6n, humedad relative, etc), ademas
de retomar lo propuesto por el Plan de Acci6n elaborado
por Matola, Cuar6n y Rubio-Torgler para la especie (1997),
y citando el punto numero diez (Investigaci6n Cientifica)
apartado quinto, donde se recomienda: La busqueda del
desarrollo de tecnicas no obstructivas (quiz6s utilizando heces)
que permitan la recolecci6n de informaci6n sobre el sexo,
estado reproductive, y otra informaci6n fisiol6gica de tapires
en campo; el objetivo del present trabajo, es dar a conocer
los generos, species y grado de infestaci6n parasitaria que
puedan tener las poblaciones de Tapirus bairdii en dos areas
naturales protegidas del estado de Chiapas.



Material y metodios


La Reserva de la Biosfera La Sepultura (REBISE), es
decretada el 5 de junio de 1995, con una extension de
192.734 ha. Se ubica en el Estado de Chiapas entire los 160
00' y 160 29' latitud Norte y 930 24' y 940 07' longitud Oeste,
dentro de la region fisiografica de la Sierra Madre de Chiapas,
region accidentada que se eleva desde los 25 msnm hasta
los 2.550 msnm. Para esta region, se distinguen dos zonas:
una h6meda, caracterizada por una alta precipitaci6n pluvial,
abarcando la comarca El Soconusco; con selvas medianas y
bosque mes6filo de montafia, y una zona menos h6meda, la
cual comprende una porci6n del Istmo de Tehuantepec, que
seg6n Goodwin (1969) es una de las regions mas secas del
Pacifico, por lo que las asociaciones vegetables caracteristicas
son las selvas bajas caducifolias y matorrales xer6fitos
(Miranda, 1975; Breedlove, 1981). En su conjunto la reserve
es considerada como una zona de alta diversidad biol6gica
y elevado endemismo (Hernandez 1994; Naranjo y Cruz
1998).
Por otro lado, la Reserva de la Biosfera de Montes Azules


E June 2003 Vol. 12 / No. 1


(REBIMA) se ubica al noreste del Estado de Chiapas, entire
los 16 y 17 latitud norte y los 90 30' y 91 30' de latitud
oeste. Cuenta con una superficie total de 331.200 ha, y esta
comprendida principalmente dentro de los Municipios de
Ocosingo, Margaritas, Benem6rito de las Americas, Marques
de Comillas y Palenque (Campos y Flores, 1992).
La REBIMA se encuentra en condiciones climaticas h6-
medas, calidas y semicalidas, predominando el clima calido
h6medo Am(w)igw, con una temperature media annual supe-
rior a los 22 C, con baja oscilaci6n t&rmica annual. Las lluvias
alcanzan valores anuales superiores a los 1.500 mm y llega
hasta los 3.000 mm en la zona norte (Orellana, 1972; Garcia-
Gill, 1992).
El criterio que se utiliz6 para la recolecta de las excretas
provenientes de los tapires se bas6 en que estas no debian
tener mas de tres dias de evacuadas, tomando en cuenta
las caracteristicas fisicas de las mismas, como: textura, olor
penetrante, color, edad (dependiendo del tamafio de la
excreta), conformaci6n y humedad, siempre evitando el
desarrollo de semillas u hongos. Las muestras se obtuvieron
directamente del suelo, arroyos, letrinas, pozas, etc, el m&todo
de muestreo utilizado fue el de trayecto en linea de amplitud
variada.
Los recorridos para la recolecta de excretas fueron de
ocho dias al mes durante cinco muestreos consecutivos en
diversos trayectos con diferentes tipos de vegetaci6n. Una
vez obtenidas las muestras se colocaron en pequenos frascos
de vidrio limpios agregandoles formol al 5% como conserva-
dor. Estas fueron debidamente etiquetadas con los siguientes
datos: fecha, n6mero de registro, n6mero de trayecto, vegeta-
ci6n, altitude, edad aproximada, medio de conservaci6n lote,
y collector.
La 6nica forma de llegar a un diagn6stico precise de las
parasitosis es mediante el examen postmortem de las visceras
que alojan temporal o definitivamente a los parasitos, sin
embargo, esto no es possible, mencionando ademas que el
animal examinado es s61o una parte, pero no una muestra
representative de la poblaci6n, por lo tanto la alternative fue:
el examen coproparasitosc6pico mediante las t6cnicas de
flotaci6n, MacMaster, micrometria, sedimentaci6n de Ritchie
(formol-eter) para muestras preservadas y la cuantitativa de
Ferreira (Thienpont, 1979).
En lo que respect a los ectoparasitos, estos fueron reco-
lectados de animals capturados en vida silvestre en las dos
reserves anteriormente descritas y en una pareja mantenida
en el Zool6gico Regional "Miguel Alvarez del Toro" (ZooMAT)
en el estado de Chiapas, los ectoparasitos colectados (pulgas,
piojos y garrapatas) fueron colocados en frascos con alcohol
al 70% para su identificaci6n en el laboratorio (Acevedo,
1990; Lamothe, 1997).
Todas las muestras fueron remitidas y procesadas ma-
nualmente en la Policlinica y Diagn6stico Veterinario, Tuxtla
Gutierrez, Chiapas, en el Laboratorio de Helmintologia del
Institute de Biologia y el Departamento de Parasitologia de la
Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, ambos pertenecientes a la
Universidad Nacional Aut6noma de M6xico (UNAM).


* Tapir Conservation Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group






Contributed Papers


Resultados


En relaci6n a los resultados obtenidos en la present inves-
tigaci6n sobre parasitosis gastroent&ricas en tapires de la re-
serva de la Biosfera de La Sepultura, se encontr6 que de un
total de 19 excretas procesadas, 13 fueron positivas a nemato-
diasis gastroent&rica y 3 a protozoarios lo que represent una
distribuci6n proporcional del 68.4 y 23.0% respectivamente.
Se identificaron por primera vez en los tapires del Estado de
Chiapas, Mexico los siguientes generos de nematodos en
una proporci6n de: Lacandoria sp (53.8%), Neomurshidia
sp (53.8%), Trichostrongylus sp (30.7%), Agriostomum sp
(15.3%) y Strongylus sp (23.0%). Mientras que en protozoa-
rios la distribuci6n proporcional fue del 7.6% para Balanti-
dium coli, y del 15.3% para Eimeria sp.
Las muestras uno y dos evidenciaron la presencia de
huevos de nematodos ovales de zonas perifericas hialinas, y
masa de segmentaci6n central con dimensions de 96 x 51
micrones tipicamente estrongiloide pertenecientes al genero
Agriostomum sp. En la muestra n6mero uno el cuantitativo
result con 15 huevos por gramo de muestra. En la muestra
dos la densidad result de siete huevos por gramo de
muestra.
En las muestras uno, dos, tres, cinco, ocho, 12 y 17 se
pudieron observer larvas de nematodos protostrongilidos, su
morfometria y dimensions los hacen compatibles con los
generos Lacandoria sp y Neomurshidia sp con caudas poco
aguzadas. En las seis primeras muestras fueron abundantes
con mas de 19 huevos por gramo, en la muestra 12 s61o se
pudieron localizar dos huevos y en la 17 fueron escasos, en
estas dos 61timas no se aplic6 la tecnica cuantitativa.
En las muestras dos, cuatro, 11 y 14 se detect la presen-
cia de huevos ovalados mas pequefios (15 x 12 micrones)
y diferentes a los ya sefialados, compatibles con huevos del
genero Trichostrongilus sp, muy abundantes (462 huevos por
gramo) y con las blastomeras conspicuas.
En las muestras nueve, 15 y 19, se detectaron larvas de
nematodos pertenecientes al genero Strongylus sp caracteri-
zados por sus caudas largas, siendo sus abundancias elevadas
con 8.066 huevos por gramo. En las muestras tres, nueve
y doce se detect la presencia de quistes esfericos cuyas ca-
racteristicas morfol6gicas y morfomrtricas (15 a 18 micrones
de diametro) los hacen compatibles con protozoarios de los
generos Eimeria sp y Balantidium coli.
Por otra parte, se hace referencia a especimenes de ne-
matodos adults obtenidos a partir de un muestreo director
efectuado a un tapir macho proveniente de la Reserva de la
Biosfera Montes Azules, Selva Lacandona, del cual se iden-
tificaron a los generos: Neomurshidia sp, Brachylumus sp,
Lacandoria sp y otro ancilostomaideo que se esta buscando
bibliografia para situarlo taxon6micamente.
En cuanto a la identificaci6n de las species de ectopara-
sitos recolectados en tapires, los resultados son los siguientes:
Para la pareja de tapires mantenida en el ZooMAT, todos los
acaros (garrapatas) identificados pertenecen a la familiar Ixo-


didae y del genero Amblyomma se determine a Amblyomma
cajennense y A. ovale, y del genero Anocentor se determine
a Anocentor nitens. En un tapir macho capturado en el Ejido
Nueva Palestina en la Reserva de la Biosfera Montes Azules,
Selva Lacandona, las species de acaros colectados tambien
pertenecen a la familiar Ixodidae y del genero Amblyomma se
determine a Amblyomma cajennense.
En el caso de una cria de tapir encontrada en la Reserva
de la Biosfera La Sepultura los acaros identificados perte-
necen a la misma familiar Ixodidae como sigue: del genero
Dermacentor: Dermacentor halli, y D. latus; del genero Am-
blyomma: Amblyomma cajannense y A. coelebs y del genero
Ixodes; Ixodes bicornis.



Discusion


En cuanto a los generos identificados en la present inves-
tigaci6n se encontr6 que el nematodo Neomurshidia sp. es
igualmente reportado por Padilla (1994) en el Tapir de tierras
bajas (Tapirus terrestris). En tanto que Terwilliger (1978) en
un analisis de excretas provenientes de un macho juvenile de
Tapirus bairdii encontr6 Strongylus sp, al igual que Paras et
al. (1996) en un muestreo de cinco tapires capturados en
la reserve de Corcovado en Costa Rica, hallazgos similares
a lo reportado en este trabajo, pero con abundancias
distintas, cuya explicaci6n se infiere que sea similar al genero
Trichostrongylus sp.
Con respect a los generos Lacandoria sp, Brachylumus
sp y Agriostomum sp, no han sido reportados por otros
autores, lo que podria inferir condiciones especiales del
habitat para la sobrevivencia, preservaci6n y reproducci6n
de estos tres g6neros en el estado de Chiapas o a la falta
de studios concernientes a esta tematica y especie animal.
En tanto que para el genero Trichostrongylus sp, tambien
no es reportado en el Tapir Centroamericano por otros
autores, 6nicamente en animals domesticos como equinos
y bovinos del estado de Chiapas con prevalencias elevadas
(Zenteno, 1993; Giiris, 1995), la infestaci6n a esta especie
silvestre posiblemente se deba al hecho de que los tapires de
la Reserva de la Biosfera La Sepultura bajan a los pastizales
y conviven en forma mixta con equinos y bovinos los cuales
se alimentan en este lugar, o a la contaminaci6n de forraje
por huevos de nematodos provenientes de estos rumiantes y
equinos, cabe aclarar que este genero de parasito no es muy
prolifico, pero la longevidad de sus huevos es relativamente
larga al ser depositados sobre los pastos, soportando la
exposici6n al medio ambiente externo adverse, lo cual
contribute a la infestaci6n y presencia de este parasito en la
especie en studio (Quiroz, 1984; Giiris 1995).
Con respect a Eimeria sp y Balantidium coli, ambos
protozoarios anteriormente habian sido reportados por Padilla
(1994) en la recopilaci6n hecha del Tapir de tierras bajas, asi
como por Paras et al. (1996) en el Tapirus bairdii; en este caso,


Tapir Conservation Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group Vol. 12 / No. 1 June 2003






Contributed Papers


estos protozoarios tienen la capacidad de enquistarse cuando
las condiciones ambientales no les son favorables para su
sobrevivencia, y esto podria inferirse como una de las causes
por las cuales se observaron durante el studio (Soulsby
1988). Por 61timo, en el caso de los acaros, Hoffmann (1962)
report la presencia de Amblyomma cajannense en el tapir
centroamericano de M6xico, sin embargo, no especifica en
que estado o region se llev6 acabo este hallazgo y Overall
(1980) menciona que los acaros encontrados en dos
ejemplares de Tapirus bairdii de la Isla de Barro Colorado,
Panama son vectores de protozoarios de importancia
sanitaria como Babesia y Theileria; species end6micas del
neotropico y que afectan a los equinos domesticos como a los
tapires respectivamente. Sin embargo, para nuestro estado la
presencia de estos protozoarios no ha sido confirmada aun,
debido a la carencia de studios clinics y epidemiol6gicos
sobre el tapir centroamericano en las respectivas areas
naturales protegidas donde aun sobreviven.
Para finalizar, retomando la relevancia de los parrafos
anteriores, queremos comentar que la importancia de los
hallazgos realizados en la present investigaci6n tienen como
finalidad profundizar en el conocimiento de la biologia y
ecologia del tapir centroamericano en el Estado de Chiapas.
En la actualidad la frontera agropecuaria y ganadera se
extiende cada dia mas, esto ha ocasionado una perdida y
fragmentaci6n de los bosques pristinos y de los diferentes
ecosistemas que conforman la region. La expansion de la
frontera agricola trae entire otras consecuencias la introducci6n
de nuevas enfermedades y vectores, debido a la presencia de
species simpatricas que estaran en estrecho contact con la
especie. Ademas es important mencionar los movimientos
de fauna tanto silvestre como domestica que desarrollan las
comunidades locales en casi todas las areas naturales prote-
gidas del estado. Para efectos de este studio estos movi-
mientos se described como cualquier asistencia humana en la
movilizaci6n animal (Overall, 1980; Cunningham, 1995).
En los movimientos de fauna silvestre llamense introduc-
ci6n, reintroducci6n reforzamiento, y traslocaci6n se reco-
mienda seguir los lineamientos de la IUCN en la media que
sean posibles con el fin de evitar la importaci6n de nuevos
riesgos para las species locales, este riesgo puede incremen-
tarse si la introducci6n de animals es por crianza o manteni-
miento en cautiverio. La introducci6n de nuevos hospederos
por acciones antropocentricas influencia la relaci6n existente
entire hospedero-parasito con otras species en el area (Cun-
ningham, 1995).
Por tal motivo es important implementar algunos linea-
mientos basicos sobre los procedimientos en educaci6n,
higiene y cuarentena en animals criados o mantenidos en
cautiverio. Ademas profundizar en el conocimiento biol6gico
y ecol6gico de la especie en studio y efectuar una evaluaci6n
del estado de salud de las poblaciones silvestres y domesticas
con la finalidad de prevenir epidemias.


Agradecimientos


Agradecemos el apoyo econ6mico brindado al Proyecto
Ecologia, Biologia y Conservaci6n del Tapir (Tapirus bairdii)
en el Estado de Chiapas, asi como el apoyo del Instituto
de Historia Natural y Ecologia (IHNE). Las personas que
prestaron ayuda durante la investigaci6n fueron: Carlos A.
Guichard Romero, Austreberto Casenco Cruz, Personal de
mantenimiento y alimentaci6n de la oficina de mastozoologia
(IHNE), al personal de apoyo de la Policlinica y Diagn6stico
Veterinario, asi como al Laboratorio de Helmintologia del
Institute de Biologia y al Departamento de Parasitologia de
la Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia de la UNAM.
Agradecemos especialmente la hospitalidad otorgada por la
Familia Canseco Cruz del Rancho Santa Isabel durante el
trabajo de campo.


Literature Citada

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Protecci6n Ambiental, Especies de Flora y Fauna Silvestres de
Mexico, Categorias de Riesgo y Especificaciones para su Inclu-
si6n, Exclusi6n o Cambio, y Lista de Especies en Riesgo. Diario
Official de la Federaci6n, Lunes 16 de octubre de 2000, 1:1-62.
Breedlove, D. E. 1981. Flora of Chiapas. Part I. Introduction
to the Flora of Chiapas. California Academy of Sciences. San
Francisco, Cal. USA.
Brooks, D. M., Bodmer, R. E. & Matola S. 1997. Tapires.
Evaluaci6n de su Estado Actual y plan de Accion para su Con-
servaci6n. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. Pp.61-106.
Cunningham, A. A. 1995. Disease risks of wildlife translocations.
Cons. Biol. 10:349-353.
Emmons L. H. 1989. Neotropical Rainforest Mammals. The Uni-
versity of Chicago Press.
Garcia-Gill, J. G. & Lugo Hupb. 1992. Las formas del relieve
y los tipos de vegetaci6n en La Selva Lacandona. In: Vazquez,
M.A.& M.A. Ramos (Eds.).Reserva de la Biosfera Montes
Azules, Selva Lacandona: Investigacion para su Conservacion.
Publicaciones Especiales ECOSFERA 1:1-436.
Goodwin, G. G. 1969. Mammals from the state of Oaxaca, Mexico
in American Museum of History. Bulletin of the America Mu-
seum of Natural History. Vol. 141.
Giiris, D. M. 1995. Nematodiasis gastroentericas en caballos
del Estado de Chiapas. Memorias del 1 Ciclo de Conferencias
de Actualizaci6n en Clinica Equina. Escuela de Medicina y
Zootecnia UNACH. Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas. Mexico.
Hernandez, Y. A. 1994. Propuesta para Establecer el Area Natural
Protegida (Reserva de la Biosfera La Sepultura", en la Porci6n
Oeste de la Sierra Madre de Chiapas), Unpub thesis. Facultad
de Biologia, Universidad Veracruzana, Mexico.
Hoffman, A. 1962. Monografia de los Ixoidea de Mexico Ia parte.


June 2003 Vol. 12 / No. 1 Tapir Conservation Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group






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Revista de la Sociedad Mexicana de Historia Natural XXII. 191-
307.
Lamothe, A. R. 1997. Manual de tecnicas para preparar y estu-
diar lo parasitos de animals silvestres. Mexico D.E: AGT Editor
S.A.
Margolis, L. 1982. The use of ecological terms in parasitology
(report of an ad hoc committee of the American Society of Para-
sitologists). J. Parasitol. 68131-132.
Matola, S., Cuaron, A. & Rubio-Torgler, H. 1997. Evaluaci6n
del estado y plan de acci6n del tapir mesoamericano (Tapirus
bairdii). In: Brooks, M.D.; Bodmer, E. Richard y Matola S. (Eds).
Tapires. Evaluaci6n de su Estado Actual y plan de Accion para su
Conservaci6n. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. Pp. 67-74.
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del Gobierno del Estado. Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, Mexico.
Naranjo E. & Cruz, A. E. 1998. Ecologia del tapir Tapirus
bairdii en la Sierra Madre de Chiapas, Mexico, Acta Zool6gica
Mexicana, (Nueva Serie) N' 73.
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Lacandona, Chiapas. Tesis Profesional Facultad de Ciencias,
UNAM.
Overall, K. L. 1980. Coatis, tapirs, and tick: A case of mammalian
interspecific grooming. Biotropica 12:158.
Padilla, M. & Dowler, R 1994 Tapirus terrestris. Mammalian
Species. 481:1-8.
Paras, G. A. & Foerster, C. 1996. Immobilization of free rang-
ing Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii). Proc. Amer. Assoc. of Zoo
Veterinarians. Puerto Vallarta, Mexico.
Quiroz, R. H. 1984. Parasitologia y enfermedades parasitarias de
animals domesticos. Mexico, D.E ed. Limusa.
Soulsby, E. J. 1988. Parasitologia y enfermedades parasitarias de
los animals domesticos Mexico: Interamericana.
Terwilliger, V. J. 1978. Natural History of Bairds Tapir on Barro


Colorado Island, Panama Canal Zone. Biotropica. 10:211-220.
Thienpont, D., Rochette, E & Vanparijs, O. E J. 1979. Diag-
ndstico de las helmintiasis por medio del examen coprologico.
Belgica.: Janssen Research Foundation.
Vos, J. C. & Smith J. L. 1995. Natural Mortality in Wildlife
Populations. Proactive Strategies Project of the International As-
sociation of Fish and Wildlife Agencies and Arizona Game and
Fish Department. 50 p.
Zenteno, M., Sanchez, M. & Giiris, A. 1993. Prevalencia de
Nematodiasis Gastrointestinal en Bovinos del Municipio de Bo-
chil, Chiapas. MEMORIA: XVIII Congreso Nacional de Buiatria.
Asociaci6n Mexicana de Medicos Veterinarios Especialistas en
Bovinos, A.C. Bohil, Chiapas, Mexico.


E. C. Aldin1, I. L. Torres1, D. M. G. Andrade2,
D. O. Sarabia3 & M. T. Quintero M.4
1 Institute de Historia Natural y Ecologia del Estado de Chia-
pas (IHNE). Apdo. Postal N6 c.p. 29000
Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas. M6xico. Telefono (961) 44765;
44459; 44701. Fax (961) 44700.
cruz5910@prodigy.net.mx
2 Policlinica y Diagn6stico Veterinario. Blvd. Angel Albino
Corzo N 635. Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas.
Telefono y Fax. (961) 44214. dguiris@islagrande.cu
3 Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Biologia de la
UNAM. Apdo. Postal 70-153 c.p.
04510 M6xico D.E Telefono (015) (525) 6 22-5700 al 06;
Fax (015) 550-0164
4 Departamento de Parasitologia de la Facultad de Medicina
Veterinaria y Zootecnia de la
UNAM. 04510 M6xico D.E ter@servidor.unam.mx


Notes on the Distribution, and Conservation Status of Mountain

Tapir (Tapirus pinchaque) in North Peru

By Diego J. Lizcano1 & Aivi Sissa2


Abstract


C currently mountain tapirs (Tapirus pinchaque) are
found in the Andes of Colombia, Ecuador and
northern Peru but their actual distribution in Peru is
unknown. We analysed mountain tapir distribution in
Peru by measuring the amount of habitat available to the
species. We identified tapir habitats by using criteria
such as areas of conflict with local communities and
the main threats to mountain tapirs in the Tabaconas-


Tapir Conservation Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group .


Namballe National Sanctuary (TNNS). The total
available area for tapirs in the Northern Andes of Peru
is approximately 206,000 ha. This area could hold
between 350-375 mountain tapirs. The main threat
to the tapir in the region is habitat loss due to cattle
ranching and forest clearance by subsistence farmers.
One area of conflict was identified in eastern TNNS.
In addition, we discuss the main challenges involved
in conserving the mountain tapir in Peru.




Vol. 12 /No. 1 June 2003






Contributed Papers


Introduction


Despite the high rate of deforestation in South America
(Henderson et al., 1991) some countries, like Peru, still
have 75% of forest cover remaining in the Peruvian Northern
Andes. However, only 12% of this is under government pro-
tection (WWE 2001). By the year 2000, deforestation had
affected a total area of 7.5 million hectares in the Peruvian
Andes (Rios, 2001). The accelerated process of deforestation
coupled with over hunting in the region of the Andes seriously
threatens unique mammal species such as the mountain tapir
through diminishing populations and habitat reduction, which
contributes to the population fragmentation of these species.
Today all four tapir species are threatened by hunting
and habitat loss (IUCN, 1996). Probably the most threatened
species is the mountain tapir, the smallest of the four species
(Hershkovitz, 1954). Its main habitats are tropical montane
forests and Paramos at altitudes of between 2,000 and 4,000
m (Downer, 1996, 1997). Currently mountain tapirs are
found in the Andes of Colombia, Ecuador and northern Peru.
Little information is known about their distribution in Ecuador
(Downer, 1996, 1997) and Colombia but it appears to be
found in low densities in those regions and its populations are
restricted to a few forest patches in the Andes region (Acosta,
1996; Lizcano & Cavelier, 2000a; Lizcano et al., 2002). No
information regarding its population and distribution status is
known from Peru. Currently mountain tapir populations are
in decline because they are hunted for use both as food and
for traditional medicine (Brooks et al., 1997). This species is
considered endangered (IUCN, 1996) and is included in Ap-
pendix I of CITES.
For this study we analysed the distribution of mountain
tapir in Peru by measuring the habitat availability for the spe-
cies and verifying its presence in the field. We identified tapir
habitats, areas of conflict with local communities and main
threats to mountain tapirs in the Tabaconas-Namballe Na-
tional Sanctuary. The main challenges to tapir conservation
in Peru are discussed.


Study Area


This study was carried out in the Tabaconas-Namballe Na-
tional Sanctuary (TNNS) and in the small villages located in
that area (Fig. 1). The TNNS was created in 1988 by "decreto
supremo" 051-88-AG, with an extension of 29,500 ha. Its ob-
jectives are to protect and conserve a representative Paramo
region, and with it, the mountain tapir, the Andean bear Tre-
marctos ornatus, and the Podocarpus forests and their upper
catchment areas. It is part of the occidental mountain range.
Its altitude ranges from 1,700 m, where the vegetation is dom-
inated by plants of the family Lauraceae and Podocarpaceae,
to 3,800 m where the vegetation is lower and very dense with
a predominance of ferns and grasses (Castillo et al., 1999).


June 2003 Vol. 12 / No. 1


Methods


To measure habitat availability we used a digital map of
forest cover for the Northern Andes Ecoregion Peru (WWE
2001). The forested areas located between 2,000-4,000 m
were selected as potential tapir habitats using ArcView 3.2
(Environmental Systems Research Institute, Redlands, Cali-
fornia). In these habitats we conducted a field survey to verify
the presence of mountain tapir both inside and around the
TNNS. Two biologists and two INRENA (National Institute of
Natural Resources) park guards formed the expedition team.
The field survey was carried out during the first two weeks of
August 2001. In the field, we searched for tapir signs such
as faeces, tracks and hairs. Searching for sign was done ran-
domly, transects were not undertaken because of the limited
time available and difficult topographic conditions in the area.
Former hunters were informally interviewed in the villages
of Tabaconas (n=8), Tamborapa Pueblo (n=7), San Miguel
(n=9) and San Ignacio (n=12) to confirm the presence of
mountain tapir and to identify possible areas of conflict and
possible threats to tapirs. These interviews were carried out in
Spanish using illustrations from Eisenberg (1989) for support
to aid identification of mountain tapir. The three main ques-
tions asked were as follows:

Do you recognize the mountain tapir?
Please identify it in the drawings,
Where have you seen this animal?

As an exercise to obtain estimates of present population size
of the mountain tapir in Peru, we multiplied estimates of mean
density by the area where the species occurs. Estimates of
mean density ranged from 1 ind./ 551 ha (Lizcano & Cavelier,
2000b) in Colombia to 1 ind./587 ha in Ecuador (Downer,
1996).



Results and Discussion


The presence of mountain tapir was verified in TNNS.
Tapir faeces, tracks and a skull were found. The total available
habitat for tapirs in the Northern Andes of Peru is approxi-
mately 206,000 ha (Fig. 1). This area could hold between
350-375 mountain tapirs. The total habitat available for ta-
pirs and protected under TNNS is 16,909 ha. that could hold
between 28 and 30 tapirs. Only seven former hunters in Ta-
baconas and six in San Miguel were familiar with the species
and only five former hunters in Tabaconas correctly identified
it. The main threat to the tapir in the region is habitat loss
due to cattle ranching and clearance by subsistence farmers
for coffee and maize cultivation. The high number of villages
in the eastern and western TNNS region increases demand
for natural resources which causes the gradual elimination of


STapir Conservation Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group






Contributed Papers


NcaLA U
S.1




~wSam nHM
Ma Poo
- 4WvI~R


Figure I. Map of Tabaconas-Namballe National Sanctuary
(TNNS) and available habitat for tapirs in northern Peru.
Notice the high number of small villages around TNNS,
especially on the western side. The numbers are villages:
I San Ignacio, 2 Tamborapa pueblo, 3 Tabaconas, 4 San Miguel,
5 Huancabamba.


tapir habitat. Evidence of hunting was found in the southern
TNNS region, but this may have possibly decreased in the last
few years mainly due to the constant presence of INRENA
guard parks. A new road planned between Puerto Tambo-
rapa to Huancabamba is threatening the southern border of
the sanctuary and would split tapir habitat that currently runs
continuously from Ecudador.
An important area of conflict between humans and tapirs
was identified in eastern TNNS where some farms overlap
the sanctuary due to territorial occupation not having been
planned well or restricted in any way in protected areas of
northern Peru. For example, since the 1980's all available
land around the TNNS has been occupied and in the 1990's,
some people began to invade the eastern region of TNNS
particularly in the "Chaupe Protection Forest" a forest rich in
Podocarpus and containing abundant wildlife such as moun-
tain tapirs and Andean bears (INRENA, 2000). As population
and agricultural border areas surrounding forest fragments
increase, they will be exhausted, and very few primary forests
will exist within these holdings. In the future, the conservation
of mountain tapirs in Peru will be dependent on whether con-
servation and development agencies, the research community
and the Peruvian government can focus on truly effective pro-
tection of protected areas and their surrounding habitats.
The TNNS is the southern location for the mountain tapir.
No tapirs have been reported in the region to the south of
Huancabamba valley (Downer, 1997). The presence of tapirs
is suspected in the Cordillera del Condor region and in the
Santiago Comainas reserved zone but to date mountain tapirs


have not been reported from this area (Conservation Interna-
tional, 1997). In addition the areas within altitudes over 2,000
meters, the lowest latitudinal limit for tapirs, are few in this
region. For this reason TNNS constitutes the only protected
area with tapirs in Peru and is the most important conserva-
tion location for mountain tapirs in their southern distribution.
The mountain tapir has large habitat requirements (Downer,
1996; Lizcano & Cavelier, 2000b). Viable populations of this
species require broad areas of habitat, but in addition to main-
taining habitat blocks large enough to support populations of
this species, smaller intact habitat blocks could be created to
serve as stepping stones to maintain connectivity with corri-
dors among habitat blocks supporting sub-populations (WWF,
2001). These smaller habitat blocks can support a wide range
of medium-sized seed dispersers, pollinators and predators.
In this context, the TNNS plays the role of a core and source
area for the conservation of mountain tapirs at the southern
limit of their distribution.


Acknowledgments

This study was supported by WWF-Peru. We give special
thanks to IRENA park guards, Joel, Marcos and Leoncio, for
their assistance in the field and in Tabaconas. Debra Branker
and Patricia Medici made useful comments on an earlier ver-
sion of this manuscript.



References

Acosta, H., Cavelier, J. & Londofio, S. 1996. Aportes al
conocimiento de la biologia de la danta de montafia, Tapirus
pinchaque, en los Andes centrales de Colombia. Biotropica 28,
258-266.
Brooks, D. M., Bodmer, R. E. & Matola, S. 1997. Tapirs,
Status, Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN, Gland,
Switzerland
Castillo, V., Atanasio, N., Garcia-Tello, O. & Olaya, L. 1999.
Diagnostico preliminary de flora y fauna del Santuario Nacional
Tabaconas Namballe. Ministerio de Agricultura INRENA [In
Spanish]
Conservation International. 1997. The Cordillera del Condor
Region of Ecuador and Peru: A Biological Assessment Rapid
Assessment Program, Washington DC, USA.
Downer, C. C. 1996. The mountain tapir, endangered "flagship"
species of the high Andes. Oryx 30:45-58.
Downer, C. C. 1997. Status and action plan of the mountain
tapir (Tapirus pinchaque). In: D. M. Brooks, R. E. Bodmer & S.
Matola, (Eds.) Tapirs, Status, Survey and Conservation Action
Plan. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Eisenberg, J. E 1989. Mammals of the Neotropics: Panama,
Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana. The
University of Chicago Press, Chicago.


Tapir Conservation Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group Vol. 12 / No. 1 June 2003






Contributed Papers


Henderson, A., Churchill, P. & Luteyn, J. 1991. Neotropical
plant diversity. Nature 229, 44-45.
Hershkovitz, P. 1954. Mammals of northern Colombia, pre-
liminary report No. 7: Tapirs (genus Tapirus), with a systematic
review of American species. Proceedings of the United States
National Museum 103, 465-496.
INRENA. 2000. Informe annual Santuario Nacional Tabaconas
Namballe. Evaluaci6n socioecon6mica cultural. Ministerio de
Agriculture, Lima, Peru [In Spanish]
IUCN. 1996. IUCN Red list of threatened animals, IUCN, Gland,
Switzerland.
Lizcano, D. J. & Cavelier, J. 2000a. Daily and seasonal activity
of the mountain tapir (Tapirus pinchaque) in the Central Andes
of Colombia. J. of Zool. 252, 429-435.
Lizcano, D. J. & Cavelier, J. 2000b. Densidad poblacional y
disponibilidad de habitat de la danta de montafia (Tapirus pin-
chaque) en los andes centrales de Colombia. Biotropica 31,
165-173.
Lizcano, D. J., Pizarro, V., Cavelier, J. & Carmona, J. 2002.
Geographic distribution and population size of the mountain


tapir (Tapirus pinchaque) in Colombia. J. of Biogeography 29,
7-15.
Rios, M. 2001. Presentaci6n del Panel "Manejo sostenible de
bosques tropicales. Concesiones, planes de manejo forestal, tec-
nologia e industrial, mercado de products forestales". Congress
de la Republica / WWF-OPP Lima, Peru [In Spanish]
WWF 2001. Biodiversity vision for the Northern Andes Ecoregional
Complex. World Wildlife Foundation (WWF). Lima Peru.




Diego J. Lizcano
A. A 53804, Bogota, Colombia
E-mail: dl36@ukc.ac.uk

Aivi Sissa
WWF-OPP
Av. San Felipe 720, Jesus Maria, Lima, Peru
E-mail: aivisq@yahoo.com


A Camera Trapping and Radio Telemetry Study of Lowland Tapir

(Tapirus terrestris) in Bolivian Dry Forests

By A. J. Noss1, R. L. Cu6llar2, J. Barrientos2, L. Maffei2, E. Cu6llar2, R. Arispe3, D. Rumiz3 & K. Rivero3


Abstract


This article is the first reported use of camera trap-
ping to estimate population densities of lowland
tapirs Tapirus terrestris according to capture-recap-
ture statistics, applying a systematic survey method-
ology developed for tigers in Asia and recently applied
to jaguars in Latin America. We survey three sites in
the Kaa-Iya del Gran Chaco National Park, represent-
ing Chaco thorn scrub vegetation and Chaco-Chiqui-
tano transitional dry forest, and one site in the San
Miguelito private reserve, representing Chiquitano dry
forest. We acquired too few photographs at Ravelo to
estimate population densities, but density estimates
from camera trapping at the other sites range from
0.22-0.80/km2, surprisingly high estimates for these
dry forest habitats. This indicates that the vast Kaa-
Iya National Park protects a major tapir population.
The article is also the first reported comparison for
any species of density estimates derived from camera
trapping and radio telemetry at the same site. At the
Cerro Cortado site, prior to the camera trap surveys,


we tracked five tapirs for 22-29 months each. The
two methodologies provide similar information on
ranging and activity patterns, but the density estimate
from radio telemetry would appear to be considerably
higher. We discuss reasons for these differences, the
costs and benefits of the two methodologies, and the
potential of camera trapping for tapir research.


June 2003 Vol. 12 / No. 1 Tapir Conservation Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group






Contributed Papers


Introduction


The lowland or Brazilian tapir (Tapirus terrestris) is vulner-
able to local extinction throughout its range as a result of
continued habitat conversion and hunting (Bodmer & Brooks,
1997). Given its large size, it is an important food source for
indigenous peoples in the Bolivian Chaco as elsewhere across
its geographic distribution (Brooks & Eisenberg, 1999). While
researchers have studied the species in humid lowland forests,
its status in dry forests has remained unknown. The titling and
zonification of extensive lands to indigenous groups in Bolivia
(including the 19,000 km2 Izocefio-Guarani Tierra Comuni-
taria de Origen), where subsistence hunting activities are per-
mitted, the zonification of immense national parks (the 34,400
km2 Kaa-Iya del Gran Chaco National Park) to include certain
resource exploitation in certain areas (Taber et al., 1997) and
the creation of nature reserves on private lands (Rumiz et al.
2002), have all together motivated increasing attention to
management plans that assure the sustainable use of wildlife
and other natural resources.
In support of community wildlife management and
long-term biodiversity conservation in Bolivia's dry forests,
we have focused attention on the tapir as one of the species
most vulnerable to hunting pressure (Noss, 2000). This article
describes research using camera traps and radio telemetry
to study Tapirus terrestris in the Chaco and Chiquitano dry
forests of Bolivia. In addition to activity patterns and ranging
behavior, both methods provide estimates of population den-
sity, upon which sustainable harvest models and conservation
recommendations depend. Recently, researchers have begun
to employ camera trapping methodologies to study several
species of tapirs, for example to determine the status of the
species (Lynam, 1999; Holden et al., 2003; Kawanishi et al.,
2002), or to study habitat use (Lizcano & Cavelier, 2000a;
Montenegro, 1999). This is the first reported use of camera
trapping to estimate population densities of tapirs according to
capture-recapture statistics, and the first reported comparison
for any species of density estimates derived from camera trap-
ping and radio telemetry at the same site.



Study Area


1. Kaa-Iya del Gran Chaco National Park: This 34,400 km2
protected area covers the northern end of the Gran Chaco,
and includes four principal landscape systems (Figure 1: Na-
varro & Fuentes, 1999). The two purely Chacoan forest land-
scape systems are the Chaco alluvial plain forest (13,800 km2)
and the Chaco riverine forest (500 km2). The two other land-
scape systems are transitional forests: the Chaco transitional
landscape system (9,100 km2) and the Chiquitano transitional
landscape system (11,500 km2).


- r

r'


Uac


-.-


.. ...
,
A -







Figure I. Study Sites in Bolivian Chaco and Chiquitano Dry
Forests: I =Cerro Cortado, 2=Tucavaca, 3=Ravelo,
4=San Miguelito.



1.a. During 1997, we established a field camp at Cerro
Cortado (190 31.60' S, 610 18.60' W) in the Chaco alluvial
plain landscape system, on the border between the Kaa-Iya
National Park and the adjacent Izocefio indigenous territory.
Annual precipitation at the site averages 500 mm. During the
6-8 month dry season, surface water disappears for extended
periods. A single road runs through the study site, which was
unused for over a decade until we reopened it to establish
our research camp. We opened a grid of 2-4 km study trails
off the road. The area is not subject to hunting or livestock
pressure.

1.b. During 2001, we established a field camp at Tucavaca
(180 30.97' S, 600 48.62' W) in the Chiquitano transitional
landscape system, on the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline and 85
km south of the town of San Jose de Chiquitos. Annual pre-
cipitation at the site averages 800 mm. During the six month
dry season, surface water disappears for extended periods.
Existing roads include the gas pipeline itself (30 m-wide right-
of-way, with a 3-6 m-wide road to one side or in the centre), a
gravel road north to San Jose, and an overgrown road south
to Paraguay. We opened a square grid of 5 km study trails,
enclosing a 100 km2 study area centred on the field camp and
the gas pipeline. Scrub patches remain where the forest was
burned roughly 30 years ago, but the area is not subject to
hunting or livestock pressure.

1.c. During 2001 we established a third field camp towards
the southern end of the same landscape system at Ravelo (190
17.72' S, 600 37.23' W), near the Paraguayan border. An-
nual precipitation at the site averages an estimated 650 mm,
with a 6-month dry season, but, unlike the previous site, water


Tapir Conservation Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group Vol. 12 / No. 1 June 2003


I






Contributed Papers


points (springs, lagoons) persist year-round in all but the driest
years. A single road crosses the area, from the city of Robord
to the northeast, passing through Ravelo military outpost, and
on to Paraguay. Several overgrown roads also exist, unused
for over 10 years: one leads west to the large salt pans within
the Kaa-Iya National Park and from there north to Tucavaca
and San Jose, others were opened in a grid of oil exploration
lines. We re-opened several of these roads as footpaths/study
trails, as well as cutting additional new study trails 3-5 km long
to cover the study area. The dozen soldiers at the Ravelo
military outpost maintain a small number of cattle (30) and
several donkeys, while the nearest cattle ranch 15 km to the
southeast at Palmar de las Islas maintains roughly 300 cattle.
Livestock is not fenced in and therefore strays between Ravelo
and Palmar along the main road.

2. The San Miguelito Private Reserve comprises approximate-
ly 25 km2 within a 400 km2 cattle ranching property 200 km
to the east of Santa Cruz, and north of the Kaa-Iya National
Park (17 05.52' S, 61 47.32' W). The landscape system is
Chiquitano dry forest, with an average annual rainfall from
1000 to 1500 mm (Rumiz et al., 2002). Cattle ranching is
the principal economic activity outside the private reserve
itself, with patches of forest cleared for pasture. The ranch
maintains a system of roads through the reserve, in addition
to which we opened a number of study trails 1-3 km in length.
A small river runs through the private reserve, and several per-
manent springs and artificial ponds also provide surface water
for wildlife during the 6-month dry season.



Methods


Radio Telemetry

The radio telemetry study at Cerro Cortado of five individual
tapirs followed standard procedures and has been described
previously by Ayala (2002; 2003). However, we continued
to track the tapirs for 15 months after Ayala completed his
fieldwork (Barrientos & Maffei, in press), until the radio-col-
lar batteries failed. We tracked animals for 4-6 hour periods
both day and night, registering location information every
hour, and activity every 15 minutes. Radio collars marked
activity by varying the number of pulses per 30 seconds from
26 (no movement of the collar) to 52 (maximum movement).
We determined locations by triangulation from three separate
marked points along study trails or the road, estimating posi-
tion using the Locate II software (Version 1.5, Pacer-Canada).
We then analysed positions in Arcview 3.2, estimating home
range from minimum convex polygons described by 95% of
the positions for each animal (eliminating outliers). We esti-
mated density in turn based on the observed home ranges for
individual animals and overlap among home ranges.


Camera Trapping

The camera trapping methodology consisted of a systematic
camera trap survey, whose primary objective was to survey
jaguar Panthera onca populations and estimate population
densities of this species (Maffei et al., 2002, under review;
Silver et al., under review). Cameras were active continu-
ously (24 hours a day). We set them in pairs facing each other
across a trail/road in order to simultaneously photograph both
sides of any animal passing between them along the trail/road,
with a distance of 1-2 km between camera sets. In addition,
the cameras function continuously and record the date and
time of photographs, allowing us to describe activity patterns
by counting records per time period.
At Tucavaca, during eight months (May-December, 2001),
we rotated 12 camera traps among sites on the study trails and
the gas pipeline, for a total of 2520 trap-nights. During an
intensive 60-day survey period (19 January-20 March 2002),
we installed 32 pairs of camera traps on the same study trails
and pipeline road, for a total of 1920 trap-nights. Following
the intensive survey a set of seven cameras continue to be
rotated around the study trails.
At Cerro Cortado, we have conducted two intensive 60-
day surveys. During the first survey (1 April-30 May 2002),
we installed 34 pairs of camera traps along the road and study
trails, in addition to two single cameras at water holes and
two single cameras at salt licks. During the second survey
(28 November 2002-28 January 2003), we installed 26 pairs
of camera traps along the road and on the study trails. We
installed one single camera at a salt lick and another single
camera at a pond. Trapping effort totaled 2280 and 1680 trap
nights respectively.
At Ravelo, we conducted pilot camera trapping efforts
(May-December, 2001) on study trails and at seasonal ponds
for a total of 1248 trap-nights. During a single intensive 58-
day survey (February 10-April 10, 2003), we installed 37 pairs
of camera traps: 10 on roads, 17 on study trails, 8 around a
saltpan, and 2 at ponds. Trapping effort totaled 2170 trap
nights.
At San Miguelito we conducted an intensive 60-day sur-
vey (20 September-20 November, 2002), installing 22 pairs
of camera traps on existing roads and study trails. We also
installed four pairs of cameras along the edge of the river, one
pair at a salt lick and one pair at a spring. Trapping effort to-
taled 1695 trap nights (Rumiz et al., 2003).
We used the time information recorded on all camera trap
photographs of tapirs to describe activity patterns at each site,
according to the proportion of photographs of the species dur-
ing each time period. We also compared capture frequencies
at different types of locations within each site: roads, trails, salt
licks, and ponds.
A number of unique features serve to distinguish indi-
viduals: scars, white spots and stripes on the stomach or legs,
black spots on the face or sides, white markings at the base
and fringe of the ears, torn or missing ears, toenail markings
or colour, tail length and white markings on the tail (Emmons,


June 2003 Vol. 12 / No. 1 Tapir Conservation Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group






Contributed Papers


pers. comm.; Holden et al., 2003; Montenegro, 1999). Coat
colour and body structure also varies among individuals, and
gender can often be determined from the photographs. We
took care not to use temporary markings as identifiers, for ex-
ample marks from mud or shallow scratches that could disap-
pear during the two-month survey period. We also took care
to account for the differences in the observed features result-
ing from differences in camera angle, tapir body position, and
lighting conditions. In cases where definitive identifications
were not possible, no more than 20% of photographs for each
survey, we tentatively attributed the photographs to one of the
previously identified individuals from the same area. In other
words, we did not assume that a photograph represented a
new individual unless we could definitively distinguish it, ac-
cording to one or more of the features described above, from
all other previously identified individuals.
Based on the number of "captures" and "recaptures" dur-
ing each intensive survey, it is possible to estimate population
abundance using the closed population models of the pro-
gramme CAPTURE (Rexstad & Burnham, 1991; White et al.,
1978). To estimate densities for each study site, we divided
the abundance calculated above by the effective sample area.
The effective sample area included a circular buffer around
each camera trap site, whose radius was half the mean maxi-
mum distance among multiple captures of individual tapirs
during the survey period (Wilson & Anderson, 1985). At the
two sites where we repeated surveys, we treated the two sur-
veys as independent, and did not attempt to cross-identify the
two sets of individuals obtained for the site.



Results


Table 1 presents complete telemetry results by individual tapir
at Cerro Cortado (individual, sex, months, locations, area,
maximum distance). During 22-29 months of radio-track-
ing for each animal, we recorded between 645-955 locations
per animal, and estimate home ranges of five individuals,
according to 95% of observations (eliminating outliers), to
cover 1.9-3.0 km2 (Figure 2). Based on these ranges, and
on the observed overlap of 32-55% (average 43.5%) in
home ranges of the four neighboring animals, we estimate
an average "exclusive" home range of 1.4 km2. Assuming
that tapirs occupy the landscape evenly and completely in this
fashion, population density at this site is 0.71/km2 (SE=0.23,
95% confidence limits 0.26-1.16). It is important to note that
we recorded all three possible types of overlap: male-male,
female-female, and male-female. Figure 3a presents activity
patterns, based on the proportion of observations per time
period when the animals were active.
Table 2 presents relative abundance based on capture
frequencies during camera trapping among the three survey
sites and by type of location. Activity patterns are decidedly
nocturnal (Figure 3b) in all forest types, even where hunt-


Tapir Conservation Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group .


I. ..




.TW P
... q
--
TW

...-






Figure 2. Home Ranges of Radio-collared Tapirs at
Cerro Cortado.



ing does not occur. Relative use of trails versus roads varies
among sites and over time at particular sites. Tapirs have
shown certain preference for salt licks, according to capture
frequencies across camera trap locations. However, tapir
visits to salt licks are brief, generally less than five minutes,
in comparison to gray brocket deer (10-20 mn), white-lipped
peccary (10 mn) and collared peccary (20-60 mn).
Table 3 provides the details for each intensive camera
trap survey of the population density estimation. Figure
4 provides maps of each study site indicating camera trap
positions and the effective survey area defined by the buffer
around each camera position. At Ravelo with no recaptures
we were unable to calculate a buffer and estimate the survey
area, and have used 1 km as a hypothetical buffer. With few
observations and no recaptures, the analysis by Capture is
also tentative and the standard error correspondingly high.
For several animals at each site, we also estimate a minimum
home range based on the minimum convex polygon uniting
the points where each animal has been recorded by camera
traps (Figure 4): from 0.97-3.74 km2 for four individuals in the
first survey and 1.03-4.83 km2 for four animals in the second
survey at Cerro Cortado, and 0.50-5.78 km2 for six individu-
als at San Miguelito.



Discussion

In general, the Tapirus terrestris density estimates based on
camera trapping from Chaco and transitional Chaco-Chiqui-
tano dry forests are below figures of approximately 0.5/km2
cited for lowland rainforest sites across the Amazon basin
(Peres, 2000), as well as density estimates for Baird's tapir


Vol. 12 / No. 1 June 2003






Contributed Papers


Table I. Radio Telemetry of Tapirus terrestris at Cerro Cortado.

Individual Sex Months Locations Area (km2, minimum convex Maximum
polygon) distance (km)
1 M 29 955 2.57 2.3
2 M 28 918 2.19 2.2
3 F 24 645 2.70 2.9
4 M 22 670 1.90 2.9
5 F 24 646 3.02 3.2
Average 25.4 767 2.48 2.7


Table 2. Camera Trap Capture Frequencies (Observations per 1000 Trap Nights) for Tapirus terrestris.

Total Road Trail River Salt lick Salt pan Pond/spring
San Miguelito 60 57 63 50 94 -- 81
Tucavaca 11 15 10 -- -- -- --
Ravelo 2 5 0 -- 2 8
Cerro I 26 23 29 -- 50 -- 0
Cerro II 51 68 32 -- 175 -- 50


Table 3. Estimated Densities for Tapirus terrestris Based on Camera Trapping Records.

Individuals Abundance* Buffer Area Density 95% confidence
km km2 per km2 + SE limits
San Miguelito 34 41 5.01 1.24 49 0.80 0.09 0.64-0.96
Tucavaca 11 25 7.85 0.93 84 0.29 0.04 0.22-0.36
Ravelo** 5 7 12.25 (1.00) (81) (0.09 0.15) (0.00-0.38)
Cerro I 16 17 5.14 1.24 76 0.22 0.03 0.16-0.28
Cerro II 19 22 3.72 1.30 78 0.28 0.03 0.22-0.35

* Abundance is estimated by Capture, using heterogeneity model M(h) and jackknife estimator.
** Hypothetical buffer estimated for analytical purposes, as we recorded no multiple captureswith which to calculate the buffer. Corresponding standard error in density estimate
is derived from abundance estimate only. Negative lower confidence limit converted to 0.


(T bairdii) from Costa Rica (Naranjo, 1995), and for moun-
tain tapir (T pinchaque) in montane forests of Colombia and
Ecuador (Lizcano & Cavelier, 2000b). However, the camera
trap estimate from Chiquitano dry forest at San Miguelito and
the radio telemetry estimate from Cerro Cortado exceed all
but Foerster's (2002) estimate for T bairdii in Costa Rica of
1.6/km2. These density estimates derived from a variety of
methodologies are not directly comparable. However, it is
clear from our data that dry forests can sustain relatively high
population densities of tapirs, when these animals are pro-
tected from hunting. Tapirs have successfully adapted to con-
ditions of seasonal drought, and to diets that include a large
proportion of cactus fibre in the Chaco (Soto, 2002). Tapirs
may be limited in some habitat types by dietary minerals: Her-
rera et al. (1999) report on a tapir periodically travelling over 5
km to visit a salt lick, whereas the radio-collared tapirs at Cerro
Cortado never made long-distance forays out of their ranges
which measured 3.2 km across or less, and we located several
salt licks in the study area.


Of the three sites described above, the highest camera
trap density estimate comes from the Chiquitano forest site
(San Miguelito) with the highest annual rainfall, as we would
expect, despite any effects that forest fragmentation, domestic
livestock, and sporadic hunting may have on tapir popula-
tions here. The other density estimates are similar for both
Chaco (Cerro Cortado) and transitional Chaco-Chiquitano
dry forests (Tucavaca and Ravelo). The higher rainfall at the
latter sites (800 mm versus 500 mm), and year-round surface
water points in Ravelo, evidently do not improve resource
availability to support significantly higher tapir populations.
Variation in density estimates for the same site between the
two Cerro Cortado camera trap surveys (eight months apart)
is not statistically significant (confidence limits overlap see
Table 3), even though "capture" rates were twice as high dur-
ing the second survey (wet season) as compared to the first
survey (beginning of dry season). Capture rates during the
wet season survey at Ravelo were the lowest of any site.
No tapirs with collars were photographed in the first


June 2003 Vol. 12 / No. 1 Tapir Conservation Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group






Contributed Papers


survey at Cerro Cortado, but two were photo-
graphed in the second survey. The capture-re- 38
capture analysis attempts to correct for animals
present in the study area that are not "captured"
by the camera traps, by estimating a population 34
abundance greater than the number of observed 32
animals. However, we may have under-estimated
the tapir population by attributing incomplete
photographs to previously identified individuals 28
when they may have been new individuals. On 26
the other hand, using radio telemetry information
from only four or five animals, we may over-esti-
mate tapir densities if other portions of the study
area are less suitable for or unoccupied by tapirs.
Camera traps cover a larger survey area and
population estimates incorporate information on
a larger number of individuals. The buffer we esti-
mated from mean maximum distance covered by
individual tapirs during the camera trap surveys,
1.24-1.30 km, is very close to the average of half Figure
the distance across home ranges of the five radio- Telemet
tracked individuals (1.35 km). This would confirm N
Note: Rac
that we have measured the effective survey area
appropriately. We recorded between two and four
different individuals at several of the camera trap
sites, confirming the overlap among home ranges
observed in the telemetry study.
The methodology for estimating population 7
densities was developed and applied to survey
jaguar populations. A key element of the design
is the spacing of the camera traps, attempting to
cover the greatest survey area without leaving any
gaps that might encompass an entire home range i
for an individual of the target species, mean-
ing that this individual would have zero capture
probability. Jaguars occupy larger home ranges
than do tapirs, therefore the camera spacing for
a jaguar survey may not be appropriate to survey
tapirs. The survey area is defined by the buffer
around the camera traps, and the buffer calculated
from observations of the particular species. At our
sites, the respective buffers demarcate continuous
survey areas at San Miguelito and Cerro Cortado,
but not at Tucavaca. Any individuals whose
home ranges overlap with the survey area have Figure
a capture probability greater than zero, whether Traps-
the survey area is continuous or discontinuous. Note: Wi
However, capture probabilities decrease from the in 0:00-2:0
centre towards the edge, and a discontinuous area
maximizes the edge effect. Therefore, we would
expect the density estimate from Tucavaca to be
valid, though less precise than the estimates de-
rived from continuous survey areas.
Camera trapping provides an important alternative meth-
od for monitoring Tapirus terrestris, permitting the identifica-
tion of individuals and description of their ranging behaviour,


Tapir Conservation Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group


0 I
0 I

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3a. Activity Patterns for Tapirus terrestris According to Radio
try.

dio-collars emit pulses at a rate of 26-52/30 seconds, with 26 representing inactivity and
m activity. The y-axis indicates the average pulse rate during the activity period.



















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3b. Activity Patterns for Tapirus terrestris According to Camera
Proportion of Observations per Time Period.

ith the small number of total observations from Ravelo (N= 8), 50% of observations are
0 time period.




and in turn the estimation of population densities. As we dem-
onstrate in this paper, the information provided by camera
trapping on activity patterns and ranging patterns coincides
with radio telemetry data at the Cerro Cortado site where we
have applied both methodologies. While the density estimate


Vol. 12 / No. 1 June 2003


- - -V
-U L
-_____ -B -
_^ 4.- ^ ~ ^I.i,






Contributed Papers


grsmpware
-- :Ikrl ssism


*1


:I.


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Figure 4a. Tucavaca I Camera Trap Location and Survey Area.



from radio-telemetry would appear to be much higher than
those from camera trapping, the first is so imprecise that the
95% confidence limits of the three estimates overlap and the
differences therefore are not statistically significant. Camera
trapping provides considerably more precise density esti-
mates, whereas radio telemetry provides considerably more
precise and complete information on ranging patterns.
Both camera trapping and radio telemetry imply impor-
tant costs, particularly to open and maintain study trails, to
purchase equipment, and to support field staff. But camera
trapping offers several important benefits over radio telem-
etry. First, telemetry requires animal capture and immobili-


.1


'K'. -



v. 1 i; i


Ii
I I


~t


N-~C
1


Figure 4b. Cerro Cortado I Camera Trap Location, Survey
Area and Tapir Ranges.


Figure 4c. Cerro Cortado II Camera Trap Location, Survey
Area and Tapir Ranges.


June 2003 Vol. 12 / No. 1 Tapir Conservation Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group


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; CTtlO

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: W I 4 Lm


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zation, which can be risky and stressful for both tapirs and
biologists. Second, a systematic camera trapping survey lasts
two months, with results of analysis available within three
months of beginning fieldwork, whereas telemetry studies
normally extend for a year or more. Third, camera trapping
can simultaneously provide similar information for other spe-
cies in the area: density estimates for jaguar, puma and ocelot;
and activity patterns for these and other relatively abundant
species (Maffei et al., 2002; Rumiz et al., 2003).
Camera traps have previously been used to monitor activ-
ity of T pinchaque in Colombia (Lizcano & Cavelier, 2000a).
However, only preliminary results regarding relative abun-
dance of tapirs are available from other systematic camera
trap surveys. The capture frequencies reported here for Boliv-
ian dry forests (11-60/1000 trap nights) surprisingly exceed
those reported from Bolivian lowland moist tropical forest in
Madidi (7/1000 trap nights, Wallace et al., 2002). Capture
frequencies for T bairdii in the rainforest of Belize (12/1000
trap nights Kelly, under review), and for Malay tapir (Tapirus
indicus) in lowland rainforest and hill dipterocarp forest of Su-
matra, Indonesia (4-19/1000 trap nights, Holden et al., 2003)
are also at the low end of the Bolivia dry forest range.
The minimum time tapirs remain during visits to salt licks
in these dry forests coincides with data from lowland tropical
rainforest in Bolivia's Noel Kempff Mercado National Park
(Herrera et al., 1999). We have not recorded any extended
stays as reported for T pinchaque in Colombia (Lizcano &
Cavelier, 2000a). These differences presumably derive from
differences in quality and composition of food resources for
tapirs in lowland and montane forests. Alternatively, the qual-
ity for tapir of the salt licks under surveillance may have varied
among sites.
Our surveys at three sites within the vast Kaa-Iya del Gran
Chaco National Park (33,400 km2), with tapir densities from






Contributed Papers


0.20-0.29/km2 according to camera traps, and potentially
much higher according to radio telemetry, confirm the con-
servation value of this incredible wilderness as a stronghold
where Tapirus terrestris can maintain a viable population,
probably exceeding 6000 individuals, over the long-term.
The protected area also appears to be an important "source"
area that can provide benefits over the long-term for hunters
in nearby indigenous community "sinks" such as the 19,000
km2 Izocefio-Guarani indigenous territory. Finally, our sur-
vey at San Miguelito suggests that even small, protected ar-
eas within fragmented agricultural landscapes can maintain
tapirs at high densities and, therefore, private reserves can
provide important conservation benefits, particularly when
such reserves maintain connections to other protected areas
to ensure long-term population viability (Rumiz et al., 2002).
We will continue to test and refine camera trapping methods
by repeating the intensive surveys at our long-term research
sites in order to monitor populations and individuals over
time. We will also survey additional sites within Kaa-Iya's
unsurveyed landscape systems to determine more precisely
the species' status within the protected area.




Acknowledgements

Work in the Chaco was made possible by support from the
Agency for International Development (USAID/Bolivia Coop-
erative Agreement No. 511-A-00-01-00005). The opinions
expressed here represent the authors and do not necessarily
reflect the criteria of USAID. We also thank CABI and the
Kaa-Iya National Park who authorized and supported the
fieldwork, and the WCS Jaguar Conservation Programme for
financial support and training. The study at San Miguelito was


* 4

I.~


HPC


j IIm


also financed by the WCS Jaguar Conservation Programme,
and received logistical support and dedication from personnel
of WCS-ConFauna and the Noel Kempff Mercado Natural
History Museum. For their interest and support, we would
like to thank Ronald Larsen, owner of San Miguelito, and his
administrator William Parada, during the fieldwork. We also
thank the following assistants and students for their support in
the field: Romoaldo Pefia, Telmo Dosapey, Bernardino Julio,
Florencio Mendoza, Filem6n Soria, Julian Ity, Leoncio Rojas,
Edwin Rossell, Roly Pefia, Alejandra Valdivia and Edilberto
Pardo. Robert Wallace provided valuable comments on an
earlier draft of this manuscript.




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tCih lrqmI
I1M


102M
II)bl

SA I 24k


A*


Sa r~~


Figure 4d. Ravelo Camera Trap Location and Hypothetical
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Figure 4e. San Miguelito Camera Trap Location, Survey Area
and Tapir Ranges.


Tapir Conservation Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group Vol. 12 / No. 1 June 2003






Contributed Papers


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de Jaguares (Panthera onca) y Otros Mamiferos con Trampas-
Camara en la Estancia San Miguelito-Santa Cruz, Bolivia.
Unpublished Report, WCS & Museo de Historia Natural Noel
Kempff Mercado, Santa Cruz, Bolivia.
Soto, Q. G. 2002. Dieta del Tapir Tapirus terrestris y su Rol como
Dispersor de Semillas en el Chaco (Cerro Cortado), Provincia
Cordillera, Santa Cruz, Bolivia. B.S. thesis. Universidad
Auton6ma Gabriel Ren6 Moreno, Santa Cruz, Bolivia.
Silver, C. S., Ostro, L. E. T., Marsh, L. K. L., Maffei, L.,
Noss, A. J., Kelly, M., Wallace, R., G6mez, H. & Ayala,
G. Under review. The use of camera traps for estimating jaguar
(Panthera onca) abundance and density using capture/recapture
analysis. Oryx.
Taber, A., Navarro, G., & Arribas, M. A. 1997. A new park
in the Bolivian Gran Chaco an advance in tropical dry forest
conservation and community-based management. Oryx 31:
189-198.
Wallace, R., Ayala, G. & G6mez, H. 2002. Lowland tapir activ-
ity patterns and capture frequencies in lowland moist tropical
forest. Tapir Conserv. 11:14.
White, G. C., Burnham, K. P., Otis, D. L. & Anderson, D.
R. 1978. User's Manual for Program CAPTURE. Utah State
University Press, Logan, Utah.
Wilson, K. R. & Anderson, D. R. 1985. Evaluation of two den-
sity estimators of small mammal population size. J. of Mammal.
66:13-21.



A. J. Noss1, R. L. Cu1llar2, J. Barrientos2,
L. Maffei2, E. Cu1llar2, R. Arispe3, D. Rfmiz3 &
K. Rivero3
1 WCS-Bolivia, Casilla 6272, Santa Cruz, Bolivia
E-mail: anoss@wcs.org
2 Capitania de Alto y Bajo Izozog, Casilla 3108, Santa Cruz,
Bolivia
E-mail: rosalenycuellar@yahoo.com
E-mail: leomaffei@yahoo.com
E-mail: erikacuellar@scbbs-bo.com
3 Confauna, Museo de Historia Natural Noel Kempff
Mercado, Casilla 2489, Santa Cruz, Bolivia
E-mail: roarispe@hotmail.com
E-mail: confauna@scbbs-bo.com
E-mail: gouazoubira@hotmail.com or
krivero@museo.sczbo.org


June 2003 Vol. 12 / No. 1 Tapir Conservation Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group





Asking the Experts


ASKING THE EXPERTS: OPINIONS ON TAPIR SCIENCE

AND RESEARCH QUESTIONS


Unequal Tapirs:

A Question of Sex, Age

and the Environment

By Leonardo Salas

Dimorphism in mammals, or lack thereof, is predominantly
the outcome of one process that overrides other affecting
factors. In principle, sexual dimorphism where males are the
larger gender should be expected in mammals because, other
things being equal, females provide a much larger investment
in the offspring during gestation and lactation. This allows
males to seek additional partners, thereby increasing their
chances of passing on genes to the next generation. As a
consequence, fecund females become scarce (many are not
in oestrus or are gestating already) and males, social and en-
vironmental conditions allowing, would be forced to compete
to gain control of access to as many females as possible. This
competition would act as a selective force favoring larger
males and thus engendering a dimorphism.
But other factors often enough bear an important role in
dimorphism. In an extensive review published in the 70's, as
many as 30% of mammal families had taxa with dimorphisms
where females were the larger sex. The circumstances select-
ing for larger females were related to being able to better
nurture the offspring under difficult physiological conditions,
which would reflect upon the offspring's survival to adult-
hood. Consider a whale that migrates 5,000 miles one-way
while at the same time gestating, lactating and protecting a
calf that must also swim great distances soon after birth in
order to survive. Under these strenuous circumstances there
is an advantage in being a larger female.
In tapirs, where females may be slightly bigger, it is
conceivable that holding home ranges large enough to fully
encompass (and thus control access to) those of several fe-
males may be energetically too costly for males. Under such
circumstances, males may increase their chances of siring by
overlapping (but not encompassing) the home ranges of sev-
eral females, meeting them in communal grounds (such as salt
licks or under fruiting trees) and tuning to cues to gauge their
female neighbors' reproductive status. Direct competition
between males would be rare. Monogamy is another case
where males would not compete with each other (monogamy
in mammals is very rare and usually associated with signifi-
cant male parental investment after birth to ensure offspring
survival). In both these scenarios, males would not be ex-
pected to be the larger sex. Moreover, offspring survival may
be dependant on the amount of nurturing they receive while


in the womb and while lactating. Larger females would likely
be better able to provide for the calves, explaining the sexual
dimorphism in tapirs, if any exists.
A substantial pattern between the sexes in tapirs has not
been clearly discerned yet. Body size is an extremely plas-
tic character, varying significantly between individuals in a
population and between populations due to many extraneous
factors. But if tapirs are sexually dimorphic, differences may
be set very early on in the calves' growth as a reflection of dif-
ferential, sex-dependent parental care after birth.
Under the above mentioned hypothetical scenario, it is
to the advantage of the female to nurture better her female
offspring, given that there must be an advantage for females to
become larger. Further, the amount of investment on calves
of either sex may be related to the mother's age, as either
youth or experience may make her more able to cope with the
energetic demands of reproduction.

We asked the TSG members about their views on the question
of differential parental investment, age of tapirs, and sexual
dimorphism.

Keith Williams proposed a scenario where differential pa-
rental investment should not be expected. He explained that
"given that the quality of the habitat will be paramount to the
potential growth rate, as with other species, any assumed dif-
ference in mothering inputs will be negated by the offspring's
capacity to establish and forage. Social and environmental
factors coupled with the composition and dynamics of for-
est production will swamp any subtleties which may occur in
mothering." The health and parasite load of the calf would
add to the complications. Under such a scenario, Keith main-
tains, it would be unlikely that a dimorphism would ensue
because differential parental investment would ultimately
not make much of a difference in the size or survival of the
calves.
At least two experts (Alan Shoemaker and Viviana Quse)
were quick to point out that the possibility exist to evaluate
differential parental investment in zoos, where the most im-
portant affecting factors (age of the animals, health, genetic
variability and food availability) can be controlled. Keith Wil-
liams suggested that an ideal test would "involve male-female
twins and be replicated, an extremely unlikely event," more so
if the age of the mother bears some influence.
Two other experts tackled the problem from different
angles. Matt Colbert noted that, when age is unknown, "a
major difficulty in establishing sexual size dimorphism is de-
termining the individual's age. Age, or maturity stage, has to
be established with enough precision to allow patterns of static
allometry (i.e., size variation occurring within an age cohort)


Tapir Conservation Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group Vol. 12 / No. 1 June 2003






Asking the Experts / Membership Directory


to be differentiated from ontogenetic allometry (i.e., size vari-
ation occurring as a consequence of growth within a popula-
tion)." In Matt's view, in other words, field evidence would
require being able to differentiate individuals of different ages
in order to ascertain that the size differences are attributable to
dimorphism. How to age tapirs in the field will be the subject
of another installment in the next newsletter.
Mitch Finnegan offered insight from similar studies in
other mammals: "I know this issue has been studied in red
deer in Britain (though in this species the males are larger and
require greater investment). Some things that seem to be rel-
evant include birth order of calves. Younger [...] and smaller
females may tend to have male offspring and older, [...] larger
females may tend to have females." If in tapirs female body
weight varies significantly with age, he added, researchers
could "... just look at the sex of offspring and correlate that
with [female] body weight if female offspring require greater
investment you might find that larger [females] tend to have
female offspring and smaller [...] have males." If indeed the
environment may greatly influence parental investment that
reflects on calf survival, Mitch pointed out, then "...it may be
found that in good years or better habitat the calf sex ratio


is skewed toward females and in poor years or habitat the
sex ratio is skewed toward males. If this was found it would
lend support to the idea that female calves get more maternal
investment". Mitch cautiously noted that in the latter case
"...good objective means of evaluating [...] environmental
quality" are needed.
Genetics may play a role too, as closely related females
may show similar parental investment strategies. Thus, data
must be provided for genetically unrelated animals. As it
stands, only indirect evidence from zoos will shed light on this
question. Zoos and other captive breeding facilities can pro-
vide age of research subjects (mother and calf) with certainty,
and the logistic setting to measure post-natal parental invest-
ment and accurate body size.



Leonardo Salas
Freelance Consultant, Indonesia
Phone: +507-317-0064 or 317-0350
Fax: +507-317-0064
E-mail: lsalas0@hotmail.com


IUCN/SSC TAPIR SPECIALIST GROUP

MEMBERSHIP DIRECTORY


1. AGORAMOORTHY, GOVINDASAMY (Taiwan)
Ph.D. Associate Professor, Sun Yat-Sen University
Director (Research & Conservation), Singapore Zoological Gardens
P.O. BOX 59-157, Kaohsiung, TAIWAN 80424
Phone: +886-7525-2000 Ext. 3623 / Fax: +886-7525-3623
E-mail: agoram@mail.nsysu.edu.tw

2. ALDAN, EPIGMENIO CRUZ (Mexico)
M.Sc. Researcher, Instituto de Historia Natural y Ecologia
Calz. Cerro Hueco, s/n, P.O. BOX 6,
Tuxtla GutiBrrez, Chiapas, MEXICO 29000
Phone: +961-44765; 44459; 44701 / Fax: +961-44700
E-mail: cruz5910@prodigy.net.mx

3. ANDRADE, DARIO MARCELINO GUIRIS (Mexico)
M.Sc. D.V.M. Jefe de Operaciones, UN.A.CH.
Policlinica y Diagn6stico Veterinario
Blvd. Angel Albino Corzo # 635, Zona Militar,
Tuxtla GutiBrrez, Chiapas, MEXICO 29079
Phone & Fax: +01-9-614-4214
E-mail: dguiris@web.correosdecuba.cu


4. AYALA, GUIDO (Bolivia)
M.Sc. Ec6logo de Vida Silvestre, Wildlife Conservation Society Bolivia
Calle 21 de Calacoto No. 1100, Edif. San Miguel Bloque 1100, Oficina 102,
La Paz, BOLIVIA
Phone: +591-2-277-2455; 2-211-7969; 2-212-6905
Fax: +591-2-277-2455
E-mail: gayala@supernet.com.bo I wcslands@caoba.entelnet.bo

5. BARONGI, RICK (United States)
Director, Houston Zoo Inc.
1513 N. MacGregor, Houston, Texas, UNITED STATES 77030
Phone: +1-713-533-6800 / Fax: +1-713-533-6802
E-mail: RBarongi@aol.com rbarongi@houstonzoo.org

6. BLANCO, PILAR ALEXANDER (Venezuela)
D.V.M. INPARQUES, Parque Zool6gico Las Delicias
Associate Researcher, Earthmatters.Org
Av. Las Delicias Norte, Parque Zool6gico Las Delicias,
Departamento de Veterinaria
Maracay, 2101-A Aragua, VENEZUELA
Phone & Fax: +58-243-241-3933
E-mail: albla@telcel.net.ve


June 2003 Vol. 12 / No. 1 Tapir Conservation Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group






Membership Directory


7. BODMER, RICHARD (United Kingdom)
Ph.D. Lecturer in Biodiversity Conservation,
Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology,
Eliot College, University of Kent
Canterbury, Kent, CT2 7NS, UNITED KINGDOM
Phone: +44-1227-823-233 / Fax: +44-1227-827-289
E-mail: R.Bodmer@ukc.ac.uk

8. CARRIZALES, HECTOR ANDRES ROJAS (Mexico)
Biologist, Procuradoria Federal de Protecci6n al Ambiente,
Asesores en el Manejo de Recursos Naturales, S.A. de C.V.
Carretera Ajusco, 200, 60 piso, Col. Jardines em La Montana,
Mexico DF, MEXICO
Phone: +52-5587-1293 / Fax: +52-5587-1293
E-mail: tlalcoyote@hotmail.com I arcano@operamail.com /
zacatuche@excite.com

9. CASTELLANOS, ARMANDO XAVIER (Ecuador)
Licenciado, Researcher, Fundaci6n Espiritu del Bosque
Barcelona 311 y Tolosa, Pichincha, Quito, ECUADOR
Phone: +593-2-239-703 / Fax: +593-2-504-452
E-mail: zoobreviven@hotmail.com I armandocastellanos@notme.com

10. CHALUKIAN, SILVIA (Argentina)
M.Sc. Researcher, El Rey National Park
Rio Negro 2508, 4400 Salta, ARGENTINA
Phone: +54-387-424-0861
E-mail: silviach@sinectis.com.ar

11. CHONG, MIKE H.N. (Malaysia)
Coordinator, Freelance Naturalist, Bird Guide
Asian Raptor Research & Conservation Network-Information Centre /
Nature tours
208 Jalan H-8, Taman Melawati, 53100 Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA
Phone & Fax: +603-4107-1958
E-mail: mikechn@pc.jaring.my

12. COLBERT, MATTHEW (United States)
Research Associate, Department of Geological Sciences, University of Texas
Austin, Texas 78712, UNITED STATES
Phone: +1-512-471-0260 / Fax: +1-512-471-9425
E-mail: colbert@mail.utexas.edu

13. CONSTANTINO, EMILIO (Colombia)
Biodiversity and Conservation Coordinator,
Red de Reservas Naturales de la Sociedad Civil
Avenida 9 norte No. 22-07, Barrio Santa Monica, Cali, COLOMBIA
Phone: +57-2-660-6133; 2-653-4539 / Fax: +57-2-660-6133
E-mail: emilio@resnatur.org.co


14. CUARON, ALFREDO D. (Mexico)
Departamento de Ecologia de los Recursos Naturales,
Institute de Ecologia, UNAM
Apartado Postal 27-3 (Xangari), Morelia, Michoacan 58089, MEXICO
Phone: +52-4-322-2786; 5-623-2786; 4-322-2777 Ext. 32786
Fax: +52-4-322-2719; 5-623-2719
E-mail: cuaron@oikos.unam.mx

15. DEE, MICHAEL (United States)
General Curator, Los Angeles Zoo
5333 Zoo Drive, Los Angeles, California 90027, UNITED STATES
Phone: +1-323-644-4254 / Fax: +1-323-662-9786
E-mail: mdee@zoo.ci.la.ca.us / Mdee@zoo.LACity.org

16. DOWNER, CRAIG C. (United States)
President, Andean Tapir Fund
P.O. BOX 456, Minden, Nevada 89423-0456, UNITED STATES
Phone: + 1-775-267-3484 / Fax: + 1-775-747-1642
E-mail: CCDOWNER@terra.es

17. FLESHER, KEVIN (United States)
Ph.D. Graduate Student, Rutgers University
55 Dudley Road, 2nd Floor, New Brunswick,
New Jersey 08901, UNITED STATES
Phone: +1-732-932-9153 Ext. 351
E-mail: KevinFlesher@yahoo.com

18. FLOREZ, FRANZ KASTON (Colombia)
President, Fundaci6n Apas, Universidad del Tolima
Oficina 19-04, Ibagub, Tolima, COLOMBIA
Phone: +033-331-9869 / Fax: +57-1-617-0068
E-mail: fkf@latinmail.com

19. FOERSTER, CHARLES R. (United States / Costa Rica)
Project Leader, Baird's Tapir Project, Corcovado National Park, Costa Rica
445 CR 221, Orange Grove, Texas 78372, UNITED STATES
Phone & Fax: +1-719-228-0628
E-mail: CRFoerster@aol.com

20. FRAGOSO, JOSE MANUEL VIEIRA (United States)
College of Environmental Science and Forestry SUNY
6 Illick Hall, 1 Forestry Dr., Syracuse, New York 13210-2778,
UNITED STATES
Phone: +1-315-470-6792/ Fax: +1-315-470-6934
E-mail: fragoso@esf.edu

21. FRANKLIN, NEIL (Indonesia)
Director, Indonesia Program, The Tiger Foundation (Canada) I
The Sumatran Tiger Trust (UK)
Prima Lingkar Asri B2/12, Jatibening, Bekasi, INDONESIA 17412
Phone & Fax: +62-0-21-865-0114 / Mobile: +62-0-811-998-881
E-mail: franklin@pacific.net.id


Tapir Conservation Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group Vol. 12 / No. 1 June 2003






Membership Directory


22. FROHRING, HEIDI (United States)
Zookeeper, Woodland Park Zoological Gardens
2649 N.W. 60th St Seattle, Washington 98117, UNITED STATES
Phone: +1-206-782-5964
E-mail: heidi.frohring@zoo.org I heidifrohring@earthlink.net

23. GALETTI, MAURO (Brazil)
Ph.D. Assistant Professor, Departamento de Ecologia, UNESP Rio Claro
Avenida 24-A, 1515, CP 199, Rio Claro CEP: 13506-900,
Sio Paulo, BRAZIL
Phone: +55-19-526-4145 / Fax: +55-19-534-0009
E-mail: mgaletti@rc.unesp.br

24. GARRELL, DELLA (United States)
D.V.M. Director of Conservation and Animal Health, Cheyenne Mountain Zoo
4250 Cheyenne Mountain Zoo, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80906,
UNITED STATES
Phone: +1-719-633-9925 Ext. 120 / Fax: +1-719-633-2254
E-mail: dgarell@cmzoo.org

25. GREENE, LEWIS (United States)
Director, Virginia Zoo I AZA Tapir TAG Coordinator for Baird's tapirs
3500 Granby Street, Norfolk, Virginia 23504, UNITED STATES
Phone: +1-757-441-2374
E-mail: Igreene@virginiazoo.org

26. HERNANDEZ-DIVERS, SONIA M. (United States)
Adjunct Professor, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia
Veterinary Advisor, American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA)
Tapir TAG
197 East Creek Bend, Athens, Georgia 30605, UNITED STATES
Phone: +1-706-548-3414
E-mail: shernz@aol.com

27. HOLDEN, JEREMY (Indonesia)
Photographer, Flora and Fauna International
P.O. BOX 42, Kantor Pos, Sungai Penuh Kerinci, Jambi, Sumatra
INDONESIA 371000
Phone & Fax: +0-7482-2267
E-mail: pop@padang.wasantara.net.id

28. HOLST, BENGT (Denmark)
M.Sc. Vice Director, Copenhagen Zoo I Chair, EAZA Tapir & Hippo TAG
Sdr. Fasanvej 79, DK-2000 Frederiksberg, DENMARK
Phone: +45-72-200-200; 72-200-220 / Fax: +45-72-200-219
E-mail: beh@zoo.dk

29. JANSSEN, DONALD L. (United States)
Ph.D. Director, Veterinary Services, San Diego Wild Animal Park
15500 San Pasqual Valley Road, San Diego, California 92027-7017,
UNITED STATES
Phone: +1-760-291-5401 /Fax: +1-760-747-3168
E-mail: djanssen@sandiegozoo.org


30. KAEWSIRISUK, SUWAT (Thailand)
Chief, Hala-Bala Wildlife Sanctuary National Park,
Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department
Royal Forest Department of Thailand
P.O. Box 3 Amphoe Wang, Narathiwat Province, THAILAND
Fax: +0-73-336-294

31. KANCHANASAKA, BUDSABONG (Thailand)
Government Official National Park,
Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department
Royal Forestry Department of Thailand
Paholgothin Road, Chatujak, Bangkhen, Bangkok, THAILAND 10900
Phone: +662-940-7159 / Fax: +662-579-9874
E-mail: Budsa@hotmail.com

32. KAWANISHI, KAE (Malaysia)
Ph.D. Technical Advisor, Division of Research and Conservation
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (DWNP)
Km. 10, Jalan Cheras, 56100 Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA
Phone: +603-9075-2872 / Fax: +603-9075-2873
E-mail: kae@wildlife.gov.my I kae2000@tm.net.my

33. KRANZ, KARL R. (United States)
Director of Biological Programs, Jacksonville Zoological Gardens
8605 Zoo Parkway, Jacksonville, Florida 32218, UNITED STATES
Phone: +1-904-757-4463 Ext. 212 / Fax: +1-904-714-4441
E-mail: Kranzkr@jaxzoo.org

34. LIZCANO, DIEGO (Colombia)
Researcher, UNIANDES / Ph.D. Graduate Student,
Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology, University of Kent
A. A. 53804, Bogota 0107, DC, COLOMBIA
Phone: +57-1-281-4256
E-mail: dlizcano@eudoramail.com I dl36@ukc.ac.uk

35. LYNAM, ANTONY (Thailand)
Ph.D. Associate Conservation Ecologist, Wildlife Conservation Society
P.O. BOX 170, Laksi, Bangkok, THAILAND 10210
Phone & Fax: +66-2-574-0683
E-mail: tlynam@wcs.org

36. MANGINI, PAULO ROGERIO (Brazil)
D.V.M. M.Sc. Wildlife Medicine and Management
Research Associate, IPE Instituto de Pesquisas Ecol6gicas
(Institute for Ecological Research)
Assistant Professor, Pontificia Universidade Cat6lica do Parana
Scientific Coordinator, Vida Livre Medicina de Animais Selvagens
Rua Professor Alvaro Jorge, 795, Apto. 15C BL 3,
Curitiba CEP: 80320-040, Parana, BRAZIL
Phone: +55-41-3026-1846 / Mobile: +55-41-9996-5138
E-mail: pmangini@ipe.org.br I pmangini@uol.com.br /
pmangini@rla01.pucpr.br


June 2003 Vol. 12 / No. 1 Tapir Conservation Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group






Membership Directory


37. MARTYR, DEBORAH (Indonesia)
Team Leader, Flora and Fauna International
P.O. BOX 42, Kantor Pos, Sungai Penuh Kerinci, Jambi 13007,
Sumatra, INDONESIA
Phone: +00-0-7482-2267 / 7462-1846 /
Fax: +00-0-7482-2267
E-mail: tigers@ja.mweb.co.id / DebbieKerinci@aol.com

38. MATOLA, SHARON (United States / Belize)
Director, Belize Zoo and Tropical Education Center
P.O. BOX 1787, Belize City, BELIZE
Phone: +501-813-004/Fax: +501-813-010
E-mail: belizezoo@btl.net

39. MEDICI, PATRICIA (Brazil)
M.Sc. Research Coordinator, IPE Instituto de Pesquisas Ecol6gicas
(Institute for Ecological Research)
Avenida Perdizes, 285, Vila Sao Paulo, Teodoro Sampaio CEP: 19280-000,
Sao Paulo, BRAZIL
Phone & Fax: +55-18-3282-4690 / Mobile: +55-18-9711-6106
E-mail: epmedici@uol.com.br / medici@ipe.org.br

40. MEIJAARD, ERIK (The Netherlands / Australia / Indonesia)
Post-Graduate Researcher, Department of Archaeology and Anthropology,
Australian National University
1/14 Portus Place, Bruce, 2617 ACT, Canberra, AUSTRALIA 0200
Phone: +61-2-6125-3557 / Fax: +61-2-6251-0193
E-mail: erik.meijaard@anu.edu.au

41. MEJIA, JAIME ANDRES SUAREZ (Colombia)
Environmental Manager, Enviromental Sciences,
Universidad Tecnol6gica de Pereira
Carrera 4 bis #24-33, Pereira, Risaralda, COLOMBIA
Phone & Fax: +57-6-321-2443
E-mail: suarmatta@yahoo.com

42. MOLLINEDO, MANUEL A. (United States)
General Manager, Department of Recreation and Parks
200 N. Main Street, Room 1330, City Hall, Los Angeles,
California 90012, UNITED STATES
Phone: +1-213-473-6833 / Fax: +1-213-978-0014
E-mail: mamollinedo@rap.lacity.org

43. MONTENEGRO, OLGA LUCIA (Colombia)
Ph.D. Graduate Student, University of Florida
Institute de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia
Av. 1 de Mayo, # 39 A 49 Sur, Bogota, COLOMBIA
Phone: +57-1-203-5582
E-mail: olmdco@yahoo.com

44. NARANJO, EDUARDO J. (Mexico)
Ph.D. Researcher, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur
Carr. Panamericana, Ap. 63, San Cristobal de Las Casas,
Chiapas, MEXICO 29290
Phone: +52-9678-1884 / Fax: +52-9678-2322
E-mail: enaranjo@sclc.ecosur.mx


Tapir Conservation Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group .


45. NAVEDA, ADRIAN JOSE (Venezuela)
T.S.U. en Recursos Naturales Renovables
Associate Researcher, EarthMatters.Org
Museo de la Estaci6n Biol6gica de Rancho Grande
Apartado Postal 4845, Maracay, 2101-A Aragua, VENEZUELA
Phone: +58-416-433-2160 / Fax: +58-243-235-8238
E-mail: adrian.naveda@cantv.net

46. NOVARINO, WILSON (Indonesia)
Lecturer, Dept. Biology FMIPA, Andalas University
Jurusan Biologi FMIPA, Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam
Kampus Limau Manis, Padang, Sumatera Barat,
West Sumatra, INDONESIA 25163
Phone & Fax: +62-0-7517-1343
E-mail: wilson n id@yahoo.com

47. NUNEZ, RUBEN (Ecuador)
President, Fundaci6n Bafos 2000, Fundaci6n Tapir y Biodiversidad Ecuador
Universidad Escuela Politecnica Ecologica Amazonica ESPEA
Barrio Ecol6gico 5 de Junio, Calle Rocafuerte 806 y Juan Le6n Mera,
P.O. BOX 1803, Bafos, Tungurahua, ECUADOR
Phone: +59-303-740 447
E-mail: tapirub@yahoo.com

48. OTHMAN, SAHIR (Malaysia)
Director, Protected Areas Division
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (DWNP)
Km. 10, Jalan Cheras, 56100 Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA
Phone: +603-9075-2872 / Fax: +603-9075-2873
E-mail: sahir@wildlife.gov.my

49. PARAS-GARCIA, ALBERTO (Mexico)
D.V.M. Gerente del Departamento de Veterinaria, Africam Safari
11 Oriente 2407, Col. Azcarate, Puebla, MEXICO 72007
Phone: +22-360-933 / Fax: +22-363-049
E-mail: pago@servidor.unam.mx

50. PRAYURASIDDHI, THEERAPAT (Thailand)
Ph.D. Technical Forest Official National Park,
Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department
Royal Forest Department of Thailand
61 Phaholyothin Road, Chatuchack, Bangkok, THAILAND 10900
Phone: +66-2-561-4292 Ext. 797 / Fax: +66-2-579-7048
E-mail: theerapat@hotmail.com

51. SALAS, LEONARDO (Venezuela / Indonesia)
Freelance Consultant, Indonesia
Phone: +507-317-0064 or 317-0350 / Fax: +507-317-0064
E-mail: Isalas0@hotmail.com

52. SANCHEZ, SERGIO GUERRERO (Mexico)
Asistente de Investigador, Instituto de Historia Natural y Ecologia
Calz. Cerro Hueco, s/n, Colonia El Zapotal, P.O. BOX 6, Tuxtla GutiBrrez,
Chiapas, MEXICO 29000
Phone: +9-61-44765; 44459; 44701 / Fax: +9-61-44700
E-mail: ekio@yahoo.com


Vol. 12 / No. 1 June 2003
EH






Membership Directory


53. SANDOVAL, SERGIO ARENAS (Colombia)
Cr 1B Sur No. 10-15, Urbanizacion Makunaima, Jamundi,
Valle del Cauca, COLOMBIA
Phone & Fax: +57-1-289-1570
E-mail: ornatus@lycos.co

54. SARRIA-PEREA, JAVIER ADOLFO (Colombia / Brazil)
D.V.M. M.Sc. Candidate,
Universidade do Estado de Sao Paulo (FCAV UNESP)
Rua Anhanguera, 150, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, Jaboticabal,
CEP: 14870-000, Sao Paulo, BRAZIL
Phone: +55-16-3209-2678
E-mail: jasarrip@fcav.unesp.br / jasarrip@yahoo.com

55. SEITZ, STEFAN (Germany)
Ph.D. Captive Research on Tapirs: Behavior and Management
Bonndorfer Strasse 19, 68239 Mannheim, GERMANY
Phone & Fax: +49-621-471-428
E-mail: tapirseitz@web.de

56. SHOEMAKER, ALAN H. (United States)
330 Shareditch Road, Columbia, South Carolina 29210, UNITED STATES
Phone: +1-803-772-6701
E-mail: sshoe@mindspring.com

57. SPITZER, CARLOS ERIK MUENCH (Mexico)
Biologist, Departamento de Ecologia y Sistematica Terrestre,
El Colegio de la Frontera Sur (ECOSUR)
Calle 18 de Julio, 29, Colonia Gilberto Palacios de la Rosa, Chapingo,
Texcoco, MEXICO 56230
Phone: +967-87-896; 595-46-976
E-mail: carloserik@yahoo.com

58. TILSON, RONALD (United States)
Ph.D. Director of Conservation, Minnesota Zoo
13000 Zoo Blvd., Apple Valley, Minnesota 55124, UNITED STATES
Phone: +1-952-431-9267 / Fax: +1-952-431-9452
E-mail: r-tilson@mtn.org

59. TODD, SHERYL (United States)
President, Tapir Preservation Fund (TPF)
P.O. Box 118, Astoria, Oregon 97103, UNITED STATES
Phone: +1-503-325-3179
E-mail: tapir@tapirback.com

60. TORRES, DENIS ALEXANDER (Venezuela)
President, Fundaci6n AndigenA
Apartado Postal 210, M6rida 5101-A, Edo. M6rida, VENEZUELA
Phone: +58-7-421-9993
E-mail: fundacion andigena@yahoo.com


61. TORRES, IVAN LIRA (Mexico)
D.V.M. M.Sc. Graduate Student
Palma Viajero, 411, C.P. 29040, Tuxtla GutiBrrez, Chiapas, MEXICO
E-mail: ilira@terra.com.mx

62. VAN STRIEN, NICO (The Netherlands I Indonesia)
Ph.D. SE Asia Coordinator, International Rhino Foundation
Julianaweg 2, 3941DM, Doom, THE NETHERLANDS
Phone: +31-343-420-445 / Fax: +31-343-420-447
E-mail: Strien@indo.net.id I strien@compuserve.com

63. WALLACE, ROBERT B. (Bolivia)
Ph.D. Associate Conservation Zoologist,
Wildlife Conservation Society, Madidi
Calle 21 de Calacoto No. 1100, Edif. San Miguel Bloque 1100, Oficina 102,
La Paz, BOLIVIA
Phone: +591-2-277-2455; 2-211-7969; 2-212-6905
Fax: +591-2-277-2455
E-mail: wcsmadidi@zuper.net

64. WATERS, SIAN (United Kingdom)
Scientific Officer, Cochrane Ecological Institute
14 Lindsay Gardens, Tredegar, Gwent NP22 4RP, UNITED KINGDOM
Phone: +44-0-1495-722-117
E-mail: sian s waters@hotmail.com I sian s waters@yahoo.co.uk

65. WATKINS, GRAHAM (Guyana)
Ph.D. Senior Wildlife Biologist, Interim Project Implementation Manager
Iwokrama International Centre for Rain Forest Conservation and
Development
67 Bel Air, P.O. BOX 10630, Georgetown, GUYANA
Phone: +59-2-225-1504 / Fax: +59-2-225-9199
E-mail: ggwatkins@hotmail.com / gwatkins@iwokrama.org


June 2003 Vol. 12 / No. 1 Tapir Conservation Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group






Tapir Conservation The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group


Structure & Positions


Patricia Medici, Brazil
E-mail: epmedici@uol.com.br


Deputy-Chair Charles R. Foerster, United States/Costa Rica
E-mail: crfoerster@aol.com
Baird's Tapir Coordinator Eduardo Naranjo, Mexico
E-mail: enaranjo@sclc.ecosur.mx
Mountain Tapir Coordinator Emilio Constantino, Colombia


Lowland Tapir Coordinator


Malay Tapir Coordinator


Newsletter Editors




Fundraising Coordinator


Tapir Action Plan
Review Coordinators



Zoo Coordinator


Veterinary Support
Coordinator
Red List Authority


Red List Committee









Evolution Consultant


Webmaster


Banker (via TPF)


List Serve Moderator


E-mail: emilio@resnatur.org.co
Denis Alexander Torres, Venezuela
E-mail: fundacion andigena@yahoo.com
Nico van Strien, The Netherlands
E-mail: strien@compuserve.com
Sian S. Waters, UK
E-mail: sian s waters@yahoo.co.uk
Stefan Seitz, Germany
E-mail: tapirseitz@web.de
Patricia Medici, Brazil
E-mail: epmedici@uol.com.br
Patricia Medici, Brazil
E-mail: epmedici@uol.com.br
Alfredo Cuar6n, Mexico
E-mail: cuaron@oikos.unam.mx
Sian S. Waters, UK
E-mail: sian s waters@yahoo.co.uk
Sonia Hernandez-Divers, United States
E-mail: SHernz@aol.com
Alan Shoemaker, United States
E-mail: sshoe@mindspring.com
Eduardo Naranjo, Mexico
E-mail: enaranjo@sclc.ecosur.mx
Emilio Constantino, Colombia
E-mail: emilio@resnatur.org.co
Denis Alexander Torres, Venezuela
E-mail: fundacion andigena@yahoo.com
Nico van Strien, The Netherlands
E-mail: strien@compuserve.com
Matthew Colbert, United States
E-mail: colbert@mail.utexas.edu
Sheryl Todd, United States
E-mail: tapir@tapirback.com
Sheryl Todd, United States
E-mail: tapir@tapirback.com
Mike Chong, Malaysia
E-mail: mikechn@pc.jaring.my


Chair


Tapir Conservation Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group Vol. 12 / No. 1 June 2003


Notes for Contributors



Scope This newsletter aims to provide information regarding all
aspects of tapir natural history. Items of news, recent events, recent
publications, thesis abstracts, workshop proceedings etc concerning
tapirs are welcome.


Please include the full name and address of the authors underneath the
title of the article.


Full-length articles on any aspect of tapir natural history should not
be more than 15 pages in length (including references). An abstract is
required and British English spelling is requested.


Figures and Maps. Articles etc can include black and white photo-
graphs, high quality figures and high quality maps and tables.


References. Please refer to these examples when listing references:

JournalArticle
Herrera, J.C., Taber, A., Wallace, R.B. & Painter, L. 1999. Lowland
tapir (Tapirus terrestris) behavioral ecology in a southern Amazonian
tropical forest. Vida Silv. Tropicale 8:31-37.

Chapter in Book
Janssen, D.L., Rideout, B.A. & Edwards, M.S. 1999. Tapir Medicine.
In: M.E. Fowler & R.E. Miller (eds.) Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine, pp.
562-568. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, USA.

Book
Brooks, D.M., Bodmer, R.E. & Matola, S. 1997. Tapirs: Status, Survey
and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

Thesis/Dissertation
Foerster. C.R. 1998. Ambito de Hogar, Patron de Movimentso y Dieta
de la Danta Centroamericana (Tapirus bairdii) en el Parque Nacional
Corcovado, Costa Rica. M.S. thesis. Universidad Nacional, Heredia,
Costa Rica.

Report
Santiapilli, C. & Ramono, W.S. 1989. The Status and Conservation of
the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) in Sumatra, Indonesia. Unpublished
Report, Worldwide Fund for Nature, Bogor, Indonesia.


Please send all contributions to SiAn S. Waters,
sian s waters@yahoo.co.uk
or by hard copy to both the following postal addresses:
14 Lindsay Gardens, Tredegar, Gwent NP22 4RP UK &
PO Box 484, Cochrane, AB T4C 1A7 Canada.









TAPIR CONSERVATION
The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group



Contents
Volume 12, Number I, June 2003

Letter from the Chair......................................................................................................................................3

General News ............................................................................................................................................ 5
* New Ramsar Site in the Pantanal
D w eight Peck ......................................................................... ...................................................................... . ............ 5

Current Project Updates ............................................................................................................................ 6
Argentina
* Cattle Impact on Tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) in El Rey National Park, Salta, Argentina
Silvia Chalukian .................................................................................................... ................. 6
Brasil
* Camera Trapping Reveals the Status of Lowland Tapir Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758) in a Private Natural Reserve
in Southeastern Brazil
Edsel A. Moraes Jr., Joaquim A. Silva & Rafael L. A. Freitas ............................. ............. .................................. 7
* Lowland tapirs as Landscape Detectives of the Atlantic Forest: An Innovative Conservation Approach
P a tricia M e d ici.................................................................................................................................................................... 9
Bolivia
* Tapir Diet (Tapirus terrestris) and Seed Dispersal in the Bolivian Chaco
Grimaldo Soto Quiroga ............... ................................................. 10

News from Captivity ................................................................................................................................ 11
* AZA Tapir TAG Report
Rick Barongi ....................... ............... .......................... ............................ 11
* Nutritional Considerations for Feeding Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) in Captivity
Andrea Brenes Soto ......................... ........................... .................................................................... 13
* One of the oldest tapirs in captivity dies at Wilhelma Zoo, Stuttgart, Germany
M arianne H o ltk tter ........................................................................................... ...................................... . ............ 14

Contributed Papers..................................................................................................................................15
* Re-introductions: A Comprehensive Approach
Pritpal S. Soorae ........................... ..................... ................................... 15
* Identification of Ecto and Endoparasites in Baird's Tapir (Tapirus bairdii), in Chiapas, Mexico
E. C. Aldan, I. L. Torres, D. M. G. Andrade, D. O. Sarabia & M. T. Quintero M.......................................................... ... 17
* Notes on the Distribution, and Conservation Status of Mountain Tapir (Tapirus pinchaque) in North Peru
D iego J. Lizcano & A ivi S issa ............................................................................. ........... .......................................... 2 1
* A Camera Trapping and Radio Telemetry Study of Lowland Tapir (Tapirus terrestris) in Bolivian Dry Forests
A. J. Noss, R. L. Cu6llar, J. Barrientos, L. Maffei, E. Cu6llar, R. Arispe, D. R6miz & K. Rivero....................................... 24

Asking the Experts .................................................................................................................................. 33
* Unequal Tapirs: A question of sex, age and the environment
L eo n ard o S a las ................................................................................................................................................................ 3 3

IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group Membership Directory ................................................... ...................34

IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group Structure & Positions ............................................................................39

Notes for Contributors .................. ........................................................... .................................................39




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