Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Back Matter
 Back Cover

Group Title: defence of the Scots settlement at Darien
Title: A defence of the Scots settlement at Darien
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00095875/00001
 Material Information
Title: A defence of the Scots settlement at Darien
Physical Description: 4 p. l., 86 p. : ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Foyer, Archibald ( supposed author )
Ridpath, George ( supposed author )
Fletcher, Andrew, 1655-1716 ( supposed author )
Donor: unknown ( endowment ) ( endowment ) ( endowment )
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Edinburgh
Publication Date: 1699
Copyright Date: 1699
Subject: New Caledonia (Colony)   ( lcsh )
Commercial policy -- Great Britain   ( lcsh )
History -- Sources -- Panama   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00095875
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000907669
notis - AEL6815
lccn - 01027655

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
        Front Matter 3
        Front Matter 4
        Front Matter 5
        Front Matter 6
    Title Page
        Title Page
        Dedication 1
        Dedication 2
        Dedication 3
        Dedication 4
        Dedication 5
        Dedication 6
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
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    Back Matter
        Page 87
        Page 88
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    Back Cover
        Page 93
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Full Text


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Moft Excellent Majefty,

SH E Interefl Ton have
in the flourishing of
Tour Antient Kingdom
of Scotland, whofe Crownistranf-
mitted to Tou by an Hundred and
eleven of Tour Anceftors, without
ever having been on the Head of a
Foreigner, emboldens the Author to
lay the following Sheets at Tour
Majefy's Feet,
The design of them is to vindi-
A 2 atre

The Dedication.
cate the Settlement of the Scots in
Darien, and Tour Majefly's fuftice
in protecUing them, againfj the ob-
lique Afperfions which are caff upon
it in the Spanifh Memorial.
The Soveraignty of the Crown of
Scotland hath always bin heldSacred
by our Anceflors, who never were
faring of their Blood to defend it ei-
ther from the Invafion ofForeigners
or the meanCompliance offome few of
our Princes that were unworthy to
wear it; andtherfore were either to-
tally excluded from it, as the Family
of Baliol, or oblig'd to reaffert its
Right when refcu'd out of the Hands
of their Enemies, as happen'dto our
W illiam I. and James I.
Providence having now placed it
on the Head of Tour Majefly, whofe

The Dedication.
Heroic Courage is known to all the
World, our Nation should be unjuff to
Tour Charaaer to expect any thing
left than that our Crown, which Ton
received free and independent from
Tour Anceflors,jhould be transmitted
by Tou with greater advantages than
*ever to Tour Succeflors.
Therefore it is, Great Sir, that a
private Subjecl of Tour antient King-
dom takes the boldneft to vindicate
theSoveraignty and Dignity of Tour
Crown as 'King of Scots, andtoput
fJch as are Enemies to it in mind,that
when Edward I. and II. of Eng-
land invaded it, the Scotifh Nation
did gallantly defend it, advanced
Robert Bruce to the Exclujfon of
Baliol the nearefl Heir, and ac-
quaintedthePrince, ofChriftendom
A 3 that

The Dedication.
that they did fo in defence of their In-
dependency; adding that they would
expel Robert Bruce, if he offered to
betray their Liberty, and would ne-
ver fubjed their Crown to that of
England, whilfl there were 1oo
Scots men alive.
This being the fundamental Con-
fitution of our Government, and the
Condition on which that.Prince and
his Succefors were admitted to our
Crown, they can in no wife be loo(d
upon as Friends to Tour Maajefly's
*Dignity as King of Scots, who call
in queflion whatTou enat in the Par-
liament of that Kingdom, or that
ofer to traverfe it by contrary Pro-
We are Tour Majefly's Subjets
as well as our Neighbors, and have

The Dedication.
an equal Right to fhare Tour Pro-
teffion, which it's hop'd they will at
laft be convinced it is their Intereft
to agree -to in relation to our Ame-
rican Settlement.
Tour Majefly's Paternal Affeii-
on to the Kingdom of Scotland
hath dicover'd it [elf in many In-
fiances; nor is it defir'd or expeIed
by our Nation, that it should any
way interfere with the like Care and
Affetion, which is owing to our
Brethren of England ; but there is
no reason that they should enjoy a
Freedom of Trade throughout the
World, and that we should be deni-
ed it.
Tour Majefly in Tour Gracious
Propofals of an Vnion, gave fufici-
ent Evidence of a Fatherly Concern
A 4 for

The Dedication.
for both Nations, Therefore as it
bath pleaded God to maAe Tou the
Glorious Intrument of our Common
Deliverance, that he would alfo
mak2e Tou the happy Inflrument of
our infeparable Znion; and after a
long Reign here, Crown Tou with.-
Everlafling Glory hereafter, is the
sincere and ardent Prayer of, ,,-

Tour Majefly's Loyal
Affe.ionate Subje,


( 1 I.)

A DEFEN CE of the Settle-
ment of the Scots on the- Ifhmi
of D A R I E N in America.
With Arguments to prove, That
it is the Intereft of England to
join with them, and to protect
them in that Colony.

"T H E Heads proposed to be infifted up-
on in the following Sheets, are, The
Legality ofthe Scots Eflablifhment :The
Advantage or Difadvantage that may
redound from it to England : Whether the Scots
without the Afifiance of the Englilh may be able to
maintain their footing in America ; and what
may probably be the ConSequences if the Scots Jhould
be opposed therein by the Englifb, and mifcarry in
the Vndertaking.
The chief ObjeEtions against the Legality of
their Eftablilhment, arife from the Memorial
delivered in against it to the King, by the Am-
baffador Extraordinary of Spain, May 3. 1699*
0. S. as follows
'~ THE

1 4 Defence of the Scots
" T H E Under-Subfcriber, Ambaffador
66* Extraordinary from his Catholick Ma-
0 jelty, finds himfelf obliged by express Or-
" ders, to represent to your Majefty, that the
( King his Mafter having received Information
From different places, and laf 6f all from the
" Governor of Havana, of the Infuit and At-
Stempt of fomeScots Ships,equipp'd with Men
' and other things requifit, who design to fet-
" tie them'ferves in his Majefty's Soveraign De-
" mainsinA4mnrica,and particularly theProvince-
" of Darien... HisMajefty received thofe Advices:
'< with very much discontent, and looks upon
*' the fame as a Token of fmall Friendflip, and'
" as a Rupture of the Alliance betwixt the two
" Crowns (which his Majefty hath observed
" hitherto, and always obferves very religiotff-
" ly, and from which fo many Advantages and
" Profits have refulted both to your Majefly
" and your Subjeas)as a Confequence of which
" good Correfpondence, his Majefty did not
. expea fuch fudden Infults and Attempts by
" your Majefty's SubjeAs, and that too in a
" timieof Peace, without pretext.(or any caufe)
" in the very Heart of his Demains.
All that the King defires, is, That this
" may be represented to your Majefty, and
" that your Majefty may be acquainted, that
" he is very fenfible of fuch Hoftilities and .un-
Sjuft Procedures, against which his Majefly
" will take fach Meafures as hethinks conve-
" nient. Given at London, May 4. 1699.

Settlement in Darien. .

It were eafy to make proper Remarks upon
the Weaknefs, Infolence and Ingratitude of this
Memorial,, but it is not worth while; all the
World knows what the Crown of Spain ows
this Majefly of Great Britain ; and therefore
a more civil Application night reafonably have
been expected to a Prince who-hath not only
fav'd the Netherlands, but prevented his Catho-
lick Majefty from being infulted on his Throne
.at Madrid. But thefe things we pafs over, and
come to the chief Point in the Memorial, which
is, That-the Scots have pojed themselves in the
King of Spain's Demains i~i America, contra-
ry to the Alliance betwixt the two Crowns. If this
be prov'd to be falfe, then the Caufe of the
Complaint ceafes, and his Majefty of Great
Britain hath reason to demand SatisfaEtion for
the Affront offered thereby to his Juffice and
To prove the Falfhood of the Allegation,
That the Province of Darien is part of the King
of Spain's Demains: It is positively denied
by the Scots, who challenge the Spaniards to
prove their Right to the faid Province, either'by
Inheritance, Marriage, -Donation, Purchafe, Re-
verflon, Surrender, Poffofion or Conquefl ; vwhiCh
being the-only Titles by which they or any other
People can claim a Right to thofe or any other
Dominions, if the Spaniards cannot make out
their Right by thofe or any of thofe, their claim
mufftof confequence be null and void.

17 ,

4 A Defence of the Scots
It is evident that the Spaniards cannot pre-
tend a Titie to that Country by Inheritance,
Marriage, or the Donation of Prince and Peo-
ple; and as to Conqueft it would be ridiculous
to alledg it, fince the Dariens are in a&u-
al poffeffion of their Liberty, and were never
fubdued, nor received any SpaniJb Governor or
Garifon amongft them. Nay, they were fo
far from it, that Wafer, Dampier, and others
that have wrote of that Country, do all agree
that they mortally hate the Spaniards, were-in
War with them, and that the Spaniards had no
Commerce with thofe Indians, nor command.
over them in all the North fide of the Ifthmus
a little beyond Porto Bello*.
Capt.Sharp in the Journal of his Expediti-
on, published in Capt. Hacke's Colletion, of
Voyages, gives an account, that in 168o he
landed at Golden Ifland with 330 Men, and be-
ing joined by one of the Darien Princes, whom
they called Emperor, ,and another to whom they
gave the Title of Cing Golden-Cap, with rome
hundreds of their Men, took SaniFa Maria, at-
tempted Panama, and made prize of federal Spa-
xifh Ships; which is the more remarkable, be-
caufe Capt. Sharp was afterwards tried in Eng-
land for Robbery and Piracy on this. very ac-
count, but acquitted because of his CommiffiT
.on from thofe DarienPrinces: which is a plain
Demonftration that the Government of Eng-
Wafer's New Voyage and Defcition of the IJhbmns of America,
p. xI, 65, 149, I5o, 151.

Settlement in Darien.
land did then look upon Darien to be no way
fubje toSpain, whatever fome who are Ene-
mies to the 'Scors, 'do now fay against the Le-
gality of their Settlement in that Country.
This fame Expedition against the Spaniards by
the affiftance of the Darien Indians, is confirmed
by Mr. Dampier in his Introdution to his New
Voyage round the World. And the Bp of Chiapa,
a Prelate of their own, in his Relation of the
Spanifh Voyages and Cruelties in the Weft-Indies,
. 217.. owns '" that the'Spaniards had no Title
96 to the Americans, as their Subje*s, by right
" of Inheritance, Purchafe, or Conqueft.
We have likewise a large Account, and a
full Confirmation of the War and perpetual
Enmity betwixt the Dariens and Spaniards in
the Hiftory of the Buccaneers of America, ol.
2. Part 4. wrote by Bafil'Ringrofe, who was
one of their Company. There he informs us
that the Indians of Darien, and the Spaniards,
are commonly at War witi one another; and
that the Bucccaneers were invited into that
Country, and joined by the Darien Princes,
Capt. Andrea, Capt. Antonio, and the King of
Darien, who affifted them in the taking of
Sanita Maria, and their attempt upon Panama;
andthe King whofe Daughter the Spaniards had
ftole away, promised to join the Buccaneers
with 5oooo Men. This is the more remark-
able, because thofe very Princes or their Suc-
ceffors are now in League with the Scots,
and have joyfully received them into their

I .

* 6 A Defence of the Scots
Country. So that it is the frangeft mpofition
that can be put upon any Nation, and one of
the mof .audacious affronts that ever was put
upon fo Great a Prince as K. William, for the
Spaniards to pretend a Right to Darien, and ac--
cufe him of a Breach of the Peace; because a
Colony of his.Subjets have fettled themselves
there; when it is fo well known to the World
that the Crown of Spain has no manner of
Title to that Province.
:Then as to any claim by virtue of Poffeffion
the Spaniards have not the left ground of Plea":
All they.can alledg on this Head is,that they were
once admitted by the content of Capt. Diego,
another of the Darien Princes, to-work on fome
Golden Mines within i Leagues, or therea-
bouts, of the Scots Settlement. But it is plaia
that this makes nothing for their purpose.
That Prince admitted them only as Labourers,
hut not as Proprietors; and when they broke
the Conditions on which they were admitted,
,viz. to allow the Dariens fuch and fuch Shares
of. the Produa, they were expelled again by
force; and ever fince that time. the Dariens
refuse to have any further dealings with the
Spaniards, who made themselves odious to them
by their Treachery and Infolence : So that
Mr. Wafer tells us pag. ik they allow a di
ftinguifhing Mark of Honour to him who
.has kili'd a Spaniad: and pg. 179. that La-
Isenta, one of the chief of the Darien Ptrices,
,did in his converfe with him, exprefs his Senfe

S Settlement in Darien. 7
and Refentment of the hivock made by the
Spaniards in the Weft of America, at their firft
coming thither.
It remains then that the Spaniards can lay
no other claim to Darien but what they plead
from the Pope's general Grant of America, its
being bounded by their Dominions, and the Trea:
ties with England, which fall be confider'd in
their order.
To urge the Pope's Grant amongft Proteftants
is ridiculous, and among. Papilis themselves
but precarious: but admittingit were sufficient
to juftify their Title, it is eafy to prove: that
the Spaniards have forfeited all the Right that
they can claim by virtue of that Grant,
The Church of Rome will not publicly own
her power to grant a Right of Conqueft, but
in order to propagate the Faith, and not that
neither, except the Ipfidel Prince or peopl- ,be
guilty of a Breach of Treaty. So that Je
Pope's Grant with thofe ReftriEions is fo far
from eftablifhing the Title of the Spaniards,
that it plainly overthrows it.
That the Indiags were committed to theSpa-
niardsiby Pope Alexander VI. on condition that
they should teach them the Chriftian Reli-
gion, is proved by Don Bartholomew de !as Cafa
'Bifhop of Chiapa, in his Account of the frfl Voyr-
ages and Difcoveries made by the Spaniards in Ai
erica, and the. Relation of their unparaeld'd
Cruelties -p. x 95..and there he lkewile owns,
Sthat by their acquitting themifelves fo il of

8 A Defence of the Scots
that Commiffion, they ought to make refti-
tuition of all they have taken from them un-
der this pretext. And pag, 200. be charges
them with breach of the Terms prefcribd by
the Apoftolical Brief, the Queen If4ella, to
whom it was granted, earneftly intreated.them
in her lafi Will to keep exactly to it. -P. 218.
he fays that the Title of the King of Spaimt to
the Indians, is founded only on the obligation
he had taken upon himself to inftrua them in
the true Faith, as appears by the Apoftolick
Brief: which they were fo far from perform-
ing, that instead of converting their Souls, they
deftroyed'their Bodies; having in thofe early
days, viz. in the time of the Emperor Charles
V. murdered above 40 Millions of them; and
took fo little care to inftrut them in the Chri-
ftian Religion, that they perfealy obftru&ed
their Converfion, and fold thofe very Idols ;hat
fome of the poor People had thrown away
with abhorrence, to others of the Indians;
ibid. p. 194. which, together with their other
horrid Impieties, created an averfion in chofe
poor Infidels for Heaven it felf; according to
the known Story of IHathwey an Indian Prince,
ibid. p 2. who being faften'd to a Stake by
" the Spaniards in order to be burnt, for no
" other Crime but indeavouring to defend him-
" felf and his Subjets against their Cruelties,
" ask'd a Friar that was difcourfing to him of
' Heaven, promising him eternal Happinefi
<' there if he would believe, and threatening

ettlement i. Daien. 9
C -him with Hell if he did not, whether Hea-
cc ven was open to the Spaniards 5 and being ari-
" fwer'd that it was to fuch of them. as were
Sgood- replied immediately that he would not
" go thither for fear of meeting fuch cruel and
" wicked Company as tlley were, but would
" much rather chufe to go to Hell, where he
"might be delivered from the troublefom fight
" of fuch kind of People. So that their forfei-
ture of all Right or Title to Darien by the Pope's
Grant, if it were of any validity, is plainly de-
Their next Plea is, that Darien is bounded or
inclofed by their Dominions, viz. by Portobello
and Carthagena, with their Territories on the
North, and Panama and Sanfa Maria on the
South. To this it is anfwered, that Darien is
Sounded only by the Sea on both fides, without
fo much as a SpaniJ Fort or Garifon, from
SNombrede Dios to the Gulf of Darien on the
*North Sea, or from the River of Chepo to the
River of Congo on the South Sea. The Terri-
tories of the Spaniards confining on both ends of
the Iftrmi are not unlimited, but are reftrifted
on both fides by the Dariens, who, as has been
already faid, were.never fubje&t to Spain. Nor
is it any new thing in the World for indepen-
dent Soveraigntys to lie inclos'd within the
Doininohs of other Princes 5 to infance in no
more than Oratge and Avignon in Europaj Ceu-
ta_ Metilla, &c. poffeffed by the Spaniards
themifelves in Africkl which lie in the very bo-
B fom

.6 A Defence of the Scots
fom of Morocco, and yet the Spaniards don't
think their Title to them e're a whit the worfe,
The Dutch and Portugueze have both of them
Settlements on the Coaff of Brafil, to which
the Spaniards pretend a Right. The French have
Settlements in Hijpabiola and Guiana, notwith-
ftanding the Neighborhood of the Spaniards.
The Englif and French have both of 'em Planta-
tions in Newfound-land. The Dutch in time of
Peace fettled on Long Ifland in the middle of
the Engli/f Plantations, yet no War enfued up-
on it. The Englij poffeffed themselves of
Bahama Iflands, tho the Spanifh Fleet paffed be-
twixt them and Florida: and the Englifh have
fcveral times fettled at Port-Royal in Campechy
Bay, to cut Logwood, &c. and removed and
fIttled as they found convenient. K. Charle IL
in time of Peace granted a Patent to Dr. Cox to
fettle a Colony in the Bay of Mexico, which
was never queftion'd by the Spaniards: and the
French have now fince the Conclufion of the
laft Peace, planted a Colony on theRiver Mif-
fiJfipi in that fame Bay, against which we hear
of no Complaints from Madrid. So that the
Plea of the Spaniards from this Topick is per-
fedly overturned by Common Practice, the
Law of Nations, and their own Conceffions in
parallel Cafes.
. The Next Plea of the Spaniards is from the
Treatys betwixt them and the Crown of Great
Britain, of which they alledg the Settlement of
the Scots at Ddrien to be a Breach : But that

Settlement in badiPa 77
there's no ground for this Allegation, will ap-
pear to thofe that perufe the faid Treatys, viz.
that of May 23. 1667. and that of July 1670.
wherin there's not the leaft mention of exclude.
ing either Party from enlarging their Domini'
ons in America, upon Waftes, or by content of
the Natives, in fuch places as have never yet
.been poffeft by Spain or Great Britaini So that
all that can be infer'd from thofe Treatys is,
that they were a mutual Security for the peace-
able poffeffion of what each Crown enjoyed in
that Country, and no more; which is fufficient-
ly cbnfirm'd'by the Patent granted to Dr. Cox,
and the fettling and removing of the Englifj in
Campechy Bay, &c. without Controul, as be*
fore merntion'd.
Having thus made it evident that the Spanim
yards have no manner of Title or Right to Da.
i'iw, it is natural in the next place to fhew
that they themselves are guilty of the Breach of
Treaty by proceeding in this Affair as; they
have done.
By the third Article of the Treaty between
the Crowns of Great Britain and Spain, con-
cluded at Madrid May i. 1667. it is provided,
That if any Injury fall be done by either of the
faid Kings, or by the People or Subjeas of either of
them, to the People or Subjecls of the other, a-
gainft the Articles of that Alliance, or againfl
common Right, there fall not therefore be given
Letters of Reprifal, Marque or Countermiarque,
by any of the Confederates, until fich time as.
B 2 Juoiice

" i i A Defence of the Sdots
Jiutice is folow'd in the ordinary Courfe of Law.
Yet the Spaniards without any fuch Procedure,
or offering in the leaft to prove their Title to
2Darien, present a virulent and huffing Memo-
rial, at the very firft charging the King with
want of Friendfhip, and a breach of ,Alliance,
and threatening to take fuch meafures as they Ihall
think meet: when their fickly Monarchy has not
yet had time to breath, fince refcu'd from the
common Danger wherein Europe was involved,
by the Arms of that very Prince whom they
treat fo ungratefully.
But this is not all 5 for contrary to the ex-
prefs Words of. that fame Treaty, they attack
the Scots by Sea and Land, who had done them
no Injury, but acquainted them that they came.
thither peaceably, without any hostile design
against them or any other People 5 and were fo
generous as -to rejea the Motion of Capt. .An-
dreas, one of the Darien Princes, and their Ally,
when he offered to make them Maftels of Pana-
ma, if they would but join him with 500 of
their Men.
The Spaniards have alfo, contrary to the loth
and iith Articles of the Treaty concluded at
Madrid, fuly 4- 167o. concerning America, de-
tait'd the Scots and Englifl Prifoners who were
forced afhoar at Carthagena by Shipwrack, tho
all fich Pratices be exprefly provided, against
by the faid Articles: and they have alfo violat-
ed the 14th Article of that Treaty which for-
bids Reprifals, except incafe of denying or ul-

Settlement' in Darien.:
reasonably delaying Juftice. From all which"
it is evident- that the King of Great Britain
has juft reason to demand Satisfaction of the
Spaniards for attacking his Subjeats contrary to
Treaty 5 and that the Scots being thus injuri-
oufly treated, may very lawfully, not only
make Reprifals upon the Spaniards for them.
felves, but join with the King of Darien in tak-
ing Sanaa Maria, Panama, or any other place
belonging to the Spaniards in that Country,
of which the Diriens are NaturalLords, and
the Spaniards Tyrannical Ufurpers, as is pleaded
by the King of Darien hitnfelf; and therefore
he invited the Englih Buccaneers to affift him
to retake it : and by this Capt. Sawkins juftified -
his Proceedings in a Letter to the Governour.
of -Panama, affecting that the King of Darien
was true Lord of Panama, and all the Country
thereabouts and that they came to affift him,
Hifiory of Buccaneers, Vol0. 2. part 4. p. 32.
And we ha'ie mentioned before that Capt. Sharp,
whowas accufed of Piracy, for that fame Ex-
pedition, and succeeded Sawkins in his Com-
mand, was acquitted in England, because he
had that Prince's Commiffion.
SHaving fully prov'd that the Spaniards have
no Title to Darien, it remains to be proved that
the Scots have as good and juft a Title to their
Settlement there, as any People in the World
can have i which may eafily be demonftrated
thus. ,

. They

I4 d Vefence of the Scots
They were authorized by an Af of Parlia-
ment, and the King's Letters Patent, to plant'
Colonies in Afia, Africa, or America, upon Pla-
ces not inhabited, or, any other Place, by content
of the Natives, not poffefl by any European
Prince or State. Being provided with this
Authority, than which there cannot be a
Greater, or one more duly and honefily limit-
ed, they equipped their Ships, and landed on
the North fide= of the Ifthmws of Darien in No-
vember 1698. where the paniards, as has been
fully proved,' never had any Poffeffion, and no
qther European Prince or State pretends -any
Claim to it. Being arriv'd there, they fairly
obtained the confent of the Princes and People
of the Country, and particularly of Capt. Ant-
dreas, who is the chief mai in that Tradt 5 and
after a folemn Treaty and Alliance deliberately
made, and wrote in Spanigh, because the faid
Prince underftands that Language, they peace-
ably enter upon their new Colony, without ei-
ther Force or Fraud. So that they have re-
ligioufly kept to the Conditions of the A& and
Patent, which is a plain demonfiration that
they have a juft and legal Title tp their
Settlement, and a Iight to the Prote&ion
of the government agaigft the Attempts o(
the paniards, or any pther People What-
foever. y
SThe next Toypick to be infifted upon, is the
Advantage or Difadv'antage that may gedopun4
to Engand from this Settlement. We fall be-
^- \ :. '- '* -' -: ; 4' : ' s

Settlement in Dariei n:1
gin with the Difadvantage which confits in the
fuppofed Damage it may do to the Trade of
England, and that it may; as is pretended, oc.
cafion a Rupture betwixt them and Spain. To
this we may easily reply, that being diftinat and
independent Nation, we are not obliged to con.
fult their Intereft, any further than they con-
Cult ours ; and that we have as much reason to
maintain this Colony, because of the Advantage
it may bring to our felves, as they have to op-
pofe it, because of the Difadvantages that they
fancy may arife from thence to England. But
withal we deny that it can be any damage to
their Trade, which from that part of the
World confits chiefly in Sugar and Tobacco,
either of which are yet to be found in New
Caledonia. But that which we look upon to
be a compleat Anfwer to the Objetion is this,
That they may be Sharers with us in the Settle-
ment if they please, and by confequence Part-
ners in the Profits and Trade, and lay it under
fuch Regulations as may prevent its endamag-
ing the Commerce of England.
And whereas it is further objected, That by
the great Immunities and freedom from Cu-
ftoms granted to the Scots Company for fo ma-
ny years, we hall be able to underfel the Eng-
lijl$ Company, foreltal their Markets, and leflen
his Majefty's Cuftoms we answer, that this
ObjeCtion is in a great measure obviated, fince
we do not now pretend-to fet up an Faif-India
Trade;' but admitting it were true, it willbe
B4 to

i 6 A Defence of 4Te Sdots
tothe general Advantage of the Englif Nation,
fiance the Buyers are always more than the Sel.
lers. It muft certainly be better for the King-
dom in general, that every one who has occafi-
on forMuflin or Indian Silks, &c. should fave
fo many Shillings per Yard or Piece in their poc-
kets, than that fome two or three Merchants
should once in an Age get Mony enough to
make a Daughter or two a Countefs or Dutchefs.
Nor can it be denied but it's better for England,
that Houfekeepers in general should fave that
Mony to buy Provifions for their Families,
which consumes our own Produ&, than that
a dozen of Merchants should be enabled by
the extravagant Prices of thofe Commodities
to keep" their Coaches. Add to this,' that
the Englih if they pleafe by joining:with the
Scots may have an equal Share of all thole Im-
munities ; and if there should be for fome
tiae a leffening of the King's Cuffoms, of which
there is at present no manner of profpe&, it
will be sufficiently. made up in time to come
by a large addition, if that Colony profpers
fo that the.King's Bounty in that refped is but
like the beftowing of charge to improve bar-
ren or waffe Ground, which will return with
treble Intereft to him or his Heirs.
There's another Obje&ion made against the
Srots Company, that by their Conflitution
fuch Ships as belong to them muft break'Bulk
iho where but in Siotland,. Which will di'inifli
the number' of Engliih Ships and Seamen, iand

-Settlement in Darien: 17
make Scotland the only FreePort of all thofe
Commodities. To which it's replied, That
tho our own Ships are, obliged to break Bulk nio
where but at home, they don't lay the fame
Obligation upon others, but, allowing them a
free Trade to Darien, they may carry their
Goods where they pleafe or upon' fair Propo-
fals, there's no doubt but the Parliament of
SScotland will give the Engl:/i all poffible Liberty
as to that matter.
Then as to the hazard of a Rupture with
Spain, we reply, That the Spaniards are in no
, condition to break with England, when they are
not able to maintain themselves against the In-
falts, of the French by Sea and Land : and, the
Only way to fecure them in the Britijf Intereft
Sis to have a powerful Colony in Darien,. which
lying in the very Centre of their American -Do-
minions, and within reach of their Silver and
Gold Mines, will be an effeCtual Curb upon
them, and not only prevent their own Hoftili-
ties, but their joining at any time with our E-
nemies 5 or if they do, being Mafters of their
Money, we hall speedily cut the finews of their
In the next place we urge that it will bp
very much for the Intereft and Advantage of
England to encourage and support us in this Set-
''.: Becaufe by this means the Scots will in-
? .reafe their Shipping, and come in time to have
:a Naval Force, capable of affifting the Engih
...tl < v .. *" -.. "

A A De fnde of the Scdts
in thecommon defence of the Ifland, in main-
taining the Soyeraignty of the Seas, and con-
voying their Merchantmen in time of War
theneceffity of which is obvious enough, fince
they and the Dutch both have fcarce been able
to fecure their Trade, maintain the Dominion
of the Seas,' and defend themselves from the In-
vafions of the French during the laft War.
Nor can the: &glibj always promise to them-
felves the Amity of the Dutch, who are their
Rivals in Trade, and differ .far enough from
them both in Temper and Intereft, there's no-
thing to cement them but the Life of our pre-
fent Soveraign: Whereas the Scots being united
with the Englfh under the fame Government,
and inhabiting the fame Ifland, mut of ne-
-ceffity have the fame Intereft as to Trade, and
to defend the Country. against all Foreign Inva-
ders, as they' constantly did in 'former times,
against Romans, Danes, Saxons, and Normans,
notwithstanding their living then under afepa-
rate Prince, and their frequent Wars with Eng&
land. Nor is that brave refitance which a few
of them made to the Dutch at Chattam to be for-
gotten, which did in a great measure repair the
:Honour of England, and make amends for the
Ignominy and Difgrace which that Attempt put
upon the nglj Nation.
S2. As Scotland increases in Shipping, they
will increase in Wealth, and by confequence
-be able to bear a greater fare of the Burden
of any Foreign War, which will ave Men
.' - '

Settlement in Darien: 19
and Mony to England, and lighten their
3. The Succefs of the Scots in their American
Colony, will be an additional Strength to the
English Plantations in the Weft Indies, as well
as an advancement of their Trade, by confum-
ing their Produ&c, and giving them theirs in
4. The Succefs of the Scots at Darien will
be of great advantage to England 5 for the more
Mony the Scots acquire by their Trade, the
more they will fpend in England, which being
the Seat of the Government, muft frequent-
ly be visited by their Nobility and Gentry,
who generally furnish themselves in England
with their beft Apparel, Houfehold-furniture,
Coaches and Horfes, &c. besides the Mony
that the young Noblemen and Gentlemen fpend
in their Paffage through that Nation, when
they go and come from their Travels. Thefe
things occasion their laying out vaft Sums of
Mony annually in the City of Lon'don, which
being the Seat of the Government, will as.cer-
tainly draw Mony frop Scotland, as the Sun
draws Vapours after it.
The Succefs of the Scots in their fpreigr
Plantation, will not only eafe England of great
numbers of their Pedlars, fo frequently con-
plain'd of in Parliament by Country Corpora-
tions and Shopkeepers, brt it will occafion the
Seturn home, and prevent the going out of vaft
Ruibers of their YoutIh ',ho 'olow the faime

od A Defence of the Scots
fort of Imployment, or betake themselves to the.
Sword in Denmar4, Sweden, Poland, Mufcovy,
Germany, Holland and France ; by which means
the Government of Great Britain may furnifhi
their Fleets and Armies at a much cheaper and
eafier rate than formerly, and with as good Ma-
riners and Soldiers as any in the World.
.6. The Englif by.joining with the Scots and
supporting their Colony at Darien, may have.
their Plate brought home in their own Bottoms,
and from their own Mines, with which we are.
affured that Country abounds, without being
obliged to touch at Cadis or any foreign Port,.
being liable to the vexatious Indultos of foreign
Princes, or in fuch hazard of being intercepted
as they many times were during the late War.
7. The Engl~J may by joining with the Scots
render themselves more capable than ever of
keeping the Ballance of Europe in their hands 5
a Truft which Nature and Providence feems to
have affign'a 'em, fince their Situation and Naval
Force not only makes it proper for them, but they
have had an opportunity -put into their hands in
little above the Revolution of one Century, of
twice breaking the Chains of u&rope when
threated with Slavery ; firft by the Spaniards,'
and then by the French.. This is fo much the
more evident, that by being poffefsd of parietz
they will be able either to prevent the uniting
the Spanifh and French Monarchies 5 or if not
fo, to render that Union fo much the lek dan-
gerous, ~hen it will be in their power to feTie

Settlement in D rieri
their -Treafure arid Dominions in the Indies,
without which that. bulky Monarchy mUft fall
by its own weight. This is likewise of fo
much the greater importance, that it may very
probably either prevent a religious War, to-
wards which the Papifts difcover fo much in-
clination, or at leaft bring it to a fpeedier Con-
clufion: for we have as good reafon to look up-
on the Spani/h Mines in the Weft-Indies to be
Antichrifts Pouch, by which he maintains his
War against the Church, as the old Taborites
had to call the Silver Mines in-Bohemia by that
Name. It is certainly the fureft Method of
deftroying Artichrifl, to feize his Purfe for
if he once be deprived of Judas's Bag, he will
quickly drop St. Peter's Keys. It's by the
Charms'of her Gold that the %3abylonij Whore
hath made the whole World to wonder after
her, and the Kings of the Earth to be drunk
with the Cup of her Fornication.
8. By this means the nglifh may 'be better
able to prevent the ruin of their Trade in the
Mediterranean and Weft-Indies, if the French
should poffefs themselves of the Kingdom of
Spain: and they will likewise be the better able
to prevent their poffeffing themselves of the,
Netherlands 5 which if once they should do, and
get Ports there capable of holding a Fleet, they
would alfo ruin their Eaftland Trade, and put a
period to the Liberties of Great 'Britait.
9. It will effe6tually unite the Scots to Eng-
rnd by an inseparable Tie, if the Englefl join

i A Defence of the Scots
us in this Undertaking: Their AneefRors would
have gladly purchased this. Union at a much
dearer rate, but were always outbid by France :
and the want of that Union made the Engli{h
not only an eafy Prey to their fucceffive Con-
querors, but loft them all the large Provinces
that they enjoyed beyond Sea, which were their
natural Barriers, gave them a free Accefs to the
Continent, and'made the Engli/b Namae fo glo-
rious in the days of. their Anceftors.
o1. It will be of general advantage to the
Proteftant Intereft, and contribute to the ad-
vancement of pure Chriftianity, without, any
of the Romijb Sophiftications : which cer-
tainly ought to weigh much with all true Pro-
teftants 5 and fo much the more, that the Pope
and the Conclave of Rome have efpoufed the
Quarrel of the Spaniards in this Affair as a Caufe*
of Religion. Doubtlefs the poor Americans
will be more inclinable to imbrace Chriftianity,
when they find the difference of the Morals and
Doftrine betwixt Proteftants and Papifts, and
fee that the former treat them with Humanity,
and feek their Welfare both in Body and Soul 5
whereas the Spaniards have rendered themselves,
and the Religion they profefs, odious, by
the inhuman Cruelties and brutifh Lufls which
they have exercised upon fo.many Millions of
the Natives. This is fo far from being a Ca-
lumny,, that an unexceptionable Author of their *
own, Don Bartholomew de las Cafas Bifhop o
Ciiapa, formerly mentioned, who was an Eye-

Settlement in Darietn if
witness of their Cruelties, gives an account
that they had in his time destroyed above 40
Millions of the poor Indians 5 tho they received
them with the greatest kindnefs imaginable,
were ready to do'em all the friendly Offices that
one man could desire of another, and testified
their great Inclination to have embraced the
Chriftian Religion. But the Spaniards aim'd at
the DeftruLqion, and not at the Cdnverfion of
the Indians ; and are avowedly charg'dwith it
by the faid Bifhop, who in many places of his
Book declares, that after they had fent for the
Chiefs of the CoUntries to meet them in an a-
micable manner, which the poor harmless
Creatures did without fufpicion of any Fraud,
thefe merciless Tyrants murder'd them by
wholefale, on purpose to make themselves ter-
rible to them. This was a Pradice fo inconfift-
ent with Humanity, that all the People of the,
World ought to have relented it 5 as having
much more reason to declare the Spaniards to
be Enemies to Maikind, than ever the Rtoman
Senat had to declare 5ero to be fuch.
But this fort of Treatment compared with
what they made others to fuffer; may well be
called Mercy: for tho it was Death, the Indians
were hereby quickly delivered from their Mi-
fery 5 whereas they put multitudes of others to
lingering Deaths, that they might feel them-
, felves die gradually : and yet this is not fo in-
tolerable neither as the Condition of thofe poor
People that had the misfortune to furvive that
Cruelty 5

14 A Defence of the Scots "
Cruelty: for the whole time of their Lives un-
der that miserable Servitude, is but Death pro-
long'd, or making his attacks upon 'em by
intolerable Labor, and continual Hunger, the
moft infupportable of all Plagues 5 thofe poor
Creatures that toil in the Mines, and are im-
ploy'd in Pearl-filhing, ec. having no more
Suftenance allowed them, and that too of the
coarfeft fort, than is juft enough to keep Soul
and Body together, in order to prolong their
Mifery. Then let any man, who has but the
leaft remains of Humanity left him, judg whe-
ther the Scots could be criminal, if they should
have aCually landed upon a Spanm Settlement,
and have feiz'd the fame, in order to deliver
their Brethren the Sons of .Adam, from fuch
hellifh Servitude and Oppreffion as the above
mentioned Bifhop describes 5 and if no man
, that has any bowels of Compaffion within
him can fay they could, what shadow of rea-
fon is there to blame the Scots for ere&ing a
Colony where the Spaniards never had any foot-
The next. thing to be confider'd is, whe-
ther the Scots without the affiftance of Eng-
land, may probably maintain their footing there,
which there's no doubt may very well be de-
termin'd in the affirmative.
i. Because the whole Kingdom of Scotland
being more zealous for it, and unanimous in it
than they have been in any other thing for for-
ty or fifty years paft, it is not to be doubted,

Settlement in Darien" 2 j
butthey will ule their utnoft Efforts to support
themselves in'it by their own Strength or if
that will not do, by making Alliances with o-
ther Nations that are able to affift them wvith a
Naval Force.
2. If they .meet with no other OppoGtiori
but what the Spaniards are able to make to them,
it will be eafy for the Nobility, and Gentry,
and Royal Birroughs of Scotland, to iaife Mo-
ney upon their Lands,. dc. to increase their
Stock for the Aimerican Trade, and buy Ships of
Force to prote& it Nay, without that it's
but giving Commiffion to the Buccaneers to be-
come an over-match for the Spaniards,
3. Suppofing the French should offer to join
with the Spaniards, and affift them to drive the
Scots from Dariet, as fome fay they have al-
ready proffered ; we are not to imagine that
the Spaniards will accept their Proffers in this
cafe, vhen they refused them as to the driving
the Moors from before Ceuta. The Reafons
are obvious They declined the accepting their
Proffers as to Ceg'ta, because they would not
thereby give the French an opportunity, of pof-
feffing thenfelves of any of their Towns in
Africa, as it is but too common for foreign Au-
xiliarys to do in fuch cafes. Then certainly
they haire much greater reafori io refufe their
Proffers as to Darien, America being of iriinitly
more value to them than rome African Towns:
and if once the French hbould get footing there,
if Wovld be in-vain for the Spanif Grandpes any
S. further .

26 'A Defence of the Scots
further to dispute the Succeffion o( France to
their Crown for they would immediately
feize upon their Mines and Treafures in the
Weft Indies, without which the Sparnih Monar-
chy is not able to support it felf
Or fuppofing the King of Spain should live
for many years, and by confequence keep the
French out of poffeffion yet having once got
footing at Darien, which they will certainly
do, if the Scots be expell'd by their affiftance,
the Spaniards will quickly be convinced to. their
Coft, that they are more dangerous Neigh-
bours than the Scots; not only because of their
greater 'Power to, do them more mrifchief, but
because of their incroaching Temper, which
all Europe is fenfible of; and being of the fame
Religion with the Spaniards, and having of
late years fet up for the Champions of Popery,
they will by the Influence of the Clergy, bring
all the Spanifh Settlements of America to a de-
pendence upon them, and a love for them as
the great Protetors of the Catholick Faith;
which will at once deftroy the Intereft of Spain
in .4merica.
This will appear to be no vain Speculation,
to thofe that consider the Temper of the Popilh
Clergy, and the Infolence of the Spanih Inqui-
fitors, who fo daringly refle&ed upon the late
Alliance of Spain with Proteftant Princes and
States, tho absolutely neceffary to preserve that
Nation from being swallowed up by France.
Whereas the Scots being zealous Proteftants,

Settlement in Darien? 2
'and for tat very reason hateful to the Popifh
Clergy arid Laiey, they are under a moral Im-
Spoffiility of having fo much Influence to with
draw the American Settlements from the Obel
dience of Spain. and besides, being under an
obligation by the Principles of their Religion ;
Sand their fundamental COptftitution, not to in-
Svade the Property of another, e 'Spniards
'have no caufe to fear any thing from them, pro-
,vided they forbear Hoftilities on their pA
but on the contrary may find ihem true and
faithful Allies, and useful to affift them in the
defence of their Country, if attacked by the
French 'as in the late War; it being the interest
of the Scotis welasell as of the Spaniards, to pre-
"yent the aceffion of the Crown of Spain t to tht
bf Prance. -
: Thefe things, together with the knopvq En-
- deavours of the French to procure ap intereft a-
imongft the'Natives of that Country, and efpe-
.,cially with Don Pedro and Corbet,l in order to a
Settlement, make it evident enough that it is
the Interft of Spain the Scots thoul4 rather
have it than the French, who have already.beeni
tampering .with the Spaniardss as well as with
the indians, and doubt notfo have a large (hare
of mcrikc whenever the King of Spain dies.,
But admitting that t'he Saniards fhouldr o far
iftiakeitheir Interefl, as to accept of the Prof-
fers oft'he French to expel the Scot, it is not im-
poffible for the latter to find other Allieptlian the
Englifh to affift them With a naval For e o ma in-
tain their Poffeffioni. 2 The
i ; >., ;, L .; .. ..

-28 A Defence of the Scots
The Dutch are known to be a People that
feldom or never mistake their Intereft: They
are fenfible how ufeful the Alliance of Scotland
may be to them, both in regard of their Liber-
ty to fifh in our Seas without control, and of
being a Curb upon England, in cafe the old
7Aoman Maxim of delenda eft Carthago, should
come any more to be applied by the Englifh to
that Republick, as in the Reign of K. Charles II.
They are likewife fenfible of the advantage it
would be to their Trade to be Partners with the
Scots at Darien 5 and how effetual ij may be
to difable the French to purfue their Claim to
Spain, and by confequence to revive the '91d
Title of that Crown upon their own even, as
well as to fwallow up the other ten Provinces.
Thefe things, together with a long continued
Amity and Trade betwixt Scotland and Hollands
and their Union in Religion and Ecclefiaftical
Difcipline, are sufficient to evince' that the'
Dutch would become our Partners in Awmerica
with little Courtfhip. That. they' are able
to affift us in that cafe with a Naval' Frce fuf-
ficient, is beyond contradiction 5 and' that they
would foon be convince' it is their ittereft to
do it, toprevent that monftrous.Increafe of the
French Monarchy, is obvious enough from the
part they afed in the late War. '
But admitting that none of thofe Confidera-
tions should prevail with the Dutch, and that
they Ihould likewise abandon us S it is not im-
poffible for us to obtain an Alliance and Naval

Settlement in Darien. 29
Force from the Northern Crowns: It's well'
enough known that thofe Kingdoms abound
with Men and Shipping; and that they would
be glad with all their hearts to make an Ex-
change of there for the Gold and Silver of f1-
merica, which they might eafily carry from
Town to Town, and from Market to Market,
without the trouble of a Wheel-barrow, as
they are now obliged to do with their Copper.
From all which it is evident enough that it is
not impoffible for the Scots to-maintain them-.
felves in Darien without the Affiftance of Eng-
The next thing to be difcours'd of is, what
the consequences may probably be, if the
Engl~ij shouldd oppofe us in this Settlement.
We could heartily wifh there had never been
any ground for this fuggeftion, and that the
Opposition we have met with from England
had been lefs National than that which we had
from both their Houfes of Parliament, after the
paffing an Aft for an .African Company, &c. in
ours:,and it were to be wifh'd that fo many
of the EnglifJ had not given us fuch proofs of
an alienated mind and aversion to our Welfare,
as they have done fince by their Refident at
Hamborough, and their late Proclamations in
their Weft India Plantations: and we could have
wi(h'd above all that his Majefty of England
had not in the leaft concurred or giv'n his Coun-
tenance to that Oppolition 5 for as King of Scotf
it is plain he could not do it: he hath con-
C 3 firm'd

6 ;B Defence of ,te Scots
irm'd what we have done by the Touch of his
Scepter, which no private Order or Infitrutions
can revoke. And we could wifh that his Eng-
?ijf Counfellors, who put him upon thofe things,
would remember that Straford and Laud loft
, their heads for giving K. Charles that fatal
Advice ofoppreffing and opposing the Scots.
We did verily think that the suffering of out
Crown to be united with that of England in
the Perfon of K.James their Firft, and ourSixth
bur- feafonable corting to the refcue of their
piningg Liberties in the Reign of K. Charles 1
bur being fo infrumental to refcue them from
Anarchy and Confufion, by the Reftoration of
K.Charles II. and above all, our generous and
frank Concurrence with them in the late happy
Revolution, and Advancement of K. Williawm II
We did verily think that all there things defervd
a better Treatment and to evince that they
lid, we fall beg leave to infilt a little upon the
.irft and laft.,
SThe Ei~glbj have no 'caufe to think that We
were ignorant of the Reafon why their politick
Henry VII. chofe rather to match his eldeft
daughter with "the King of Scots, than with
the King of France, because he forefaw that if
the King of Scots, should by that mean's come
to tthe Crown of Engla:d, he would remove
Sthe Scat of -his. 'Governftient thither, which
V'would add t6 the Grandure and Riches of- Eng-
iland: Whe'reas if the King of France did by
',.: 'e ans fall Heir to the Eijh) Crown, he

Settlement in Darien: 31
would certainly draw the Court of England to
Paris. This the Scots were fo far from, being
ignorant of, that many of the Nobility and
Gentry did express their diflike of the Union
of the Crowns, as well knowing that it would
reduce our Kingdom into a Subje~ion and De-
pendance upon England, and drain us of what
Subftance we had 5 and therefore fome ofthem
exprefs'd themselves on that occasion, that
Scotland was never conquered till then: yet fuch
was our Zeal for the common Welfare of the
Ifland,theIntereft ofthe Proteftant Religion,and
of Europe in general, which were then almost,
in as much danger by Spain, as they have been
fince by France, that we quietly and freely
parted with our King, and fuffer'd him to ac-
cept the Englifh Crown, rather than that Nati-
on should be involved in War and Confufion,
and the Proteftant Religion indanger'd by ano-
ther Succeflbr, as it muft neceflarily have bin,
had the Infanta of Spain, whofe Title was then
promoted by the Popifh Intereft, succeeded.
And allthe reward we had for this Condefcen-
fion and Kindnefs, was a contemptuous and dif-
dainful refufal, on the part of England, of an
Onion of the Nations when proposed, tho the
fame would vifibly have tended to the-benefit of
the whole Ifland, the general advantage fE&u-
rope, and the security and increase of the Prote-
ftant Intereft. And our King was fo little thank-
ful on his part, that tho he promised folemoly
in the Great Church of Editburgh before his de-
C 4 parmtre,

S A Defence of the Scots
parturp, that he would vifit his Antient King-
dom once in three years, be never faw it after
but once, and that not till 14 years after. And
by the influence of that fame Faction in njg-
land, who are ftill oui enemies, he made Inno-
tations both in Church and State, c-ontrary to
the Laws of the Land, and his own folemn
Oath; which laid the foundation of all. thofe
Difafters that ended in the fatal exit of his Son,
and the fubverfion of the Government of both
Nations. Thefe were the firft Advantages we
had by the Union of the Crowns.
His Son King CharIes I. had fcarce afcend-
ed the Throne, when we had new Proofs of the
Difadvahtages we labour'd under by that Uni-
o n; for'he by the Advice of fome Enemies to
our Nation, did in an imperious and arbitrary
manner fend for ouf Crown, tho the only Mo-
nument almost left us of our Independency and
Frced6m; but was generously anfwer'd by him
that had it in keeping, That if he would come
and'be Crown'd in Scotland, he should have all
,the Honour done him that ever was to his AIn-
ceftors but if he did not think it worth his
while, they might perhaps be irclin'd to make
choice of another Soveraign, or to that effect
as recorded in the Continuation of Sir'Richard
Baker's Hiftory. Another Difadvantage, we
had by that Union of the Crown, was this,
That that' unfortunate Prince bging infpir'd
with an averfion to the Conftitution of our
Country, by his Education in the Court of ng.

Settlement in Darien. 3
land, he made an unnatural War upon us to
bring us to a Conformity with England in
Church-Matters. We fall not here offer to
debate which of the Churches was beit confti-
tuted, or moft agreeable to the Scripture-Pat-
tern: It fuffices for our Argument, that we
were injur'vd in having a foreign Model offered
to be obtruded upon us, which was the Con-
fequence of the Union of the Crowns, and of
having our King educated in another Nation j
but that was not all, another mischievous effect
of the Union was this, that whatever King.
Charles had deferv'd at our hands, yet out of
natural Affection, Confcience and Honour, we.
were obliged to do what we could to prevent
his illegal Trial and Death, and to defend his
Son's Title, which threw.us into Convulfions
at home, occafion'd us the lofs of several
Armies, 'and expos'd our Nation afterwards
to ruin and devastation by our implacable
Enemy the Ufurper, which together with
the ungrateful Retributions made us by the
Government after 'the Reforation, were
enough to have wearied any Nation under
Heav n, but our felves, of the Union of the
Yet fuch was our Zeal for the Proteftant In-
tereft, the Welfare of the Ifland, and the Liber-
ty of Europe,' that tho we had a fair oppor-
tunity of providing otherwise for. our security
and the Advancement of our Trade, and of:
forming our felves into a Commonwealth, or
. ..../ i f

34 A Defence of the Scots
of bringing England to our own terms, yet we
frankly and generoufly concurred with them
to fettle our Government on the fame Per-
fons, and in the fame manner as they did
theirs, and all the Reward we had from them
is, that an Union of the Nations, tho twice
proposed by his Majefty in Parliament, hath
been contemptuoufly rejected, our King quefti-
oned by a Parliament of England for an A&: of
his Parliament in Scotland, which is a mani-
feft Impeachment of our Soveraignty; a Com-
pliance with which excluded 'Baliol and his
Heirs for ever from our Crown and to this
they have added an opposition to our receiving
foreign Subfcriptions at Hamiburgh and elfe-
where, refused us a Supply of Corn for our
Mony, to relieve us in our Diftrefs 5 and dif-
courag'd our Settlement at Darien, by forbid--
ding their Subje&s to trade with us there. If
thefe continued Slights and Injuries be not
enough to make us weary of the Union of the
Crowns, let any, Man judg.
To difcovei a little of the unreafonablenefs
of this fort of Treatment, we dare aapeal to
the calm thoughts of fuch of our Neighbours in
England, as prefer the Intereft of the Publick
to private Animofities, and foolish ill:ground-
ed Piques, either as to Church or State 5 whe-
ther at the time of the Revolution, and before
we declared our felves, they would not have been
willing to have affur'd themselves of our Friend-
Chip, at the rate of uniting with us as one Nati-

Settlement in Darien. ,
on.? Had we.but demurr'd upon forfeiting the
late K. James, or made buta Proffer:ofrenev -
ing our antient League with France, and joining,
with that Crown to keep that Prince upon
the Throne of Great Britain -. they know we
night have made what Terms we pleased with
the.late King; and Louis XIV. on that conditi-.
on, and might have? been reffor'd to all the Ho-
nours and Privileges-that our Anceftors enjoyed
in France, which were almoft equal to thofe
of the Natives:5 and: yet that gallant Nation
thought it no disparagement to 'them.: howe-
ver we be-defpis'd and undervalued now by a
certain Party in England. .
Had we butfeem'dto have made fuch Over-
tures, the Englihf muff needs have forefeen that
the natural Confequences of fuch a Defign, if,
it had taken effe&, muft have been thefet, vi',.
the late King's Adherents in glandd would cer-
tainly have joined us, and our Nation would'
have afforded them a fafe retreat, in cafe of any
Difafter,. till they, could have concerted Matters
to the beft advantage -the late King would not
have yielded himself fuach an eafy: Conqueft;
nor disbanded' his Armym in fuch a:manner as he
did Itreland had certainly never revolted, fince
every one knows that the-Revolution was be-
gun, and in a great measure perfeded there
by the Scots of the North fo, that efgland
muft have- become- the Theatre- of- War, bin
liable to art invafion from Frane on all occa-
ofodns would only have- lengthened: her Fet-

36 A Defenceof the Scots
ters by firuggling with them, and exposed all
the Patriots of her Religion and Liberty to But-
chery and Deftrufion.
Thefe muft certainly have been the Confe-
quences of our adhering to the late King, and
the Englifi would have thought they had had a
very good Bargain if they could have bought
us off in that cafe with uniting both the King-
doms into one, and granting us a joint Trade to
their own Plantations ; whereas now they will
not allow us to fettle a foreign Colony of our
own, and treat us as Foreigners in theirs.
To (hew that this is not a mere Conje&ure,
that has no other ground but a Vifion of the
Brain, they may be pleased to consider the ho-
norable Privileges granted us by their Ancefiors,
and frone of the greatest Princes that ever fway-
ed their Scepter, viz. King Edward and William
the Conqueror, who by the Confent of the
States in Parliament affembled, ena&ed, That
the Scots should be accounted Denizons of Eng-
land, and enjoy the fame 'Privileges with them-
felves, because of their frequent Intermarriages with
the Englifh, and that they did ever fand floutly as
one Man with them for the common Vtility of the
Crown and Kingdom, against the Danes and Nor-
wegians, fought it moft valiantly and unani-
monfly againfj the common SEnemy, and bore the
burden of mof fierce Wars in the Kingdom. This
they will find in a Book called, Archaionomia, tranf-
lated from the' Saxon by William Lambard, and
printed at London by John Day, in 1568.

Settlement in Daiien. 37
It nuft be granted, that the Reafons of fuch
a grateful Retribution are redoubled now: In-
termarriages betwixt the two Nations are more
frequent than ever 5 the Union of the King-
doms under one Crown for almoft Ioo years;
the generous Concurrence of the Scots in the
laft Revolution 5 their lofs of fo many gallant
Officers and brave Soldiers in the common
Caufe during the late War, and the preferva-
tion of Ireland, which hath been twice owing
to our Countrymen, might reasonably entitle
us to the fame Privileges now, that our Ance-
ftors were formerly allowed by King Edward,
and William the Conqueror. We need not in-
fift on another fort of Obligation, that we have
put upon England twice within this 60 years,
viz. the delivering them from their Oppreffions
in the time of K. Charles I. the Anarchy of the
Rump, and several Models of Armys and Jun-
tos, by encouraging General Mongts Undertak-
ing 5 for it cannot be denied that we had the
Ballance of Europe in our hands at the time of the
laft Revolution, and that we turn'd the Scale to
the advantage of England in particular, and of
Europe in general, which muft be allowed to be
as great a Service, as that which was fo thankful-
ly rewarded by Edwari and William the Con-
queror 5 whence it is' Lvident that thofe Englifh-
men, who at present oppofe our Settlement in
4merica, don't inherit the gratitude of their
Ancestors, when they not only will not allow
us to trade in conjunction with them, but with-

S8 A Defence of the Scots
ftand our doing any thing that may advance a
Trade by our felves.
If they obje& that what we did in all thofe
cafes was no more than our duty, and what we
ow'd to our own Prefervation as well as to
theirs: it is eafy to reply, that admitting it to
be fo, yet by the Laws of God and Men People
are incourag'd to perform their Duties by Re-
wards 5 and their Anceftors were fo fenfible of
this, that tho theyknew we were equally con-
cern'd to defend the Ifland against foreign In-
vaders as well as they, yet they thought them-
felves obliged in Policy as well as Gratitude, to
reward us 5 which they not only did by that Ho-
norary Premium of allowing us to be Denifons of
England, as above-mention'd; but sometimes
gave to us, and at other times eonfirm'd to us the
Three Northern Counties of Northumberland,
Weflmoreland, and Cumberland, to be held in Fee
of the Crown of England.
It is likewise very well known with how
much Honor the Parliament of England treated
us, when they courted our Affiftance against
K. Charles L and what large Promifes that
Prince made us, if we would have but flood
Neuter ; which tho we had reason to think ma-
ny of thofe that oppofehim had no great kind-
nefs neither for our Civil nor Ecclefiaftical
Conflitution, yet the fenfe that we had of the
common Danger that our Religion and Liber-
ties were in at that time, made us proof a-
gainft all thofe Tentations,; fo that after all
End a-

Settlement in Darien 39
Endeavours for a Reconciliation betwixt the
King and the Parliament of &Egland proved un-
,fuccefsful, we fent in an Army, which caft the
Ballance on the fide of the latter who before
that time were reduced low enough by the
King's Army, as is very well known to fuch as
are acquainted with the Hiftory of thofe times,
and is own'd by my. Lord Hollis in his Memoirs
lately publifh'd.
But to return to the laft Revolution: Tho we
muff own that we owe our Deliverance to his
present Majefty, and were obliged in Confci-
ence and Honour to concur with him- yet
who could have blam'd us to have flood upon
Terms before we had fallen in with England.?
especially considering how ungratefully (nay
villanoufly) we were treated by Cromwel and
his Party, after we"had fav'd them and the
Parliament of England from the Scorpions that
the Cavaliers had prepared to chaftife, them
with as is own'd by the faid Lord Hollir.
Nor could we have been anyway culpable, if
we had food upon higher, and furer Terms
with his Majefty, considering how unthankfully
we were abus'd and enflav'd by our late Kings,
for whom we had afted and suffered fo much.
And thi we muft own that no lefs Prefent than
that of our Crown wks efficient to testify our
Gratitude for what the Prince of Orange had
done for us, yet we were under no neceffity of
gratifying him in that manner, fine our Deliver-
ance was effeted before hand, and that he him-

S4o A. Defence of the Sco s
felf in his Declaration exprefs'd it to be no part
of his design to comefor the Crown 5 fo that
our Reward was as frank ard gener6ou s shis
Then as to England, we were under no rian-
ner of obligation to continue the Union with
them: We might have infifted upon having
our King obliged to refide as much amorgft us
as amongft them: that we should be govern'd
without any consideration or refpef to their
iritereft, any further than it fell in with our
own. We might have infifted upon an At
.that we should not be oblig'd to attend his Ma-
jery at any time at the Court'of England, a-
bout our Affairs but that he fbould either at-
tend upon our Adminiftration in perfon pro r0
vata, as he does now upon -the Affairs of Hol-
land, or lay down Methods to have his Pleafure
fignifiJd to us at home in fuch cafes as it was
reqitLd i ; which would.fave a vaft deal of Mo-
nev annually- to the Kingdom of Scotland.
Then as to the.Succeffion, we were under
no rieceffity of fettling it in the, fame man-
ner as they did in England: for fince they had
made a Breach in the Line, they could not
handfomly have blam'd us. to have inade an
improvement of it, and either to have limited
the Reverfion after his prefent Majefty's Death,
as we shouldd have thought beft, for the security
of our Civil and Religious Liberties or we might
have fettled it. upon the Prince of Orange and
his Iffue by any other Wife, there being, cufe

settlement in Dariie'. 4 t
enough then to conceive that he was never like
to have any by his late excellent Princefs. Had
we' taken any of there .Methods, it muff be
own'd that England would have been confider-
ably weakened, and leffen'd in the Elteem of the
World by it that we should have thereby hid
an opportunity of making fuch foreign Allian-
ces with France, as formerly, or with any o-
ther Nation as would have made England un-
eafy, and perhaps unfafe on occasion 5 and
therefore it muft be reckoned highly impolitick,
as well as ungrateful, in our Neighbours to. treat
us continually at fuch a rate, as if they had a
mind to bring us under fubje&ion, fince we
have fo many open Doors to get out at.
They muff not think that we have fo far de-
generated from the Courage and Honour of out
Ancestors, as tamely to fubmit to become their
Vaffals, when for 2000 years we have main-
tain'd our Freedom 5 and therefore it is not
their Intereft to opprefs us too much., If they
confult their Hiftories, they will find that we
always broke their Yoke at long-run, if at any
time we were brought under it by Force or
Fraud. The beft way to affdre themselves of
us is to treat us in a friendly manner: Tho we
be not fo great and powerful as they, it is not
impoffible for us to find.fuch Allies as may en-
able us to defend our felves now as well as for-
None of thefe things are fuggefted with an
1il detigt to raife Animofity betwixt the Na-
D tions,

SA Defence of the Scots
tions, or to perfwade to a Separation of the
Crowns,. but merely, to fhew thofe of our
Neighbours, who ufe us fo. unkindly, that they
are bound in Gratitude, Dhty and Intereft to
do otherwise, and particularly to support us in-
our .Airican Settlement, and not to, lay our
King. nnder a neceffity by their froward Hu-
mours in Parliament- or otherwise, to difcou-
rage us. in that. Undertaking, as they have hi-
therto done, and continue fill to do in their
American Colonies, by their Proclamations a-
gainft having any Commerce or Trade with
the Scots at Darie.n tho they. be fettled there
according to the Terms of his own Patent, and
an Ac of Parliament in Scotland.
We.are..not infenfible that the prefent Jun-
Aure.of Affairs obliges-the-Kingdom of England
to carry fair with Spain, and may admit that
in part as. ai Apology for fome of that Oppo-
fition we have met with from them 5. but the
queftiobing our Af of Parliament at firft, and
their hindring our Subfcriptions at Hamburgh
afterward, before ever they knew what-our de-
fign was, make that Excufe of little weight:
but allowing it'all the force they would have
it to bear, it may be worth their while to con-
fider whether it be more their Intereft to incou-
rage the Spaniards Jn an unjuft Oppofition to
our American Settlement, or to support the
Scots in.maintaining their Right. It is certain
that the Spaniards are in no condition to break
with England 5 or if they should, it's in the

Settlement in Danrie 4
power of the ingfli to reduce them speedily to
reason: whereas if the Scots should mifcarry in
their Undertaking by the' iifcouragements from
ngland before mentioned, which expofes our
Ships to be taken and treated as Pirates by any
Nation that pleafes, the infallible confequence
of it will be, that the Ruin and.utter Impove-
rifhment of Scotland, which muft neceffarily fol-
low fuch a Mifcarriage; will immediately affef
england both in her Trade and Strength : The
City of London and the Northern Road will
foon feel the effeecs of it, when the Money
fpent by our Gentry and Merchants continually
for Cloaths, Provi(ions, and Goods, ceafes to
circulate there : England mnft unavoidably
become an eafier Prey to any foreign Ene-
my 5 fince it will not be only the Lofs of aTribe,
but of an entire Sifter-Nation. Or fuppofing
that Scotland shouldd be'able to bear up under
the Lofs, it will lay the foundation of an irre-
concilable Feud, and perhaps iffue in a War be-
twixt the two Nations which did never yet
terminate at long-run to the advantage of
England, and is as unlikely todo fo now as e-
ver: for in fuch a Cafe they would find us uia-
nimous as oneMai against them ; whereas we
are fure that all thofe who wiih well to the
Proteftant Intereft, and their present Conflitu-
tion, would never join in any fuch War against
us 5 and' therefore thofe who are Enemies to
the Peace of the Nations, being aware of this,
labour to'effe &their Deign by another Method,
D 2 and

44 A Defence of the Scots
and endeavour as much as they can to dalh-the.
Government and us against one another. -But
they, are mistaken in the People of Scotland:
we ared,fo fenfible of our Obligations to K. Wil-
liJ, and know fo well what is due to our De-
liverer, that it furpaffes all their Art to create
iu us the leaf ill thought of him 3 it is not in
the temper of our Nation. The World knows
that however frequent and fuccefsful. we have
been in reducing our bad Kings to reafon, yet
there never was any People under-the Sun more
loyal and affedionate to good Princes than we
have been ; and if, when we have been forced
to oppose our Monarchs, private perfons have
sometimes carried their Refentments too high,
yet the public Juftice of the Nation was al-
ways governed with Temper. We could mul-
tiply nftances to prove this, but need go no
higher than the three fift Kings, who tho all
of them Enemies ,to our Conftitution, as ap-
pear'd by their Principles and Pratices,, yet it's
very well known what- we both did .and fuffer'd
for them, and particularly for K. Charles I. tho
the Malice' of a FaCionqin our neighboring
Nation nix'd a scandalous Reproach upon us, as
if we 'had fold him from which Refle6ion
we arefufficiently vindicated by the Lord Hollis's
Memoirs before-mention'd 5 .wherein that ex-
cellentPerfn makes it evident, that tho our
War againft that Prince was juft, yet we had
all poffible refpet for hisPerfop,. made the beft
Conditions we could for his Safety and Honour,

Settlement in Drien,' 45
and to avoid greater Mifchiefs, and the playing
of our Enemies game to the ruin of our felves
and his Majefty, we were neceffitated to leave
him in England. Memoirs p. 68.
Then fince we carried it fo to a Prince that
had been no way kind to us, it will be imp9f-
fible to create a Breach betwixt us and a Prince,
to whom, under God, we owe all that we en-
joy as Men and Chriffians: But at the fafte
time our Neighbours, who think to drive that
Nail as far as it will go, would do well'to c6n-
Cider that we never believed that Do&rine in
Scotland, that it is unlawful torefift a King,' or
any that have a Commiffion under him, upon
any pretence whatsoever: we left that Do-
drine in Scythia, from whence fome Authors
derive our Origin, and think it only fit to be
fent back to Turkey, from whence it came;
We know very well how to diftinguifh betwixt
a lawful Power, and the abufe of it 5 and our
nceftors rightly understood how 'to obey the
awful Commands of their Princes, when Ma-
ers of themselves; and hbw tdgovern by their
Authority, and in their; Name, when they
ere not 'tho they did not think themselves
obligedd to obey their personal Commands,
hen the Fortune of War, or other Accidents
ad put them into the hands of our Enemies.
hus we refused Obedience to K. James I. when
etain'd Prifoner in England contrary to the
aw of Nations, and carried over into France,
o command his Subjets there not to bear
-D 3 Arms

46 A D, fnce of :tbe Scots
Arms against the .nglifArmy, where ,he was
in Perfon. We told him we:knew ;how to di-
ftinguith betwixt the Commands of ,a King and
thofe of a Captive: and that moft of the, Kings
of Scots have been fch in relation to us fince the
Union, we could heartily wilh were not too
To return to the point of what may probably
,be the Confequences if the Englifli Lhould pro-
ceed to any further degree of opposition 5 or if
the Scots shouldd mifcarry in the Defign. It's
reasonable to believe that the Englih will be fo
wife as to forbear Hoftilities, tho we are very
well satisfied there is a Party in that Nation
who hear ours no good will.5 but they. being
fuch as are either difaffefed to the present Con?
ffitution, or a&ed by a fordid Principle of pri-
vate Intereft, it's to he hop'd they v ill never
:be able fo far to leaven the found part of the
EBgliJh Nation, as to occasion a Rupture be-
twixt them and us: yet we muft needs fay that
we look upon their way of treating us to be
a very unaccountable thing, -and that it was no
fmall furprife to us, to find that an Englifh Par
ligament should look on our taking Subfcriptiona
in England in order to admit them Joint-Sharer
with our felves, in the benefit of the Aa toencou.
rage our Trade, to be no lefs than a high Mif
demeanour. We have reason likewise to com-
plain of their -conftant praLice of preffing ou,
Seamen in time of War, as if they were their own
Subjess, and that they shouldd treat us in other,

Settlement inDarien. 47
refpeds as if we were Alilhis: and fonietines
confiscate Ships, 'by reckoning Scots Mariners
fu&h: fo that the'EngSgiJ have not only deprived
us -of our Government .and the warm Influen-
ces of our Court, the want of which is a corifi-
derable addition to the natural cold.nefs of our
Climate, but they likewise opprefs us on all
occasions, and do manifeftty endeavour to pre-
vent our Application to Trade. We know
there's a'Party in that Nation, who think we
fuftained no great lofs .by the removal of our
Princes 5 but we would with them to consider
what a murmuring they themselves make when
the Kinggoes annually to the Netherlands (tho
the safety of Europe requires it) becipufe of the
damp it puts upon Trade, and the Mony it
carries out of the Kingdom. Let them confi-
der then what our Nation has fuffer'd in that
refpe& now for almost loo years, besides the
leffening our efteem in the Eyes of the World,
fo that our Honour and Subftance are bothTfwal-
lowed up by the Kingdom of England; and yet
they will neither admit us to the privileges of
Fellow-Subje&s with themselves, nor fuffer us
to take fuch measures as may inable us to ftand
on our own bottom. Certainly this is not the
way to effiblith the Peace, nor to ihcreafe the
Wealth of theIfland.
We know that it was a Maxim in fome df
the late Reigns, That it would never be well
till .all that part of Scotland on this fide Forth,
-were reduced to a hunting field 5 but we were in
D 4 hope,

4$ A D efence-of the Scots
hopes the bitternes- of thofe days had been
pat: yet it feems that Party have fill fo far
the afcendant amongft our Neighbours, as to
procure a public opposition to all our Endea-
vours for raising our Nation by Trade.
SIt will upon due examination be found as bad
Policy as it is Chriftianity, to urge, as fome of
our Neighbours do, ,that it is the Intereft of
England to keep tbe-Scots low, because they are
an independent and free Nation, and were
our antient Enemies 3 and therefore may be
dangerous Neighbours if they grow rich and
potent. Nothing but Rancor and inveterate
Malice can fuggeft fuch four thoughts as thefe.
It were fit that fort -of Men shouldd be purg'd
of their Choler, The Scots to obviate all dan-
gers from that Head, have tho they be much the
antienter Nation, condefcended fo far as several
times to propofe a Union, which the Gentle-
men of that Kidney have hitherto, prevented j
and therefore we would wifh them to look back
into their Hiftories, and upon casting up their
Accounts, make a true Eftimate of whatever
they gained by a War with Scotland. 'They
will find that their Anceftors, as well as the Ro-
mans, have been fenfible, asTacitus expreffes it,
gos fibi Viros Caledonia fepoferit 5 and that as
it was true what out Hiftorian fays of the ur-
juft and treacherous War made upon us by Ed.
ward I. that Scotorumy Nomen pene delevit 5 it was
alfo true what he fays on the other hand, that
Anglidam vekementer conceit : So that thofe Gere-
' ~lemn en

Settlement in Darien. 49
flemen take the dire& way by opposing and op-
preffing us to run into thofe dangers they would
avoid ; for they may affure themselves :that if
'the Engliffb Oppofition to our .American Settle-
ment shouldd once breakout into Hoftilities, the
Scots will find fome Allies, antient or new, that
will be glad of the opportunity to join with
them. Or if, which is moft probable, tho
highly ungrateful and impolitick, the Englijh
should fo far negle& the Scots, as to fuffer them
to be overpowered by the French, they may
be fure that the Scots, when put to their laft
ifift, can always make an honourable Capitula-
tion with France: It's not.to be doubted, but
that Crown would be very willing to renew
their antient Alliance with us and besides al-
lowing us a Share at left in the Trade of Da-
rien, would on condition of giving them the
Poffeffion of New Caledonia, reftore us likewise
to all our antient Privileges in France. They
would think it a very good purchase if they
could fecure themfelves.of that Colony by do-
ing fo, granting us what security we could rea-
fonably defire for the uninterrupted Injoyment
of the Proteftant Religion, and a Freedom of
Trade to all places of the World where it did
not actually interfere with their own.Settle-
ments and Colonies. So that if this should
be the cafe, we leave it to our Neighbours
to judge what would become of their Eafj
and Wvf-India Trade and Plantations, and of
their own Liberty, and whether they would
bs able to fand out against France and us, now

50 A Defence of the Scots
that they have ,no footing -on the Continent,
fince formerly, when they'had fo many Provin-
ces of that'Kingdom in their poffeflion, Ithey
found it a hard matter'to do it, and at. laft loft
everyfoot of their French Dominions: where-
as had they been in Union with us, they might
certainly have retained them, and by corife-
quence-have prevented the great Calamities that
rope hath fince groan'd under'by the prodigi-
ous Increafe of the French Monarchy.
This we think sufficient to convince thofe
angry Gentlemen in our neighboring Nation,
that are fovery much difgufted with our Ame-
rican Settlement, that it is the Intereft of Eng-
land to join with us and support it, and That it
may be of dangerous confequence to them ei-
ther to oppose or neglek us: Whereas by join-
ing cordially:in this matter, they may unite us
infeparably to themselves for ever, inrich their
own Nation, fecure and advance the Proteftant
Interefi, keep the Ballance of Europe in their
hands, and prevent the returns of its danger,
their own expense of Blood and Treafure to
fave its being threatened with Slavery any more,
either by the Houfe Zof -Bourbon or Aftlria.
Therefore we cannot believe after all, but our
wife and politick Neighbours will at laft fee it
their Intereft to protect and encourage us in this
matter, that we may mutually 'firengthen and
support one another against the French, who
:are .loudeft in their Clamours against our Settle-
sment, because if ipncouragid annd improved it

Settlement in Dasien. T
will defeat all their anibitious and Antichriftian
Defigns5 and thereby we (hall alfo be in a con-
dition to affift the Englijfh Plantations in the
Weft Ikdies, who as we find.by the proceedings
of the Earl of 'Bellomont and the Affemblies of
JNew England and New Tork, are fufficiently
fenfible of their danger, from the incroapbing
temper of the French, which incaeafes every
day 5 and it is evident that their new defign'd
Colony in Miffiflpi River looks with a danger-
ous Afpe .upon all the Englifh Plantations in
America, and may be more juffly esteemed
an Incroachment upon Spain, as being in the
Bay of Mexico, than our Plantation in Darien
which argues the treacherous Humour of that
Nation, to make fuch an Outcry against the
Scots who have invaded no Mans Property,
when they themselves are fo notorioufly guilty
,of it ; and'ttheeefore it would feem to be the
Interest oftEngland rather to strengthen them-
felves by our Friend hip, and to look after the
French, than to provoke us to look out for other
Allies by their opposition and negle&.
We (hall conclude this matter with one or
two more Arguments to prove, That it -is the
Interest of England to join with us in this Af-
fair ; by which alfo it will appear that there is
nothing advanced in thefe Sheets out of any ill
Design against the Englifj Nation, or to per-
fwade to a difuniting of the Crowns 5 but on
the contrary, that a ftrifer Union is absolutely
eceffary, that both Nations may have but one

5 z A Defence of the Scots
Interest, which will render us lefs liable to Con-
vulfions and intestine Commotions at home, and
put us out of danger of being attacked by Erie-
mies from abroad.
The firft Argument is this 5 That by incou-
raging our Settlement at Darien, &nglifh Ships
that. have occasion to pafs by thofe Coafts will
there be certain of a place of Retreat in cafe of
attack -either byEnemy or Tempeft, without
danger ofS being confiscated by the Spaniards,
and having their Men condemned to be perpe-
tual Slaves in the Mines.
2, If we be encouraged in our A4merican
Colony, it will contribute much to heighten
the Confumption of the Engli{fJ Produc 5 fince
what we have not of our own, or wherein we
are wanting either as to quality or quantity,
we (hall fupply our felves, for the ufe of our
Plantation, in England 5 which may be of great
benefit to the Northern Counties especially,
whence we may conveniently furnish our felves
with Beeves for vi6tualling our Ships, our own
Cattel being for the molt part too fmall for *
that ufe 5 besides many other things that we
hall have occasion to export from England for
the ufe of the Plantation, and to maintain a
Commerce with the Natives.
3. By joining with us in this Colony, and
fecuring a Poft on the South-Sea, which the
Princes of Darien will no doubt very readily a-
gree to, they may (horten their Voyages to the
Fflai-ldies, and by that means be able to outdo
1 3al1

Settlement in Darien. 5'
all their Rivals in that Trade ; but if they will
be fo far wanting to themselves, as to fuffer
thofe advantages to fall into thehands of others
who are Enemies to our Religion and common
Country, they cannot blame the Scots, who have
made them fuch fair Offers; and if our Nation
Should mifcarry in the Attempt, they themselves
cannot exped to fland long, but muff be buried
in the common Ruins, and fall unpitied.
4. If after all the Englifb should Acontinue
obfiinate in their Oppofition to us, as their
late Proclamations in America, and other Paf-
fages would feem to imply they have a mind
to, the World cannot blame the Scots to provide
for themselves by fuch other Alliances as they
fall think meet; fince the Englijh are fo un-
kind, and have been conflantly growing upon
us, especially fince the Refloration of King
Charles II. to which we did fo much contribute,
that without our concurrence it could never
have been effeated. This will appear to be in-
controvertibly true, if we consider that in the
time of K. famesI. we were under no Re-
ithicions as to matters of Trade more than they,
except as to the exportation of Wool, and a
few other things of Englih Produt ; and fo we
continued till the Reftoration, when K. Charles
II. and'the Englifh did very. ungratefully lay
fuchPreclufions and Refirilions upon us con-
trary to the Laws relating to the Pofinati, by
the 12th of Car. 2. for the encouraging and in-
creafjig shipping and Navigation, and the 15.

4 A Defence of the Scots
Car. 2. for the encouragement of Trade; by which
we are put in the fame Circumftances as to
Traffic with France and Holland, and in a,
worfe condition than Irelandthat is a Conqueft;
which is fo much the more unreasonable, fince
we are always involved and ingag'd in the Wars
betwixt England and other Countries: andtthofe
with whom they have molt frequent Wars,
being Holland and France, the only two Nati-
ons- with whom the Scots have almoft any
Commerce, our Trade muff of neceffity fink
during fuch Wars, whereas England hath fill a
great Trade- to other partsof the World; and
by this means we are forced to be fharers in
their Troubles, tho they will not allow us to
partakeof their Profits, nor fuffer us to takea-
ny measures to procure fuch as we may call
our own.
It is plain from the Inflance of Darien, and
the Proclamations in the Englifb America#t
Colonies against their Subje&s entertaining'a-
ny Commerce with our Settlement there, that
by the Union of the Crowns upon the present
footing, we are in-a worfe condition than ever;
for when any thing happens wherein the In-
tereft of England feems to be contrary to ours,
it iscertainly carried against us, and we are left
without remedy: fo that in this refpe&t we are
in- aworfe condition than any Foreigners, with
relation to England ; for if a foreign People dif-
cover any thing that may be of advantage tb
them, they arerat liberty topurfue itrby them-

Settlennnt in Darie n;n
felves, or to take in the' Affifbtnee of others-
and if they find themfelves" aggriev'di by- Eig-
land. they have their refpeaive'Governments to
make application tof6r redrefs b: but we are the'
moft unhappy People in the world'; for if Eng-
land oppofe us, we have no King to. appeal: to,
but one that is either an Alien andlEnemy to us,
as being King of a greater People who are: fuch,
or if he be inclinable to proteftand do us.Juffice.
as- King of Scots, he is a. Prifoner in England,
and cannot do it: If they question him in the
Parliament of England for any thing relating to
his Government of Scotland& as inthe cafe of
our late A' for an EaJ/-Idit and African Trade,.
his Intereft as King of England obliges him'to
fubmit' himself as King of Scotland; by which
means our Crown, which we defended fo gal-
lantly.for fo many ages, and which the Englihf
could never make fubje& to theirs by force; is
now entirely fubjeaed by a falfe ftep of out
own, in suffering our King totake their Crown
upon him without making better terms for our
felyes : So that infiead of having a King .to
fight our Battels, we.have made a furrender- of
our Prince to the Enemy, who arm him againflt
us; and which is worft of all, we have fal-
fified our own Proverb as to our felves, That-
Scots-men are wife: behind hand: for tho we fuf-
ficiently fmarted for it in the four laft Reigns,
yet wehad not fo much forefight or' care four
felves as to prevent the Confequences-of it in
this Reign, when it was in our power to have

56 A Defence of the Scats
done it. Then if we make application to ouri
antient Allies, or.any pther foreign Power for.
Affiftance, when we groan under Oppreffion,
we are treated as Rebels: Thus our whole Na.!
tion was proclaimed fuch for but offering to-
make application to the King of France, as
our antient Friend and Ally, when a certain Par-
ty in England had arm'd our natural Soveraign
K. Charles I. against us.. And that which is
till worfe, tho our Crown from the time of
the Union has been for the moft part on the
Head of an Alien or Enemy, yet it has influ-
ence enough to divide us amongft our felves a-
gainft the Intereft of the Nation; as in the
Reign of K. Charles IL thofe that comply'd
with the Court of England were brib'd with
all the chief places in our Adminiftration,
S whilft thofe who were true Patriots to their
Country (as for Honour fake to instance only in
the late Great Duke of Hamilton, and our pre-
fent Lord High Chancellor) were exposed to
all manner of Dangers and Vexations. This.
we think sufficient to convince our Neighbors
that we have no reason to be fond of having
the Union of the Crowns continued, except
the Intereft of the Nations be more clofely uni-
ted than ever they have hitherto been. And
to let them fee that it is their interest as well as
ours it should be fo, we fall only desire them,
to consider how fatal it may be to them,, if by
any Emergency we should be forced to break off
the Union of the Crowns, and enter again in-

,Settlement in Darien. ;*
o a FrbCh Alliance., It's i1 vain for them to
objeC that, in fuch a cafe we floiild betray our
Religion; for we fee the prefecuted' Higariani
were protected in that by the Tuiks, tho fwora
Enemies to it i nor is it impoffible but there
may he a change as to that matter in France
L. XIV. is not immortal: 'and even Julian the
Apoftate himself found it his Intereff for fome
time to protea the Orthodox'Chrifiianrs, whom
he mortally hated. But fuopofing (as indeed
there's no great likelihood of it) that no fuch
Alliance as this should ever happen yet how-
ever, if thefe two Nations be not more closely,
united, it may be of ill confequence to England
if any of their Kings it any time should be fo
far difguffed with their Proceedings, as to
leave them,and betakethemfelves to us. What
a Field of Blood and Slaughter muft England
have become, had we carried off K. Charles I;
when be came to our Army, or if we had joined
him againfi the Parliament of England ? What
great Effoits did a Party of our Nation make to
throne K. Charles II. when England was a
gainft him and how did our Concurrence
Sfterwards with General Monk effect it? Hov
'oon did our efpoufingthe D. of Tork's Intereft
turn the Tables upon thofe that oppofed him itd
An-glahd F And if ouir Nation had likewise e-
tpous'd his Caufe before, the Revolution, the
Vifrount 6f Dunde. gaie a sufficientt proof'
vhat we could have done for him There's a
fiobdg Party ia England at prefent against a l-
S lowinig

58 Defence of the Scots.
lowing the King a Standing Force,. for fear, as
they pretend, of losing their Liberties; but all
their Oppofition in that refpe& would fignify
little, (if in cafe of a Rupture) our Nation
should take part with the Court, and bring in
22000 Men, with 6 Weeks Provifions and Pay,
as we are oblig'd to do by Ad of Parliament,
for his Affiftance. This makes it evident that
it is not the Intereft of England to flight and an
Union with us fo much as they have done: For
fo long as we remain divided, any King that is
fo minded,may make ufe of us to inflave one a-
nother; and any envious Neighbour, whole
Interest it is td keep this Ifland low, will be
fure to blow the Coals. If they'd but turn the
Tables, and make our Cafe their own, they
would quickly be fatisfied of the truth of what
we advance. Suppofing that the Government
of Scotlond should traverfe the Atings of the
Government of England, in relation to their
Trade, &c. as they have done ours; and fup-
pofing that a Parliament of Scotland, when
the King were there, should question him for
the Navigation At, and that for the Incourage-
ment of Trade in Engltnd by K.Charles I.which
lays us under fuch hard eircumftances and Re-
ffriHions, the Englifb would certainly very
much recent it, and fpeedily tell us we meddled
with what did not belong to us: Then why
shouldd they deny us the like liberty in reference
to their Proceedings against us, feeing we are
a free Nation as well as they. ?

Settlement in Darien. 59
They: cannot' think that the Kingdom of
acotlUnd will look upon the Englibf Proclama-
tions in the Weft-Indies, again'ft. having any
tormimerce with our Colony at Darien, to be
the A& and Deed of a King of Scotland, fince
It is not only contrary to his own Aa of Parlia-
inerit there, and his Patent under the Great
Seal of that Kingdom; but contrary to the In-
tereft of that Nation: but being the Ac of a
Perfon who is really King of Scots, we can
look upon it to be no other than the effea of a
Eorce put upon him by a Nation which in this
Matter thinks it their Interefl he Ihould do fo,
Now fuppofe, which God frbid, our Colony
should be ftarv'd by virtue of thoFl Proclama-
tiohs, or that our Ships going and coming from
btr'ien, should by reason thereof be attacked,
and treated as Pirates by the .Englijb, French,
Drtch, or any other Nation, who may take the
opportunity to do it, and fay our King has de-
tlar'd agairif us-; to whom should we make
application for redrefs in this Matter? The
King of Eigland, he is our Enemy and emit-
ted thofe Proclamations; the King of &Sots
is detain'd in England, and not Mafter of him-
felf- but is forced to a&Chus contrary to the In-
tereft of his own antient Crown and Kingdom i
is a foifmer K.Willidm, Yohn Baliol, and James .
were forced to do, when in the Power of the
anglifb. In fuch a cafe, if our infant Colony
should by this means be deftroyed, our Neigh-
bours muff needs think that we fltouldlook for
E 2 a

6o Defence, &c.
a Compenfation fomewhere,refume the Govern-
ment into our own hands, and strengthen our
felves by new Alliances; which perhaps might
be little to their advantage. This is not fug-
gefted as a thing that is ever likely to be pra-
qis'd or to which the Kingdom of Scotland
is any way inclin'd: Our whole Conduac fince
the Union is a continued evidence of the up-
rightnefs of our Intentions towards England;
and the Offers we did make, and do ftill con.
tinue to make, of admitting 'em as Partners
and Sharers in our new Settlement, are enough
to flop the mouth of Calumny it felf. But if in
return'of ourkindnefs we meet with Negle&
and Contempt, have our Soveraingnty trampled
under foot, our Settlement in America by an
At of Parlianmnt in Scotland refle&ed upon
as unjuft by Proclamations from England, the
World cannot blame us to complain of the Vio-
lence done to our Independency and Honour;
which is not to be falv'd by any politick con-
fiderations whatever, that our Neighbours can
pretend for this Treatment.
Nor can any thing lefs than joining with us,
and proteding that Settlement against all oppo.
fiction in cafe of Attacks by the French, or others,
sufficiently atone for what is already don,or heal
the Wound thofe Proclamations have giv'n to
the common Intereft and Honor of the Ifland.

We come in the next place to give a De
fcription of the Ifhiwmiof Darien. It lies be

A Defcription of Darien: 6t
twixt the 8th and ioth Degrees of Northern
Latitude, and in the narroweft place is betwixt
60 and So Italian Miles over. We fall not
trouble our felves with the Defcription of any
more of it than is in the poffeffion oftheNatives,
which is in length from E. to W. on the North
fide from the mouth of the River Darien to
Port Scrivan, above r40 Italian Miles;. from
Caret Bay to the River of Cheapo on the South-
fide, it is about 160 in length. It is fuppofed to
take its Name from the great River of Darien,
that bounds its Northern Coaft to the Eaft-
ward. It is bounded on the North and South
with the vaft Oceans that carry the names of
the North and South Seas. Its Situation is ve-
ry pleafant and agreable, and very commo-
dious for a fpeedy and (hort Communication of
Trade betwixt the North and South Seas, and
preventing that vaft Compafs that muff other-
wife be fetch'd round either of the Extremes
of North and South-America. By this means
alfo it lies convenient for a fpeedier Communi-
cation of Trade betwixt Europe and the Eafl-
Indies than any that Ifath hitherto been found
out. Mr. Dampier fays, that from Cheapo, or
Santa Maria River, a man may pafs from Sea
to Sea in three days, and that the Indians do it
in a day and a half. There are abundance of
valuable Iflands on both fides the Ifhmwa, which
prevent the breaking. in of the Ocean upon it
at once ; and besides the Conveniences of Wood,
Fifb, Fowl, and Water, afford good and fafe
S, 'Riding

6z A Defcription of Darieni
Riding in all Weathers, to any number of Ships,
especially thofe called the Sambaloes, that lie a-
long the Northern Coaft. The Continent is
agreeably intei'mix'd with Hills and Valleys of
great variety, for height, depth, and extent.
The Valleys are watered with Rivers, Brooki
and Springs, which take their rif front a great
Ridg of Hills that run along the Iftbmus, but
neareft to the Northern Shore, from which it is
feldom above 1. Miles diftant,and from whence
the Sambaloes Itlands, and the various Makings
of the Shore, and the continued Foreft all along
the Country gratify the Eye with a very fine
profpet. The Rivers on the Northern Coaft
are generally fmall, because their Courfe from
the abovementioned Ridg of Hills is but fortt;
yet the River of Darien is very 'large, butthe
depth of its entrance not answerable to its
width, yet .further in it 1i deep enough, and
hath a good Harbour in Caret Bay which is fome
Leaguesup the River,hath twolflands of pretty
high Land, cloath'd with variety of Trees ly;
ing before it, and two or three Strearms offrefh
Water falling into it. From this Bay to the
Promontory near Golden I7and, the Shore is in-
differently fruitful, and the Soil on the Nor;
then Coaft is generally good, but fwampy here
and there to the Sea,
'To the Weftward of the Promontory, at the
.entrance of the River, is a fine feandy Bay with
three Iflands, one of them Golde Jflaand lying
before it, which make it anextriordinar gdodo
i ... i . L. .

2 Defcription of Darien. 63
.Harbour. Golden Iflad is rocky and fleep all
round, except at the Landing Place on the South
fide, fo that it is naturally fortify'd. The Land
of the Iftihm, over against it to the S. E. is an
excellent fruitful Soil. Weft of this Ifland lies
the. largeft of the three, being fwampy and co-
vered with Maingroves. To the North of
thefe lies the Ifland of Pines, covered with tall
Trees fit for any ufe. From the Point against
thefe Iflands for three Leagues Weftward, the
Shore. is guarded by Rocks, fo that a Boat can-
not land; but at the N. W, end of the Rocks
there's a very good Harbour, and good Riding
as has been faid, in all Winds, by fome or other
of thofe flands, which with the adjacent Shore
make a lovely Landskip off at Sea. The Chan-
nel betwixt them and the Iflbthus is two,
three, and four Miles broad, aan navigable from
end to end ; and the Ground opposite to them
within Land an-excellent Soil, and a continued
Foreft of lately Timber-trees.
On the South-fide there's the River Sambo
that falls into the Sea by point Garachina. This
is a large River. Then there's the Gulph of
St. Michael, made by the Outlet of several con-
fiderable Rivers,as thofe of Santa Maria and Con-
go, and the Gold-River, fo called because of the.
great plenty of Gold Duff it affords to the Spa-
niards. The River Congo may be entered at
high water, and affords a. good Harbour. The
Gulph has federal Iflands in-it, and affords
good Riding in many places. The Country on
S4 this

64 A DeJcription of DaOreni
this fide as on the other is one continued Foreft
and forms a Bay called theBay ofPanama,abound-
ing with fine Iflands, and affording good Rid-
ing for Ships. .The Soil of the Inland Country
is for the moft part a black fruitful Mold.
The Weather is much the tame as in other
places of the Torrid Zone in this Latitude, but
inclining to the wet extreme, for two thirds of
the year, the Rains beginning in April.
The moft remarkable of their Trees are thp
Cotton Tree, which bears a Cod as big as a Nut-
meg full of thort Wool or Down, and affords
Timber for Canoes and Periagoes e they abound
with stately' Cedars and Macaw Trees, which
bear a Fruit a's big as a fall Pear, of a tart but
inot unpleasant Tafte; Bibby Tree,' the Wood
hard and black as Ink, and being tapped, affords
a Liquor called Biby, of a pleafent tart tafte,
vhich the Indians drink. They have aburin
dance of Plantains fet in Walks; which inake
very delightful Groves, and yield an excellefit
Fruit, and being green and fappy, are cut down
with one ftr6ak of'an Ax. They have alfo
plenty of Bonanoes another fort of Plantain,
which eats belt raw as the Plantain does boil'd.
They have great tfore of that excellent Fruit
called Pine-apples, which taftes like a Mixture
of all delicious Fruits, "and ripens at all times'
f the year. They have alfo Prickle-pear, whidh
is a 'very good Fruit; and Sugar-Canes, 'of
which they make no other ufe but to fuck out
Ihe Juice.' The Me.ho Tree, of which they
"m' ake

DA efcription of Darien: 65
make Ropes, Cables for Ships, and Nets for
fifbing. The Calaba whofe Shells ferve for
Cups and other occasions, is curioufly paint-
ed; the fweet fort of'em is eatable, and the bit-
ter fort Medicinal. They have alfo Gourds of
the like nature. There's a Plant they call Silk
Grafs which resembles our Flaggs; this they
beat into firings like fine Flax, much fironger
than our Flax or Hemp; of there they make
Ropes, Cordage of all forts, Nets for fmall
Fifh; and the Spaniards and others ufe it for
Shoemakers Thread, Stockins, and a fort of
Lace. they have a Tree called Lightwood, as
large as an Elm, but fo light, that a Man may
parry a great quantity of it on his back. It is
in fubftance like Cork, and made ufe of by
the Indians for rafters to go to Sea, or pafs Ri-
vers. They have a Tree called Whitewood of a
finer Grain, and whiter than any European
Wood, and fit for inlaying, They have Tama-
rind, Locuft Tree, Baftard Cinnamon, Bamboes,
and Maingrove Trees in plenty. They have
Shrubs that bear flore of Pepper of two forts,
called bell Pepper, and bird Pepper.
SMr. Wafer, to whom we owe this Defcripti-
on, takes notice of a Redwood, whereof there
grow great quantities on the Northern Coaft;
the Indians make ufe of it for dying, and mix
a kind of Earth they have with it. It makes
a bright gloffy lively Red, which no wafliing
can fetch out 'again. This we fuppofe to be
the Nicaragua Wood. Their Roots are Pota-

66 A Defcription of Darien:
toes, Kams, and Caffava; of the laft of which
they make Bread. They have likewise Tobac-
co, but don't understand the planting and ma-
nuring of it; it is not fo firong as that of Vir-
Their Beafts are the Peccary, and Waree a
kind of wild Hogs, which are very good
Meat. They have considerable ftore of Deer
and Rabbits, and great droves of Monkys,
which are extraordinary fat and good to eat.
They have an InfeaL called a Soldier, somewhat
refembling a Crab, which feeds upon what falls
from the Tree, is a delicious Meat, and yields
an Oil that. is an excellent Salve. They have
no European Cattle.
Their Birds are the Chicaly-Chicaly, which
makes a noife somewhat like a Cuccoo, is a large
Bird, has Feathers of divers Colours very beau-
tiful and lively, whereof the Natives rome-
times make Aprons. This Bird keeps mostly
pn the Trees, feeds on fruit, and is pretty good
-Meat. The PQam feeds in the fame manner,
his Wings are dun, his Tail dark, fort, and
upright. He is much preferable to the other
for Meat. There's a Ruffet-colour'd Bird, re,
fembling a Partridg, runs moft on the ground,
and is excellent Meat. The Corofo' is a large
Fowl as as big as a Turky, and ofa black colour.
The Cock has a fine Crown of yellow Feathers
on his Head, and Gills like a Turkey. They
live on Trees, and eat Fruit. They fing very
delightfully, and are fo well imitated by the

A Description of Darien. 67
.Jdians, that they difcover their haunts by it;
They are very good Meat, but their Bonesmake
the Dogs. run mad, and are therefore hid from
them by the Indians. They have abundance of
Parrots, for fize and fhape much like thofe of
famaica, they are very good Meat. Their Pa-
,akites are moft of them green, and go in large
flights by themselves. They have Macaw Birds
which are as big again as Parrots, and refemble
them in fhape. They have a Bill like a Hawk,
and a bubhy Tail with two or three long firag-
ling Feathers, either red or blue; but thofe of
the Body are ofa lovely blue,green and red. The
Indians tame thofe Birds, and teach them to
fpeak; and then letting them go into theWoods
amonglt the wild ones, they will return of
their own accord to the Houfes. They exa&-
ly imitate the Voices and singing of the Indians,
and call the Chicaly in its own Note. It is one
of the pleafanteft Birds in the World, and its
Sfh feet and well tafted. They have alfo
Woodpeckers 'which are pied like our Magpies,
and have long Claws that they climb up Tree4
with; they are not pleasant to eat. They have
plenty of Dunghil-foul resembling thofe of Eu-
rope, and their Flefh and Eggs as well tafted as
purs. About the Sambaloes they have great (tore
ofSea-foul, and particularly Pelicans which are
Large Birds, having Legs and Feet like a Goofe,
and a Neck like a swan, the Feathers are grey.
It itas a Bag under its Throat, which when filled
is as large as a man's two fifth ; and when dry,

6 A Defcription of Darien.
will hold a pound of Tobacco; they feed up-
on Fifb, and the young ones are good meat,
They have alfo Cormorants resembling Ducks
for fize and fhape, are of a black Colour, have
a white fpot on the Breaft, and pitch sometimes
on. Trees and Shrubs by the water fide. They
are too rank to be eaten. They have abundance
of Sea-gulls and Pyes, which are pretty good
meat, but eat fifhy, which is cur'd by burying
,'em eight or ten hours in the Sand with
their Feathers on. T[ey have flying Infets
too, and among others Bees, which form their
Hives on Trees; and it's obferv'd, That they
never fting any body: The Natives mix the
Hony with Water, and fo drink it, but know
not the ufe of the Wax. They have shining
Flies, which in the night time refemble Glow-
Their Fifh are the Tarpow, which eats like
Salmon; fome of 'em weigh 50 or 60 pound:
They afford good Oil. They have Sharks, and
another fifh that resembles a Shark, but much
better Meat. The Cavally is much of the fize
of a Maccarel, and very good Meat. They
have a Fifh called Old Wives, which is alfo very
good to eat. Their Paracoods are as large as a
well-grown' Pike, and very good Meat; but
in fome particular places poifbnous, which are
diftinguifhed by the Liver. Their Gar-fifl is
good Meat, they have a long Bone on their
Snout, with which they will sometimes pierce
the fide of a Canoe. They have alfo Squlpins,

7 -

'A efcription of Dariei. 6
a prickly Fifh, which when ftrip'd; is very
good Meat. They have likewife String-rays,
Parrot-fif, Snooks, Conger Eels, Conchs, Per-
riwinkles, Limpits, Sea Crabs, and Craw-fifb
and other forts whofe names we know not, that
eat very well.
The Inhabitants are moft numerous on the
North of the Ifthmwu, the Men ufually 5 or 6
foot high, freight, clean lim'd, big-bon'd,
handsomely fhap'd, nimble, active, and rn
well. The Women are shortt and thick, and
not fo lively as the Men ; the young Women
plump, well-fhap'd,and have a brisk Eye: both
Sexes have a round Vifage, fhort bottle Nofes,
large and grey Eyes, high Forehead, white
even Teeth, thin Lips, pretty large Mouths,
well proportioned Cheeks and Chins, and in
General handsome; but the Men exceed the Wo-
men. Both Sexes have freight long lank black
Hair, which they generally wear down to the
middle of their Back. All other Hair but that
of their Eye-brows and Eye-lids they pull upby
the Roots, cut off the hair of their Heads, and
paint themselves black by way of triumph,
when they kill a Spaniard. Their natural com-
plexion is a copper Colour, and their Eye-
brows black as jet. There are fome among
them of both Sexes, which bear the proporti-
on of two or three to a hundred, who are milk
white, and have all their Bodies covered over
with a milk white Down ; their Hair is of the
fame Colour, and very fine, about 6 or 8 Inches

d A Defcription of Oarieni
long and inclining to curl They afe lefs id
Stature than the bther Indiansx arid their Eye-
Lids point downwards in form of a Crefcent;
they don't fee well in the Sun, their Eyes being
weak and running with Water if the Sun thine
upon them, therefore they are called Moon-ey'd.
They are weak and fluggifh in the day time,
but in Moon-fhiny nights all life and a&ivity,
and run as faft thro the Woods by night, as the
other Indians do by day. They are not fo much
refpe&ed as the other Indians, but looked upon
as monftrous. The Natives go naked both
Men and Womien, only the Men have a thing
like an Extinguifher of filver or gold Plate
tied round their middle to cover their Yard,
and the Women tie a piece of Cloth before
them, which comes as low as their Knee; but
they ufe none of thofe Precautions till they come
to the years of Puberty; the Men that have not
thofe Extinguifhers,make ufe ofa piece ofa Plan.
tain-leafofa Conick Figure.They are in general
a modeft and cleanly People,and have a value for
Cloths if they had them. The better fort have
long Cotton Garments fhiap'd like Carmens
Frocks,which they ufe on folenin occafions,as atr
tending the King or Chief, c. For an Ornament
to the Face, besides their general painting and
daubing, the Men wear a piece of Plate hang-
ing over their Mouths, and the Chief of then
have it of Gold. It is of an Oval Formd and
gently pinching the Bridle of the Nofe with
its points, hangs danglingI froan th enr as low

A Defcriptin of Darien: 7t
as the under Lip; and instead of this the
Women wear a Ring thro the' Bridle of the
Nofe : they lay them afide at their Feafts.
They likewise wear Chains of Teeth, Shells,
Beads, or the like; the heavier they be,-they
reckon them the more ornamental. Their
Houfes lie mostly fcattering, and always by a
River-fide, but in fome places they arefo many
as to form a. Town or Village. Their Walls
are made up of Sticks, and daub'd over with
'Earth : The Fire is in the middle of the Houfe,
and the Smoke goes out at a Hole in the Roof:
They are not divided into Stories or Rooms,
but into Hovels; every one has a Hammock
for a Bed in one of thofe Hovels. They have
no Doors, Shelves, or Seats, other than Logs
of Wood. Every Neighbourhood has a Warr-
houfe of 3o foot long, the Sides and Ends full
of Holes, whence they thoot their Arrows on
the approach of the Spaniards. In their Plan-
tations they fet fo much Plantain, Maiz, &dc.
as ferves their occasions: They likewise make
Drink of Maiz, which they ferment by Grains
of the fame chewed in their Mouths: They
have alfo another fort of Drink, which they
make of Plantains. Moft of the Drudgery is
performed by the Women with great cheerful-
nefs, being very well conditioned, and dutiful
to their Husbands, who are otherwise very in-
dulgent to them, and their Children, the
Women wafh the Mother and Child in a River
within an hour after Delivery. The "Boys are

A Defcription of Darieien
bred to the Bow, Hunting, and Fifhing, &2
at which they are mighty dexterous; ard.the
Girls help the Women in dreading their Vi&uals;
Weaving, making Cotton Cloth, Cordage,
Nets, &c. and the Men make Baskets very
neat, dying the Materials firf with liiiel Co-
lours. They allow Poligamy, but punifh A-
dultery with Death of both Parties: They pu-
nilh Theft alfo with Death; and Fornication
with. thrufiing a Briar up the. Man's Yard,
whereof they commonly die. The FaEs muft
be prqv'd by Oath, which is a wearing by their
Tooth. When they marry, the Father or near-
eft Kinfman keeps the Bride privately in his
own Apartments the firfi 7 Nights, and then
the is delivered to her Husband: AlIthe Neigh-
bours for fome Miles round are invited to a
great Feaft, and bring Provifions with them:
The Fathers of the young Couple bring them
forth in their hands, and the Bridegroom's Fa-
ther makes a Speech; then he dances about in
antick Geflures till all on a fweat, when he
kneelsdown, and gives his Son to the Bride, her
Father alfo havingdanc'd himself into a Sweat,
and preventing her to the Bridegroom in the
fame manner ; then they take each othei by
Sthe hand, and fo the Ceremony. concludes,
After this all the Men take up theii Axes, and
run shouting to a Traf of Wood-land, to pre-
pare a Plantation for the new Couple. 'That"
'being done, they have their' Feaf, and after
wards drink'hardj all their Arris biWing firft
. .. .

A iefcntio of Darien. 7.
put out of the way, to prevent Danger in cafe
of quarrelling. They divert themselvess fom-
times by dancing, and piping on. a fmall hollow
Bamboe,but without diftin&ion of Notes: The
Men and Women never dance nor feaft toge-
ther,but apart. The Women accompany them
likewise in their hurting Expeditions, which
sometimes laft 26 days: They tie their Ham-
mocks betwixt two Tree's, cover them with
Plantain Leaves, and have Fires allnight by
their Haimmocks" .Such of their Prey as they
take a Hunting, and design to keep for future
tfo, they barbecue in the Woods,; and what
they make ufe of for present Suftenance, they
mix with* Roots, Plantain, Bonanoes, and
Pepper, and flew it together till it be brought
to a Pulp; which they take up with the:two
foremost Fingers of their right Hadd bent
hookwife, and put into their Mouths. They
travel by direction of the Sun, or the bending
of the Trees, according as the Wind is. None
Sof the Englifb Authors take notice of their Wor-
fhip or Religion, but give an account that.they
pawaw, or confult the Devil to know Futuri-
ties: and it would feem they are as ignorant
.in matters of Phyfick and Chirurgery,. fince
when they would let a Patient blood they fet
him upon the Bank of a River, and with a'
little. Bw, 'and fmall Arrow, gag'd that it
may enter no further than our Lancets; they
foot as faft asi they can at all parts of the Pa.
tient's Body; and if they chance to hit on a
r~' Vein,

74 A Defcription of Darien.
Vein, that the Blood fpurts out a little, they
teftify their joy by antick Dances.

We come next to give an account of the
Settlement of our men there; how they were
received by the Natives.; what Indian Princes
there are in their Neighbourhood ; in what
fate they found the Affairs of the Country ;
and of the Situation of our Colony.
SOn the 27th of Otfober 1698. our Ships came
to an Anchor in a fair fandy Bay, 3 Leagues.W.
off the Gulph of Darien ; upon which two Ca-
noes, with several Indians, came on board, were
very free with our Men, told them they had
been long expeEted, and were very welcome:
Our Men gave them fome old Hats, Looking-
glaffes and Knives, with which they were ex-
tremely well pleas'd, and went off. When our
Ships food further into the Bay,they faw about
2o Indians drawn up on the Shoar, being arm'd
with Bows and Lances ; upon which a Boat be-
ing fent afhoar, and making a final of Peace,
they unfirung their Bows, talk'd familiarly,
and told our Men that two Great Captains
would in a little time come on board our Ships.
Accordingly on November 2d in the morning
Capt. Andreas, one of their Princes, accom-
panied by 12 Men, came on board, and ask'd
their butinefs t he was answered, that w.e came
to live among them, and trade with them, and
would afford them European Commodities
cheaper than any other People. He ask'd if

A bDefcriptioin of Danene 75
wb were Friends or Enemies to the Spanird s;
and was anfwered that we were at peace with
all men, and would. inake wariupon no man,
except they injured us. He took us for Bucca-
neers, and told us he knew Capt. Swa, and
Capt. Davi-in the South-Sea, and commended
them as men of valodr. We heard that part of
his Difcourfe with very much coldnefs, and told*
him we came on no fuch design as thofe men did,
but had Authority for what we undertook.
We treated him civilly, gave him a Hat lac'd
with Gold, and fome Toys: and fo he parted,
promising in a little time to come again; which
he accordingly did, and brought Don Pedro,
another of their Princes or Captains, with him.i
Capt. Andreaw was freer with us than at firflt
plainly own'd that he took us for Buccaneers,
ind complained that fome Englifh-men of that
fort had after great pretences of Friendfhip,
carried off forme of their People; and therefore
Don Pedro would not come aboard us till he had
Further affurance of us.
Capt. Andreas is a perfon of a fall feature
he affefs the Spanijh Gravity, as having been-
bften among them at the Mines of Saitd Maria,
Panama, &c. and formerly had a Commiflion
inder them as, a Captain, upon which he va-
lues himifelf above others: The French hate
him mortally, because of foinething he did a-
gainft foine of their Nation formerly. When
he came on board us, he had a fort of a Coat of
tid loofe Stuff, an old Hat, a pair of Drawers,
F2 bt

76 ff ~efription of Darien.
but no Stockings nor Shoes; and the reft that*
came with him we.e all naked, excepting their
Penis, which was coveredi:hy Extingui-flers, ,
as formerly mentioned.
Upon further communing, Capt. Andre,
was very well pleas'd with us, offered us what;
part of the Country we would chufe,,and ac-
cepted a Commiffion from us, and at the:fame
time we gave him a Basket-hilted Sword, and
a pair of Piftols: upon which he promised to
defend us to the laft of his Blood.
Some of the Princes on this fide the, lflhmrus
had been in peace with the Spaniards for several
years;, and suffered a few of them to refide a-
mongft them, to give notice to Panama of what
Ships came upon there Coafts; but upon fome
frefh difguft, about two months-before we ar-:
riv'd, Capt. Ambrofo, who is the moft noted.
Prince amongff'em, had oblig'd them to enter
into a common Alliance against Spain, and cut
off ten-Spaniards, who liv'd upon GoldenrJfland.
The Place where we are fetled is 4 Miles Eaft,
of Golder yapd, within a great Bay. We have
anr excellent Harbor,. A-hrrounded with-.hbigh
Mountains, ,capable of holding a thoufand.Sail
land-lock'd, and fafe from all Winds and Tenm-
pefts. The Mouth of the Harbor is about ran-
dom Cannon-fhot over, formed by a Peninfial
on the one fide, and a point of Land on tha. -
her... In the middle of the Entrance there is a
Rock three foot above water, upon which the
Sea breaks moft terribly when the Wind blows

A efcription of Darien. 77
hard, and within the Points there is a fmall
Rqck, that lies a little under water. On both
fides thefe Rocks there's a very good wide
Channel for Ships to come in: that on the
South-fide is three Cables long, and even Fa-
thorn deep; and that on the North two Cables
long. From the two outermoft points-the
Harbour runs away Eaft a Mile and an half;
and near the middle, on the right hand, a point
of Land fhoots out into the Bay : fo that by rai-
Ling Forts on the faid Point, on the Rock in the
middle of the Entrance, and the two outer-
moft Points, it will be the ftrongeft Harbor,
both by Art and Nature, that's in the known
World. The Bay within is for the moff part
6 Fathom Water, and till you come within a
Cable's length of the Shoar, three Fathom and
an half: So that a Key may be built, to which
great Ships may lay their Sides, and unload.
The Peninfula lies on the left hand, is a mile
and an half in length, very fteep, and high
towards the Sea: fo that it would be very dif-
ficult for any body to land, till you come tothe
flihmus, where there's a fmall fandy Bay that
little Ships may put into, but is eafy to be fe-
cured by a Ditch and a Fort. There are federal
little Rivers of very good Water that fall into
the Bay 5 and it abounds fo with excellent fifb,
that we can with eafe take more than it's pof.
fible for us to destroy, having sometimes caught
140 at a draught: amongft others there" be
Tortoifes, which are excellent Meat, and fome
of them above 6o0 weight, 3, Thq

8 A Defcription of Dariep.
The Peninfula was never inhabited, and is
cover'd all over with Trees of various forts,
as flately Cedars, Brafil-wood, Lignu Vit,
Box-wood, Fuftick-wood, Yellow Sanderk,
Manfhinel, &c. and the like forts, befides others
whofe names we know not, grow oh the Con-
tinent; and we doubt not of finding out the
Nicaragua Wood: we have fund Cabbage
Trees, the Fruit of 'which eats like Colly-
flowers. The Natives have no Plantation
within two Miles of us.
We have a Watch-Tower upon an high Hill
adjoining to our Plantation, about a mile South
of the Bay ; from whence we can fee the Ships
in the Bay, the Fort we have raised on the
Mouth of the Bay, and as far as the Mouth of
the River Darien: We can fee above thirty
Miles Southird, and have a. fine Profpea of
Golden lftand, and the Ife of Pines, Weftward
towards Portobello, and Northward towards
jamaica. The Hill is about a Mile in height ;
fb that we canfee any Ships before they come
within fome Leagues of the Harbor. We com-
pute our elves to be about j0 Leagues North of
Carthagena, 'and as much South of Portobelto'
The 4 Indian Kings or'Captains'on this" Coaft
vifit us frequently in their Canoes I and the
Natives are very kind to us, and fell us Plan-,
tains, Fowls, &c. for Toys or old Shifts. A
Trench-man 'who hath married on6 of the Na-
rives, infoims us that the Spaniards have Silver
and Gold Mines on thee'lZfb i, which we
s .- ,* .- might

A Defcription of Darien., 79
might make our elves Mafters of with a 1oo
Men; fo that if they commit Hoftilities upon
us, as we hear they threaten to do, it's not un-
likely that we may vifit them. We found
fome French Refugees in the Country, who
are willing to fettle under us; and having been
several years in thefe Parts, and underlfanding
the Language of the Natives, are very ufeful
to us. We have feen fome Sand in the Rivers,
which looks as if it were mixt with Gold, and
in fome places the Earth feems to be very
much mixt with it: fo that it's concluded
there's more Gold-duft here, than in any part
of Guinea.
The Indian Princes or Captains on this Coaft
do fomewhat resemble our Heads of Clans in
Scotland; and by their Converfe at times with
the Spaniards, and other European Nations,
affea Chriftian Names. The firif of thefe Prin-
ces we hall name is Capt. Diego; he commands
from the bottom of the Gulph of Orba on this
fide Caret Bay, and has 3000 men under him ;
he has been at war with the Spaniards federal
years, occafion'd by an Infult his People had
received from them, when they came to de-
mand their fare in the Mines which they had
difcover'd to the Spaniards in their Country, on
condition of being Partners with them: but
when they came to demand it, the Spaniards
treated them villanoufly, beat and abus'd them i
upon which they attacked the Spaniards, cyt
off 20 of their Men, and 3 Priefts that belonged
to the Mines. F 4 The

8o A Decription of Darieni
.The next is.Capt. Poufgo. HeBTs an JIdian
Clergy-.n a, and Brother-in-law to Capt. An
drew.. 1 he Peninfuia that we poffefs, lies be-
twixt his Territcry and that of Capt. Andreas,
who together with his Brothercommands from
Golden land to the River Pinas, Their Com-
mand is greater than that of of Poufigo, but nor
fo great as that of Diego. Thefe Princes are ve-
ry ufeful to us,becaufe of their Neighbourhood
and Confanguinity to one another.
Capt. Ambrofio commands from the River
Pinas to tbe Samballoes : He is a man of about
60 years of age, but firong and vigorous, well
limb'd. and of a fiern Countenance: he is a
mortal Enemy to the Spaniards, with whom he
bath had a long War: he is esteemed the braveft
of all the Indien Captains. His Son-in-law
Don Pedro having been taken by the Spaniards,
and kept by them as a Slave at Panama, he can
never forget nor forgive it them,: This young
man is a great Friend to the Frencb, who they
are made to believe design to come and fettle
among them. Ambrofto and his Son-in-law
prefc us _much to come. and fettle in their
Dominions, and join .with them to make
war on the Spaniards: We gave them fair
Words, and promised to come and view their
Coaftls, which we accordingly did; ad in our
Sway thither, four Leagues Weflward of our.
Settlement, we found an excellent Harbour,
capable of ioooo Sail; but it'can't be defended
without many Forts: Herd the Privateers us'd

SDefcriptign of Darien` 8
to come, and careen. Capt. Awmrofbos Houfe
lies about a League from the Water-fide, on
the Bank of a River, having 12 leffer Houfes
about it : When we drew near it, he advanced
50 Paces to meet us, being attended by 2o men
in white loofe Frocks with Fringes round the
bottom, and arm'd with Lances : He faluted
us kindly, and gave us a Calabafh of Liquor
almost like Lambs-wool, made of Indian Corn
and Potatoes. His Houfe is 90 foot long,
35 broad, and 30 in height, curioufly thatch'd
with Palmetto-Royal, and over that Cotton-
leaves. The Floor is of firm Earth like Tarras,
very fmooth and clean. The fides are com-
pos'd of large Canes, as / thick as a Man's
Leg. In this Houfe live Ambrofio and his Son-
in-law Don Pedro, with both their Families,
confifting of about 40 Perfons. We faw Am-
brofio's Grandmother there, who is 120 years
old, and yet was very active in getting things
ready for our Intertainment. She has 6 Ge-
nerations defcended from her now in the
Houfe with her. The People live here to
i 5 and 16o years of age; but thofe that con-
verfe much with Europeans, and drink strong
drink don't live fb long.
From the Samballoes to the River of Concep-
tion, the Country is commanded by one Cor-
bet who is altogether in the FrenchIntereft, he
having contracted a Friendfhip with their Pri-
vateers 7 years ago, and done them many good
Offices. They promised to reward him ifhe.

8Z A Defcription of Darien.
would go to Petit Guavus, and in his way thi-
ther he was taken by an Englifh Privateer and
carried to famaica, whence the Governor of Pe-
tit Guavw. got him released. He wasvith Ponti
at the taking of Cartagena, and has a Commif-
fion from the French to be General of all
the French and Indian Forces on that Coaft,
and to take, fink, and defiroy Spaniards or
any other Enemies. Yet the French them-
felves, and the fenfible part of the Indians, don't
put any confidence in him; and Ambrofio who
is the bravelf of all thofe Indian Captains, keeps
him in awe and within bounds.
Next to Corbet, there's another of their Cap-
tains called Nicola, who is faid to be a wife,
brave and good-natur'd Prince, infomuch that
the Indians had a mind to have fet him up in-
flead of Ambrojio, who is of a rugged military
temper. But AmbrofJo's Authority and Power
is fo great, that they did not find it praficable.
Nicola is a mortal Enemy to the Spaniards, and
can never entertain a good thought of them,
fince the Governour of Porto Belo robb'd hini
of a curious Fufee that had been presented him
by fome of the Buccaneers; and being out of
order, he fent it thither to be mended; upon
which the Governour taking a liking to it, kept
it to himself, and fent Nicola another forry
piece instead of it.
Since we came hither, there have been an
Englilb, a Dutch, and a French Ship in our Bay.
The Englifb, Ship was Capt. Lor;g in the Rupert
Prize; .

SDef'crption of Darien; 8;
Prize; he had been in the Gulf of Orba, but he
himself and his Men own'd, that they had not
then been ashore there. He hath fome way
or other difoblig'd the Captains Ambrofio and
Diego. Tho we treated him with all poffible
Civility, yet we are fince informed that he
hath been a days Journy into the Gulf, and en-
deavour'd to incenfe the Indians against us, tal-
ling them that we were Privateers, and that the
King of Englan4 would not protect us. He left
fome Men in the Bay, who had fince kilPd
fome Spaniards, and came to us for Arms and
Ammunition, but we told them we could not
grant them any, and that they had done what
they could not juftify. We gave them however
what was neceffary for fitting up a Boat; and as
a Reward they intic'd away the Carpenter and
Mate of one of our Ships called the unicorn ,
The Dutch Ship that came hither was afraid
of the Spanifh Barlavento Fleet, and put in here
tor protecion, that Fleet having made Prize of
another Dutch Ship of 32 Guns, and of two
Englifb Sloops for trading on thofe Coafts.
The French Ship that put in here, was that
which was ordered to carry back the Church-
plate, 'a. to Carthagena, did afterwards bulge
on a Rock, and was caft away in our Harbour,
We fav'd all their lives, and Capt. Pincarton our
Commodore endangered his own life to fave
that of the French Captain. He informed us
that the French had four Men of War of o Guns
each, who thinking we had a Delign on the
. .... R iver

84 A Defcription of Darien:
River Miffpi,were gone to the Gulph of Mexico
in queft of us. The French have been very in-
duftrious in cultivating their Interelt, both
with the Natives and Spaniards in this part
of America and doubt not of having a good
fhare in thofe Countries after the King of Spain's
Death. They have got a great Intereft with
Capt Ambrofio by means of nis Son-in-law Don
Pedro, whom they carefs extreamly, and de-
fign'd to have carried him to Petit Guavus, and
from thence into France, to acquaint the French
King with the favourable Sentiments the Indians
have entertain'd of the French, and of their
design to surrender themselves to his Majefty.
This has been projeEed by the French a long
time, but the King of Spain's Indifpofition, and
their Pretenfions to that Crown, made them
refer it ; and there's no doubt but our Settle-
rnent will quicken thofe Refolutions. Capt. An-
dreas, Capt. Pedro his Brother, Capt. Diego, and
Capt. Poufigo our Neighbours, have no manner
of'correfpondence with the French. The lat-
ter ha'th' acquainted us that there are several
Gold Mines within two Miles of our Settle-
ment which he hath promised to fhew us; and
he hath actually let us fee several Samples of
fine Gold.
This being the Sublfance of several Journals
that were fent from our Colony in Darien upon
their firft Settlemeht there, we hope it's fuffi-
cient of it felfto fatisfy our Neighbours in Eng-
land of the Juftice of our Caufe, of the equity of

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