Group Title: Tapir conservation (Print)
Title: Tapir conservation
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Title: Tapir conservation the newsletter of the IUCNSSC Tapir Specialist Group
Uniform Title: Tapir conservation (Print)
Abbreviated Title: Tapir conserv. (Print)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group
IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group
Publisher: IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group
Place of Publication: Houston TX
Houston TX
Publication Date: December 1998
Copyright Date: 2009
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Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began in 1990.
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 12, no. 2 (Dec. 2003); title from cover.
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Volume ID: VID00008
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 56897961
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issn - 1813-2286

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Tapir Conservation
SThe Newsletter of the ICN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group

Number 8, December 1998


Editor:
Sharon Matola, TSG Chairperson
Co-Editor:
Sheryl Todd, TSG Deputy Chair

The views in Tapir Conservation do
not necessarily reflect those of the IUCN
nor the entire IUCN/SSC Tapir
Specialist Group (TSG). The objective
of Tapir Conservation is to offer the
members of the IUCN/SSC Tapir
Specialist Group and others concerned
with thefamily Tapiridae, news briefs,
opinions, and general information about
this threatened mammalian genus.
Anyone wishing to contribute to Tapir
Conservation, please send materials to:

Sharon Matola
Chairperson
IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group
P.O. Box 1787
Belize City, Belie, Central America
BelizeZoo@btL net
Phone 501-081-3004
Fax 501-081-3004

Sheryl Todd
Deputy Chair
IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group
RO. Box 1432
Palisade, Colorado 81526 USA
tapir@tapirback.com
Phone (970) 464-0321
Fax (970) 464-0377

Produced with assistance from
Wildlife Preservation T'ust,
International, 1520 Locust Street,
Suite 704, Philadelphia,
PA 19102 USA;
Ph (215) 731-9770;
Fax (215) 732-9766;
WPTI@aol.com


From the Chair

As 1998 comes to a close we can look
back at a progressive year for the TSG.
Our new Group is in place, with each
region where our four species exist
well-represented. Expertise from the
United States enhances the TSG, and
both Sheryl Todd and I look forward to
continual communications with
everyone.
The Tapir Action Plan, thanks to
Deputy Chair Sheryl Todd, was the
first AP to go on-line, and served as a
model for this important
communication link at the IUCN
Digital LibraryWorkshop in Chicago.
The AP can be accessed via the web:
http'//www.tapirback.com/tapirgal/
iucn-ssc/action97/
As you read this newsletter, you will
note the gaps which still exist in our
data files from certain areas.
Hopefully, 1999 will be the year we
gain more data from the field which
will assist in tapir conservation efforts.
Interesting new is surfacing about
tapirs an issue suggesting that these
animals may be more "pair oriented"
rather than solitary in nature. And
continuing radio-telemmetry work
taking place both in Costa Rica with
Charles and Sonia Foerster's work, and
in Brazil with Patricia Medici's work
will no doubt add to our knowledge
about the natural history of T bairdii
and T terrestris.
An important objective is
communication. To all TSG members,
keep us informed about your activities
and work involving tapirs. We remain a
strong and effective Group through the
sharing of ideas and information.


Action Plan

Tapirs Status Survey and Conservation
Action Plan is available in paperback and
on the web. For an online copy, see
"From the Chair." Paper copies can be
ordered from:

IUCN Publication Services Unit
219c Huntingdon Road
Cambridge, CB3 ODL,
United Kingdom
Phone: ++44/1223/277894
ar ++44/1223/277175
E-mail: iucn-psu@wcmc.org.uk
Island Press
Box 7
Covelo, Califomia 95428
Phone: 800-828-1302 or
++1-707-983-6432
Fau + + 1-707-983-6414
E-mail: ipress@igc.apc.org

Hundreds of copies have been
distributed throughout the world, and
conservation projects are already being
planned using guidelines from the
book, which has the distinction of
being the first non-children's book
devoted to tapirs.

Wt would like to thank Kevin Burkhill of
Binningham, England,for the drawing
used above. Kevin is an artist who promotes
tapir conservation.


Contents

FROM THE FIELD B
FROM CAPTIVITY 16

See page 2 for complete contents


Tapir Conseavaion, Newsletter ol the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group Editor: Sharon Matola, RO. Box 1787, Belize City, Belize E-mail: BelizeZoo@btlnel












































Fund for injured

tapir keeper

As we go to press in mid-December,
Lisa Morehead, the Oklahoma City
Zoo keeper who was critically injured
by a female Malayan tapir on 20
November 1998, is still in the hospital.
Her injuries were extensive, including
the loss of her left arm, broken ribs,
25-30 major lacerations, two
punctured lungs and a seriously
damaged larynx. Although she is
recovering well and her spirits are
good, at press time there is concern
about infection. We thank the many
who have sent cards and contributed
to the Lisa Morehead Recovery Fund.
To contribute or send cards and letters,
contact Sheryl Todd at the Tapir
Preservation Fund (see masthead or
web page: www.tapirback.com/
tapirgal/lisa.htm). $100 has been
contributed by the Tapir Specialist
Group. Donations are tax deductible;
the fund's current total is $850.00.


Table of Contents

From the Chair 1
Action Plan 1
Injured keeper 2
TapirSpecialist Group 2
Notices 3
A tribute to Dr. Miguel Alvarez del Toro 4
Publications 5
TPF activities 5

FROM THE FIELD 6
How social are tapirs? B
Central America 6
South America 9
Southeast Asia 15

FROM CAPTIVITY 18
Behavioral study 18
Notable birth 19
Census 19

MEMBER UST 20


Tapir Specialist

Group

Past and present...

We now have thirty-five members in
twelve countries: Argentina, Belize,
Brasil, Colombia, Guyana, Honduras,
Indonesia, Malaysia, M6xico,
Thailand, USA, and Venezuela. For
members' contact information, please
see the back page of this newsletter.
The Tapir Specialist Group was
started in the 1980s with Keith
Williams as Chair. In 1990, Sharon
Matola, Director ofthe Belize Zoo,
was invited by IUCN to assume the
dudes of Chair. She began TSG's
newsletter, Tapir Conservation, in
September 1990 and in 1991 began
making regular submissions to Species,
the newsletter of the IUCN Species
Survival Commission. She pulled
together a group of interested people
and assigned an editor for the Action
Plan (Tapirs: Status, Survey and
Conservation Action Plan), which went
to press in 1997 and became available
in 1998. In 1997, Sharon invited
Sheryl Todd to become Co-Editor of
the newsletter and Deputy Chair of
the group. Communications have
been aided greatly by the Internet
since 1997, and correspondence with
the many countries on three
continents in which tapirs live has
magnified exponentially. The Tapir
Specialist Group now has its own web
site.
In spring of 1998, we sent
questionnaires to selected tapir
specialists around the world asking for
their thoughts on tapir conservation
and ways in which TSG could become
a more effective agent. Based on
responses, we increased membership
from fourteen to thirty-five, adding
eight tapir range states to the roster of
countries in which members live.
In 1998, our tapir Action Plan was
the first IUCN/SSC Action Plan to go
online with full text (English version
only to date; Spanish and Portuguese
to come soon). The Tapir Specialist


page 2 / TapirConservaton, Newsletter of the IUCW/SSC Tapir Specalist Group Editor: Sharon Matola. RO. Box 1787, Belize City, Belize E-mail: Belize2oo@bUl.nel


Group has been in the forefront of
using the Internet for dissemination of
information about our species. High
visibility on the web has resulted in a
tremendous influx of tapir information
with which we work each day, and has
created the network which led to our
increased membership of dynamic
field researchers and conservationists.
The Species Survival Commission,
of which the Tapir Specialist Group is
a part, has recently grown to include
over 7,000 volunteers in 110 Specialist
Groups. The SSC itself "is one of six
volunteer Commissions within
IUCN. IUCN is a union of 74
sovereign states, 105 government
agencies, 640 non-governmental
organizations and 32 affiliates.
Collectively the IUCN membership
has great influence on the state of the
environment throughout the world.
Thus SSC has an immediate and
established mechanism for distributing
information about the critical
conservation needs of species to those
best positioned to act on that
information."*
This year IUCN celebrates fifty
years as a leading entity in world
conservation. As members of this
prestigious body, we as individuals are
granted the benefit of backing up our
own names and titles with one that
carries with it half a century of dignity
and influence. As members of the
IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group, we
each have the opportunity and
responsibility to support the parent
organization with our unique
contributions.
1996. "Species Survival Commission:
IUCN The World Conservation Union."

Future...

In 1997 we expanded our newsletter
format. In 1999, we will begin to
publish on a regular semiannual
schedule, with issues produced in
March and September. We hope that
our expanded membership as well as
the proliferation of e-mail
correspondence will help us fill in gaps
in our awareness of tapir conservation
projects worldwide. Equally important
is recognizing areas in which work has













yet to be started.
To date, much of the function of
the Tapir Specialist Group has been to
support tapir conservationists and
researchers through exchange of ideas,
information and literature. In 1999, we
will begin to identify areas in which
we can work as a group, and to raise
money through the Tapir Preservation
Fund (a U.S.-based nonprofit
organization) to carry out TSG
activities.


TSG web site

This year, the Tapir Specialist Group
got its own web site
(http://www.tapirback.com/tapirgal/
iucn-ssc/tsg). It is housed on The
ITpir Gallery, web site of the Tapir
Preservation Fund. The TSG site is a
site unto itself and is designed to
coordinate with the IUCN site. You
can link to both the IUCN and SSC
sites from the TSG site. In addition,
links from our main page take you to
our newsletters (1997 is up, and 1998
will soon follow; back issues will be
posted as time permits). The English
language version of our Action Plan is
online (full text) and was the first
IUCN Action Plan to go online with
full text. Our thanks to Andrew
Mercer of New Zealand for helping
with this task. We were preceded
online by an AP produced by the
Australian government, and there are
several other IUCN Action Plans now
available on the web. The Spanish
version of the tapir AP is expected to
go online by the end of December or
early in January. The English and
Spanish versions will become part of a
demo that will be used to test and
promote the idea of a Digital Library
for the IUCN, beginning with
selected SSC documents and then
including the rest of the SSC library.
Ultimately, this ambitious and
innovative project is intended to
include the whole of the IUCN
library. It will be a multiple-part
project spanning several years. Sheryl
Todd attended a planning meeting in
Chicago in October hosted by the
Brookfield Zoo.
Also on the TSG web site you'll


find a list of current members with
contact information and links to e-
mail. We update this page regularly, so
please keep us informed of any
changes.
Our site also links to the most
complete tapir bibliography "in print."
This project was spearheaded by
Donald L.Janssen, D.V.M., of the San
Diego Zoo (credits are available on the
web page). The printed version and
database were turned over to the Tapir
Preservation Fund. We have added a
number ofcitations to bringthe total
to 555, with about 150 still to add. Due
to the cost ofprinting, general
accessibility of the web and dynamic
nature of a bibliography, we do not
expect to print another edition. If
researchers are unable to access the
web, a printed copy can be mailed. It
prints out to about 50 pages; please
send $5.00 for printing and postage to
Tapir Preservation Fund, P.O. Box
1432, Palisade, CO 81526 USA.
The next link on our site goes to
the Tapir Talk e-mail list sign-up and
archives. There is also a search feature
which allows searching of both the
TSG site and The Tapir Gallery. We
receive an average of about 20 visitors
per week on the TSG's main page. The
Action Plan has had about 300 visitors.
We're very happy with the site and
what it has to offer. Please remember
that it is OUR GROUP'S site -
suggestions and volunteer help are
always welcome.



Notices

Request for serum and
liver samples from tapirs

We are requesting banked or
opportunistically-collected serum and
post-mortem liver samples from
captive and free-ranging tapirs of any
species. We are attempting to
document the extent of copper
deficiency in captive and free-living
tapirs. Samples that we receive will be
batched and sent for analysis of Cu,
Zn, Fe, and other minerals. In a
preliminary study using banked serum


(n=22) and liver samples (n=3) from
tapirs, we have found extremely low
copper levels compared to reference
values from domestic animals. Copper
deficiency in domestic animals causes
a range of clinical signs including coat
changes, unthriftiness, diarrhea,
lameness, anemia, fractures, low
fertility, decreased immune function,
and neurologic disease. This study will
determine the extent of copper
deficiency in tapirs and to what extent
husbandry and disease occurrence is
associated with a deficiency. Significant
findings about copper metabolism in
tapirs will help improve the health of
the captive population.
Federal express account number
available on request. Thankyou for
considering this request. Please send
10 ml of serum or 100 g of liver
(frozen at -10 to -20 degrees C) to:

Donald LJanssen, DVM, Dipl
ACZM
Department of Veterinary Services
San Diego Zoo
1354 Old Globe Way
San Diego, CA 92101 USA
619-557-3933 office )
619-230-1256 (ax)
djan4ren@sandiegozoo.org

Tapirs may be getting
their due in film

This is beginning to look like a pivotal
year for public awareness of tapirs
through video and film. Several
segments on tapirs have aired on
international television over the past
two years. This year, mountain tapirs
were filmed by a Korean company, the
results being shown at a nature film
festival inJapan in 1998 (see Craig
Downer's report under Ecuador). We
understand that several other
filmmakers are developing segments
for television. Until now, tapirs have
typically rated a few minutes at best in
nature films long enough to (with
luck) whet the viewer's appetite, but
not much more. This appears to be
changing. We hope that in 1999 tapirs
will be presented to the public in film
segments both long enough and
informative enough to enrich viewers'
knowledge of these remarkable


Tapir Conseiatlon, Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group Editor: Sharon Matola, PO. Box 1787, Belize City, Belize E-mail: BelizeZoo@bl.net / page 3













animals and encourage concern about
their conservation.

Donations to Baird's
tapir project

In May, the Audubon Institute chapter
ofAAZK (New Orleans) hosted
Charles and Sonia Foerster as they
returned to Costa Rica. The Foersters
gave a presentation on their Baird's
tapir project and the AAZK chapter
donated $500.00. This gift was later
matched by the Audubon Institute.

Sheila D. D. Barrios
Zookeeper IB, Audubon Zoo
New Orleans, Louisiana, USA
sbnf@jun. corn

Correction

In our last issue, we attribute to Craig
C. Downer the photo of the
swimming tapir on page 14. We offer
apolgies to the photographer, Armando
X. Castellanos of Ecuador.



A tribute to Dr.

Miguel Alvarez

del Toro


Part 1: "The Best Little
Zoo in the World"

by Sharon Matola

When The Belize Zoo first began, I
was fortunate to read an article written
by Russell Mittermeier entitled, "The
Best Little Zoo in the World." The
article discussed a zoo in Chiapas,
Mexico, started by a man named
Miguel Alvarez del Toro. It exhibited
species native just to the region, the
animals living in well-vegetated,
roomy exhibits. Miguel del Toro saw
the zoo as a critical link to raising
awareness about the local fauna, much
of it endangered. Russ Mittermeier
also noted that the environmental
education messages conveyed by the


zoo were strong, and undoubtedly had
a positive impact upon the local
community. As The Belize Zoo
developed, it became part of our plan
to relocate the zoo and build a new
facility. I was impressed by everything
I'd read or heard about the work of
Miguel del Toro. Unable to visit the
Tuxtla Gutierrez Zoo myself at that
time, I sent two Belize Zoo personnel
to Chiapas. They returned excited and
inspired. The concept of keeping
animals in well-vegetated exhibits by
using electric wire was a design idea
we immediately adopted. We found
that we had common bonds: Both of
our zoos exhibited local animals only,
we insisted that the enclosures be
ample and full of native flora, and we
believed strongly in the objectives of
aggressive environmental education.
The Belize Zoo formed a large part
of its personality from the influence of
the Tuxtla Gutierrez Zoo in Chiapas,
Mexico. A great day it was for me, in
1995, when I finally did have the
opportunity to visit the Tuxtla Zoo,
and after a long hug, thank Migeul del
Toro for his vision. His work and
philosophy not only made a difference
in Chiapas, Mexico, but spread
throughout the region, affecting our
natural resources, and the people who
are stewards of these resources, in a
most positive way.


Part 2: Baird's tapir bred
first at Tuxtla Gutierrez
Zoo

bySheryl Todd

On 15 March 1960, the birth of a
Baird's tapir at Dr. Miguel Alvarez del
Toro's Tuxtia Gutierrez Zoo in
Chiapas, Mexico, marked the
beginning of the zoo's historic
breeding program. It was the first
recorded birth of a Baird's tapir in
captivity. The learning curve would be
steep; this youngster was killed by a
parent at the age of one month.
As early as 1871, tapirs designated
as Baird's tapirs had been kept by zoos
in England and the United States. In
the early days, mistakes were made in
distinguishing species ofAmerican


tapirs. However, capture locations
were sometimes given, and we can
probably assume that some ofthese
animals were genuine Tapirus bairdii. In
a few cases, the tapirs were kept in
pairs. Others were kept singly. Many
died shortly after importation, but a
few lived reasonable life-spans. None
of them bred with other Baird's tapirs.
In the 1950s, at least two female
Baird's tapirs at different U.S. zoos
were bred to male lowland tapirs. In
one case, disposition of the offspring is
unknown; in the better-documented
case, the offspring produced young
when bred with a lowland tapirs. Still,
no captive birth of a full-blooded
Baird's tapir was recorded until 1960 at
the Tuxtla Gutierrez Zoo.
The zoo had acquired its first
Baird's tapir in February 1954, when a
male, about six months old, was found
in Chiapas, having been badly mauled
by a jaguar. A female, also from
Chiapas, was procured in March 1955
at the age of one or two months. It was
from this pair that the first offspring
was born on 15 March 1960. As noted,
the first baby was killed. A second was
born 20 May 1962. A third a partial
albino male was born 23 August
1964. As yet, the zoo staff had not
actually witnessed copulation.
Observation first occurred in 1965. At
the time, so little was known of Baird's
tapir biology, that even the gestation
period was something of a mystery.
By 1966, the zoo had developed a
routine to protect the offspring from
the male parent. The pair was kept
together until just before the birth.
They were then separated until the
baby was weaned at about one year.
The pair would usually mate almost
immediately when reunited.
In 1969, Dennis Levy, a British
military officer with a longstanding
interest in tapirs, reported seeing 2.4
tapirs at Tuxtla Gutierrez, one of the
females being just a few weeks old. He
wrote, "These animals were said to be
the original pair and their 4 offspring,
a 5th baby having been killed by the
father. Some of them have more white
on the face than one usually sees, and
the younger male has more or less
one-third of his face white."
In July 1970, Dr. Miguel Alvarez


page 4 / Tapir Conservaton, Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Spedallsl Group Editor: Sharon Matola. PO. ox 1787, Belize City, Beize E-mail: BelizeZoo@bl.net













del Toro responded to survey
questions sent by the Tapir Research
Institute of Claremont, California. He
reported that only one death had
occurred in an adult Baird's tapir in the
zoo's collection. It was caused by
accidental eating of a piece of wire,
which pierced the tapir's intestine. He
listed births as 3.4, of which 13 had
been reared all by the mother. Of the
juvenile deaths, the two males were
listed as killed by the father, while the
female infant had been crushed by the
mother.
Tapirs were kept in pairs in
enclosures that measured 40 x 40 m
and were well-planted with trees. Each
had a pool 6 x4 m and 1 m deep;
artificial caves were used for housing.
Feed consisted of grains, fruits and a
variety of local plants known to be
eaten by tapirs in the wild. No other
species shared the enclosures. The
earliest age the tapirs at Tuxtla
Gutierrez were known to mate was
about 4 years, and all copulation
observed had taken place on land.
Health problems had been rare, with
only two conditions mentioned: rectal
prolapsus ("not serious") shortly before
giving birth on two occasions; and
fever.
Within a year or so after the 1970
survey response, an encephalomyelitis
epizootic swept the state of Chiapas. At
that time, Tuxtda Guiterrez had seven
tapirs, only two of which survived the
disease (see Tapir Conservation, Number
7, p 3). It is unknown to me whether
the survivors were the original pair,
although the surviving female was
already pregnant at the time of the
epizootic. Six months afterward, she
had a stillbirth. The male appeared to
be impotent for some time, but both
recovered and a healthy infant was
born on 20 January 1973. On February
4, the male mounted the female again.
The zoo had changed its protocol,
leaving both parents with the new
baby. On 24 July, Dr. Alvarez del Toro
wrote, "So far they raised the young
who is at present well grown." He
went on to say that the older male
would soon begin to persecute the
young one. As a general note on
Baird's tapir temperament, he wrote:
"Our experience is that lone males


usually turn mean, probably all, the
females not so. Sometimes the males
are mean [from a very young age]. We
had a male that was vicious since two
months old, biting the legs of the
keepers."
The Tuxtla Gutierrez Zoo
continued to report their census to the
International Zoo Yearbook, but due to
discrepancies in the figures published,
it is not clear exactly how the number
of tapirs at the zoo increased or
decreased after 1973. It appears that,
while they continued to breed, the
population never again reached more
than four. The number appears to have
dropped again in the 1980s, and in the
early 1990s a wild-born male was
captured and transferred to the zoo
according to the International
Studbook.
Ten years and nine months after the
first tapir was born at the Tuxla
Gutierrez Zoo, the United States had
its first birth of a non-hybrid Baird's
tapir. The Los Angeles and San Diego
Zoos had acquired a pair each between
1965 and 1967. All were wild born.
The pair at the Los Angeles Zoo gave
birth to a stillborn female on 31
December 1970. In 1973 another was
stillborn, but on 19 February 1974, the
pair produced a healthy male. By that
time, San Diego Zoo's pair had already
produced a healthy male on 14
November 1972. Both pair of founders
(plus a second wild-caught female
soon paired with the male at San
Diego) continued breeding, to giving
us many of the first captive-born
generation of Baird's tapirs in the U.S.

SOURCES:
Letters Dr. Miguel Alvarez del Toro,
Director, Parque Zoologico de Tuxtla
Gutierrez, Chiapas, Mexico.
Internaional Zoo Yearbook, numerous
issues, esp. Vol 6,1966, article by Dr.
Miguel Alvarez del Toro: "A Note on the
Breeding of Baird's Tapir, Tapirus bairdi, at
Tuxtl Gutierrez Zoo, pp 196-197.
Letter to from Dennis R.H. Levy to the
Tapir Research Institute, 24June 1973.
International Studblok forCentralAmerican
Tapir, 31XIL94, published by MichaelJ.
Crotty, Los Angeles Zoo.


Publications

Brooks, Daniel M.; RE. Bodmer; and S.
Matola, compilers. Tapin Status Survey and
Conservaion Action Plan. (English, Spanish,
Portuguese). Gland, Switzerland and
Cambridge, UK: IUCN/SSC Tapir
Specialist Group. IUCN; 1997; (viii)164
PP.
Janssen, D., RA. Rideout, and M.S.
Edwards. Tapir Medicine. In: Fowler. M.E-
and RE. Miller. Zoo and WddAnimde
Medicine: Curren Therapy 4. W.B. Saunders
Co. Philadelphia, USA. 1999. Pp. 562-568.
Marineros, Leonel and E Martinez-
Gallegos Guia de campo de los Mafferos de
Honduras (A fldguide to tdt nammnals of
Honduras) 374 pp. In Spanish. 13 full color
and 45 black and white illustrations;
includes rats, bats, marine mammals, skulls
and tracks). 53 distribution maps. Tapirs
appear on pp. 251-254. (Availability: see
section on Honduras.)
Naranjo. Eduardo. J. and E. Cruz.
Ecologia del tapir (Tapirns bairdii) en la
Reserve de la Biosfera La Sepulura,
Chiapas, M6xico. Actr Zoologica Mexicana.
1998; (73):111-125.
Scits, Stefan. Tapire im Zoo -
Bemerkungen zu Aktivitaeten,
Sozialverhalcen und interspezifischen
Kontakten. [Tapirs in Zoos remarks on
activities, social behavior and interspecific
interactions]. Der Zoologisrhe Garte N.E
1998; 68(1):17-38.
Todd, Sheryl and S. Matola. Tapir
Specialist Group: Conservation on the
Edges. Species. 1998Jun 30; (30):60-61.



TPF activities

The Tapir Preservation Fund was
founded in 1996 in Palisade, Colorado,
USA, and was granted 501 (c) (3)
charitable status in May 1998. Some of
our activities this year have included:
* Representingthe IUCN Tapir
Specialist Group at an international
conference on information technology
in conservation.
* Consulting on tapir biology, ecology
etc., for: The National Zoo in
Washington, D.C.; Charlestown
Library, NSW, Australia; Digital Frog
International, Inc.
* Providing a resource link from
Encyclopedia Britannica Online


Tapir Conservaion, Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group Editor: Sharon Maola, RO. Box 1787, Beize City, Belte E-mail: BelizeZoo@btl.ne / page 5













(http://www.eb.com)
* Producing the TPF News and the
Club Tapir flyer monthly.
* Receiving grants from the
Pittsburgh Zoo, the Columbus Zoo,
and several private donors.
* Applying for grants to support tapir
conservation projects and for our own
operating expenses.
* Raising over $2000.00 in eight
months through Club Tapir for tapir
conservation.
e Helping to support Ruben Nufiez,


Director for the TPF in Ecuador.
Nufiez gives approximately 20
conservation lectures a month, which
reach between 12,000 and 24,000
people annually. He has also helped
start a network of Ecology Clubs that
now total 40 branches made up of
students and young professionals.
* Maintaining an online tapir gift
shop.
a Expanding and maintaining The
Tapir Gallery. Between August 2 and
October 10, our opening page was


viewed 2021 times. For many visitors,
this is their first comprehensive
introduction to the four endangered
tapir species.
* Corresponding with several dozen
countries on many aspects of tapirs,
their biology and conservation.
* Maintaining several e-mail lists a
discussion list for professionals, an
update list for the web site, an
information list for the IUCN Tapir
Specialist Group and a new Tapir
Volunteer Network list.


FROM THE FIELD


All countries in which tapirs are known or
presumed to exist are listed. The
arrangement isgenerally north-to-south
beginning with the Americas and continuing
to Asia. Countries are listed whether or not
current reports are available. Populations
(given per country) are rough; much more
research is needed. Reports are welcomed by
the editors.

IUCN Categories, 1998:
Mountain tapir (Tapirus pinchaque):
Endangered (EN)
Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus):
Vulnerable (VU)
Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii):
Vulnerable (VU)
Lowland tapir (Tairus terrestris):
Lower Risk (LR) near threatened




How social are

tapirs?

The following is excerpted from an article by
Sheryl Todd and Sharon Matola published
in Species (Number30,june 1998, pp.
60-61). One or two minor correcion have
been made here; they do not change the tapir
facts in the article.

We have always thought of the tapir as
solitary except for mother-calf
situations and brief courtships. The
past several years of discoveries are
changing what we know about these


animals and their social organization.
Observations from as far apart as
Sumatra, Belize, Costa Rica, Ecuador,
and Brazil suggest that in all four
species, wild tapirs' behavior patterns
include much more companionship
activity than previously believed.
Sumatra:Jeremy Holden and
Debbie Martyr of FFI (Fauna and
Flora International) have found
repeated evidence in their camera traps
of adult tapirs traveling in pairs and
paired animals remaining together for
years. Holden and Martyr report one
striking bond: Holden found a freshly
killed adult male tapir placed near a
poachers' tiger trap for bait. Tracks
showed that a second adult and a
juvenile had stayed with the corpse.
Belize: An adult pair of Baird' s
tapirs (Tapirus bairdit), observed by
flashlight, wandered into the camp of
Sharon Matola.
Costa Rica: Charles and Sonia
Foerster observed that one adult
Baird's tapir waited for another adult
until radio-collaring of the latter was
complete. Also in Costa Rica, Eduardo
Naranjo repeatedly observed groups of
three tapirs, usually two adults and one
juvenile. Two park guards interviewed
separately reported seeing up to five
tapirs walking together along streams.
Ecuador: Craig Downer's 14
sightings of mountain tapirs (T.
pinchaque) in December 1996 included
eight adults in male-female pairings.
He believes December is the month
they usually breed; during other


months, most observations have been
solitary. Downer also suggests that
tapirs may pair for defense when they
and their habitat are threatened.
Brazil: Patricia Medici suggests
that adult T. terrestris in her study area
travel in two's; 135 km southeast,
Vlanir Rocha also observes adults
traveling together.
Clearly, the social behavior of wild
tapirs is an exciting new area for study,




Central America



Mexico
Balr's tapir (Tapirus baird
Estimated population: Unknown

A new TSG member from Mdxico is
Eduardo Naranjo, a student at the
University of Florida, Gainesville. His
interest in Baird's tapirs has included
the following studies:
a) Abundance, habitat use, and
feeding habits of Baird's tapir in
Corcovado National Park, Costa Rica;
b) A survey on the ecology of
Baird's tapir in the Costa Rican
piramo;
c) Two studies on distribution and
population status of tapirs in Chiapas,
Mexico.
In February 1998, he reported:
"This summer I will start a more


page 6 / Tapir Consavaton, Newsletter of ie IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group Editor: Shaon Matola, O. Box 1787, Belize City, Beize E-mall: BeizeZoo@bll.nel














systematic phase of the work on tapirs
and other ungulates in the Lacandon
forest of Chiapas. This will be a long-
term study and it will be the basis of
my doctoral research."
Naranjo also gave suggestions for
conservation of the Baird's tapir: "For
Mexico and Central America, it is
imperative to assure the protection of
the remaining habitat for tapirs inside
and outside the natural preserves. This
will be possible only if the local people
are aware of the importance of
conserving the species, and of course,
they must have alternatives for survival
other than cutting the forest for
farming and raising cattle. It is equally
important to generate basic
information on the distribution,
abundance, and use of the species by
local people.
In suggesting how the TSG might
contribute to tapir conservation,
Naranjo said, "The influence and
solidity of our opinions on local,
national, and international policies for
conserving tapirs and other
endangered wildlife species will be
much stronger if we have the support
and expertise of a diverse and well
organized group of people with
scientific knowledge and common
goals." He also stated that permanent
information exchange through the
TSG Newsletter and Tapir Talk, and
periodic meetings about every two
years would help further the goals of
the organization.

EduardoJ. Naranjo
303 Newins-ZieglerHall
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
enaranjo@ujl.edu
enaranjo@sck.ecosur.mx



Guatemala
Baird's tapir (Tpirus bairdi)
Estimated population: 1,000-2,000

Santiago Billy, a Guatemalan conserva-
tionist who has been studying scarlet
macaws,Am narcao, in Laguna del Tigre
National Park, northwest Guatemala,
Peten Department, has reported


numerous signs of tapir activity in this
area. However, increased oil
exploration and drilling threatens this
habitat as the building of roads will
bring about more human activities
there.



Belize
Baid's tapir (Tapirea bhra
Estimated population: 2,0003,000

Report from the field

A week long field trip into the
southern Maya Mountains ofBelize,
within the Chiquibul National Park,
specifically investigating scarlet macaw
activity there, also resulted in fifteen
sightings of tapir within a six day
period. All sightings occurred during
daytime hours. At one time, two tapirs
were noted to be browsing closely
together along the riverside.

Sharon Matala
Director Belize Zoo and
Tropical Education Center
Chai; Tapir Specialist Group
BelizeZoo@brl.net

Tapirs in a coloring book

Sharon Matola, Director of the Belize
Zoo, reports that a coloring book
featuring tapirs is in production,
thanks to Dave Thompson, Director of
Conservation at White Oak
Conservation Center in Yulee, Florida.
Mr. Thompson donated $100 to the
Belize Zoo specifically to help produce
a coloring book that will feature tapirs.
This coloring book is important
because it will be distributed in a
country that has responded eagerly to
two previous books about
conservation: The Adventures of
Hoodwink the Owl and The Further
Adventures of Hoodwink the Owl. Both
books, by Matola, show how
Hoodwink learns about Belize's native
wildlife.
These books, published in 1988 and
1993, respectively, fed Belize's
emerging conservation awareness -
started previously by the Belize Zoo


and Tropical Education Center. Now
every public library in Belize has
copies of these books.
Matola is hoping that,just as the
Hoodwink books raised general
conservation awareness in Belize, the
coloring book will raise awareness of
tapirs. While great strides have been
made by Matola through the Belize
Zoo and Tropical Education Center,
much is still to be done. Tapirs are still
eaten in Belize and habitat is still being
destroyed. The coloring book will
educate both children and adults.
It will be sold at the Belize Zoo and
Tropical Education Center, and
through the Zoo's web site:
http//www.belizcnet.com/
belizezoo.html



El Salvador
Bairdfs tapir (Tapirus bairdii)
Estimated Population: 0

It is believed that no tapirs remain in
El Salvador.



Honduras
Bairds tapir (Tapirus balrdi)
Estimated population: 1,000-2,000 in protected
areas; only protected areas are reported to
have tapir activity

In November 1998, Hurricane Mitch
wreaked unprecedented destruction in
Honduras and other countries of
Central America. On November 12,
TSG member Leonel Marineros
reported, "My country is devasted
from the hurricane, and the activities
in the protected areas are now more
difficult. The emergency priority is
the human being, and the
reconstruction of the country is our
next step. We don't know anything yet
about the impact on biodiversity and
protected areas, but the hurricane has
obviously had a deep impact. I
believe that on the Mosquitia coast
many animals were killed by the flood,
including tapirs. For example,
manatees will become stranded and die
because of becoming trapped in
remaining water, or false lagoons


Tapir Conosevan, Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group Editor: Sharon Matda, P.O. Box 1787, Belize Cy, Belize E-mail: BelzeZoo@btl.net / page 7















connected with the rivers if they
cannot return to the river." Marineros
hasjust completed a book:

Marineros, Leonel and F. Martinez-
Gallegos. Guide de campo delos Mamtferosde
Honduras (Afidd guide to dhe mammals of
Honduras) 374 pages. In Spanish. 13 full
color and 45 black and white illustrations;
includes rats, bats, marine mammals, skulls
and tracks). 53 distribution maps. Tapirs
appear on pages 251-254.

The book also has newly-listed
information about protected wild areas
and a good bibliography. Each
mammal is listed by its English name,
common name in Honduras,
characteristics, color, size, weight,
natural history (diet, reproduction,
habitatat and additional notes) and its
distribution in Honduras.
The book may be obtained by
sending a money order for $28 U.S.
(includes shipping) to Marineros at the
address below. It can also be purchased
from Sheryl Todd by credit card (Visa,
MasterCard, Amex) by e-mail:
tapir@tapirback.com, or see further
contact information on front cover of
the newsletter.

Contact and book orders:
Leoael Marineros
INADES
Instiuto Nacional deAmbiente y DsarrolUo
Apdo Postal 4160
Tegucigalpa, Honduras
inades@sdnhon.org.hn



Nicaragua
Bai's tapir (Tapius bairdii)
Estimated population: 500-1.000

Conservation work in Nicaragua has
been problematic because of buried
landmines, a remnant of the long civil
war there. The situation has worsened
due to Hurricane Mitch. Torrential
rains have washed the landmines away,
distributing them randomly and
dangerously increasing the hazard
which they present.


Costa Rica
Bard's tapir (Tapkus bairfl)
Estimated population: 1,000


Foerster project

The following is edited from a two-parr
report that appeared on Tapir Talk in June
1998. For maps, see Tapir Conservation,
Number 7, October 1997, page 8.

Participants: Charles R. Foerster, MS,
Project Ecologist; Sonia H. Foerster,
DVM, Project Veterinarian; Dan
Hilliard, Director of Zoo Conservation
Outreach Group (ZCOG); Rich Bard,
Tapir Keeper, Audubon Center for the
Reproduction ofEndangered Species
(ACRES).
Charles defended his Master's thesis
in April 1998. He graduated with an
Honorable Mention from The
National University of Costa Rica in
Tropical Ecology/Wildlife
Management. Sonia was accepted to
Comell University for a Postdoctoral
Fellowship in Zoo and Wildlife
Medicine.
We currently have sixteen animals
radio-collared, eight ofwhich were
captured in January, 1998. Three of the
eight females currently have offspring.
We had left our field assistant,Jeremy
Radachowsky, in Corcovado where he
has been collecting radiotelemetry,
behavioral and survivability data.
Goals for this trip included trying to
collar one of the juveniles, observing as
many radio-collared animals as
possible to determine the condition of
their collars, evaluatingJeremy's five
months of data, training a new assistant
(Alan Milan, a Costa Rican forestry
graduate and former park guard in
Tortuguero National Park), and
evaluating political conditions that
could affect our work. One positive
outcome was the return of Paulino as
head of the Sirena Station, as Paulino
is an excellent naturalist and park
guard. Additional good news: a
corridor is planned between
Corcovado and another park in the
neck of the peninsula.
We traveled to Costa Rica via New
Orleans, where the Audubon Zoo had


invited us to do a presentation on the
project. They donated $1,000 and lent
us ACRES's tapir keeper, Rich Bard.
We arrived in SanJose, Costa Rica,
May 7, 1998, and a few days later
arrived at the park where we observed
the effects of El Niio. The rainy
season was late, and creeks were
extremely low. On the day of our
arrival, Paulino reported that a fish kill
had begun the previous day. Hundreds
of dead fish lined the Sirena River, and
those still living seemed to be trying to
escape the river by swimming up small
tributaries. There was little water in
these creeks, now filled with hundreds
of large snapper and snook. We were
curious about the cause of the kill and
about its effects of it on other animals.
The dead fish attracted hundreds of
vultures; living fish accumulating in
small pools attracted large cats such as
jaguars and pumas, whose prints could
be seen on the shores. The river was
opaque and the color of tea. Neither
shore birds nor crocodiles seemed to
be affected, and crabs, shrimp and
other crustaceans appeared healthy.
At first we could not find any of the
tapirs that usually stayed near the
station, and we wondered if the
increase in large predators was the
cause. Roberta had kept her offspring
in about the same spot for a month,
but now even she had moved outside
the reach of our antennas. After three
days, we got her signal at her usual
spot. We were anxious to see the calf,
who must now be around ten months
old. Collaring him and following his
movements after he separates from his
mother will be extremely valuable for
our study. But, when we tried to locate
her, she ran, leaving only the distinct
stomping sound tapirs make to scare
and confuse pursuers. There was a
well-worn flat area on the shore of a
creek, surprisingly exposed, where she
spent her days. There were several
escape routes, and she had been using
the nearby creek as a water source and
for defecation. One of the pools is
deep enough for submerging. We left
bananas in hopes that she would
return.
The first radio-collared animal we
saw was Flash. His territory, along with
Big Mama's, is closest to Sirena station,


page 8 Tapir Conservation, Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group Editor Sharon Malola. O. Box 1787. Belize City, Belize E-mail: BelizeZoo@bll.nel
















and will attempt to clarify if and how
T pindhaque uses the piramo as a
feeding and resting area. From
information learned and methods
perfected in these studies, they will go
on to try to estimate the population of
T pinchaque in Colombia. They report
that in their study area the forest is
quite fragmented in the lower zone,
but is less so in the upper zone; higher
still, the paramo is in very good
condition.
Diego Lizcano adds that while the
project is currently located in the
Departamento de Tolima, it will soon
move to other sites along the
Cordillera Central in Colombia.

Valeria Pizarro
v-pizarr@uniandes.edu.co

Digo Lirncan
ecolvege@zeus.uniandes.edu.c

Laboralorio de Ecologfa Vgyetal
Departamento de Ciendas BiolMgicas
Universidad de los Andes
Carrra 1 No. 18A-70
Bogotd, Colombia

Colombia's tapirs

In southern Colombia, we have a
network of reserves owned mainly by
local townspeople and farmers. While
making assessments and biodiversity
inventories of these reserves over the
last three years, I have found relict
populations of mountain tapirs (Tapirs
pinchaque) in spectacular piramos and
mountain jungles. Besides tapirs, there
remain spectacled bears and other rare
mammals, such as pudu deer,
mountain woolly monkey, Andean
wolf, puma, and the mountain harpy
eagle (Oroaerus isidon).
But the news overall is not good.
After three years in the mountains of
southern Colombia, I have found that
the trend towards extinction of T
pinchaque continues at a fast pace. On
the Putumayo/Narilfo border, very
important areas for tapir and other
Andean wildlife, the destruction
continues even with increased
conservation awareness by the local
communities. The city government of


Pasto is planning to dam the upper
Guamues River. This project, the
"Multipurpose Project," will generate
electricity, fresh water and irrigation,
but it will also mean that huge areas of
piramo and prime mountain tapir
habitat will be flooded. Penetration
into the area by project workers
resulted in the killing of a female
mountain tapir last December. Her
calf was taken alive, but we have been
unable to locate it. We fear that it may
have been taken to a zoo outside of
Colombia. (There are currently
neither T pinchaque nor T bairdii in any
Colombian zoo that we are aware of
Sometimes rare Colombian animals
are used in exchanges with foreign
zoos for animals such as zebras or
camels that are hard for a Colombian
zoo to obtain.) [Ed note: Wealthy private
collectors will also pay ilegallyfor rar
species] Opening of the upper
Guamues area is also bringing local
hunters. We suspect that in the last
fifty years, hunting has been
responsible for killing hundreds of
mountain tapirs throughout its range.
In Colombia, hunting has decimated
mountain tapir populations in the
northern part of the Eastern Cordillera
(possibly up to the border of
Venezuela), in the central and
southern parts of the country, the
Southern Andes in Narifto south to
Ecuador and Peru, and most of the
Central Cordillera as far north as Los
Nevados National park or Nevado del
Ru(z. No records exist for the Western
Cordillera, but tapirs have been
observed on the upper ridges.
Due to control by local authorities,
a good-sized population seems to be
recovering in the Macizo Central
region after almost being wiped out by
hunters. In the Sumapaz region, south
of Bogoti, both mountain tapirs and
spectacled bears are reported to be
abundant due to control by guerrillas
(FARC, Revolutionary Colombian
Armed Forces) in the area. They have
announced that it is forbidden to
molest or 611 either of these species,
and harsh penalties are exacted from
those who do so.
Until the 1960s, the mountain tapir
was quite abundant around Laguna de


La Cocha. The tapir population in this
area was abundant and so unafraid of
humans that hunters were able to kill
them easily. They were tracked with
dogs and chased into rivers, where
they were then killed with machetes,
spears or shotguns (methods still used
for hunting mountain tapirs). In the
last twenty years, the mountain tapir
has been reported as very rare by the
local community, although they say
that the animal still exists in paramos
and forests further from the village.
Recently I have heard from a
reliable source that the mountain tapir
is quite abundant in the southern part
of the Paramo de Sumapaz, the largest
of the Andean paramos, located south
of Bogoti, on the Eastern Cordillera.
There is a strong guerilla presence in
the area, which insures the protection
of mountain tapir, spectacled bear and
other rare wildlife.
It will be important for us to learn
where in Colombia the abundant
populations of mountain tapirs are
located. I hope to be able to take pan
in such an effort if resources can be
found. Once the project is undertaken,
it will be necessary to move cautiously,
because the guerrillas are very strong
in many of the andes of Colombia, and
the war will pose threats to
researchers. It is rather incredible to
observe that the guerrillas are trying to
preserve the species by means of strict
laws and enforcement, where the
government of Colombia has failed
through inability and lack of interest.
InJanuary 1998 researchers found
abundant tracks of an unknown
species at 3000 m on the western slope
of the Farallones de Call in the
Western Cordillera. It could be either
T pinchaque or T bairdii. Baird's tapir is
reported to reach elevations of 3600 m
(Tapir Action Plan p. 31), while the
mountain tapir may descend to 1400
m (Downer 1997). Today, T bairdii is
very rare in the jungles of western
Colombia (the Choco), but locals still
report it in a few inaccesible areas. No
recent reports have been published on
this species in Colombia.
There is a contact zone between T
bairdii and T terresris colombianus where
both species are sympatric (the upper


page 10 /TapirConservation, Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group Editor: Sharon Matola, PO. Box 1787, Belize City, Belize E-mail: BelizeZoo@bU.net














and will attempt to clarify if and how
T pinchaque uses the paramo as a
feeding and resting area. From
information learned and methods
perfected in these studies, they will go
on to try to estimate the population of
T pinchaque in Colombia. They report
that in their study area the forest is
quite fragmented in the lower zone,
but is less so in the upper zone; higher
still, the paramo is in very good
condition.
Diego Lizcano adds that while the
project is currently located in the
Departamento de Tolima, it will soon
move to other sites along the
Cordillera Central in Colombia.

Valeria Piarr
v-pizarr@uniandes.edu.co

Diego Lltrano
ewlvege@russ.uniandes.edu.co

Laboratorio de Ecoloaga Vegeal
Departantenio de Ciencias Bioldgicas
Universidad de los Andes
Canrre 1 No. 18A-70
Bogotd, Colombia

Colombia's tapirs

In southern Colombia, we have a
network of reserves owned mainly by
local townspeople and farmers. While
making assessments and biodiversity
inventories of these reserves over the
last three years, I have found relict
populations of mountain tapirs (Tapinus
pinchaque) in spectacular paramos and
mountainjungles. Besides tapirs, there
remain spectacled bears and other rare
mammals, such as pudu deer,
mountain woolly monkey, Andean
wolf puma, and the mountain harpy
eagle (Oroaetus isidor).
But the news overall is not good.
After three years in the mountains of
southern Colombia, I have found that
the trend towards extinction of T
pinchaque continues at a fast pace. On
the Putumayo/Narifio border, very
important areas for tapir and other
Andean wildlife, the destruction
continues even with increased
conservation awareness by the local
communities. The city government of


Pasto is planning to dam the upper
Guamues River. This project, the
"Multipurpose Project," will generate
electricity, fresh water and irrigation,
but it will also mean that huge areas of
pdramo and prime mountain tapir
habitat will be flooded. Penetration
into the area by project workers
resulted in the killing of a female
mountain tapir last December. Her
calf was taken alive, but we have been
unable to locate it. We fear that it may
have been taken to a zoo outside of
Colombia. (There are currently
neither T pinchaque nor T bairdii in any
Colombian zoo that we are aware of
Sometimes rare Colombian animals
are used in exchanges with foreign
zoos for animals such as zebras or
camels that are hard for a Colombian
zoo to obtain.) [Ed note: Wealthy private
collectors will also pay illegallyfor rare
species ] Opening of the upper
Guamues area is also bringing local
hunters. We suspect that in the last
fifty years, hunting has been
responsible for killing hundreds of
mountain tapirs throughout its range.
In Colombia, hunting has decimated
mountain tapir populations in the
northern part of the Eastern Cordillera
(possibly up to the border of
Wnezuela), in the central and
southern parts of the country, the
Southern Andes in Nariflo south to
Ecuador and Peru, and most of the
Central Cordillera as far north as Los
Nevados National park or Nevado del
Ruiz. No records exist for the Western
Cordillera, but tapirs have been
observed on the upper ridges.
Due to control by local authorities,
a good-sized population seems to be
recovering in the Macizo Central
region after almost being wiped out by
hunters. In the Sumapaz region, south
of Bogota, both mountain tapirs and
spectacled bears are reported to be
abundant due to control by guerrillas
(FARC, Revolutionary Colombian
Armed Forces) in the area. They have
announced that it is forbidden to
molest or kill either of these species,
and harsh penalties are exacted from
those who do so.
Until the 1960s, the mountain tapir
was quite abundant around Laguna de


La Cocha. The tapir population in this
area was abundant and so unafraid of
humans that hunters were able to kill
them easily. They were tracked with
dogs and chased into rivers, where
they were then killed with machetes,
spears or shotguns (methods still used
for hunting mountain tapirs). In the
last twenty years, the mountain tapir
has been reported as very rare by the
local community, although they say
that the animal still exists in paramos
and forests further from the village.
Recently I have heard from a
reliable source that the mountain tapir
is quite abundant in the southern pan
of the Paramo de Sumapaz, the largest
of the Andean paramos, located south
of Bogoti, on the Eastern Cordillera.
There is a strong guerilla presence in
the area, which insures the protection
of mountain tapir, spectacled bear and
other rare wildlife.
It will be important for us to learn
where in Colombia the abundant
populations of mountain tapirs are
located. I hope to be able to take part
in such an effort if resources can be
found. Once the project is undertaken,
it will be necessary to move cautiously,
because the guerrillas are very strong
in many of the andes of Colombia, and
the war will pose threats to
researchers. It is rather incredible to
observe that the guerrillas are trying to
preserve the species by means of strict
laws and enforcement, where the
government of Colombia has failed
through inability and lack ofinterest.
InJanuary 1998 researchers found
abundant tracks of an unknown
species at 3000 m on the western slope
of the Farallones de Cali in the
Western Cordillera. It could be either
T pinchaque or T bairdii. Baird's tapir is
reported to reach elevations of 3600 m
(Tapir Action Plan p. 31),while the
mountain tapir may descend to 1400
m (Downer 1997). Today, T bairdii is
very rare in thejungles of western
Colombia (the Choco), but locals still
report it in a few inaccesible areas. No
recent reports have been published on
this species in Colombia.
There is a contact zone between T
baindii and T temslris colombianus where
both species are sympatric (the upper


page 10 / Tapir Conservaia. Newsleter of the IUCWNSSC Tapir Specialist Group Editor: Sharon Maola, PO. Box 1787, Belize Cty. Beize E-mal: BellzeZoo@btl.nel













Sini and Paramillo National Park).
Studies on their interaction (and
presence of hybrids?) and current
status are urgently needed. If T
pinchaque is found in the upper ridges
of the Western Cordillera, there could
be a contact zone between it and iT
bairdii.
In Colombia there is also a rare and
very endangered subspecies of T
teresris, T terrstris colombianus, which
inhabits the jungles of the Magdalena
Medio, the Sierra Nevada de Santa
Marta, the Catatumbo and the upper
Sind River (an important watershed in
the northern Andes). This is quite
different from the more common
eastern lowland tapir (from the Llanos
and Amazonia). The subspecies is
almost wiped out, but it still inhabits
the Serrania de San Lucas, one of areas
in the world most overrun with
noncommercial (personal) mines. It
also exists in some sectors of the upper
Sind River.
In Colombia we also have T.
terrestris, or eastern [lowland] tapir; it
inhabits the eastern planes or Llanos,
in the gallery forests along the water
bodies, but it is now rare in most of its
Llanos range due to overhunting. It
subsists in remote areas but it is always
taken as the prime hunting trophy.
Even local indigenous people have
decimated their tapir populations due
to encroachment of their territories
and overhunting. In the Amazon
jungles it is quite abundant in some
remote areas, but elsewhere, especially
near important rivers and communi-
ties it is overhunted and now very rare.
Our network of private reserves has
achieved success by combinging
education and incentives. In fact, it has
now become a model for a similar
program in Ecuador supported by (but
independent from) Fundaci6n Natura.
To achieve success, it is necessary that
the local community understands the
importance of conservation, so a good
education program is needed along
with the conservation program.
Recognition and even incentives for
the program aimed to support the local
communities and their well-being are
also very important; this can be
achieved when other communities and
people from outside the local region


begin to visit the community and ask
them about their conservation
program. However, until the local
program is fully established, the
community has to have a counterplan
in case the local hunters appear. We
have to be careful about giving exact
localities for the presence of animals,
because not only local hunters but
professional hunters for the zoo trade
are looking for areas with tapirs.
Of course, the participation and
will of the local community is the first
and most important requirement, and
sometimes it is advisable to work with
the local authorities and leaders. A
good point is to work with local
children and youth, to build up an
ecological movement and begin
the education and conservation efforts
at the same time.
Colombia is the only country that
still has three species of Tapinis (and
one subspecies), but if nothing is
done, this world record won't last
much longer.

Emilio Constantino
Advisor
National Network of Private Re.reves of
the Civilian Society
Colombia
hutp:/cali.cetco. net. co/resnaturl
enillo@cali cetcol.net.co



Venezuela
Lowland tapir (Taphs twsrass)
Estimated population: Unknown
Mountaki tapir (Taprus phdtaque)
it s unknown f this species ever Ned In
Venezuela: i so, it is probably exinct
there now

One new TSG member is Denis
Alexander Torres of Venezuela,an
environmentalist and nature
illustrator. Dennis Torres has a strong
interest in tapirs, although his primary
research for the past eight years has
been with the Andean or spectacled
bear (Trenmrctos ornatus) in the
mountains of Venezuela. As of last
spring, he was planning studies on
Andean mammals, hoping to learn,
among other things, something about
the distribution and status ofTapirus


terraris in the Venezuelan Andes. He
reports that information available
about this species in the region is very
scarce.
Torres also coordinates
environmental education programs in
rural schools. He suggests that in
Venezuela it is very important to
promote research on tapirs and other
large tropical mammals.
"Unfortunately, here the principal
interest is directed toward small
mammals, mainly rodents and bats."
He emphasizes the importance of
getting information to the public about
the tapir and its conservation. Research
techniques used in other countries for
these large mammals would be
welcomed as an adjunct to current
education in Venezuela.
Although factual information is
rare, there is already an interest in
tapirs through culture and folklore.
"For example, last year the tapir was
the logo for the National Juvenile
Sport Games celebrated in Yaracuy
State." Near this city islocated the
Maria Lionza Natural Monument, a
protected area which includes tapirs.
This location is the site of a indigenous
legend about the tapir and an Indian
princess named Maria Lionza. A large
statue of the princess riding a tapir can
be found in Caracas.
Torres also suggests that an
international database of information
collected from work done on various
tapir research projects would be
extremely valuable.

Contact:
Denis Alexander Torres
Coordinator,
Andean Bear Project PROVITA
Crupo Andigena
Apdo. Postal210, Mirida 5101-A
Edo. Merida, Venezula
andigena @fores.ula.ve



Trinidad &

Tobago
Lowlnd tapir (Tapirn twnests)
Estimated population: Unknown

No report.


Tapir Conservalion, Newsletter of the IJCWISSC Tapir Specialist Group Editor: Sharon Matola, PO. Box 1787, Beize City, Belize E-mail: BelizeZoo@bU.net / page 11















Guyana
Lowlad tapir (TaWpus terresMs)
Estimated popdlaton: Unknown

No report.



Surinam
Lowlandl tapir (Tapis etmeslrs}
Estimated popualaton: Unknown

No report.



French Guiana
Lowland tapir (Tapk s taresris)
Estimated population: Unknown

No report.



Brasil
Lowland tapir (Tapus terresris)
Estimated population: Unlknow

Medici study moves into
new phase

Throughout 1997, Patricia Medici and
her team continued their study of
Tapius lemrstris auto-ecology and
behavior in Morro do Diabo State
Park, a protected area in the Brazilian
Atlantic forest of the Pontal do
Paranapanema Region, Western Sio
Paulo State, Brasil. In the latter part of
1998 and moving into 1999, the
project has taken on a broader aspect.
Medici and her associates (the IPE
team), are conducting a project
entitled, "The Conservation Status of
Jaguars, Pumas and Tapirs and their
Potential as Landscape Detectives for
the Brazilian Atlantic Forest." The
Brazilian Atlantic Forest is one of the
most threatened biomes in the world.
As in previous years, the tapir
portion of the project is managed by
Patricia Medici, Conservation
Biologist. Overall project manager is
Laury Cullen,Jr., Research Manager.
Medici and Cullen are both Brazilian.
Other Brazilians on the project are


Paulo Mangini, W1terinarian, and
Conservation Biologist Claudio
Vlladares Padua, PhD. Two
Americans are on the team: Beatriz
Perez-Sweeney, Molecular Geneticist,
and Don Melnick, PhD, also a
Molecular Geneticist.
The aim of this project is to protect
one of the last remaining Atlantic
Forest populations ofjaguars, pumas,
and lowland tapirs. All are listed in the
"red book" of Brazilian threatened
species and ranked on other threatened
and/or vulnerable species lists (IUCN,
1996,1997). The project will
indirectly benefit other key and related
prey species such as, peccaries, deer
and agoutis still present in the study
region.
Patricia Medici began trapping her
first tapirs in 1996, and preliminary
field work on this new area of the
project (using the three species as
landscape detectives) began inJanuary
1998. The project should cover a three
year period. Objectives include:
* Estimation of population size for
jaguars, pumas and tapirs in Morro do
Diabo State Park and neighboring
Atlantic Forest fragments;
* Description of home range size;
* Analyses of genetic variability;
* Description and mapping of the
principal daily and dispersal routes
throughout the landscape using the
three collared species as "landscape
detectives;" this will indicate the
potential areas to be conserved and
restored as wildlife corridors.
Individuals will be trapped and
radio-collared, and their movements
mapped. Preliminary population
estimates suggest that not more than
15 jaguars, 15 pumas and 400 tapirs
survive in the Pontal do Paranapanema
Region, consisting of the 35,000 ha
forest of the Mono do Diabo State
Park and the 10,000 ha of surrounding
forest fragments. These numbers are
well below the viable number of 500
recommended for long-term
population viability and survival.
Preliminary information has shown
that these species still survive in very
small forest patches, mainly because
they are able to exploit surrounding
resources and move long distances
between forest fragments.


Long-term conservation will
probably require measures to rescue
their genetic variability. The team also
plans to restore and conserve the most
used dispersion routes or corridors,
keeping landscape connectivity and,
therefore, the metapopulation scenario
for these large and keystone species for
this threatened ecosystem.
The Brazilian Atlantic Forest
supports 8% of species on the planet,
many of them endemic and threatened
with extinction. Today these Plateau
Forests are the most threatened
ecosystem ofthe Atlantic Forest.
Approximately 2% ofthe original
cover remains. Nearly all remaining
forest in the Plateau is found in the
Pontal do Paranapanema region, in the
extreme western "point" of Slo Paulo
State. This region alone supports 85%
of all the Plateau ecosystem in the
state, and a large part of this percentage
is represented by the 35,000 hectares
of Morro do Diabo State Park.
Notable among the diverse fauna in
the Park is the rare and endemic black-
lion tamarin.
The loss of large ungulates such as
tapirs may trigger adverse effects in the
Plateau remnants and affect ecosystem
integrity. The scanty evidence available
from the Atlantic Forest leads the team
to believe that the absence of tapir,
peccaries and deer may also cause
disruptions of some key ecological
process, such as seed predation,
dispersal and nutrient recycling that
help to maintain biodiversity and
ecosystem functioning.
Information gained from the study
will facilitate implementation of two
management plans critical to the
conservation of this ecosystem: (1)
metapopulational management of large
carnivores and tapirs and (2)
restoration of main wildlife corridors.
Between 1996 and 1998, Patricia
Medici radio-collared eight (3.5)
lowland tapirs. (One died in 1998, a
sub-adult male, possibly killed by a
jaguar or by snake bite.) The most
recent capture occurred in December,
1998, during Sharon Matola's visit.
She was present for manipulation and
collaring. In the study region, the team
has documented that jaguars, pumas
and tapirs frequently wander outside


page 12 / Tapir Conservaion, Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group Editor: Sharon Matola, RO. Box 1787, Belize City, Belize E-mail: BelizeZoo@bl.net















large forests sources, such as Morro do
Diabo State Park. They cross open
areas using degraded forest corridors
along rivers in order to reach forest
fragments. These individuals appear to
use the smaller fragments as stepping
stones during their temporary
movements outside main forest.
Therefore, these species will be used as
as "landscape detectives," indicating the
most frequented dispersal routes and
pathways.
The capture goal is 30-40% of the
total jaguar and puma population and
10% of the lowland tapir population.
This is considered a significant sample
size for analysis in felines
(Rabinowitz, 1993) and tapirs (IUCN,
1997). These percentages represents 5-
6 individuals of each carnivore and
about 20-25 tapirs. Pitfall traps will
continue to be used for tapirs. They
consist of a hole 210 x 150 x 230 cm
covered and camouflaged with forest
debris. This method has proven very
successful and safe for the eight tapirs
already captured.
For tapirs, the veterinarian
responsible for anesthetizing captured
animals uses a CO, gun with
adjustable pressure (Telinject USA,
Inc.) and a seringe dart with a 0.7 inch
needle (long enough to avoid reaching
bone other vital tissues). The new
protocol is based on a combination of
Medetomidine Hydrochloride
(Domitor) and Telazol. When
necessary, a medetomidine reversing
agent will be used. The name of this
antagonist drug is Atipemazole
Hydrochloride (Antisedan). Corporal
measurements, weights, sex and
general health will be recorded for
each animal.
After fitting the animals with radio-
collars, they will be tracked on foot, by
car, or airplane, depending on terrain
conditions. The animal's position will
be triangulated and plotted on a
latitude/longitude grid using CAMRIS
3.46 (Computer Aided Mapping
Resource Inventory System). GPS will
be used for the marking of coordinates
of the location areas.
Genetic information will be used to
analyze evidence of inbreeding, social
structures, and the construction of
pedigrees. These will facilitate analyses


of inbreeding coefficients, social
systems, demography, and the long
term genetic viability of the
populations.
Blood and sperm samples will be
collected from captured animals. The
sperm of male individuals usually
contains significant quantities of
semen to detect morphological defects
on individual spermatozoids. This can
provide important information about
an individual's reproductive viability.
Also, blood and external parasites will
be collected for analysis of possible
diseases. These analyses will be carried
out in the Molecular Genetics
Laboratory at CERC (Center of
Environmental Research and
Conservation), Columbia University,
New York.
Future metapopulational
management may include the shifting
(i.e. reintroductions, translocations and
managed long distance dispersal) of
individuals among fragments.
Guaranteeing the permanence of these
key carnivores and ungulates, along
with their ecological roles in the
ecosystem is a national responsibility.
Acknowledgements: Fundo
Nacional do Meio Ambiente (FNMA,
Brazilian Government), Forestry
Institute ofSio Paulo State (IF/SMA),
Ecological Station ofAssis (IF/SMA),
Smithsonian Institution, IBAMA,
WPTI (Wildlife Preservation Trust
International), TPF (Tapir Preservation
Fund), TSG (Tapir Specialist Group,
IUCN), Lincoln Park Zoo, Brookfield
Zoo (Chicago Zoological Society).

Patricia Medici
Conservation Biologist
fumIaca@sterne.com.br

Laury Cullen,Jr., MsC
Research Coordinator
klullm@stelnet.com.br

IPP Instituto de Ftsquisas Ecokgica
Caii Posltl 47
Nazari Pulista Sio Iulo BRAZIL
CEP: 12960-000
Ph/Fax Central Offe: 55 11 7861 1327
htp://wuw. lapirback. com/rapirgalfourland/
medic
htp ://wum' coumbia. edu/cu/cerc/IPE/
detecdives.html


Tapirs still found in Rio
Grande do Sul

Renato Affonso, has recently
completed a project in the state of Rio
Grande do Sul (extreme south of
Brazil). His study site was the Estagio
Ecoldgica de Aracuri (Ecological
Station ofAracuri). The project, which
will result in a thesis, involved area use
by tapirs. This is especially good news,
as Patricia Medici reports having been
told many times by people from the
south that tapirs no longer existed in
the state of Rio Grande do Sul. After
completing his study, Affonso began
teaching at the Juiz de Fora University
in Minas Gerais State, Brasil.



Ecuador
Bard's tapir (Tapius baidi)
Estimated population: Unknown: probably extinct
Mountain tapir (Tapius pkichaque)
Estimated population: 1,000
Lowland tapir (Tawus terresbts)
Esilmlated population: Unknown

Craig Downer reports

The mountain tapir project in Ecuador
is progressing reasonably well. Ruben
Nufiez continues to give
environmental education talks with
slide and film showings in
communities around the Sangay and
LUanganates National Parks. In
addition, he works with some of these
communities on developing alternative
lifestyles that would obviate the need
to continue destroying the remaining
cloud forests and paramos through
slash and bum. Unsound agricultural
practices need to be curtailed if true
success is to be achieved. These
practices include cultivating slopes that
are much too steep and grazing cattle
and sheep on these same steep slopes,
often after the topsoil has been
stripped by years of exposure through
cultivation.
It is necessary to get people to care
about the mountain tapir and the
highland ecosystem from which it is
inseparable, to value the animal both in


Tapir Conservaion, Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group Editor: Sharon Matola, P.O. Box 1787, Belize City, Belize E-mail: BeizeZoo@btl.net / page 13














its own right and for the tremendous
ecological service which it provides. I
have spoken before of the "living
sponge" which the Andean forests and
piramos constitute. In the talks given
by Ruben and myself we stress the
vital importance of the highland
watersheds remaining intact where still
intact or being restored where
destructive inroads have been made.
We point out the crucial role which is
played by the mountain tapir in
disseminating a large percentage of the
seeds of flowering plants so that they
may successfully germinate in the
fertile bed which the tapirs feces
provide. In my study area of Sangay
N.P the mountain tapir was estimated
to disseminate 33% of the species of
flowering plants found there,
according to germination experiments
and my comparison of transect with
dietary analysis. More complete
analysis of these results should soon be
published.
Public education is a beginning, but
it must be followed up by action. For
example, cattle must be expelled from
the Culebrillas and Yanayacu sectors of
Sangay National Park and people living
in the area of the parks must be
encouraged to adopt ecologically
sustainable lifestyles.
A march took place on the 29th of
April, 1998, in Ambato, the capital of
Tungurahua state, Ecuador. Ruben and
I helped organize this together with
officials, school teachers and students.
The march received considerable
attention both locally and nationally,
and a major newspaper out of Quito,
El Comenio, promised to investigate
the Culebrillas sector's problem with
cattle invasion. However, I believe that
articles addressing these issues need a
clearer focus on the precise
conservation requirements needed for
tapirs to survive in the wild.
An example would be the
suggestion to secure more areas under
the firm protection of the law and the
conscientious protection of the local
citizenry. For a decade or longer, the
mountain tapir has been legally
protected in all three countries of its
occurrence: Peru, Ecuador and
Colombia. It is on CITES Appendix I,
and international trade in this animal,


alive or dead, is forbidden under treaty.
However, this species continues to
decline due to overhunting and,
especially in the border areas, trade in
its pans. Both Piura and Cajamarca
states of northwestern Peru near the
frontier of Ecuador deserve particular
attention. Here there is considerable
trade in animal parts for traditional
medicine in Sullana and Piura as well
as other cities in Peru and Ecuador.
The governments need to enforce the
laws already on the books to show that
they are serious about saving the
mountain tapirs. Evidence has shown
that an alarming number of Ecuador's
tapirs end up in Peruvian markets.
What is needed is a concerted
international effort to end the illegal
sales and trafficking. This could be
accomplished through a combination
of public education and effective and
well-publicized law enforcement.
The effort to create an international
peace park in the frontier regions of
southern Ecuador and northern Peru
may become a reality. Such a park
would help ameliorate differences
between these two nations and would
help save a large part of the most
extensive mountain tapir occupied
region remaining. This new park
involves the Cordillera del Condor, a
fascinating biogeographical region
containing a mixture of plant and
animal species from the wetter
northern Andes and the drier central
Andes. The yellow tailed woolly
monkey co-occurs here with the
mountain tapir and recently a new
species of spiny rat was discovered by
Dr. Luis Albuja, a mammalogist from
the Escuela Politecnica Nacional in
Quito. By establishing an extensive
international park of at least 300,000
hectares in this region, many vital
ecological services, including equitable
water provision, would be maintained
and seriously endangered species such
as the mountain tapir would be
safeguarded in long-term viable
populations. Ecotourism could be
developed in association with the park,
but should be limited so as to not
overly impact.
Beginning in December 1998, I will
be working on a mountain tapir
relocation project in northern Ecuador.


A nature film company will film this
translocation project for distribution.
Finally, a Korean film company will
produce an English version of a film
on the mountain tapirs made earlier
this year with the help of myself and
Ruben Nunez. This film was shown at
a Japanese Earth Film Festival in late
August 1998. A Spanish-language
version of the film is also promised by
the producer for use in grass roots
education. A book with a chapter on
the mountain tapirs and magazine
articles in Korean will be published
shortly. I have provided photos for
both endeavors.

Craig C. Downer
Andean Tapir Fund
PO Box 456
Minden Nevada 89423 USA

Nufiez's work expands

During 1998, Ruben Nunez of Baios,
Tungurahua, Ecuador, expanded his
work with local ecology education. He
has expanded the number of Ecology
Clubs from about six to forty over the
past year and has spent much of 1998
developing a strong interest through
Tungurahua and neighboring
provinces in conservation of mountain
taipir habitat. Grants from the
Columbus Zoo, Pittsburgh Zoo, Tapir
Preservation Fund and private donors
have aided his work. As Director for
the Tapir Preservation Fund in
Ecuador, Nufiez has brought the tapir
to the forefront of conservation
awareness in Central Ecuador,
reaching about 12,000 to 24,000 people
annually in his lectures and
conferences. During the latter part of
1998 and moving into 1999, Nunez
has worked with INEFAN (the
National Park Service in Ecuador) and
the Tapir Preservation Fund to begin to
set aside preserve areas bordering
Sangay National Park and the newly
designated Llanganates National Park-
both important conservation areas for
Tapirus pinchaque. We are preparing a
detailed report for the March, 1999,
Tapir Conservation Newsletter.

Contact:


page 14 / Tapir Cwservaion, Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group Editor Sharon Matola. RO. Box 1787, Belize City, Belize E-mail: BellzeZoo@btLnet













Ruben Wdforido Noiies Sanchrz
Rocafuerte 806 yJuan Le6n Mera
Barrio Ecologico 5 dejunio
Baios, Tungurahua, Ecuador


Peru
Lowland tapir (Tapirus trrestis)
Estimated population: Unknown
Mountain tapir (Tapirus pinchaque)
Estimated population: 200
Jorge Cebreros reports seeing tracks
and feces of mountain tapir at
approximately seven of the lakes in the
Tabaconas/Namballe National
Sanctuary which borders the
Tabaconas alley (aka "Spectacled Bear
National Sanctuary") earlier this year.
The lakes are at an elevation of about
3,400m and the lowland tapir is not
known to exist over 1500m (Downer
1996) or 2000m (Constantino, pers.
comm.). A large number of bear and
puma tracks were also seen.
The local Forestry Department has
just made a trail to these lakes. If hikers
use only the prepared trail, there will
be less damage to the fragile ecosystem
than if each person entering the area
creates his own pathway. These
pathways can even be accidental, as it's
difficult to walk on the steep, muddy
slope without creating a trail. Trails
used by humans were often created
first by tapirs and are still used by
them. "The whole area surrounding
the lakes is like a sponge," says
Cebreros, "and just stepping on this
sponge can leave a permanent
footprint. Hopefully by educating the
local people we can help offset any
potential damage before it's too late.
SIAT (Instituto para la Agricultura
Sustentable del Tr6pico), along with its
staff, is willing to help. In our area
there is much superstition, and I have
personally seen many hooves in the
local markets. People still hunt for
tapirs here." SIAT uses both the
spectacled bear and the mountain tapir
on their logo.
An expedition to the lakes will take
place during the first week of
November, 1998. About 12 people,
mostly from the Forestry Department,
are going to look for the mountain
tapir and make an inventory of the


flora. They plan to stay about a week.
They would like to set up a permanent
lookout to confirm the mountain
tapirs' existence here. There is some
concern about whether the tapirs will
leave the area if they are disturbed.
The Forestry Service hopes to set aside
areas that will maintain the pristine
environment and will be offlimits to
humans. "

Jorge Cebrern
President, SIAT
Instituto para a Agiculturm Sustentable del
Trdpico (Insitutefor Sustainable Agricuture
in the Tropics)
RO. Box 1,Jaen Per
Tel/Fax: (51-44) 73 1592
http://wwun.cosapidata.com.pe/enmprsa/siat/s
iat.htm
siarmail.cosapidata.com.pe



Bolivia
Lowland tapir (Tapiras trestis)
Estimated population: Unknown
The Museum of Natural History
"Noel Kempff Mercado" in Santa
Cruz, Bolivia, is working on a study to
determine whether any differences
exist between the lowland tapir (Tapirus
enrrstris) found in the dry forests of
southern Bolivia and the lowland tapir
that inhabits Brazil's Amazon region.
The museum has not been able to
locate any published studies that
would reveal genetic variations.

Teddy Marcelo Siles L.azZ
Universidad Gabriel Rene Moreno
Av Irala #565
Santa Cruz de la Sierra
Santa Cruz Bolivia
triles@museo.scz.net



Paraguay
Lowland tapir (TapIrs efrestls)
Estimated population: Unknown
No report.


Argentina
Lowland tapir (Tapirs terrsstris)
Estimated population: Unknown
No report.



Uruguay
Lowland tapir (Tpirau terrsses)
Estimated population Unknown
No report.


Southeast Asia


Myanmar

(Burma)
Malayan tapir (Tpirus indicus)
Estimated population: Unknown
No report.



Laos
Malayan tapir (Taplrus krndes)
Estimated population Unknown
No report.



Vietnam
Malayan tapir (Tapirs Indicus)
Estimated population: Unknown
No report.



Thailand
Malayan tapir (Tapues idicus)
Estimated population: 3.500 (updated)
Although the Royal Forest Department
(RFD) has not carried out any research
on the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus),
they, along with Mahidol University in
Bangkok, manage a database of
sightings/distribution of endangered


Tapir Conservaon. Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specilist Group Editor: Sharon Matola. RO. Box 1787. Belize City, Belize E-mail BelizeZoo@btl.net / page 15














species. This database contains some
interesting tapir data, including the
following:

% original habitat lost = 62.4
% original habitat protected = 14.1
% remaining habitat protected = 37.4
Expected protected population = 1900
Expected total population = 3500

The database is considered reliable,
since only 100% definite sightings are
entered. Most of the information has
been collected while the RFD were
training 700 tiger rangers throughout
Thailand. Although established in
1986, the majority of data has been
collected in the last few years.

Confirmed areas of
tapir distribution total area status *
Khao Pra-BangKhram 173kmn 4
Khao Luang 570km2 4
Erawan 467kmr 4
SaiYok 912km2 4
Khao Sok 693km' 5
Kaeng Krachan 3083km2 4
Khao Phanom Bencha 50knm 4
Khao Pu-KhaoYa 641km' 4
Khao Lam Pi-Hat TM 74kmr 4
Khlong Nakha 463km' 4
Huai Kha Khaeng 2575kmr 4
ThungYai Naresuan 3200km' 4
KhIongSaeng 1046km' 4
Ton Nga Chang 184km' 4
Khlong Phraya 121km' 4
Umphang 2548km' 4
*4Scarce <1 animal/sq. km
5 Occasional > but< 10 animals/sq. I

Information submitted by:
Sophie Sharpe
brucesophie@hotmail.con



Cambodia
Malayan lapi (Taprus indaus)
Estimated population: Unknown

No report.



Malaysia
Malayan lapi (Tapirus indus)
Estimated population: Unknown

No report.


Indonesia
Malayan tapir (Tatrus/ni us)
Estimated population: Unknown

Sumatra is the one place in Indonesia
where tapirs still exist in the wild. In
recent times they have lived on the
islands ofJava and Borneo, but are
now confined to Sumatra. Not only is
that island the last refuge of tapirs in
this country, but the Sumatran tapir
has by some been given the status of
subspecies, Tapiru indicrs sumarranus,
while the mainland species is called
Tapinsn indicus indicus. Since locations of
wild-caught tapirs are unknown (more
often than not) and since the Sumatran
and mainland tapirs have been
interbred in zoos for decades, the wild
Sumatran tapir is our only chance to
study this subspecies alive. No-one
knows how many are left. There has
never been a serious study on the
distribution and numbers of the tapir
in Sumatra. There is some information
available on areas where tapir have
been recorded or are believed to be
present, obtained from management
plans, survey reports and similar
sources. Some of this (with errors) has
been summarized by Charles
Santiapillai in Tiger Paper. Nico van
Strien suggests that "it would be useful
to extract tapir data from the more
recent field studies and survey reports.
Another source of distribution data is
the large number of environmental
impact studies that have been produced
in recent years for all logging
concessions and all large development
projects. But tracing such documents
can be very time consuming, and the
reliability of the information varies.
"At this moment there is no
fieldwork being done on tapir, perse,
although some data are obtained
through other field studies such as the
tiger survey in Way Kambas and the
GEF rhino project in Barisan Selatan
and Kerinci-Seblat National Parks. So
far, recent information has not been
summarized and evaluated.
"There is very little interest in the
tapir in Indonesia, and the general
opinion is that the situation is such that
no special protection measures are
required. There is little hunting


pressure on tapirs, because they do not
have highly priced parts and Muslims
usually refrain from eating its meat.
Tapirs are usually not particularly rare
wherever there is enough good
habitat." (Data cited, Van Strien 1998,
pers. comm.)

Threats to habitat

Thefollowing has been edited from report
issued by WWF on the 1997 and 1998fires
in Indonesia.

In 1997 and 1998, fires and resulting
haze caused extensive and serious
damage to tapir habitat in Sumatra,
although little is known of the actual
impact on the tapirs. Southern
Sumatra, one of the last strongholds of
this species, and the only place they
still exist in Indonesia, was one of the
locations hardest hit by fires. These
lowland forests are among the most
species-rich on earth, and during the
past two years, some of the last intact
lowland forest in Sumatra was
destroyed. The forests of southern
Sumatra were already under serious
threat, as "virtually all of the lowland
forest in Sumatra" had already been
logged and cleared, replacing tapir
habitat with plantations of oil palm, a
tree native to Africa.Jatna Supriatna,
director of Conservation
International's Indonesia program,
stated in October 1998 that primary
forests in Indonesia were vanishing at a
rate of one million hectares a year.
Plantations of oil palm and trees grown
for pulp production have expanded
rapidly during this decade and are
poised to expand even faster in the
years ahead. Some reports from
Southeast Asia suggest that tapirs may
coexist with rubber plantations to some
extent, but in Sumatra they reportedly
shun the oil palm. While tapirs seem to
be able to find food readily in some
secondary and disturbed forests,
disturbed forest is much more fire
prone. And since the cause of most of
the past two years' fires was directly
linked to forest clearing (though
exacerbated by a bad El Nifio year), the
remaining forest is now especially
vulnerable. Expansion of oil palm
plantations and the poor management


page 16 /TapirConservaton, Newsletter of the IUCNSSC Tapir Specialist Group Editor Sharon Matola, .O. Box 1787, Belize City, Belize E-mail: BelizeZoo@bl,.net













practices that go with it is probably the
largest single driving force behind
deforestation in Indonesa,
Forest fires in Sumatra are not new.
In addition to natural fires, man-made
fires have been used to improve
hunting and to clear plots for
agriculture. However, "earlier fires
were undoubtedly smaller in area and
probably more spread out over time
than the fires of the past two decades."
Proper management of forest and
land resources in Sumatra and
Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo)
could lessen the possibility of such an
event happening again.

Southern Sumatra

Relevant chapters from Tapirs: Status
Survey and Conservation Action Plan have
been distributed to the Anti-Poaching
Patrol (Sumatran Rhino Protection
Unit) in Bengkulu, to Taman Nasional
Kerinci Seblat and to local nature
protection units.
Tapirs appear occasionally in photo
traps used byJeremy Holden and
Debbie Martyr in Sumatra. Holden
and Martyr have also been collecting
observations about "companion
bonding' of tapirs and rhinos. In 23
months over a three-year span, Martyr
was the only one of the team to have
clearly seen a tapir. "Ironically the
animal I saw was not in the forest but
walked across a gravel road in front of
me." This occurred in primary forest.
A report was submitted to Fauna
and Flora International, Lembaga Ilmu
Pengatuhuan Indonesia, PHPA: Project
Orang Pendek Phoo-trapping April
1996-March 1997, byJeremy Holden,
et al.). We hope to be able to print tapir
data from the report next issue.
Standard texts on tapirs often report
that the fourth digit of the tapir's front
foot is visible only in soft ground.
Martyr reports that this digit "seems to
be funcitonal in most terrains but since
animals tend to overprint (thus
producing a footprint with five rather
than four toes). The fourth digit is not
always as clear as you might expect."
When we commented that "one
source called tapir 'plentiful' in
Sumatra," she replied, "In suitable


habitat, tapir will be present, the
question is one of suitable habitat ie.,
we've never heard of tapir in oil palm.
Maybe the best phrase would be "not
uncommon" (though density is
variable) in suitable habitat which
ranges from mature (mixed) rubber
plantations through to primary forest
and at altitude ranging 05m-2300m.
However, our proviso in certain
damaged forest types is the frequency
and success of breeding. In three years
out here we've only once encountered
infant tapir prints. These were in
protected but disturbed hill forest c.
900m, and to date [September 7,1998]
we have not photographed infants in
the camera traps."
Late in 1998, the team had their
first experience of multiple species
showing up in a trap photo. Tapir was
one species, deer was the other.
In Way Kambas, Neil Franklin and
the Sumatran Tiger Project have been
photo-trapping many tapir. Here the
team is also trying to determine
whether tigers can kill an adult tapir.
(For a discussion on this subject
regarding Neotropical cats and tapirs,
see Tapir Conservation, No. 7, pp. 2-3).
Although the tiger is larger and heavier
than Neotropical cats, the Malayan
tapir is also larger and heavier than its
new world cousins. Debbie Martyr
says, "We have no evidence of tiger
taking adult tapir and while Jeremy has
got pictures of barking deer with fresh
tiger wounds, he has no pictures of
tapir with scars indicating old,
unsuccessful attack by tiger. We also
know tapir will, on occasion, walk long
distances on trails used by tiger, which
may indicate lack of concern.... I
have only ever twice encountered tapir
(skeletal) remains, once on an old
logging trail and once in relatively
newly reopened ladang at the forest's
edge. In the latter case I think the
animal may have been shot by sport
hunters. In the first instance only part
of the skeleton remained ... cause of
death impossible to speculate. We'd
guess that young and sick tapir would
be an obvious target, however
providing the alternative (deer, pig,
monkey) prey base is sufficient, I don't
see why tiger should actively seek out a


large adult tapir. That said, Sumatran
tiger can and will take domestic cattle
under certain circumstances, I
personally think a Sumatran tiger is
perfectly able to take an adult tapir but
that, like most cats, they prefer easy
prey where possible. This is the
discussion, but the bottom line is, we
are not sure.

Jeremy Holden and Debbie Martyr
Fauna and Flora International
PO Box 42, Kanlor Pbs
Sungai Penuh, Kerind
Jambi 13007, Sumatra
Indonesia
pop@padang.wasantara.net.id

Central Sumatra

The rule of thumb is that tapirs occur
south of Lake Toba in Sumatra and
organgutans occur north of Lake Toba.
The lake is located about one quarter
of the distance from the north end of
the narrow island. In the course of
surveying work, Erik Meijaard has
collected data on where tapir could
occur. Of the data he says, "All of them
rely on indirect information from local
informants, but Ijudge them as
relatively reliable."
1. Batang Gadis area: Malay tapir
presence mentioned by Giesen & van
Balen (1991).
2. Batang Toru area (north-east of
Sibolga township): local Batak people
said that tapirs occurred in relatively
high densities in this hilly and still
well forested area.
3. Dolok Surunggan Wildlife
Reserve south-east of Lake Toba -
local informants told that tapirs occur
in this area.
Giesen, W & Balen van, B. 1991.
Several short surveys of Sumatra wetlands.
Notes and Observations. PHPA/AWB
Sumatra Wetlands Project Report No. 26.

Erik Mejaard
113152.2345@compuserve.com


TapirConservaian, Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group Edtor: Sharon Matola. PO. Box 1787. Belize City. Belize E-mail: BelizeZoo@btl.net / page 17























Behavioral study

Tapirs in zoos: their
behavior, and interest
they generate in visitors

Aim of the study.
Even if tapirs in zoos are not among
the most popular creatures, they are
unusual and rare enough to be worth
study and support. Thus this research
project, which I began in 1997 for my
thesis at Heidelberg University in
Germany. This comparative study of
the four species of tapirs in zoos
combines two major aspects of animal
management:
* the behavior of tapirs that are under
human care
* the response of zoo visitors to these
tapirs
To these ends, data collection and
analysis in this study concentrate both
on tapirs, and on their visitors.
* Tapirs: What are their daytime
activities? What are the inter-species
and intra-species interactions? Records
of interactions include the conditions
under which animals are kept: number
of individuals, size and structure of
enclosure, feeding times.
* Visitors: How many visitors come to
the exhibit? What do they say? How
do they mis-identify the tapirs? What
are their reactions to them? What are
their opinions of the exhibit? What is
their general knowledge about tapirs?
In addition to gathering and
analyzing this data, I plan to make this
data the foundation of some basic
experiments relating to behavioral
enrichment. These observations of the
behavior of tapirs at different zoos, and
how the tapirs are assessed by visitors,
can produce data useful for two basic
zoo missions: optimizing animal
maintenance, and optimizing the
presentation of species in a way that
will educate the public.

Methods
Absent available ethograms for all


FROM CAPTIVITY


tapirs, this gap must be filled by
recording behavior patterns for the
four species. The activies and
interactions ofthe individuals are
measured two ways: by scan sampling,
and in relation to the "focal animal"
(the individual that the researcher is
studying at the time of the
interaction). Furthermore, the
number ofvisitors to the tapir exhibit,
and the total time the visitor views the
tapirs, are recorded. An additional
number of people queried by survey.
General notes on any remarkable
events complete the documentation.
Most of the measurements are taken in
front of the outdoor enclosures.
Unfortunately, due to limited time
available to study each exhibit, mating
or breeding behavior cannot be
observed systematically.
After a visit to the Los Angeles Zoo
in October 1998, 1 have spent more
than 1000 hours observing some 32
individuals of all four tapir species, and
several thousand visitors at seven
different zoos. Further trips are
planned over the next two years.

Results
Behavior differences are rarely specific
to one species or sex. Some exceptions
include:
Two female South American tapirs
at the Berlin and Dortmund Zoos
were the only tapirs observed standing
freely and vertically on their hind legs
for picking at branches. Their male
counterparts showed specific urine-
splashing on the females during
mating times.
A four-week-old Malayan tapir at
the Dortmund Zoo, and a 14-month-
old mountain tapir at the Los Angeles
Zoo, were seen digging in the sand
using their trunks. Furthermore, both
these tapirs tasted their mothers' feces.
In general, mountain tapirs were
not observed using water pools for
defecation, but they showed more
social interactions (especially coat
licking) than other tapirs.
An interesting reaction of all tapirs
to being scratched is lying on their


Stefan Seitz with a lowland tapir at the
Berlin Zoo. Photo 1998 by Mr. Wetland,
tapir and rhino keeper at the zoo.

sides and stretching out their legs.
This reaction was produced not only
by scratching from other tapirs, but
also by scratching from zookeepers,
giant anteaters, and magpies.
Tapirs' activities during the daytime
are influenced by maintenance
conditions. Feeding or at least the
availability of natural food-items in
outdoor enclosures decreases resting
time. Rain or artificial showers also
increase activity, and sometimes leads
to play that excites visitors.
The number of people watching
the tapirs depends on two things: first,
the type of enclosure, and second; the
tapirs' activities. Best results are gained
at exhibits without wire fences and
with little shelter, so that animals are
easily visible. When the animals are
resting camouflaged, most visitors pass
the exhibit without detecting them.
These results, which were obtained
by data collection at the exhibits,
directly contradict the results obtained
by survey survey respondents said that
they prefer larger, naturally shaped
exhibits with lots of vegetation (which
can camouflage the tapirs).
The duration of a visit to the
exhibit (how long visitor watches the
tapirs) seems to be independent of
enclosure type and tapir species.
Instead, it is dependent on the animal's
behavior.
Signboards are noticed best where


page 18 / Tapir Conservaton, Newsletter of the IUCWSSC Tapir Specialist Group Edltor Sharon Maola, PO. Box 1787, Belize City, Belize E-mail: BeizeZoo@btl.net















they are (a) clearly visible and (b)
combine colored pictures or symbols
with short texts giving the most
interesting facts.
Most respondents to the survey said
that they recognized what a tapir was
from former zoo visits; the second
most common source of knowledge
was television. Some children said that
they had seen tapirs in picture books,
and wanted to show their parents the
animals in real life.
Although many zoo visitors are able
to identify tapirs correctly, much
confusion still exists. While all tapir
species are most commonly mis-
identified by zoo visitors as anteaters,
mountain tapirs were more often
compared or confused with bears. In
contrast, the other three species were
more often confused with pigs.

Conclusions
In every zoo where I conducted this
study, I met a few visitors who said that
tapirs were their favorite animals.
The positive reactions of zoo
visitors increased with duration of time
at the exhibit: whenever people had a
reason to spend more time than
average in watching tapirs, they began
to like the tapirs a bit more. This fact
indicates that zoos should keep the
animals in exhibits where the animals
can engage in all types of natural
behavior. Furthermore, zoos should
explain the most interesting facts about
these animals on attractive and well-
located signboards.
There seem to be only two ways to
increase captive tapirs' activity and
attractiveness to zoo visitors. One way
is by enriching the tapirs' everyday lives
by offering:
. a variety of food items at several
times during the day
* showers
* pools (pools need not be large or
elaborate simply of adequate size for
the tapir to immerse itself)
A second way could be attempting
to mix tapirs with other species, e.g.,
smaller mammals or birds, in the kind
of larger, naturally-structured exhibits
that are very well accepted by zoo
visitors. (In this case, some tricks may
be necessary to make the animals


remain visible to zoo visitors.)


Acknowledgements
I would like to thank all the zoos I
worked at or visited where directors,
curators, veterinarians, researchers,
and animal keepers supported this
project: Berlin Animal Park; Berlin
Zoo; Dortmund Animal Park;
Frankfurt Zoo; Heidelberg Zoo; Los
Angeles Zoo; Munich Animal Park
Hellabrunn; Osnabruck Zoo; San
Diego Zoo; Wuppertal Zoo;
Zoological Gardens ofNuremberg.
I would also like to offer many
thanks to my supervisor, Professor
Heinz F. Moeller, University of
Heidelberg, Germany, who
remembered the tapirs when I was
searching for an interesting project; to
the Association of Friends and
Supporters of the Zoological Museum
at Heidelberg Universty for
sponsoring my trip to the USA; and
last but not least, to Sheryl Todd of
the Tapir Preservation Fund in
Palisade, Colorado, USA, who keeps
me up to date with information about
tapirs, and discusses plans and results.

Stefan Seitz
Graduate Biologist
University of Heidelberg
Zoologiua Institute I
Im NeuenheimerFeld 230
Heidelberg 69120 ennrany
s75 @i.urz uni-heidelberg.de


I A male mountain rapir at
the Cheyenne Mountain
Zoo, Colorado Springs,
Colorado, USA,
demonstrates interest in
two bar-headed geese that
SL share his exhibit. Photo C
1996 by Marco Herranz.



. .





Notable birth

The first Baird's tapir birth in Europe
occurred on August 26, 1998, in
Wuppertal, Germany. The baby, a
female named Susanna, is doing very
well. The dam is Tanya, born at the
San Diego Zoo and exported to
Wuppertal from Riverbanks Zoo,
South Carolina, USA, in 1996. The
sire is Tonka, born at the Columbus
Zoo September 1993 and exported to
Wuppertal in 1994. This was the first
offspring for Tonka, the ninth for
Tanya, who was 18 at the time of the
birth. The Wuppertal Zoo also has a
second male,Jasper, born at the
Virginia Zoo, USA, in 1991.



Census

At the end of 1997, Rick Barongi
reported that there were approximately
200 Malayan tapirs in zoos worldwide.
Of these, 50 were in the U.S., 42 in
Europe, 21 in Japan, and 87 in other
Asian zoos.
In September, 1998, ISIS reported
the tapirs in member facilities as:
(males.females.unknown.births last 6
months)
i pinchaque 3.2.0.0 2 zoos
T bairdii 26.11.0.2 17 zoos
indicus 61.71.2.4 51 zoos
Sterrestris 94.87.1.15 74 zoos
T. terrestris 5.7.0.2 4 zoos
This data is listed on the web quarterly
at: httpV//www.worldzoo.org


Tapir Consevatlon, Newsletter ol the IUCWSSC Tapir Specialist Group Edtor: Sharon Maola, PO. Box 1787. Belize City, Belize E-mail: BelizeZoo@bUl.nel / page 19
















Tapir Specialist

Group

1997-1999 Trinnium

Chair: Sharon Matola, Belize
Deputy Chair: Sheryl Todd, USA

Argentina
Silvia Chaluklan
Bynnon 2848,1846Jose Marmol
Buenos Aires, Argentina
scchalukian@hotmail.com

Belle
Sharon Matola, Chair, TSG
Director, Belize Zoo and
Tropical Education Center
P.O. Box 1787, Belize City, Belize
Ph 501-081-3004, Fax 501-081-3004
BelizeZoo@btl.net

Bmsil
Patricia Medici
IP Ecological Research Institute
Passeio Tipuana, 03, Vila Minas Gerais
Teodoro Sampaio, Soi Paulo
Brasil CEP 19280-000
fumaca@stetnet.com.br
Fibio Olmos
PNUD/Planafloro
Av dos Imigrantes S/N
Porto Velho, RO, Brasil 78903-900
guara@nethall.com.br

Colombia
Jacqueline Carmona Echeverria
Lab. Ec. Veg., Depto de Ciencias Bio.
Universidad de los Andes
Carrera 1 No 18A-70, Bogota, Colombia
j-carmon@uniandes.edu.co
Olga Lucia Montenegro
285-2 Corry Village
Gainesville, Florida 32603 USA
olmd@grovc.ufl.edu
Diego Lizcano
Lab. Ec. Veg., Depto de Ciencias Bio.
Universidad de los Andes
Carrera 1 No 18A-70, Bogot, Colombia
ecolvege@zeus.uniandes.edu.co
Heidi Rubio-Torgler
Fundacion Natura, Calle 31 #17-49
A.A. 55402, BogotS, Colombia
Heidi@wwforg.co

Guyana
Dr. Graham Watkins
Interim Project Implementation Mgr.
Iwokrama International Centre for
Rain Forest Conservation and Dev.
P.O. Box 1074, Georgetown, Guyana
gwarkins@guyana.net.gy


Handuras
Leonel Marineros
Manager, Reserva Biologica El Chile
INADES, Apdo Postal 4160
Comayaguela, Honduras
inades@sdnhon.org.hn

Indanes.ia
Neil Franklin
Surnatran Tiger Project
franklin@pacific.net.id
Jeremy Holden and Debbie Martyr
Flora and Fauna International
P.O. Bx 42
Kantor Pos, Sungai Penuh Kerinci
Jambi 13007, Sumatra, Indonesia
pop@padang.wasantra.net.id
Sriyanto
Way Kambas NI PO Box 190
Metro 34101, Lampung, Indonesia
Ph 62-725-26222, Fax 62-725-44234
gembong@indo.net.id
Nico Van Strien, PhD
Julianaweg 2. 3g41 DM Doom
Netherlands
strien@indo.net.id

Malaysia
Jasmi bin Abdul
Director of Research and Wildlife
Conservation, Dept. ofWildlife and
National Parks HQ
Km. 10Jalan Cheras
50664 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Mibito
Epigmenio Cruz Aldan
Apdo. Postal No. 6, c.p. 29000
Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, Mdxico
cruz@tuxla.podernet.com .mx
Ignacio March Mifaut
Senior Researcher
El Colegio de la Fontera Sur
Apartado Postal #63
29 290 San Cristobal de las Cass
Chiapas, Mdxico
imarch@master.sclc.ecosur.nx
EduardoJ. Naranjo
303 Newins-ZieglerHall
University ofFlorida
Gainesville, FL 32611
enaranjo@sclc.ecosu rmx
Alberto Paras-Garcia
Servicio Mddico Veterinario
Africam Safari, Africam-Puebla Zoo
11 Oriented 2407
CP 72007, Puebla, Mxico
pago@servidor.unam.mx

Thailand
Budsabong Kanchanasaka
Khlong Saeng Wildlife Research Sta.,
Wildlife Research Div., Royal Forest Dep.


Paholgothin Rd., Bangkok, Thailand
Buda@hotmail.com
AntonyJ. Lynam, PhD
Wildlife Conservation Society, Thailand
Box 170, Laksi, Bangkok
Thailand 10210
lynam@citrus.ucr.cdu
Dr. Chaichana Satrulee
Director, Technical Department
Dusit Zoo, Bangkok 10300 Thailand

United Steae
Dr. Richard E. Bodmer
315 Grinter Hall, University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611 USA
bodmer@tcd.ufl.edu
Mike Dee
Curator of Mammals
Los Angeles Zoo, 5333 Zoo Drive
Los Angeles, CA 90027 USA
Mdee@ZOO.CI.LA.CA.US
Craig C. Downer
President, Andean Tapir Fund
PO. Box 456, Minden, NV 89423 USA
Kevin Flesher
Biotech Center/Foran Hall
Room 135, 59 Dudley Road
New Brunswick NJ 08901 USA
KevinFlesher@yahoo.com
Charles Foerster and Sonia Foerster
1511-1/2 Slattcrville Rd.
Ithaca, NY 14850 USA
CRFoerster@aolcom
shernz@aol.com
Donald LJanssen, DVM
Director ofVcterinary Medicine
San Diego Zoo, P.O. Box 551
San Diego, CA 92112-0551 USA
djanssen@sandiegozoo.org
Karl Kranz
Senior Vice President/Animal Affairs
Philadelphia Zoological Garden
3400W. Girard Ave.
Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA
Kranz.Karl@phillyzoo.org
Morty Ortega, PhD
Assistant Professor
Dept. Natural Resources Mgt. and Eng.
RO. Box U-87
University of Connecticut
Storr, CT 06269-4087 USA
iortega@mint.cag.uconn.edu
Alan Shoemaker
Curator of Mammals, Riverbanks Zoo
Columbia, SC 29202-1060 USA
ashoe@riverbanks.org
Sheryl Todd, Deputy Chair, TSG
President, Tapir Preservation Fund
PO. Box 1432, Palisade, CO 81526 USA
Ph (970) 464-0321, Fax (970) 464-0377
tapirp@pirbackcom


Denis Alexander Torres


page 20 / Tapir Conservafon, Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group Edhor. Sharon Matola, P.O. Box 1787, Belize City, Belize E-mail: BelizeZoo@btl.net




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