Group Title: Tapir conservation (Print)
Title: Tapir conservation
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Title: Tapir conservation the newsletter of the IUCNSSC Tapir Specialist Group
Uniform Title: Tapir conservation (Print)
Abbreviated Title: Tapir conserv. (Print)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group
IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group
Publisher: IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group
Place of Publication: Houston TX
Houston TX
Publication Date: October 1997
Copyright Date: 2009
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Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began in 1990.
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 12, no. 2 (Dec. 2003); title from cover.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00095885
Volume ID: VID00007
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Holding Location: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 56897961
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issn - 1813-2286

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Tapir Conservation
ST Newsletter of he IUCWSSC Tapir Specialist Group

Number 7, October 1997


Editor:
Sharon Matola, TSG Chair
Co-Editor:
Sheryl Todd, TSG Deputy Chair

The views in Tapir Conservation do
not necessarily reflect those of the IUCN
nor the entire IUCN/SSC Tapir
Specialist Group (TSG). The objective
ofrapir Conservation is to offer the
members of the IUCN/SSC Tapir
Specialist Group and others concerned
with the family Tapiridae, news briefs,
opinions, and general information about
this threatened mammalian genus.
Anyone wishing to contribute to Tapir
Conservation, please send materials to:

Sharon Matola
Chairperson
IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group
PO. Box 1787
Belize City, Belize, Central America
BelizeZoo@btLnet
Phone 501-081-3004
Fax 501-081-3004

Sheryl Todd
Tapir Prsenration Fund
PO. Box 1432
Palisade, Colorado 81526 USA
tapir@tapirback.om
Phone (970) 464-0321
Fax (970) 464-0377

Produced with assistance from
Wildlife Preservation Trust,
International, 1520 Locust Street,
Suite 704, Philadelphia,
PA 19102 USA;
Ph (215) 731-9770;
Fax (215) 731-9766;
WPTI@aol.com


I1


Issue #7 of TapiP Conspv#ionH
offers new avenues of information


For the first time since the formation
of the Tapir Specialist Group, increased
communications have added exciting
new avenues of information for
everyone interested in tapirs.
The Tapir Specialist Group is
fortunate to have the enthusiastic
participation ofSheryl Todd. For over
twenty years, Sheryl has held a strong
interest in tapirs. She was instrumental
in founding the Tapir Research
Institute located in California, where
she successfully raised both T terrestris
and T airdii young. Life changed,
Sheryl found herselfin a world
different than one dominated by tapirs,
but her enthusiasm for these animals
never faded. Today, she is back on line
to assist with tapir conservation. She
accepted the position of Deputy Chair
of the TSG in early September.
Besides creating a world wide web
site for tapirs, "The Tapir Gallery,"
httpi/ www.tapirbackicom/tapirgal,
Sheryl has brought to life a unique
communications network through
Tapir Talk. Access to Tapir Talk is easy:
through e-mail. Write to Sheryl Todd at
tapir@apirback com; include the
words, "Tapir Talk" in the subject line.
That's all one needs to do to key into
compelling conversations about the
latest research, and a variety of topics
which address all species of tapir.
Some highlights of recent Tapir Talk
e-mailings are included in this issue.
On the downside of
communications, frequently no
response is received from people who
consider themselves "tapirologists,"
when their suggestions and advice or


comments are requested.
It is our hope that the tapir
communication network will continue
to grow stronger and more productive.
Thanks to all who have been active in
the TSG, providing valuable
information and ideas.



Action Plan
The Tapir Action Plan is being finalized
in IUCN headquarters, Gland,
Switzerland and will soon be published.


Symposium
A symposium targeting Field Research
in MesoAmerica is in planning stages.
The venue is the Tropical Education
Center at the Belize Zoo and the
tentative date is August 1998. See
enclosed flyer for complete informa-
tion. A sub-meeting of the TSG will be
held.



Contents
NEWS FROM THE HELD 6
North America 6
CentralAmerica 6
South America 10
Asia 16
NEWS FROM CAPFIITI 17
THE BACK PAGE 20


Newsletter ofthe IUCN/SSC Tapir SpecialistGroup Editor Sharon Matola P.O. Box 1787, Belize City, Belize E-mail: BelizeZoo@btLnct















Tapir Talk

highlights

Conservation assistance /
Collaring tapirs
There are several organizations
involved in tapir conservation, both in-
situ and ex-situ. Wildlife Conservation
Society (WCS),Wildlife Preservation
Trust, International (WPTI). IUCN
has provided funding to assist with the
publication of the Tapir Action Plan.
Three projects involving tapirs
which were conducted using radio
collars were those ofJoe Fragoso,
Charles Foerster and Craig Downer.

(Ed. note: In 1984 in Santa Rosa National
Park, Costa Ria, Keith Williams radio-
collard and accomplished Jild work on T.
bairdii; see also other stories in this
newsletter.)

Edited from Tapir Talk; Vol 1, No. 5
Daniel M. Brooks
Exotropix
IUCN Tapir Action Plan Coordinator/
Co-Editor
1537 Marshall, Suite #1
Houston, TX 77006 USA
Emropix@aol.com

Anesthetics and
behavioral changes
Dr. Francisco Galindo of Mexico
communicated that colleagues have told
him that while doing field work and
capturing sea lions and tapirs, an after-
effect from anesthesia (specific drugs
not mentioned), was that maternal and
social behavior noticeably changed. He
queries if anyone has had similar
experiences, or has any more
information about this.

Edited from Tapir Talk; VoL 1, No. 37
Dr. Francisco Galld
Depto. de Etolgia y Fauna Silvestre
Fac. de Medicina Veterinaria
Ciudad Universaria UNAM
04510 Mexico D.E
Tel 52-5-6225859
Fax 52-5-6161342
galindof@servidor.dgscaunam.mx


How do you say it?
An interesting question has arisen
about the Spanish word for "tapir." A
familiar useage is "la danta." Is this the
correct reference to both male and
female tapirs? "Dantas"? Leo Salas
believes that "Danta" is derived from
the Portuguese, "Anta. However,
when referring to the male, the
Spanish "el danto" is correct.

Editedfrom Tapir Talk; Vt. 1 No. 19

Spelling of"bairdii"
The scientific name ofBaird's tapir has
been spelled variously T baridii and T.
bairdi in the literature. The question
arose as to which was correct.
Hershkovitz (1954) used the "ii
spelling in his major review of the tapir
family. The question was originally
posed on Tapir Talk by Dr. Werner
Haberl, a shrew expert, who had
encountered the same spelling
discrepancy in papers on Baird's shrew.
Afew days later, he reported that he
had consulted a leading mammalogist
(name not given), who had said, "The
rule is that the name should be spelled
according to the first species
description, no matter what the correct
spelling is...." According to Latin
grammar, the single "" ending would
be correct. However, in the case of the
tapir, the first description was by Gill
(1865) who called the species
Elasmognathus bairdii. In 1872, Sclater
used the name Tapirus bairdiL
Sumichrast (1882) seems to have been
the first to use the single "i" (Tapius
bairdi). Following the "first" rule,
"bairdii" seems to be the correct, though
dramatically incorrect, spelling.

From Tapir Talk; o.L 1, Nos. 4, 6, 21
Dr. Wrner Haberl
shrewbib @sorx.vienna.at
Sheryl Todd
tapir@tapirack.com


Root canals and tooth care
The Audubon Park Zoo has performed
numerous root canals (endodoncias)
on their Baird's and Brazilian tapirs


utilizing "standard technique." "The
only problem was anesthesia, which
required narcotics. The repairs have
held well for over four years and the
animals have ceased to have problems
since we changed our fencing and
husbandry practices." Males are now
separated from cycling females to
discourage fence biting.

Edited from Tapir Talk; Vol. 1, No. 31
Roberto E Agular
Senior Veterinarian
Audubon Park Zoo
6500 Magazine Street
New Orleans, LA 70118 USA
RAguilar@auduboninstitute.org

Tapirs and big cats
Thought-provoking points were
brought up in a discussion between
Dan Brooks and Leo Salas about tapir
predation by big cats. Can a large cat
kill a healthy adult tapir, or are tapir
remains that appear in cat feces due to
scavenging or killing of young or
compromised animals?
Craig Downer examined 11 puma
scats, of which 2 (18%) contained tapir
remains.
Lowland tapirs were found to be
the sixth most important prey item
(measured as contributing to at least
5% ofbiomass and 2% of prey items
taken) for jaguars (23 taxa taken total),
verified from 106 scats. Source: Taber,
A.B., AJ. Novaro, N. Neris, and F.H.
Colman. 1997. The food habits of
sympatricjaguar and puma in the
Paraguayan Chaco,Biotropica 29:204-
213.
Better and more accurate data needs
to be collected. For instance, if tapirs
represent 2% of the prey items taken,
and on average there are, say, 1.5
different items per scat, then three
remains of tapirs were found. Are these
from the same or different tapirs?
Although large cats prey on cattle,
which are larger and heavier than
tapirs, cattle do not have the defense
mechanisms tapirs do (running
through brush, diving into water).
a Literature does not contain many
reports of large cats attacking tapirs.
Cats that prey on cattle may be
substantially larger than cats where


Newsletter ofthe IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group Editor: Sharon Matla P.O. Box 1787, Belize City. Belize E-mail: BalizeZoo@btl.net
pag 2













cattle do not exist. (Rabinowitz and
Fuller in conversation with Salas).
e Pumas andjaguars seem to eat their
prey differently, which can be helpful
in identifying which animal either
killed or scavenged a tapir.
* It would be a significant finding to
prove that a healthy adult tapir was
killed by a cat.
* DNA and PCR testing though very
expensive, can determine individual
prey and predators, sexes, diseases in
predators and even home ranges.
(Kohn, Michael; Wayne, Bob; Trends
in Ecology and Evolution. 1997.
12(6):223-227).
a Reseach such as the long-term
project of Charles Foerster in Costa
Rica, may help determine age-specific
or stage-specific mortality rates.

Edited frmn semral numbers qfTapir Talk
Daniel M. Brooks
Ecotropix@aoL com
Leonardo Salas
/o Todd K Fuller
kfuller@fonild.umas.edu



Earthwatch

grants, 1998-99
The Center for Field Research invites
proposals for 1998-99 field grants
funded by its affiliate, Earthwatch.
Earthwatch is an international, non-
profit organization dedicated to
sponsoring field research and
promoting public education in the
sciences and humanities. Past projects
have included, but are not limited to:
animal behavior, biodiversity, ecology,
endangered species, and resource and
wildlife management. Interdisciplinary
projects are especially encouraged as is
multinational collaboration.
Information can be found at
http//www.earthwatch.org/cf/cficrhtml,
or contact:

The Centerfor Field Research
680 Mt. Auburn Street
Watetown, MA 02272 USA
Phone (617) 926-8200
Fax (617) 926-8532
fr@earthwautckorg


Letters from

Chiapas

INSTITUTE D HISTORIC iNATURAiL I
DEPRTAMENTOE ZOOOA







STuxllo Guftdrrez, ChipO . eco.
During this past year, Dr. Miguel
Alvarez del Toro passed away. For many
years he had been Director of the
Instiruto de Historia Natural, Departa-
mento de Zoologia, the zoo in Ttutla
Gutierrez, Chiapas, Mxico. Dr.
Alvarez del Toro was also an outstand-
ing conservationist. In our next issue
we will present a tribute to his life and
work, along with a discussion of the
Baird's tapir breeding program he
started at his zoo in the 1950s and
carried on for decades. In this issue,
however, I would like to share with the
tapir community excerpts from two
letters from him that I've treasured for
many years. Both indicate a man
observant and questioning. I always
appreciated the time he was willing to
take to talk about these animals.

February, 1973
"Last year, in May, I had an
experience with tapirs in the wild. One
night one pair of big ones rushed our
camp, stomped out the fire, crashed
many things, bit at the tents, etc. When
we finally crawled out of the tents, they
remained some few meters distant in
the full light of the lamps, whistling
and stamping their feet on the ground.
At last they walked slowly back to the
forest and left us wondering why they
behaved that way."

July24, 1973
"The encephalomyelitis epizootic
that swept this state some years ago
killed five of the seven tapirs we had.
They showed more or less the same
symptoms as horses with such diseases;
they kept walking in short circles and
sometimes rushed headlong against


fences, bit wires, poles, etc. Actually, in
this way they were unlike horses; that
is, the tapirs got somewhat furious.
Finally, they became weaker and
weaker until death arrived; at the end,
the skin turned deep red.
"One interesting thing is the fact
that as soon as they got sick, the two
that would survive went into the deep
mud of the moats, sticking out only
their nostrils. They stayed this way for
twelve days, all day and night, not
feeding. I thought they were at the
point of death, but I was surprised.
During the thirteenth day, they came
out very weak and shaking, but started
to feed on fallen leaves. So they started
to live again and to this day are strong
and normal. I always thought the cold
of the mud must have kept down the
fever, and so they recovered. However,
the veterinarians said 'No, no, no.' So?
"Six months later, the female gave
birth, a stillbirth, and the male looked
impotent for some time. Eventually,
they both recovered; they had a baby
male, born this January."

Submitted by
Sheryl Todd
tapir@tapback.cm



Requests
Anyone knowing of captive T bairdii
anywhere in Nicaragua, please contact
Sharon Matola (see contact info on
front page).
Dr. Francisco Galindo requests
information on anesthetics and tapir
behavior. See description and contact
info. on page 2.
Sheryl Todd requests two types of
photos. These can be good xerox
copies.
1. Photos of any T terretris adult for
which location in the wild (or capture
location) is known. If the tapir is
captive, location of capture of of wild
ancestors should be obtainable.
2. Photos ofjuveniles (up to about 4
months) of all species where location of
origin or country of captured ancestors
is known.
See contact info. on front page.


Nenlettr of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group Editorn Sharon Matala P.O. Box 1787, Beliz City, Belize E-ail: BelizeZoo@btlnet
page 3














Publications

Ashley MV NormanJE, Snoss L
Phylogenetic analysis of the perisso-
dactylan family Tapiridae using mito-
chondrial cytochrome c oidase (COI)
sequences. Journal ofMammnalia Evolution
1996; 3(4)315-326.**
Barongi R. Husbandry and conservation of
tapirs. Int. Zoo. Yearwok.The Zoological
Society oflondon. 1993 32: 7-15.*
FragosoJMV Tapir-generated seed
shadows scale-dependent patchiness in
the Amazon rain forestJournal of Eology.
85: 1997.
Janssen DL, Michelet S, compilers. Biblig-
raphyfor Topitidae. San Diego Zoo. 1994.*
March Mifsut IJ. Situation Actualdel Tapir
en Mexico. Centro de Investigaciones
Ecoloqicas del Surest. Serie Mono-
grafica No. 1.
Maoa S. Wildlife Survey of the Raspaculo
River, Belize, Central America. Decem-
ber 1994. Report to the Forestry Dept.,
Government of Belize.*
Naranjo, et al. Available from Eduardo
Naranjo; see pages 6-7 for titles and
contact info.
Salas L, Fuller TCX Diet of the lowland
tapir (Tapinrs rmtris L) in the Tabaro
River Valley, southern Venezuela.
Canaianaounal ofZodolo, 1996;
74(8):1444-1451.**
Salas, L Habitat use by lowland tapirs
(Tapinus tensris L) in the Tabaro River
Valley, southern Venezuela. Caadian
JournalofZoaloy, 1996;74(8):1452-
1458.**
*Avilablefrom Sharon Maala please send
US$5.OO for forig postagek/handling.
**Aiiabla omn Shiyl Tod



Tapir portraits

in wood and wool

by Kate Wison

In response to interest from the
United States, several Ecuadorean
artisans are now producing tapir-
themed art. Tapirs have been newly
featured in woven wall hangings,
modelled figures, paintings, and
sculptures from the state of
Tungurahua and the Amazon region.


Sal arsancan are
The Jerez family, weavers of
Salasaca, near Ambato, Ecuador, has
traditionally made woven wall
hangings. These hangings, ranging
from pillow size to wall size, are
created on hand-powered looms from
wool the Jerez family weaves and dyes.
Until now, the Salascan hangings
have not featured tapirs. Possibly this
is because tapirs are shy and elusive.
The hangings focus on what the
weavers see frequently, including
llamas, birds, flowers, scenes such as
"snapshots" of women on their way to
market, ancient symbols and geometric
designs, and full-length views of
Salasacan dancers in traditional dress.
These intricate designs are woven
in, rather thanpainted onto flat,
finished pieces of cloth. Despite the
demands of this method of creation,
the hangings are so detailed that they
include the individual fronds of
flowers, and clefts in the feet of llamas.
Now, the Jerez family has begun to
include tapirs in their weavings, in
response to interest from Craig
Downer (story, page 14) and the Tapir
Gallery (story, page 1).
The hangings feature the adult
mountain tapir, complete with white-
edged ears and white-rimmed mouth.
The tapir itself is based on a drawing
by Kevin Burkhill. The weavers have
added the bromeliads of the tapirs'
habitat in the foreground, and a snow-
capped Sangay volcano (a prominent
feature ofSangay National Park) in the
background.
The tapir is represented in its
natural browns, blacks, and whites; but
the weavers have offset these somber
tones with brilliant blues in the sky
(sometimes complete with large
crayon-yellow sun rays), and red and
orange flowers by the tapirs' feet. And
the detail in these new hangings is as
precise as in the traditional ones; the
tapirs' eyes have reflections of the
sunlight in them, and when the tapir is
portrayed with one foot raised,
individual toes have been woven.
These weaving are sold in the
United States by the Tapir Gallery, and
in Ecuador by the Jerez family, starting
a new tradition.


Needlrafier and painters in Tungurahua
In contrast to the large and elaborate
wall hangings from Salasaca, the
painted embroideries from Bafios are
fairly small.
The works, which measure about 4
x 5 inches, are done on cloth stretched
in an embroidery hoop. They show
either an adult mountain tapir or a
striped youngster. The tapir is
embroidered, while the background is
painted. These realistic portraits are
mounted in oval mats of handmade
recycled paper.
The artisans are members of
CAMFA, Centro Alternativo de la
Mujer y la Familia (Alternative Center
for Women and the Family). CAMFA
is an enrichment center for women and
children of Ecuador.
A volunteer, Felicia Wilhelmy,
wanted to help the CAMFA women
become self-sufficient: a native
Ecuadorean, Ruben Nufiez (story, page
13), hoped to teach his fellow
Ecuadoreans about conservation.
Downer, Wilhelmy and Nuiez
collaborated, and tapir art is the result.
Nufiez makes regular educational
rounds, including the CAMFA center.
There he teaches the women and
children about conservation, including
the endangered status of the tapir.
Nufiez and Downer pass out
pamphlets, show pictures, and explain
the tapir's part in the health and
ecology of the region. Wilhelmy then
encourages the women as they sketch
and model tapirs (a sculpture made of
solid, recycled paper is in prototype).
CAMFA's goal is to help these
artisans generate income for both
themselves and CAMFA programs.
Nunez hopes that small, attractive
portrayals ofthe tapir, combined with
other conservation education he is
spearheading, will foster a sense of
responsibility in Ecuadoreans for this
animal.

Sculptors of the Amazon
Ruben Nufiez is also commission-
ing artisans from the Amazon region to
carve tapirs in balsa wood. Because
Nuiez is still finalizing these arrange-
ments, few details are available. He
writes that he hopes the result will be


Neuwetter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group Editor Sharon Maiol RO. Ba 1787, Belize City, Belize E-mail Beli eZoo@bdtnet
page 4















"an affective image of the tapir and its
habitat."
The Salascan weavers, the Bafios
artisans, and the Amazon sculptors
have begun portraying the tapirs of
their own country. This upsurge in
tapir-themed merchandise from
indigenous artisans is caused largely by
an upsurge of interest in tapirs from
consumers outside South America. The
artisans' sponsors hope that art,
combined with an increase in
conservation education, will create
protective interest in tapirs on the part
of the Ecuadorean public as well.

Kate Wason
WilsonKaIe@Tandem.com



Report from Brasil

T. terrestris in the Northern
Mata Atlantica

by Kevin Fleher, October 7, 1997

On a recent trip away from our
study site in the Itubera area of Bahia,
Brasil, we were excited to find tapir
tracks in a lowland rain forest only 12
km west of the beach town of Porto
Seguro. The following is information I
gathered while visiting the forest.
Location and geography. Estacao
Veracruz is a private reserve owned by
the Odebrecht Corporation. It is
located just north of the Eunapolis-
Porto Seguro highway in southern
Bahia. The reserve consists of 6,047
hectares of lowland Atlantic rain forest
(a big forest block for this severely
endangered ecosystem) of which
approximately 76% is an incredibly
beautiful climax forest with the upper
canopy reaching 30-40+ m. The
reserve lies on a flat, sandy plain with
"canyons" created along the streams
and rivers by the action of clear swift
water cuttingthrough the soft earth. At
least five major streams course through
the forest. Outside the reserve, the
landscape is a depressing example of
the misuse of land, evoking images of
what the earth might look like after a


nuclear holocaust. In this case the
reality is the complete replacement of
high biodiversity rain forest with very
low biodiversity degraded cattle
pasture. Most of the forests were
destroyed between 1960 and 1975.
Tapirs. Although we did not see
tapirs on our two-day visit, people who
work in the park see them occassion-
ally and our guide got a picture of one
running ahead of him on a park road.
Tapir numbers are unknown and
estimates varied from 5-20 animals for
the reserve. The guide (who seemed
the most knowledgable person we
spoke with) believes there are 5-6
tapirs living here. He claims there are
two types of tapir (a claim many people
made in northeastern Honduras as
well): anta sapoteira = a big variety; anta
mirim = small variety. He says the
pelage is the same in both "species."
Hunting. Although hunting is
prohibited throughout Brasil (a few
exceptions exist), it is rampant in Bahia
and has led to the extirpation of many
species of wildlife. In our study area,
tapirs are reported to have become
extinct 20-30 years ago. The presence
of tapirs in the Veracruz reserve is quite
amazing, really. Enforced protection
only began with the Odebrecht
acquisition in 1991. We were told that
before this time, the forest was heavily
hunted by both subsistence and
commercial hunters. White-lipped
peccaries, brown howler monkeys, and
muriqui (Brachytles aradmoides) were
all extirpated from the area 20-30 years
ago and the scarcity of wildlife today
insinuates that populations have yet to
recover. So, how did these tapirs
survive? An intriguing question I
cannot answer. The good news is that
the reserve is well protected now and
we saw no evidence of hunting in our
hikes through the core area. A little bit
of hunting still goes on in the
southeastern comer, but with guards
patrolling and educational outreach,
this is being eliminated. Tapirs have
been seen within 1 km of the highway,
so it appears they feel safe enough to
venture out of the forest core.
Tapir tracks. We found one set of
tapir tracks along a stream in the
central part of the reserve. The tapir


had been using the area recently as the
tracks only looked a few days old.
There were many tracks in the moist
earth, all the same size, so it looked like
the beast was traveling alone. Print size
was 16cm wide about 14cm. long. The
guide said this was a big animal, and
yet the track size is small compared to
the Baird's tapir tracks I found in
Belize and Honduras. Is this track size
normal for a large T terstris?
Habitat. The tracks were found
along a swift clear stream 2-3 m wide
and up to 30 cm. deep. Herbaceous
wetland plants were abundant as were
tree ferns and epiphytic philodendrons.
The slopes on both sides of the stream
were steep, and we followed several
tapir trails which led into the old
growth forest of the uplands. Abundant
tree fall gaps in the uplands probably
provide excellent foraging habitat
allowing the tapirs to exploit forest
resources away from the waterways.
Conservation status. Almost all
the fauna of the northern Mata
Atlantica is highly endangered, and the
tapirs are on the brink of extinction.
This small population is special in that
it has survived intensive hunting
pressure and landscape alterations, but
it is so small that it may not be viable in
the long run. As with many species in
this threatened ecosystem, "shuttling"
individuals in an attempt to simulate
dispersal and maintain genetic
robustness may be the only way to
manage the tapirs in the long run. Re-
forestation is a complex and expensive
procedure and it will be a long time
before forest remnants are linked
through "biodiversity corridors." From
our own research and the information
we have from others, we believe this is
the northernmost tapir population in
the Mata Atlantica.
Visiting the reserve. Visitors are
required to be accompanied by guides
while hiking. There is usually someone
at the Vistor Center to make
arrangements; the managers enjoy
conversing with other researchers.

Kevin Flesher
Fundacao BioBrasil
c/o Richard Hartley
gordon@providercom..br


Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group Editor. Sharon Matola P.O. Box 1787, Belize City, Belize E-mail: BelizeZoo@btl.net

page 5















NEWS FROM THE FIELD


All countries where tapirs are known or
presumed to exist are listed. The arrangement
is generally north to south, beginning with
the Ameicas and continuing to Asia.
Countries are listed whether current reports
are available or not. Populations givenn per
country) are rough; much more research is
needed. Reports are welcomed by the editors.

Given in the IUCN Red List 1996:
Tapirus indicus: Vulnerable (VU)
Tapirus pinchague: Endangered (EN)
Tapirus bairdii: Vulnerable (VU)
Tapirus terrestris: Lower Risk (LR)


North America


Mexico
Baids Tapir (Tirus btrdi)
Estimated population: Uknown


Central America



Guatemala
Baid's Tapir (Tapirus bat)
Estimated population: 1,000-2,500

No report.



Belize
Bairds Tapir(Tapirusbarib )
Estimated population: 2000-3,000

One of the obstacles Sharon Matola
had to overcome in teaching tapir
conservation in Belize was the widely-
held belief that a tapir would skin a
human or dog alive with its nose. But


education has turned a feared creature
into the beloved national animal of
Belize. Conservation problems and
successes in that country are discussed
on the zoo's new web site:
http://belizenet.corr/belizezoo.html
The Belize Audubon Society's web
site (http://www.belizeaudubon.org)
has information on protected areas and
park systems of Belize.




El Salvador
Bard's Tapir (Tapnus baird)
Estimated popution: 0

Although it is believed that no tapirs
remain in El Salvador, there has been
some discussion ofreintoduction in the
future.


Eduardo Naranjo's work
moves to M&xico MEXICO
Having completed his Master's thesis
on work done with tapirs in Costa
Rica, Eduardo Naranjo began a study Map ea: CAN
on tapirs and other ungulates in the
Lacandon forest of Chiapas (Montes
Azules Biosphere Reserve), M6xico, in
1997. This study will be the first part
of Naranjo's doctoral dissertation. His U OF MX O rNT
advisor is Richard Bodmer of the Roo
University of Florida. C IHE

Naranjo, EJ. and E Cruz. Ecologia del TABASCO
tapir en la Reserva de la Boiosfera La
Sepukunra, Chiapas. Ara Zoologica Mexicana --------..J
(inpress).

For additional publications, see under CHUMS BEZ
Costa Rica. CAIMBBEAN

EduardoJ. Naranjo
Asociat Researcher
El Colegio de la Frontera Sur
Aparado 63 GUATEMALA
San Cristbal de Las Casas
Chiapas 29290, M co PACICOCEAN
Tel/Fax (52) 967-81884 HONDURAS
enaranjo@masterscic.ecsur.mx

Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group Editor. Sharon Matola RO. Box 1787, Belize City, Belize E-mail: BelizeZoo@btlnet















Honduras
Baks Tapir (apwus ba)
Estimated population: 1,000-2,000

A frontier model for
landscape ecology:
the tapir in Honduras
Flesher, KM., and E. Ley. 1996. AFrontier
Model for Landscape Ecology: The Tapir
in Honduras. Environmental and Eological
Satistic, 3:119-125.

This work, using statistical
methods from the econometrics
literature, makes inferences about the
tolerance of the tapir to human
settlements.
The study was undertaken in 1994
in northeast Honduras, in the
Departments of Olancho and Colon.
This is a rugged, mountainous area,
10,000-11500 sq. kilometers of
contiguous tropical evergreen
rainforest.
However, over the last twenty
years, subsistence farmers fleeing
environmental degradation in other
parts of Honduras, have been
colonizing this study area, and this is
threatening to fragment the forest into
disconnected patches. For the tapir,
this means a larger, connected
population shattered into smaller,
isolated ones.
This then brings the risk of
inbreeding depression, genetic drift,
and stochastic events which reduce
their chance of long term persistence.
Flesher and Ley maintain that the
key to the long term survival of this
population in northeastern Honduras,
is to protect it as a single unit, and
avoid the negative affects of isolation.
Doing this requires maintaining links
between the forest reserves which
would allow tapirs to pass from one
reserve to another.
The interesting approach to
continued human colonization in this
forested area is to manage further
settlement in a way in which both
humans and wildlife can be
accommodated. Flesher and Ley then
set out to accomplish learning how
human settlements affect tapir
movement


-/CaribbeanSsa









Tenuceata lp'a NICARAGUA
EL SALVADOR I--.-

5 nii 7 120A.
Pai nPedroSua "' iach: ..-











Map of Hondras. Dotted areas indicate emainngfragnenss rainfost, according to Louise
Emonns, Neotropical Rain Drest Mammals -A Feld Guide, 1997.
...... .... NICARAGUA
EL SALVADOR

"$ 75m[120kim.


Map ofHondurar. Dotted area indicate rnmaining fragments f rainfomrt, according to Louise
Emmons, Neotropical Rain Forest Mammals A Field Guide, 1997.


Borrowing a frontier model from
the econometrics literature, they used
this to interpret their data set. This
paper has important implications for all
forest areas where human settlements
and wildlife co-exist. It provides a
sound and pragmatic approach which
could be a model suggesting that the
spatial arrangement of human land use
practices can be managed in a way
which could well determine the future
for wildlife in the region.
Kevin Flesher is preparing two
additional papers on this work, giving
fragmentation trends and making
suggestions for corridor preservation
and placement.

Questions onfield research.
Kevin Flesher
c/o Ridiard Harley
gordon@providecowt .br

Staristical questions:
Eduardo Ley
edley@ftdea.es
edley @bhfoot.comn





Nicaragua
Bairs Tapir (Tapirs batk)
Estimated population: 500-1,000

No report.


Costa Rica
Bairs Tapir (Tapirs bairi)
Estimated population: 1,000

Naranjo: publications
and research
Eduardo Naranjo wrote his Master's
Thesis on T bairdii in Costa Rica.
1. Naranjo, E.J. 1995. Abundancia y uso
de habitat del tapir (Tapius bairdis) en un
bosque tropical humedo de Costa Rica.
Mda Sitest Neotopied 4(1) 20-31.
2. Naranjo, E.J. 1995. Habitos de
alimencacion del tapir (Tpirus boirdii), en
un bosque tropical humedo de Costa Rica.
Vuda Silvrre Neoropisel 4 (1) 32-37.
3. Naranjo, E.J. and C. Vaughan. Notas
sobre la ecologia del tapir en el paramo
Centroamericano. Brensia (in press).
EduardoJ. Naranjo
Associate Researcher
El Colegio de la Frontera Sur
Aparrado 63
San Cristrbal de Las Cass
Chiapas 29290, Midco
Tel/Fax (52) 967-81884
enaranjo@masler.scc.ecosur.mx

Christopher ~rughan
Program Regional en Manejo de Vida
Silvesre
Universidad Nacional, Ap. 1350-3000
Heredia, Costa Rica
Tel (506) 237-7039
cvaughan@irazu.una.ac.cr


Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC TIpir Specialist Group Editor. Sharon Matola RO. Bo 1787, Belize City, Belize E-mail: BelizeZoo@btLnet
page 7















Sonia Foerster reports
on telemetry project in
Corcovado National Park
Charles and I have just returned to the
US. from Costa Rica, and would like
to tell you of our successes and
failures.
Charles Foerster began a radio-
telemetry project with the Baird's tapir
(Tapirus bairdii) in Corcovado National
Park in Costa Rica in 1994. I am his
wife and head veterinarian for the
project. I have been involved in
organizing medical information,
coordinating a team of veterinarians to
help with captures, taking part in
captures myself and collecting as
much biological data as possible.
For the first phase of Charles' study,
we immobilized and radio-collared
five tapirs (three females, two males) in
December, 1994. Charles collected
field data towards his Master's degree
from January 1995 to June 1996.
Specifically, he documented seasonal
variation in home range size and
location, activity patterns and habitat
selection. During this same period,
one female tapir was studied
intensively through direct observation
to collect data on foraging behavior and
social interaction.
We collected field data in more than
4100 locations and logged 280 hours of
direct observation (results are to be
published soon).
After our great success in collaring
and data collection, we contacted
several funding organizations with a
proposal to capture 20 new animals for
a ten-year investigation. We want to
continue gathering data on habitat use
and activity patterns to identify longer
term cycles in tapir behavior. More
importantly, with more study animals
observed over a longer period, we will
be able to document survival rates,
reproductive rates and dispersion
patterns for this species.
In preparing for this goal, we made
a trip to Corcovado in February of
1997 to replace the collars of the
original five study animals. We
managed to recapture two of the
original tapirs (one male, one female).
Dr. Danilo Leondro, veterinarian and
Head Curator at the San Jose Zoo,


Costa Rica, did the immobilizations.
The two previously-collared young
females had moved their home range
far to the north a month or so before
we arrived (we believe this was the first
documentation of dispersion by
juvenile tapirs). Future plans call for


Costa Rica (upper map)
and 43,700-heaare
Corrovado National Park
(lower map). Two life-
zones are represented
within the park: tropical
premontane wer forrst and
tropical wet forest. About
94% is natural fore; the
rest is a mixture of
swamps, yolillal palm
grove and secondaryforest.
Elevations range from sea
level to 745 m. The Osa
APninsula has two major
dimatic seasons: rainy
(May-November) and dry
(Dcember-April)
(14ughan 1991).


finding them and replacing their
collars. Unfortunately, the collar of
one male broke and fell offjust two
weeks before our arrival. We had one
bit of luck during that trip: while
searching for one of the collared
animals, we stumbled upon a healthy


Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group Editor: Sharon Matola RO. Box 1787, Belize City, Belize E-mail: BelizeZoo@btlnet
page 8


COSTA RICA

CORONADO BAY

Rincon

Los Planes
Stane s -,a LaPalma


CORCOVA NATIONAL PARK
.tLos fatos
Lama= Ranger
c a nation
SOSA PENINSULA

0 Dos Bra
PACFC OCEAN Ranger S

Sirena Ranger Slaton


LaLeorna *A
r44 RanoerSlabani


N7-n


. ........... Rivers, streams, lake borders
-----.-- Ntiona Park boundary


L















Sonia Foerster reports
on telemetry project in
Corcovado National Park
Charles and I have just returned to the
US. from Costa Rica, and would like
to tell you of our successes and
failures.
Charles Foerster began a radio-
telemetry project with the Baird's tapir
(Tapirus bairdii) in Corcovado National
Park in Costa Rica in 1994. I am his
wife and head veterinarian for the
project. I have been involved in
organizing medical information,
coordinating a team of veterinarians to
help with captures, taking part in
captures myself, and collecting as
much biological data as possible.
For the first phase of Charles' study,
we immobilized and radio-collared
five tapirs (three females, two males) in
December, 1994. Charles collected
field data towards his Master's degree
from January 1995 to June 1996.
Specifically, he documented seasonal
variation in home range size and
location, activity patterns and habitat
selection. During this same period,
one female tapir was studied
intensively through direct observation
to collect data on foraging behavior and
social interaction.
We collected field data in more than
4100 locations and logged 280 hours of
direct observation (results are to be
published soon).
After our great success in collaring
and data collection, we contacted
several funding organizations with a
proposal to capture 20 new animals for
a ten-year investigation. We want to
continue gathering data on habitat use
and activity patterns to identify longer
term cycles in tapir behavior. More
importantly, with more study animals
observed over a longer period, we will
be able to document survival rates,
reproductive rates and dispersion
patterns for this species.
In preparing for this goal, we made
a trip to Corcovado in February of
1997 to replace the collars of the
original five study animals. We
managed to recapture two of the
original tapirs (one male, one female).
Dr. Danilo Leondro, veterinarian and
Head Curator at the San Jose Zoo,


Costa Rica, did the immobilizations.
The two previously-collared young
females had moved their home range
far to the north a month or so before
we arrived (we believe this was the first
documentation of dispersion by
juvenile tapirs). Future plans call for


Costa Rica (upper map)
and 43,700-heaare
Corcovado National ark
(lower map). Two life-
zones arrepresented
within the park: tropi
premontane wer forces and
tropical wt forest. About
94% is natural forest; the
rest is a mixture of
swamps, yolillal palm
grove and secondary forest.
Elevations range from sea
level to 745 m. The Osa
Pninsula has two major
dimatic seasons: rainy
(May-November) and dry
(Dcember-April)
(14ughan 1991).


finding them and replacing their
collars. Unfortunately, the collar of
one male broke and fell offjust two
weeks before our arrival. We had one
bit of luck during that trip: while
searching for one of the collared
animals, we stumbled upon a healthy


Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group Editor: Sharon Matol RO. Box 1787, Belize City, Belize E-mail: BelizeZoo@btlnet
page 8


COSTA RICA

CORONADO BAY

Rincon

Los Plaes
S StaVon ,--,_ LaPalma
.*.... .. t'"-:* m e

CORCOVA NATIONAL PARK
L'ostfattss
Lagana answer
Coe Statlon
SOSA PENINSULA

Dos Br
PACFJC OCEAN Ranger S

Sirena Ranger Slaton'
; carat
LaLeona *
r434 RanoerSlauin


N7-n


.............. Rivers, sPieams, lake borders
--.----- National Park boundary


L


I~B~ilm~B~ -----PI----l-~a~---~ilir~saarr















I arrived at "Estacion Sirena" in
Corcovado on 10thJuly, and was
greeted by Charles' wife, Sonia
Foerster, a veterinarian who assists her
husband on the project. Later I met the
rest of the crew, including several
veterinarians and/or vet techs or vet
students. During my stay, there were
always seven on the team, though
individual participants came and went.
During my 15-day stay at Sirena
Ranger Station, I assisted with the tasks
at hand, which included looking for
suitable capture sites, baiting and
platform building. The team left camp
at about 4:30 p.m. each day for a one-
hour walk to the designated capture
site. There were usually two people to
a platform, the rest of the team
pitching a tent about 200-300 meters
away from the site along the main trail.
We would wait until about 1 a.m. if no
animal was caught. Capture sites were
changed often; preferred sites were
those where recent tracks were
abundant.
Capture was by Daninject pistol
containing Butorphanol and Xylazine.
In the previous two years, Immobilon
had been used, but this year it was
decided that the above combination
provided better safety factors for
humans.
Once a tapir was captured, first and
foremost, the collar was attached,
making sure there was space for two
fingers between the collar and the
tapir's neck. This would allow room
for growth; any more space allowed
the risk of having the animal scratch it


offwhile rubbing against trees. Body
measurements were then taken, along
with blood samples and swabs from
vagina and cloaca. The team would
check for parasites, mainly ticks.
An animal is generally down for 30-
45 minutes. During this time,
monitoring of temperature, heart rate
and pulse is critical. When the tapir
showed signs ofwaking from the
anaesthesia, it was given a reversing
agent for each of the anesthetics, which
would help to wake the animal quickly
and smoothly.
When I left Corcovado on 24thJuly,
five of the 12 projected captures had
taken place, although just one of these
occurred during my stay.
There could not have been a better
location in which to carry out such an
investigation. Corcovado is a haven,
not only for tapirs, but for other
wildlife as well. Each morning we were
awakened by howler monkeys. Spider
monkeys, squirrel monkeys and white-
faced capuchins all took turns visiting a
guava tree that was located in the
center of the Sirena Ranger Station.
Wildlife in the park has been strictly
protected for years, and many of the
species appear not to fear the presence
of humans.

Oscar IHabet
General Curator
Belize Zoo and Tropial Education Center
PO. Box 1787
Belize City, Belize
BelizeZoo@bl.net


Charles and Sonia Foerster and two captured tapirs in Corcoado National lrk. The tapir is
kept on its sternum while aneshetized. Photos @ copyright 1997 by Charles Sonia Foerser.


Panama
Bainr Tapir (Tairw bayds)
Estimated poplatin: 2,000-5,000

"Up to now no extensive tapir studies
have been undertaken in Panama with
the exception ofTerwilliger's study on
Barro Colorado Island in the late
1970's.

Status and Action Plan of Baird's Tapir
(Tapirus bairdii)
Sharon Matola and Heidi Rubio-Torgler
IUCN (in press)


South America


Colombia
Bains tapir (apirm b&nr)
Estimated population: Unknown
Lowland tapir (Tapus E'essis)
Estinated poptialion: nlsmows
Mountain tapir (Tapirus pinchaqe)
Estimated popidation: 1,200

Study and conservation:
Tpinchaque in Colombia
Dr. Jaime Cavelier and Diego Lizcano,
funded by the Wildlife Conservation
Society of New York, continue their
program of research and education in
Colombia, where approximately half of
the world's mountain tapirs still
survive. Both are affiliated with the
Universidad de los Andes in Bogoti.
Education outreach was conducted
from March throughJuly of 1996,
targeting campesinos and colonos of
the villages of Cortaderal, El Bosque
and Santa Rosa. They addressed
individuals as well as groups, and
distributed high-quality posters and
brochures. They also targeted school
children in Risaralda with their
conservation message. Working with
them, a guide named Noel Monsalve
contacted local hunters. In all cases,
posters and brochures were handed out
to lend force to the spoken word.


Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group Editomr Sharon Matola P.O. Boa 1787, Belize City, Belize E-mail: BelizeZoo@bt.net
page 10














In 1997 Cavelier and Lizcano have
targeted other areas for their program,
including the Laguna de la Cocha in
Narino and Parque Las Orqiudeas in
the Central Andes. Access here is
impeded by narco-guerilla activity.
This past summer, Diego Lizcano
spoke about the mountain tapir at a
symposium on Conservation Biology
in Call, Colombia.
The team will also estimate
populations ofT pinchaque based on
"track traps" which collect footprints in
specially prepared clay. The method is
considered to be very accurate, and in
many cases can help identify individual
animals.
Currently, Lizcano and Dr. Cavelier
are using infrared trail monitors to
help determine activity patterns of the
tapirs in both primary and secondary
forest They study hourly, daily and
seasonal patters, and they have
collected data showing the tapirs' use of
salt licks.
In response to a question in the
Tapir Talk forum, Lizcano volunteered
that he and Dr. Cavelier have evidence
suggesting that in the 1920s T
pinchaque moved into the higher
mountain rain forests as lower forests
were cut to provide land for coffee
plantations. He said the tapirs have also
moved from the paramos (3500 m to
4200 m) to mountain rain forest (2000
to 3500 m). Cattle grazing has caused
many tapirs to move from their former
habitats in the Central Andes of
Colombia.

Diego Liasno
Laboratorio de Eclogia Vegetal
Departamento de Cirncias Biologis
Universidad de los Andes
Camra 1 No 18A-70
Bogold, Colombia
ecolvee@zeus.uniandes.edu.co



Joost Wilms to begin
project with T terrestris
in Colombia, 1998
Joost Wilms, a tropical ecologist at the
University ofAmsterdam, is set to
begin a study of Tapinr terrmstin in


Araracuara, middle Rio Caqueti,
Colombian Amazon. This project is
carried out in collaboration with the
Fundaci6n Tropenbos-Colombia and
the Hugo de Vries Laboratory,
University of Amsterdam, and focuses
mainly on habitat use and home range
of the species and the influence of
open rock savanna vegetation and
salados (salt licks) on home range.
Hunting pressure and hunting
regulation by the indigenous people in
the area is regarded. Radiotelemet-y
will be used in addition to other
methods.
Contact with the Colombian
government and indigenous in
Araracuara is being made through
Tropenbos-Colombia, and the project
(at least two years) should begin in
mid-January 1998. An extension of
four years is likely. Wilms is interested
in discussing methodologies of
radiotelemetry with any who have
experience. He can be contacted
through Tapir Talk, or at the following:

JoastJAM. Wums M.Sc.
Department ofSystematics, Evolution en
Paleobitlo
University ofAmsterdam


Dotted lines indicate
elevations in the Andean
chain of 1,000 m or higher
The mountain tapir has
been recorded at elevations
IZUELA between 1,400 and 4,700
m, although it usually
frequents elevations of
2,000 to 4,300 m
;... (Downer 1996).










BRAZIL






Kruislaan 318
1098 SM Amsterdam
The Netherlands
Telefar + 3120 5257662
Telephone: + 31205257844
wilms@bio.uva.nl

Direct dial offer: + 31 20 5257830
Direct dial home: + 3120 6208064
Telefa + 31 20 5257840






Venezuela
Lowland tapir (Tapirus tAressis)
Estimated population: Unknown

No report.



Trinidad & Tobago
Lowland tapir (T irus btresi s)
Estimated population: Unknown

No report.


Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group Editor: Sharon Mamola RO. Box 1787. Belize City, Belize E-mail: BelizeZoo@bd.net
pa l















Guyana
Lowland tapir (Taprs trestis)
Estimated population: Unknown

No report.



Surinam
Lowland apir Tapirus tenrresris)
Estimated population: Unknown

No report.



French Guiana







Brasil
Lowland tapir (Tapirs erresris)
Estimated population: Unknown

Patricia Medici: study and
conservation project,
Moro do Diabo State Park
Patricia Medici, a conservation
biologist at The Ecological Research
Institute (Instituto de Pesquisas
Ecologicas [IPE]), Brazil, is working in
the Atlantic rainforest in that country
at the Morro do Diabo State Park, a
protected area of35,000 hectares. She
is studying the auto-ecology and
behavior of the lowland tapir, Tapirus
terrstris.
Her study is aimed at gathering data
pertaining to home range, habitat use,
and range overlap between different
individuals. T terrestris as seed
dispersers will be addressed, as well.
Feces are being collected and analyzed
at Sao Paulo University.
The occupation of agricultural lands
by the lowland tapir is also a facet of
this field study, and radiotelemetry
techniques are being used to track the
collared animals. Medici has found
that pitfall traps work best to capture T
terestris within her study site.


"'- VeM.A "r. S'---' CH GUum
c.J.s U:
COUDM6U 'A T"I''-.'"; *"
S ATLANTIC OCEAN






PERU ; Itl ra


Segurm

OCEW Rio de Janeiro

ARGBITh&A AIL4CMOCEAN

SiUR
I G6UAY "


Another objective of this field work
is to look at the possibility of restoring
degraded areas within the park through
reforestation of native plant species.
Medici has ensured that a strong
component of this field work includes
community based environ- mental
education. Patricia Medici is an
international partner of Wildlife
Preservation Trust, International
(WPTI). Until December, 1997, the
project is sponsored bythe Fundo
National do Meio Ambiente (FNMA),


This map indicates
general locations in
Brazil discussed in the
newsletter. Tardsio da
Silva Santos, Jr.,
studies apirs in
Brastlia National Park,
just north ofthe city of
Brasilia (page 13).
Patricia Medii (this
page) studies tapirs in
Moro do Diabo State
Park, near Sao hPulo,
and Kevin Flesher
(page 5) reports on a
remnant population of
tapirs near Ponl
Seguro.


the Environmental Ministry of the
Brazilian Government. Medici is
seeking additional funding to continue
her work with tapirs.

Patricia Medici
Conservation Biologist
IPE Ecological Research Institute
Field Coordinator
Conservation Biology of the Lowland
Tapir Project
fuiaca@stetnet.com.br


Left: A box trap baited with salt.
Right: Moro do Diabo, highground
from which radioteermetrysignals are
received.

Photos @ copyright 1997 by Patricia
Medici


Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group Editor: Sharon Matla P.O. Bo 1787, Belize City. Belize Email: BelizeZoo@btl.nel
page 12














T. terrestris study in
the cerrado of Brasilia
National Park
Brazilian post-graduate Tarcisio da
Silva Santos,Jr., is conducting a study
ofT terrmtris in the cerrado of Brazil.
Twenty-two percent of Brazil (2
million km2) is represented by cerrado.
Preliminary studies indicate that home
range requirements for the Brazilian
tapir (T terrestris) in this biome maybe
several times larger than that of tapirs
studied in rainforest areas. Results of
recent research estimates that 45.4% of
the cerrado will be used for agriculture
by the year 2000. Local conservation
strategies depend on understanding
the requirements of T terstris in this
biome. The study area, Brasilia
National Park, consists of30 hectares
of cerrado and is home to an estimated
10 or more tapirs. There are two
distinct seasons: hot/rainy and
dry/cool. Mean annual rainfall is 1576
mm; relative humidity ranges between
12 and 80%. The park is surrounded
by urban development, and domestic
dogs enter the park in groups,
attacking wild animals.
The project uses radiotelemetry to
study the tapirs' home range, habitat
use and preference, trail use and diet.
Areas of use will be studied in detail.


I .'. COLOMBIA
IAn O' -. ..r.
SCayaimbe Equator
ECUADOR .3
R *'Batios
Suyaq-l AIA$ -



u,

SPERU



Dotted lines indicate elevations in the
Andean chain of1,000 m or higher The
mountain tapir has been record at
elevations between 1,400 and 4,700 m,
although it usualyfrequents elevations of
2,000 to 4,300 m (Downer, 1996).


The project seeks to confirm anecdotal
reports that some tapirs leave the park
during the dry season.
One animal has been collared; the
goal is six. Pitfall traps camouflaged
with sticks and grass were used;
dimensions were 2.40 m long, 1.50 m
wide and 1.60 m deep. Additional


Ecuador
Moslltap la Tapinr r que)
Estimated population: 1,100
Lowbnd tapir (TapH/i trestrs)
Estimated population: Unimown

Ruben Nufiez'
mountain tapir
conservation outreach
Strengthened communications as a
result of current newsbriefs on Tapir
Talk has resulted in the funding of
Craig Downer's assistant, Ruben
Nufiez, for an extended three month
period. Funding was provided by
Wildlife Preservation Trust,
International (WPTI), through the


funds are being sought.

Tarcisio da Silva Sants,Jr.
Parque Naional de Brasilia
(Agua Mineral)
Via EPA BR 040
Brasilia DF- Brasil 70630-000
dasilva@guarany.cpd.unb.br


Tapir Specialist Group. WPTI funded
the project from May to September,
1997, and is now workingwith the
Tapir Preservation Fund to secure a
grant that will allow this valuable work
to continue.
Ruben Nufiez is a graduate of the
Agricultural Technical Department of
Ambato University in Ecuador. He has
completed a Master's program in
Agricultural Engineering and has
assisted on radio-collaring expeditions
with T pinchaque. Nuftez has also
secured logistical support from the
Catholic church, who are now urging
people through their "power of
convocation,' to hear talks from Ruben
Nuftez addressing human interactions
with nature.


ECUA LLANGANATES
ECUADOR Ambato NATIONAL
PARK
CHIMBORAZO Baios
FAUNA A. PuO
RESERVE Tungurahu Vo[cabnoi6to u
Riobamba a .I Ahlar Volamno
Riobaba m SANGAY
EL PLACRSANAY
SAlao PLA NATIONAL PARK
Guamote ULEBRI '--
totio h t A Sangoyl n s 101 7,i \ o s
AU*'v ^Pi noLAYA \ ..

6 iGUAMOTt4!1' i
MACAS S nalnFciscCO
S ROAD NEW MMacas
S ROAD D ON
4 TOSANGAY
: NATIONAL
SPARK


Detail map of a section of Ecuador showing areas that are the focus of conservation and education
work by Craig C. Downer and Ruben Nulez. Downer has radio-collared several T.
pinchaque in Sangay National Park. The new Guamote-Macas road allows easy public access
to locations that have traditionally been safefor wildlife.


Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group Editor: Sharon Matola PO. Beo 1787, Belize City, Belize E-mail: BelizeZoo@bdtnet
page 13














So far, he has taken conservation
education to approximately 10,000
Ecuadoreans since February, mainly in
the states ofTungurahua and
Chimborazo.
He is intent to travel to more
remote villages with his environmental
education programs.
He has succeeded in forming
several Mountain Tapir Clubs in
schools, and has assisted one school in
building a model of T pinchaque habitat
to express it as a "living sponge."
Ruben has also given his program
to 250 members of the police force in
Riobamba, a location where poached
tapir products are sold. They stated
they were not aware ofthe laws
concerning this species, and requested
copies of the law, saying they would jail
those in violation. They had heretofore
not been told they should take
impounded animals, live or dead, to
the INEFAN office.
While Craig Downer is
continuing on with the scientific
studies of T pinchaque in the
Ecuadorean Andes, Ruben Nuiez's
education efforts are an imperative part
of the entire program.
Any field research becomes
empowered when accompanied by
complementary environmental
education.
Tapir Specialist Group members are
urged to write letters of concern.
Anyone receiving this newsletter is
aware of the desperate status of the
mountain tapir. A letter will officially
register growing concern about this
situation. The person to contact is:

Dr. Jaime Enriquez, Director
Areas Naturales y Vida Silvestre
INEFAN
Edificio de MAG 8 Piso
Eloy Alfaro y Amazonas
Quito, Ecuador

RuMbn Wilfrido NMZier Sdnch
Roca Fuere, 806Juan Leon Mera
Bario Ecoogico 5 dejunio
Banos, Tungurahua, Ecuador
Telephone:
5933 827-272
5933 740-581


Strong swimmer, this male mountain tapir (Tapirus pinchaque) battles raj
Palora in the Ands ofEcuador Photo @ opyrigh 1997 by Craig C. Downer.


Craig C. Downer's 1996/97
expedition to Ecuador
Much conservation work was
accomplished and many significant
contacts were made on Craig Downer's
1996/1997 trip to Ecuador. This year's
continuation of his ongoing work with
Tapiruspinchaque was funded by the
Tapir Preservation Fund and others.
Highlights from a long report on the
six-month expediton are noted:
23 March 1997: We reached
several million viewers through the
"IA Television" program hosted by
Freddy Ehlers. Impact was especially
great because recent flooding resulting
in both human and animal fatalities
was shown to be exacerbated by
damage to highland soils and
extirpation of the seed-dispersing
mountain tapirs in some regions.
These animals were shown in situ using
excerpts from film footage I had shot
for Esperza, the Mountain Tapir,
produced by Richard Brock of Living
Planet Productions, Bristol, U.K. (For
orders call: +44-0117-974-1948.)
Close-up footage documents
destruction of the highlands by floods
and droughts due to deforestation and
overgrazing along with the role of the
mountain tapir in the survival ofits
habitat. This TV show, the most
popular in Ecuador, is put on by


"Teleamazonas," the national channel.
Enrique Bayas, Director of ecological
programming, expressed interest in
doing an hour documentary about the
mountain tapir in Sangay National
Park using its own video team.
A segment similar to the above
was done, again with live interview, for
the AMBAVISION channel out of
Tungurahua's capital, Ambato.
Numerous radio interviews were
given, including Radiofonica of
Riobamba, Radio Lider of Ambato, and
Voz del Sanctuario of Baios. These
interviews will be rebroadcast
throughout the northern Andean radio
network as well as internationally
(Radiofonica).
*We gave numerous talks and slide-
lecture programs were given in person
to large and small groups of students.
These were developed and given by
myself in conjunction with Ruben
Nufiez, of Bafios, Tungurahua (see
report on Nuiez' work on page 13).
As a result of our lectures, two
high schools are making models of the
Andean ecosystem as a "living sponge"
which intercepts and gravity feeds
water to all lower lying ecosystems,
including to the Amazon Basin and the
Atlantic and Pacific oceans. They have
begun to display these in market
places, bus terminals and other public
areas.


Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group Editor Sharon Matola P.O. Box 1787, Belize City, Belize E-mail BelizeZoo@btLnet

page 14



















Another outcome was that several
mountain tapir clubs were started in
schools. These are dedicated to
educating the public and saving the
species.
& Talks and slide programs were
given at the following universities:
Universidad Agraria de Chimborazo-
Riobamba (twice), Universidad
Tecnica Agraria-Ambato, Universidad
de San Francisco-Quito, Universidad
Central-Quito and Universidad
Pontificada Catolica-Quito (about 500
in attendance). We were happy to learn
that a group of professors from the
Universidad de San Francisco and the
Universidad Pontificada Catolica have
taken steps to procure and restore
forest habitats and to launch
educational campaigns among
campesino populations which
jeopardize the mountain tapirs.
Our talks at the Sagrada Corazon
Catholic school in Bafios resulted in
our tapir work being included when
the Catholic Church used its "power of
convocation" to help spread the
conservation message in outlying
towns. After I left, they took Ruben to
the village of San Francisco to deliver
our program to nearly 400 campesinos,
many of whom had traditionally killed
mountain tapirs and destroyed forest
and paramos in Sangay National Park.
Our goal is to reach all such
communities, beginning in the states
of Tungurahua, Chimborazo, Morona-
Santiago, Cafiar, and Azuay.
e Early April, 1997: 1 made an
expedition with a team of eight
assistants to the Purshi sector ofSangay
National Park in order to capture,
radio-collar and release four adult
tapirs. Unfortunately, the nearly
continuous assault of torrential storms
and mists made capture impossible at
this time. However, I was able to train
the team verbally and through
demonstration, and have left four
Telonics collars with Ruben Nufiez for
future use, or to be used when I
return. We constructed a plan by which
Nufiez can workwith the rangers at
Sangay on future capture expeditions.
Typically, the heaviest rains come
between May and July. It is hoped that
future work can include the use of


satellite transmitter collars.

In the Purshi sector of Sangay National
Phark:
We learned that local campesinos
had recently entered in large numbers
into this formerly pristine sector.
There was burning near the site where
the Guamote-Macas road enters the
park from the west. The campesinos
were evicted along with their cattle,
but will most likely return. I suggested
a plan whereby the residents ofAtillo
might derive alternate sources of
income through culturing of blue-
green algae in the Atillo lakes.
There was a castle invasion in the
Tambillo sector to the north of Rio
Upano, and poaching had occurred
recently. Road construction was heavy
here at the time ofmyvisit.
The Army Corps ofEngineers is
completing the Guamote-Macas road
and approximately 16 kms remain to be
constructed. Capitan Cabezas is in
charge of the work and has promised
the full military support in protecting
the Purshi sector against colonizers,
poachers, etc. This support has been
called upon, but when the Corps
leaves, military support will be much
harder to obtain.
Ecological devastation in the
steep, western portion of the
Guamote-Macas road has resulted in
extensive loss of forests, paramos and
their soils and the exposition of
bedrock, though some primary
succession has recently taken hold in
the form of lichens, mosses, fems and
fern allies, and some flowering plants.
INEFAN, the national natural
resource agency in charge of parks and
wildlife, has recently decided to
relinquish control over considerable
areas ofthe 518,000-hectare Sangay
National Park, both in the lower,
eastern Purshi sector where settlement
occurs along the Guamote-Macas road,
and in the new extension of the park to
the south ofPurshi. INEFAN is thus
handing over lands to settlers rather
than working out land exchanges. This
type of land transaction is not new, but
it is disturbing. It is also a shame in
light of the recent greatly expanded
declaration of park and reserve status


on lands throughout Ecuador. (These
include an area around Ancisana
Volcano, South of Cayambe-Coca
Ecological Reserve, where the
mountain tapir still survives in
significant numbers.)

Continuing the work:
This trip resulted in my being
asked to teach several university-level
classes on ecology and to work with
government agencies and conservation
groups, including the Fundacion
Golondrinas in northern Ecuador,
which would like to see mountain tapirs
re-introduced into their small, securely
protected reserve. Funding is being
pursued for these projects.

Publications:
I have submitted articles in Spanish
to La Minga (Baiios), Revista Ecoogica
(Quito), and Geomundo (Mexico).
These should be published soon.
SApril 1997: An alert on poaching in
Sangay National Park was published in
the "Briefly" section of Oryx.

The mountain tapir has now been
listed in the 1996 IUCN Red List of
Threatened Animal as fully
Endangered (EN) rather than just
Vulnerable to extinction (VU). I was
partly responsible for the change in
this listing which signals the
urgency of doing whatever we can
to help preserve this species.

Craig C. Downer
President
Andean Tapir Fund
PO. Box 456
Minden, Nevada 89423 USA

(Ed note: This year the Andean TapirFund
received full nonprofit 501 (c) 3 status.)




Peru
Lowlanl tapir (Tfpis teresris)
Estimated population: Unknown
Mounen lapir (Ta rusphchsque)
Eslinated population: 200

No report.


Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group Editor: Sharon Marola P.O. Box 1787, Belize City, Belize E-mail: BclizeZoo@btlner
page IS















Bolivia
Lowland tapir (Tpirus treslis)
Estimated population: Unknown

No report.


Paraguay
Lowland tapir (TApirus twresb )
Estimated population: Unknown

No report.


Argentina
Loland tapir (Tius earreshis)
Estimated population: Unknown

No report.


Uruguay
Lowland tapir (Tpirus erresisr)
Estimated population: Unknown

No report.


Asia



Myanmar

(Burma)
Malayan tapir (apius fndcus)
Estmated population: Unknown

No report.


Laos
Malayn tapir (TFpi*s indcus)
Estimated population: Unknown

On a recent trip to Southeast Asia
(1997), Sian S. Waters, outgoing EEP
Chair for Tapirs and Hippos, learned
that there were no projects being
conducted on tapirs in Laos, Vietnam
or Cambodia.


Vietnam
Malayan tapir (Tapis inics)
Estimated population: Unknown

(See under Laos.)



Thailand
Malayan tapi (Tapius in/cus)
Estimated population: 100

Face to face
Rabinowitz, Alan. 1993. Tapir tracks. In
Tmvdens' Tals Thailand. (edsJ. O'Reilly and
L Habeggcr), 2nd edn, pp 261-263.
Travelers' Tales, Inc. San Francisco.

Dr. Rabinowitz describes sighting a
Malayan tapir in the Huai IKha Khaeng
Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand. The 600-
pound tapir was in the river, and upon
seeing Dr. Rabinowitz, raised its snout,
bared its teeth, and let out a harsh,
grating sound. He noted both the
speed and agility the tapir possessed as
it made its way out of the river and
through the forest. T indicus is rarely
seen in the wild. This account
provided a brief yet interesting insight
about the habits of the Malayan tapir.

Poaching incident
This story may be typical of problems
facing conservationists in Thailand.
On July 22, 1996, Thailand lost one
more of the estimated 100 Malayan
tapirs (T indicus) that still inhabit that
country. The wild population
throughout its entire range may be
only 900 animals.
On or about July 9, an anonymous
tip to police had resulted in the arrest
of four Thai men in Ayutthaya on
suspicion of slaughtering six
endangered bears and capturing up to
40 cubs. Gallbladders and paws of the
bears bring high prices in Korea. Five
Korean tourists suspected of being
buyers of illegal bear parts were also
arrested.
One of the four Thais was
restaurant-owner Veera Saengpanich.
Police learned he had been keeping a
baby tapir on the premises. But the


tapir, one of 15 species on Thailand's
"highly endangered" list, was gone by
the time police arrived. A raid on Mr.
Heera's home turned up a tiger, two
deer and a gibbon.
Leonie Veijajiva, an animal activist
with WARF (Wild Animal Rescue
Foundation) of Thailand, confirmed
that the tapir had been taken to a zoo in
Lopburi after Veera's arrest. It died
there onJuly 22nd. Its condition on
arrival at the zoo was not stated.
A tapir can bring several thousand
dollars U.S. on the illegal market
Maximum penalty for trading in and
possessing protected wildlife in
Thailand is four years in jail and/or a
fine of40,000 baht (about $1175 U.S.).

Edited from Bangkok Post online
http:l/uwwsamarrco. th/bkkpas/
Wasant Teihawongtham and
Chakrit Ridmontri
July23 and 24, 1996



Cambodia
Malayan tapir (Tapus indicus)
Estimated population: Unknown

(See under Laos.)


Malaysia
Malayan tapir (Tapkus indcus)


No report.



Sumatra
Malayan tapir (T4aprs indics)
Estimated population: Unknown

No report.



Indonesia
Malayan t (apir (Taus inds)
Estimated population: Unknown

No report.


Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group Editor Sharon Matols .O. Box 1787, Belize City, Belize E-mail BelizeZoo@btLnet
page 16















NEWS FROM CAPTIVITY


News briefs

The last mountain tapir
in Europe
Anja, the last mountain tapir (TI
pindcaque) in Europe was held in the
Wilhelma Zoo in Stuttgart, Germany,
until she was euthanized on 29January
1997. She was at least 27 years old,
establishing the record for this species
in captivity. This leaves only five
known captive T pindhaque, all
belonging to the Los Angeles Zoo.
Three (2.1) are on loan to the
Cheyenne Mountain Zoo in Colorado
Springs, Colorado, USA. The
Colorado Springs animals are all
young, and it is hoped that they will
breed. However, all three are siblings.
The two tapirs remaining at Los
Angeles (a female aged 9 and a male
aged 14) are half-siblings. Mountain
tapirs can no longer be brought out of
their countries of origin, and the future
for captive breeding of this species does
not look bright. The 22 mountain
tapirs bred from the Los Angeles
animals (18 at Los Angeles, 4 at San
Diego) are all derived from one
original pair brought from Ecuador in
1967 and 1969. There has been some
discussion about a zoo in Quito which
plans to maintain and breed T.
pinchaque, but no confirmation of this
exists.
Anja never produced offspring. She
was the first mountain tapir acquired
by the Wilhelma Zoo, arriving 8 May
1969 along with a male which died on
11 November of the same year. Both
had been sent by the dealer Martin
Summer of Quito, Ecuador. He sent
another male which arrived 7 May
1970, but died after 11 days.
On 8 April 1971, Wilhelma received
a third male, Boris. He was captured
on 2 August 1970 and was nearly fully
grown when he arrived at the zoo. He
lived there for 21 years, 9 months, until
14 January 1993, when he was
euthanized; he holds the third longest


record for the species in captivity. A
wild-born male at Los Angeles lived
about 24 years.
On 25 April 1978, the Lepzig Zoo
sent their female, Claudia, to
Wilhelma, where she lived until 4 June
1981. Although Boris mated regularly
with both Anja and Claudia, neither
female became pregnant. When a
sperm sample from Boris, taken during
copulation, was examined under a
microscope, it appeared that his sperm
were fewer and less motile than might
be expected. However, only a partial
ejaculate was obtained, and as there
was no chance to compare this sample
to ejaculate from another tapir, the
veterinarian could only make the
presumption that Boris was infertile.
There were plans to exchange Boris
for another male from a US. zoo, but
due to a herpes virus infection in the
Wilhelma tapirs, the transfer was not
attempted. After Boris' death, his testes
were sent for histological examination,
and were found to be inactive. At his
age, this was no surprise to the zoo.
After Boris' death the Los Angeles
Zoo offered to send a five-year-old
captive bom male to Wilhelma. Even
though Anja was at least 25 years old, it
was considered to be worth a trial.
Transport was arranged for 14
September 1994. The male had been
crate-trained to avoid stress, and was
not immobilized. Zoo officials in Los
Angeles and Stuttgart were stunned
and saddened when the tapir died on
his way from the Los Angeles Zoo to
the airport.

Information from the Wihena Zoo
supplied by
Dr. Marianne Holtkiiter
Curator of Mammals
Wtlhlma Zoo
Postfach 510227, 70342 Stutgart
Germarny
Fax (0711) 5402-222

Mountain tapir birth
As the newsletter goes to press, it was


learned that the pair ofT pinchaque at
the Los Angeles Zoo has produced its
first offspring, number 23 for the zoo.
The female was born 8 August 1997
and was doing well at last report.

Submitted by
ChristopherM. Anderson
cma@hss.calrec.edu

SSP for tapirs?
No official AZA Species Survival Plan
(SSP) exists for any species oftapir in
the United States, although some zoos
display signs indicating their tapirs'
participation in an SSP. According to
Rick Barongi, Chair of the Tapir TAG
(page 20), management decisions are
more effectively handled by the TAG.
In this way, he says, a balance can be
maintained in which, for instance, no
species is over-bred to the detriment of
other species. Management ofTI bairdi
is handled by Lewis Greene of the
Prospect Park Zoo, New York, and of
T. indiau by Rick Barongi.

Malayan tapirs at the
Adelaide Zoo
Based partly on their excellent
breeding success with Brazilian tapirs,
the Adelaide Zoo, South Australia, was
selected as home for a male Malayan
tapir named Sulong. Once he is sealed
in, they expect to obtain a female.

Tapirs in Colombian zoos
Javier Sarria, veterinary student at the
National University of Colombia,
reports the following T terrstris in
Colombian zoos. He says this is not a
complete report, but represents
information he gathered in the course
of his genetic studies:

ZOO
Santa Cruz: 33
Jaime Duque: 1.0
Piscilago: 1.1
Santa Fe: 42


Newsletter of the UCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group Editor Sharon Matola P.O. Box 1787, Belize City, Belize E-mail: BelizeZoo@btl.net
page 17














Matecafia: 1?.2?
Cali: 3.2
Leticia: 1?.1?

Javier Sarria
National University f Coombia
jasamip@bachue.uscunaedu.co

Breeding plan successful
at Samut Prakan Zoo,
Thailand
Staffat the Samut Prakan Crocodile
Farm and Zoo have pronounced their
breeding plan for the Malayan tapir a
success after their second birth. It
occurred on 15 July 1997.
At 22 days, the female calf was
healthy, weighed about 20 kg, and was
eating leaves alongside her mother.
Her brother, Nong Khai (Brother
Egg), had arrived two years earlier, on 9
September 1995. He had recently been
separated from the mother.
According to Dr. Panya
Youngprapakorn, the farm's deputy
managing director, the program owed
much to Dusit Zoo. The breeding
program at Dusit served as a model for
Samut Prakan. Four years ago, Dusit
had exchanged its male for one of the
three females at Samut Prakan. The
Samut Prakan female, 10-year-old Pui,
and Den, the young male from Dusit,
hit it offimmediately, although there
was occasionally some biting. Ayear
later August 1994 they mated.
"Nong Pui is very protective of her
baby" says Dr. Panya. "When we try to
get close to her, she will scream as a
warning. This behaviour will go on for
another three months."
After the arrival of the male calf, an
attempt to match the sire with a five-
year-old female called Lily produced
no results. They got along, but Den
showed no interest in mating.
However, nine months after
parturition, Pui again mated with Den,
producing the second offspring.
Asked what put tapirs on the
endangered species list, Dr. Panya cited
deforestation as the main reason,
followed by illegal trade in wildlife.
People take baby tapirs for pets, but
they don't know how to care for them,
and they usually die.


Panya estimated that there are about
100 tapirs left in Thailand. That'sjust
an estimate because nobody has seen
them that much. But one thing for
sure, the situation is alarming."
(In this article, the range of T indicus
is given as, "Asia: ranging from
Tanaosri Range to Sumatra.')

Editedfrom Bangkok Post online
hap://www.smanart.ca.thkkprt/
Uamlao Nodorn
8 Sptmber 1997


Training tapirs at the
Louisville Zoo

byJane Hemdon

"It's a pig. No, it's an anteater!" A
common refrain heard whenever one
of our 1.1 Malayan tapirs (Tapinu
indicus) is on exhibit. The new
"Islands" exhibit opened at the
Louisville Zoo in Spring 1996
featuring orangutans, siamangs,
Sumacran tiger, babirusa, and Malayan
tapirs. Three exhibits flank one side
of an Indonesian village with a stream -
the lifeline which brings all these
beings together running through
each one. This unique exhibit design
allows us (KeeperslTrainers) the
opportunity to rotate the five species
through three outdoor exhibits,
simulating the natural activity around a
water source, and one indoor exhibit.
Which animal we move to which
habitat is random as is the time of day
and the duration of stay. When the
animals are not in one of the habitats
they are in a holding building which is
attached via a system of on grade
transfer chutes which includes up to
four sets of stairs. In addition, there
are overhead transfer options for the
tiger and primates. In order for the
rotation to be successful we require
full cooperation from our charges.
This is achieved through behavioral
training using positive reinforcement.
Training helps us reach several
goals. It gives us another tool to enrich
the lives ofthe animals under our care
and, as mentioned earlier, cooperation
is important to our daily operations,
but perhaps the most significant goals


are reached in the area of providing
better husbandry and health care.
Initially the process was slow going,
but by making each training session
positive and upbeat the learning began.
To date, both tapirs have been trained
to sit, lie down, roll over, hold
positions and do foot lifts. With these
behaviors we are able to perform a
basic physical check daily and this
enables us to detect ailments in the
earliest stages. Other behaviors such as
back-up, move up (heel position) and
target can be used for problem solving.
The final known behavior, but one
which is most essential from day to
day, is the ability for the tapirs to walk
up and down stairs. We achieved this
final behavior using two different
methods. One trainer stood on the
steps and reinforced "Chip," the male,
with a favorite food item each time he
made a positive move toward going
down the stairs. At first hewas
reinforced for looking down the stairs,
then for eating food off the step, then
he wasjack-potted for stepping off
onto the first step.
Each successive step was achieved in
the same manner. Also during this time
he learned to back up the stairs. A
second trainer worked with our
female, "Sarah." Small pieces of apple
were floated in the indoor pool for
Sarah to eat. After a few days, one of
the stairwells was filled with water to
the top step and again apples were
dropped into the water. She stepped
into the water and received her
reinforcement. Each daythe stairwell
was filled with less water until no
water was added at all. Both trainers
reached their goal in six weeks.
At this time we are working on
getting the tapirs to urinate on
command for collection, and open
mouth presentation for an oral exam.
In the future we plan to work on
getting temperatures and drawing
blood. In order to achieve success a
level oftrust must be reached between
the trainer and the tapirs. The need for
trust becomes even more evident when
we ask the animals to do a behavior
that is uncomfortable for them.
Perhaps one ofthe best examples
occurred in January of this year when


Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group Editor. Sharon Mitola P.O. Box 1787, Belize City, Belize E-mail: BelizeZoo@btLnet
page 18













Chip developed an abscess on his jaw.
A slight swelling below his eye was
noticed during a daily check. By the
next morning the entire left side of his
face was swollen. The veterinarian was
able to briefly examine the swollen area
while Chip sat in a holding position
with the trainer feeding him
(whenever possible, we will have the
vet staff stand next to the trainer
during a hand feeding so their presence
during a medical situation will not be
totally foreign). Within the next few
days the abscess became evident With
Chip lying down sternally and the
trainer scratching him, the veterinarian
was able to extract fluid from the
abscess for testing. This was achieved
with little reaction from Chip. A few
days later the decision to lance the
abscess was made. This time the trainer
cued Chip to lie down and roll over.
While the trainer was scratching Chip
into a trance-like state, the veterinarian
cleaned the area and quickly lanced the
abscess. Chip's response was somewhat
delayed, but his movement to a
standing position was quick
nonetheless. The trainer cued the
behaviors to lay down and roll over
again, Chip responded with only a
slight hesitation and he was jack-potted
with the rest of his produce. Over the
course of the next week, using
essentially the same techniques, we
were able to keep the wound area clean
until it healed.
Chip and Sarah have become a big
hit with our guests. When we train the
tapirs in the habitats the visitors
become drawn in and the whole
experience becomes more personal for
them. This provides a great
opportunity (after the session) to
educate the public on the plight of
tapirs in the wild. The Tapir Talk
Forum on the Internet has been a great
resource. Adults are intrigued to hear
up-to-date information about work
going on right now in-situ. Many
school children are choosing to do
research papers on tapirs and are
touched when they hear about fellow
students in Bogota, Colombia, raising
money to help save these endangered
creatures. Education and information
are two of our strongest allies in the


fight to save the tapir from extinction.
We have taken one step closer when,
before we get the chance to speak, the
reply comes from a child, "No, Morm!
It's a tapir!"

Jane Hemdon
Tminer/KeeperI, Islands Arra
Louisville Zoo
falco@igou.com

Baird's tapir survey
A survey of Baird's tapirs in captivity
was initiated in April 1997 by Sheryl
Todd and Sharon Marola. Records of
animals kept currently and historically
were requested, and questions on
breedingwere asked. Replies are still
coming in. A report will be announced
in the next edition of Tapir Conservation.

T bairdii born in Japan
Japan's first Baird's tapir was born at
the Kanazawa Zoological Gardens of
Yokohama on 21 June 1995. A male,
the infant was successfully reared and
is doing well. Details will be included
in the Baird's tapir survey mentioned
above.




Studbooks

Baird's tapir
(Tapirus bairdii)
North American Regional
Mike Dee
LosAngeles Zoo
5333 Zoo Driv
LosAnge CA 90027 USA
Phone (213) 666-4650
Fax (213) 662-9786
Published: 1994
Mike Crotty, keeper of this book,
passed away in October, 1997.

MesoAmerican Regional
Sharon Matola
Belize Zoo
PO. Box 1787
Belize City, Belize, Central America
BelizeZoo@blnet
Phone 501-081-3004


Fax 501-081-3004
Created: July 1997
At a recent AMAZOO meeting in San
Jose, Costa Rica, the Belize Zoo was
asked to keep the new MesoAmerican
Regional Studbook for Baird's tapir.

Lowland tapir
(Tapirus terrestris)

European Regional
Dr. Franck Haelewyn
Parc Zologique de Lille
Av. Mahias Delobel
59800 Lile, France
Fxr +33 2057 3808
British book published: 1994
European regional created: 1997
Recently expanded from British only.
Records from European zoos have
been requested.

North, Central and South America
John Grameri, Lincoln Park Zoo
Diana Weinhardt, Houston Zoo
Created: c. 1992.
Is being transferred from Lincoln Park
to Houston. Has not been published.

Mountain tapir
(Tapirus pinchaque)
No studbook.

Malyan Tapir
(Tapirus indicus)
International
Rick Barongi
Disey's Animal Iqngdom
PO. Box 10,000
Lake Buena Visa, FL 32830-1000
Phone (407) 939-2452
Fax (407) 939-6386
rbarongi@aol com
Published: 1997

European/British Regional
Nirnberg Zoo

Regional
Mr. Kinoshita
Fukuoka Zoological and Botanical Gardens
1-1 Minamikoen
Ch0o-ku, Fukuoka, 810japan
Published: 1995; no change: 1996


Newsletter ofthe IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group Editor Sharon Matola RO. Box 1787, Belize City, Belize E-mail: BelizeZoo@btl.net
page 19


















Tapir Specialist

Group
1997-1999 Triennium

Rick Barogi
General Mgr.Animal Operations
Disney's Animal Kingdom
P.O. Box 10,000
Lake Buena Vista, FL 32830-1000
Phone (407) 939-2452
Fax (407) 939-6386
rbarongi@aol.com

Daniel M. Brooks
Exotropix
IUCN Tapir Action Plan Coordinator/
Co-Editor
1537 Marshall, Suite #1
Houston, TX 77006 USA
Ecotropix@aol.com

Lorena Calvo
2924 University Meadows Drive #535
St. Louis, MO 63121 USA
s996968@umslvma.umsl.edu

Silvia Chaluidan
Assistant Professor
Panamerican Agriculture School
(ZAMORANO)
P.O. Box 93
Tegucigalpa, Honduras
silvia@ns.zamorano.edu.hn

Craig C. Downer
Andean Tapir Fund
P.O. Box 456
Minden, NV 89423 USA

John Eisenberg, PhD
Katharine Ordway Professor of
Ecosystem Conservation
Florida Museum of Natural History
P.O. Box 117800
Gainesville, FL 32611-7800 USA

Karl Kranz
Vice President/Animal Mgt.
Philadelphia Zoological Gardens
3400 W. Girard Ave.
Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA


THE BACK PAGE


Ignacio March
Senior Researcher
El Colegio de la Frontera Sur
Apartado Postal #63
29 290 San Cristobal de las Casas
Chiapas, Mexico

Leonel Marineros, Biologist
c/o Proyecto Rescate Cultural
Ecologico
IHAH-PNUD
Col. el Sauce 3a
Calle 1AEtapa No. 302
Apartado Postal #651
La Ceiba, Atantida
Honduras
Phone 43 2139

Sharon Matola
Chair, IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist
Group
P.O. Box 1787
Belize City, Belize
Central America
Phone (970) 464-0321
Fax (970) 464-0377

Edward Ramsay, DVM
Assistant Professor
University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Dept. of Comparative Medicine
P.O. Box 1071
Knoxville, TN 37919-1071 USA

Oliver Ryder, PhD
Geneticist
Center for Reproduction of
Endangered Species (CRES)
Zoological Society of San Diego
PO. Box 551
San Diego, CA 92112-0551 USA

Sheryl Todd
Deputy Chair, IUCN/SSC Tapir
Specialist Group
Tapir Preservation Fund
P.O. Box 1432
Palisade, CO 81526 USA
tapir@tapirback.com
Phone (970) 464-0321
Fax (970) 464-0377


Nico Van Strien, PhD
Julianaweg 2
3g41 DM Doom
Netherlands

HW encourage members to supply additional
contact information such as e-mail address,
fax and phone numbers ifavailable.



Organizations and

Programs

AZA Tapir Taxon Advisory Group
(TAG)
Rick Barongi, TAG Chair
Disne/s Animal Kingdom
P.O. Box 10,000
Lake Buena Vsta, FL 32830-1000
Phone (407) 939-2452
Fax (407) 939-6386
rbarongi@aol.com

EEP Taxon Advisory Group (TAG)
for Hippos and Tapirs
Sian S. Waters, Chair, has left to return
to Vietnam; no successor has been
named as of publication date.

IUCN/SCC Tapir Specialist Group
Sharon Matola, Chair
P.O. Box 1787
Belize City; Belize
Central America

Sociedade de Zoologicos do Brasil
Adauto Luis Veloso Nunes
President/Conservation Coordinator
Rua Theodoro Kaisel
883 CEP 18021-020
Sorocaba-SP, Sao Paulo, Brazil
sorozool@fpsp.fapesp.br
Publishes annual census which
includes tapirs.

Tapir Europaisches
Erhaltungszucht Programm (EEP)
Dr Peter Miihing
Tiergarten Niirnberg
Am Tiergarten 30, D-8500
Niirnberg 30, Germany


Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group Editor Sharon Matola P.O. Box 1787, Belize City, Belize E-mail: BelizeZoo@btl.net
page 20




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