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Group Title: Fishes of the Indian River lagoon and adjacent waters, Florida (FLMNH Bulletin v.22, no.3)
Title: Fishes of the Indian River lagoon and adjacent waters, Florida
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00095837/00001
 Material Information
Title: Fishes of the Indian River lagoon and adjacent waters, Florida
Physical Description: p. 103-147 : maps ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Gilmore, Richard Grant, 1947-
Donor: unknown ( endowment )
Publisher: Florida State Museum, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1977
Copyright Date: 1977
 Subjects
Subject: Fishes -- Florida -- Indian River   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 122-124.
General Note: Bulletin of the Florida State Museum Biological Sciences v. 22, no. 3
Statement of Responsibility: R. Grant Gilmore, Jr.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00095837
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 04000459
lccn - 78621453

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    Copyright
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Full Text









of the
FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM
Biological Sciences


Volume 22 1977 Number 3



FISHES OF THE INDIAN RIVER LAGOON
AND ADJACENT WATERS, FLORIDA



R. GRANT GILMORE, JR.


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


GAINESVILLE









Numbers of the BULLETIN OF THE FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM, BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES,
are published at irregular intervals. Volumes contain about 300 pages and are not necessarily
completed in any one calendar year.













OLIVER L. AUSTIN, JR., Editor
RHODA J. RYBAK, Managing Editor

Consultants for this issue:
C. RICHARD ROBINS
FRANKLIN F. SNELSON, JR.












Communications concerning purchase or exchange of the publications and all manuscripts
should be addressed to: Managing Editor, Bulletin; Florida State Museum; University of Florida;
Gainesville, Florida 32611.


This public document was promulgated at an annual cost of $2,088.99 or
$2.088 per copy. It makes available to libraries, scholars, and all interested
persons the results of researches in the natural sciences, emphasizing the
circum-Caribbean region.


Price: $2.10


Publication date: July 21,1977















FISHES OF THE INDIAN RIVER LAGOON
AND ADJACENT WATERS, FLORIDA


R. GRANT GILMORE, JR.1


SYNOPSIS: A qualitative analysis of the ichthyofauna of east central Florida including the
Indian River lagoon, its tributaries, and the adjacent continental shelf has accumulated records
for 609 species. These species are listed in tabular form, including biotopic distribution and
relative abundance. It is predicted that 704 species should eventually be collected from this
area. The transitional nature of the Indian River ichthyofauna is emphasized, as tropical Carib-
bean and warm temperate Carolinian faunas overlap considerably within the Cape Canaveral
area. Recorded as new range extensions into this area are 135 fishes, mostly of tropical origin.
A physical description of the region is also given with a brief discussion of geology, water
salinities, and temperature.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
LN T R O D U C T IO N .. ........ .. ... ...... ... .. ......... .. .... .... .. .. ... ..................... .. .. 10 1
A C KN O W LED G EM ENT S ........... .... .............. ................. .. ................... .. ..... ............... 104
M ATERIALS AND M ETHODS .. .. .......... ... ........... . ............................. 104
DESCRIPTION OF THE INDIAN RIVER LAGOON AND VICINITY ........ 106
REGIONAL BIOTOPES AND ASSOCIATED FISHES ... .. .. ................ .................................... 114
D ISCUSSION ... .... . .... .. ................... .. .. . 120
L ITERATURE C ITED ..... .. .. .......122... ...... ... ... ... .... ... ........... ............... 122


INTRODUCTION

Although the fishes of the Indian River region of east central Florida (Fig.
1) belong to the relatively well known Western Atlantic shore fish fauna, the
marine and estuarine species of the Indian River have never been studied in
detail. No comprehensive list, based on actual capture records, of the fishes
that occur here has been published.
The Indian River is a narrow estuarine lagoon system extending from
Ponce de Leon Inlet in Volusia County south to Jupiter Inlet in Palm Beach
County (Fig. 1). It lies within the zone of overlap between two well known
faunal regimes (i.e. the warm temperate Carolinian and the tropical Carib-
bean). To the north of the region, Hildebrand and Schroeder (1928), Fowler
(1945), Struhsaker (1969), Dahlberg (1971), and others have made major


'The author is Fisheries Biologist, Harbor Branch Foundation, Inc., Fort Pierce, Florida 33450. This is Science Contribution
No. 67 from the Harbor Branch Foundation. Inc.

GILMORE, R. GRANT. 1977. Fishes of the Indian River Lagoon and Adjacent Waters, Florida.
Bull. Florida State Mus., Biol. Sci. 22(3):101-148.







de Leon Inlel


C,



mIbb.IIi*


cP


1
N
Caie Canaoo'al





I Beach


,41


0
0

7



I Pisce Inlel





u'rt 1 Lucer Inlei
1Hobe Sound

lhakcnee
liver juDp.er Inlet


FIGURE 1.-The Indian River lagoon and associated waters.







GILMORE: INDIAN RIVER FISHES


ichthyofaunal reviews of the coastal waters of the southeastern United States.
McLane (1955) and Tagatz (1967) have made extensive surveys of the fishes
of the St. Johns River, including the estuarine portions. Southeast of the Indian
River region, B6hlke and Chaplin (1968) surveyed the fishes of the Bahamas.
The tropical fish fauna south of the Indian River lagoon has been thoroughly
reported on by Herrema (1974), Starck (1968), and Longley and Hildebrand
(1941). These workers made extensive fish surveys in Palm Beach and Broward
counties, the Florida Keys, and Dry Tortugas, respectively.
The first major study of the fishes in the Indian River lagoon was con-
ducted by Evermann and Bean (1897). They listed 106 species found in the
Indian River lagoon and its inlets, but their report concentrated on species of
commercial value and they procured most of their records in local fish houses
where precise locality data are frequently lacking.
Not until 1957-1959 was another ichthyological study made within the
Indian River lagoon. During this time V.G. Springer (1960) made several
collections in the St. Lucie Inlet area (Fig. 1). His report contains a list of 62
species as well as temperature and salinity data. Gunter and Hall (1963) also
made fish collections in the St. Lucie River estuary during the same time
period, primarily to assess the effect of freshwater release from the St. Lucie
Canal on the local fish fauna. They took seasonal temperature and salinity
data with the 83 fish species they collected. From 1960 to 1965 Christensen
(1965) made a qualitative seasonal survey of the fishes found in the Jupiter
Inlet area and associated freshwater tributaries at the extreme southern end
of the Indian River (Fig. 1). This was the most extensive survey to date in the
Indian River region and presents data on 276 species, a number of which are
tropical fishes not previously recorded as far north as Jupiter.
All of the Indian River regional collections above combine to give a total
of 286 species for the lagoon system.
From 1933 to 1935 the trawler R/V LAUNCH 58 made offshore collec-
tions on the continental shelf adjacent to the Indian River lagoon (Anderson
and Gehringer 1965). Their less than 94 trawling hours produced quantitative
trawl data on 64 species. From 1956 to 1957 and 1961 to 1964 the R/V
SILVER BAY, R/V COMBAT, and R/V PELICAN made 421 trawl stations
in this region. The 105 species these three vessels collected here were com-
piled in a publication by Bullis and Thompson (1965). Anderson and Geh-
ringer (1965) published a report covering 134 species in both the offshore and
inshore fishery in the Cape Canaveral area and reviewed the previous con-
tinental shelf collections made by the aforementioned research vessels.
Stewart Springer (1963) published an account of sharks from data taken in
an offshore shark fishery based in Salerno, near Stuart, Martin County (17
species). Futch and Dwinell (1977) recently completed a nearshore ichthyo-
fauna survey off Hutchinson Island including seasonality notes for 75 fish
species.








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


All of the continental shelf collections recorded approximately 210 fish
species for the area.
The combined total of fishes reported in the literature from the Indian
River lagoon and adjacent continental shelf is 454 species. Although Briggs
(1958) did not collect here, he lists some 453 species that should range through
the region. The 453 species Briggs reported is coincidental and are not nec-
essarily the same reported by previous authors.
The intent of the current investigation is to fill in the gaps left by the above
papers and make an updated assessment of the Indian River region ichthyo-
fauna together with a regional physical description.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This study was initiated under the direction of Robert Gore who helped in various aspects
of the fish survey. During this period (1971 to 1975) LaVergne Williams, George Kulczycki,
Wayne Magley, and many others at Harbor Branch Foundation, Inc., helped with field collec-
tions. Williams and Jon Dodrill collected most of the sharks, remoras, mackerels, and billfishes.
Robert Avent collected many continental shelf fishes during the R/V GOSNOLD cruises.
Robert Jones made several invaluable observations and collections during lock-out dives from
the JOHNSON-SEA-LINK submersible.
The State Department of Natural Resources and the captain and crew of the R/V HERNAN
CORTEZ kindly donated fishes collected from that vessel. George Kulczycki and David Mook
made a number of these cruises for the Harbor Branch Foundation.
Carter R. Gilbert of the Florida State Museum, Gainesville, aided with specimen identifi-
cations, recent taxonomic changes, and kindly accepted the Harbor Branch Foundation collec-
tions. Richard Robins of the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences made helpful
taxonomic suggestions on the initial faunal lists and reviewed the final manuscript. Stephen Ross,
Victor Springer, C.E. Dawson, Andrew Leslie, Walter Courtenay, Hector Harima, and Labbish
Chao verified fish identifications in their respective areas of interest.
The late Robert Harrington of the Florida State Department of Health Entomological Re-
search Laboratory at Vero Beach kindly discussed new records of fishes he had collected in this
region and gave insight into past ecological conditions here. David Kirtley, Nat Eiseman, and
David K. Young of the Foundation read and made suggestions on descriptive portions of the
manuscript. Robert Jones painstakingly reviewed the manuscript in its entirety and made
helpful suggestions.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
In November 1971 fish collections began in the Indian River lagoon for the Harbor Branch
Foundation as part of a field study program to assess qualitatively the estuarine and marine
fauna. By the end of 1975 over 1,000 collections had been made at 376 stations in the Indian
River lagoon, its freshwater tributaries, and nearshore Atlantic reefs along 157 coastal miles
extending from New Smyrna Beach to Jupiter Inlet (Fig. 2).
During the fall of 1973 offshore trawl stations, using the R/V GOSNOLD, were established
as part of the Indian River study. Beginning in April 1974 fishes were also taken by a Florida
State Department of Natural Resources vessel, the R/V HERNAN CORTEZ, operating in the
Atlantic off Cape Canaveral. The DNR kindly made these specimens available to the Indian
River study. The two vessels together accounted for 129 offshore stations (Fig. 2).
As collecting techniques centered around juvenile fish populations in shallow water grass
flats and mangrove habitats, small mesh (3 to 6.4 mm) beach seines 3 to 67 m in length were used
extensively. We also used 2-m cast nets, crab traps, wire fish traps, SCUBA gear, dip nets, 185-m
gill nets, 3' and 7' otter trawls, and fish toxicants.
Fishes collected on the inshore Atlantic reefs and in Jupiter Inlet were all collected with the
aid of diving gear, dip nets, spear guns, and quinaldine, rotenone, or Chemfish.


Vol. 22, No. 3










1977


GILMORE: INDIAN RIVER FISHES


The sharks were collected principally from the surf zone or waters less than 600 m from the
beach with either a surface or bottom set longline or conventional fishing gear. Because of the
relatively large hook size employed, the longline was selective for larger species of sharks. Most
of the smaller specimens were taken with conventional fishing gear.
Offshore surface collections of pelagic bony fish species were made with dip nets and con-
ventional fishing gear. LaVergne Williams made a relatively concentrated fishing effort (10




New 2'Ponce de Leon Inlet c
Smyrnai 2 06
Beach rA -










Co ICaPe Canaveral




0 200m



030m 0
12m






o 0 0
Sebastllll'n 0

0 0

~0
0

Fort Pierce o
'0 0

0


S t L u c R 0"0 rO


0o 20 00

Jupiter 0 c0







1973 to Sept. 1974).
represents the R/V HERNAN CORTEZ cruises and the remainder
are R/V GOSNOLD collections. Of the 129 continental shelf sta-
tions, 76% are otter trawls and the other dip nets and dredges (Nov.
1973 to Sept. 1974).








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


fishing hours per week) from 1970 to 1973 by surface trolling east of Sebastian Inlet in depths
of 50 to 200 m. He kept accurate records of size and location of offshore catches of game fish
that were included in this survey.
Salinities were recorded with a temperature compensated Goldberg refractometer that can
be read to 0.5 ppt. Bottom type (dominant vegetation, etc.), shore type, tidal state, weather
conditions, water visibility, and sea state were also noted at each station.

DESCRIPTION OF THE INDIAN RIVER LAGOON AND VICINITY
GEOGRAPHY.-As Evermann and Bean (1897) noted, the term "river" is a
misnomer. The Indian River region encompasses a shallow estuarine lagoon
extending for 253 km (157 mi) from latitude 29005'N to 26058'N (Fig. 2).
The northern terminus for this region is at Ponce de Leon Inlet in Volusia
County and the southern at Jupiter Inlet in Palm Beach County (Fig. 1). The
width of the lagoon varies from a few meters at the Jupiter Narrows and the
south bridge at New Smyrna Beach to 8.9 km (5.5 mi) north of Titusville. The
narrow strip of land east of the lagoon is a barrier island cut by five artificial
inlets of varying size and depth, all maintained by the Army Corps of En-
gineers: Ponce de Leon (previously known as Mosquito Inlet), Sebastian, Fort
Pierce, St. Lucie, and Jupiter. The land on the east bank at Cape Canaveral is
the most extensive with a large peninsula, Merritt Island, dividing the Indian
River lagoon on the west from the Banana River lagoon to the east (Fig. 1).
The average depth is approximately 1.5 m with the maximum occurring in
dredged channels and harbors. The Intracoastal Waterway is dredged to an
average depth of 3.7 m north of Ft. Pierce and to 3.1 m from Ft. Pierce south
to Jupiter. This dredged channel has an average width of 30 m. A ship lock
at Cape Canaveral connects the Banana River lagoon with the Atlantic
Ocean, but the locks opening depends on daily boat traffic.
The Indian River lagoon north of Titusville is separated on the east bank
from the Mosquito Lagoon by a narrow strip of land that is dissected by an
open canal (i.e. the Haulover Canal). The northern end of the Banana River
is separated from the Mosquito Lagoon only by a shallow marsh with waters
coming within 0.8 km of a direct connection between the two.
Along the west bank of the Indian River lagoon a system of relict sand
dunes rises up to 24 m in height. Beyond these dunes, coastal lowlands and
marshes extend up to 96.7 km inland.
DRAINAGE-A number of small, low-gradient rivers, creeks, and canals flow
into the Indian River lagoon (Fig. 1). The most extensive proximate watershed
is the St. Johns marsh 11 to 16 km west of the lagoon. The surface waters of
this marsh flow north into the St. Johns River rather than into the Indian
River lagoon. The St. Lucie River drains 1165 sq km (450 sq mi) in St. Lucie
and Martin counties (Gunter and Hall 1963). This river and associated canal
system discharge freshwater overflow from Lake Okeechobee and marshes
between the lake and the coast to St. Lucie Inlet. According to Christensen
(1965) the extensive marshes east of Lake Okeechobee feed into the Loxa-


Vol. 22, No. 3








GILMORE: INDIAN RIVER FISHES


hatchee River (draining 855 sq km or 330 sq mi) which opens at Jupiter Inlet.
The rivers and freshwater canals all have locks that are opened or closed de-
pending on climatic conditions and associated water levels farther inland.
The times of opening and amounts of fresh water released from these canals
vary.
GEOLOGY.-The barrier island on the east bank and the lowlands and
marshes of the west bank for several kilometers inland are of Pleistocene age,
primarily the Anastasia Formation, which consists of coquina shell marl with
varying amounts of quartz sand (Cook 1945). The formation was deposited
by multiple marine invasions over the St. Johns drainage basin west of the
Indian River region. Farther south and out of the study area, the Anastasia
Formation intergrades into the more calcareous Miami Oolite Formation.
The lithified Anastasia coquina forms rock bluffs at the river's edge at
Melbourne, Eau Gallie, and at the south end of Merritt Island on both sides
of the Indian River lagoon in Brevard County. These same rock formations
occur in the intertidal zone on the Atlantic side at various locations from Palm
Beach County northward to central Brevard County. Extensive submerged
Atlantic reef formations run from north of Sebastian Inlet south to Jupiter
Inlet, both near shore and out to the 110 m isobath. The deeper reef ledges
may have reliefs as high as 10 m, but are more commonly in the 0.5 to 1.5 m
range, at least on the inshore reefs. In the lagoon itself, either by dredging
or by natural erosion, the coquina rock in the Intracoastal Waterway in
northern St. Lucie County has been undercut along the edge of the waterway
to form a small, 0.5 to 1.0 m high ledge that shelters numerous invertebrate
and fish species.
SALINITY-The salinity of the Indian River lagoon, because of its estuarine
nature, varies up and down the coast, depending on rainfall, freshwater
drainage systems (i.e. how often canal locks are opened), evaporation, and
access to the Atlantic Ocean (Table 1).
The natural system of fresh and marine water exchange within the north-
ern half of the Indian River has undergone many recent changes. The canal
connecting Mosquito Lagoon and the Indian River lagoon north of Titusville,
the Canaveral Locks (completed 1965), Sebastian Inlet (dredged in 1921), Ft.
Pierce Inlet (dredged in 1921), numerous mosquito impoundments (see mos-
quito impoundment section below), 19 bridges and causeways, and many
artificial freshwater flood canals draining marshes and agricultural land west
of the lagoon have caused major changes in the lagoon hydrography and,
quite likely, species distribution. Prior to these changes in the northern section
of the lagoon, the only inlet south of Ponce de Leon was a small shallow
ephemeral inlet (Indian River Inlet) 3.5 km north of the present Ft. Pierce
Inlet. Because of its shallow depths (Evermann and Bean 1897) the water
exchange that did take place must have been localized. This inlet was 154
km south of the northern end of the lagoon (Sebastian Inlet is now 111 km
south).










TABLE 1.-SALINITY AND TEMPERATURE RANGES FOR THE INDIAN AND BANANA RIVER LAGOONAL SYSTEMS.


Stations


Brevard Co.
Haulover Canal'

Haulover Canal6

Indian R.
Titusville'
Indian R.
Titusville2
Indian R.
Cocoa'
Banana R.
S.R. 520'
Indian R.
Melbourne'
Indian R.
12.9 km N. of
Sebastian Inlet'
Indian R.
1.6 km N. of
Sebastian Inlet'
Indian River Co.
Indian R.
Wabasso3


Salinity Temp.
Date N Range o/oo R H N Range (C.) R


Jan. 1968-
May 1975
Jan. 1974-
May 1975
Jan. 1968-
May 1971
Nov. 1971-
Aug. 1972
Jan. 1968-
May 1971
Jan. 1968-
May 1971
Jan. 1968-
May 1971
Jan. 1968-
May 1971

Dec. 1971-
Nov. 1972


Dec. 1971


Indian R. Dec. 1971-
Vero Beach3 Nov. 1972


27.0-38.0

22.0-42.0

20.0-37.5

21.0-34.0

18.8-36.6

9.3-34.5

11.6-34.0

11.6-37.2


(138) 16.0-35.0



(140) 4.0-36.0


(11.0)

(20.0)

(17.5)

(13.0)

(17.8)

(25.2)

(22.4)

(25.6)


11.0-30.0

11.0-32.5

11.0-30.0

17.0-37.9

12.0-30.0

?-30.0

12.0-30.0

14.0-29.0


(19.0) 28.6 (137) 15.0-29.0



(32.0) 22.9 (137) 13.0-29.0


(137) 6.0-32.0 (26.0) 22.5 (137) 16.0-30.0


(19.0)

(21.5)

(19.0)

(20.9)

(18.0)



(18.0)

(15.0)


(14.0) 24.0


(16.0) 23.5 I

(14.0) 24.1 .
GO








St. Lucie Co.
Indian R.
HBF Lab'
Indian R.
N. Bridge
Rt. AIA'
Indian R.
S. Bridge
Ft. Pierce'
Indian R.
3-6 km S. of S.
Bridge. Ft.
Pierce'
Martin Co.
Mouth of St.
Lucie River &
Indian R. at
Sewall Pt.'
Palm Beach Co.
Jupiter Inlet"

Mouth of C-18
Canal S. Fork
Loxahatchee R.H


Dec. 1971-
Sept. 1973
Dec. 1971-
Aug. 1972

Dec. 1971-
Jan. 1973

Jan. 1971-
Feb. 1973




Jan. 1957-
Jan. 1959




July 1960-
Jan. 1965
July 1960


(704) 18.5-37.0 (18.5) 29.8 (704) 13.0-31.0


(100) 16.0-36.0



(122) 29.0-36.0



(142) 18.0-36.0





(55) 0.15-32.8





(29) 16.5-37.5

(4) 1.5-30.2


(20.0)



(7.0)



(18.0)





(30.6)





(21.0)

(28.7)


31.0 (98) 17.0-30.0



25.1 (122) 17.0-30.0



30.0 (137) 14.0-29.5





10.7 (112) 14.4-30.9





31.8 (31) 20.5-36.0

15.5 (4) 22.0-32.5


'Grizzel (1968-1971)
2Neven and Lasater (1971), Lasater and Carey (1972)
3Gore et al. (1971-1973), Wilcox and Mook (1972-1973)
GCunter and Hall (1963)
'Christensen (1965)
*Young (1975)


(18.0)

(13.0)



(13.0)



(15.5)





(16.5)





(15.5)

(10.5)


24.3 1


24.7



22.1



23.4

0



23.3




27.5

27.5







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Even after inlets were dug, Ponce de Leon, Sebastian, Ft. Pierce, St.
Lucie, and Jupiter inlets were not dredged regularly, and all were frequently
closed by sand deposition from parallel (southerly) inshore ocean currents.
Christensen (1965) notes that from 1942 to 1947 Jupiter Inlet was closed and
the Indian River lagoon in this area became fresh. During this same period
Sebastian Inlet also closed. By comparison the salinity range in Jupiter Inlet
from 1960 to 1965 was 16.5 to 37.5 o/oo with a mean of 31.8 o/oo (see Table
1). Thus when the inlets were closed little estuarine discharge was possible.
When this occurs salinities can change considerably depending on the
weather. Turbulent fall and winter storms that send ocean waters across the
barrier islands forming small temporary inlets often counter this situation. It
may therefore be presumed that these changing conditions led to extremes of
salinity range that, when combined with a greater variation in temperature in
the northern section of the lagoon, might have a profound influence on faunal
diversity, at least seasonally.
In comparison the regular maintenance of seven inlets and locks and the
active control of freshwater runoff today has allowed tidal influence to
moderate the annual salinity range of the Indian River in the vicinity of the
inlets. The average mean annual salinity for the entire river is 25.6 o/oo
(based on data from Table 1). This value is relatively high but is not surprising,
as tides apparently influence much of the lagoon south of Sebastian Inlet.
North of Sebastian Inlet evaporation and freshwater runoff begin to affect
salinity to a greater degree with wind-driven water movements becoming
more predominant. Major freshwater influence occurs locally near the mouths
of the St. Lucie and Loxahatchee rivers. The mean annual salinity for much
of the river, excluding the two major river mouths, should be closer to 27
o/oo. The recorded annual salinity range is least at the Haulover Canal and
in the lagoon at Ft. Pierce Inlet where higher salinities are normally found.
The mean annual salinity range for all stations combined is 20.9 o/oo (19.6
o/oo excluding the mouths of the St. Lucie and Loxahatchee Rivers).
Table 1 shows that major freshwater sources may lower wet season (May -
October) lagoon salinities considerably at Wabasso, Vero Beach, North Bridge
at Ft. Pierce, and at St. Lucie Inlet. At Stuart in Martin County, the St.
Lucie River and the St. Lucie Flood Control Canal empty into the Atlantic
through St. Lucie Inlet. Here, especially when the locks of the St. Lucie Canal
are opened, salinity may drop markedly, for example from 23.0 to 0.2 o/oo in
less than 24 hours (seasonal range of 0.15 to 32.8 o/oo; Gunter and Hall 1963
V. Springer 1960).
TEMPERATURE-Because of the shallow average depth of the Indian River
lagoon, air temperature variations appear to be most effective in controlling
water temperature and, therefore, the fish distribution within the lagoon. The
mean annual air temperature at New Smyrna Beach is 1.60C lower than at
Jupiter (Thomas 1970). The range in annual air temperatures is greater in


Vol. 22, No. 3








GILMORE: INDIAN RIVER FISHES


the New Smyrna Beach Ponce de Leon Inlet area than at Cape Canaveral
and so on as one proceeds farther south, although summer air temperatures
(June-August) are relatively homogeneous for the entire lagoon. The fish
fauna must therefore adjust its distribution according to the resultant river
water temperatures (Table 1).
The lowest water temperature recorded for this region was 8.00C from
the lagoon in northern Brevard County, whereas Christensen (1965) never
recorded a water temperature below 20.00C in the lagoon at Jupiter Narrows.
Occasional periods of very low air temperatures (e.g. January to February,
1957-1958) to 0.00C as far south as Stuart bring water temperatures down to a
lethal low (14.4C) for fishes of tropical and subtropical affinities (e.g. Mega-
lops atlantica, Elops saurus, Centropomus undecimalis and several gerreids;
Gunter and Hall 1963).
Atlantic Ocean surface and bottom water temperatures taken adjacent to
the coast over the 3 to 10 m isobaths show a trend similar to the air tempera-
tures (Table 2). The low winter temperatures ranged lower in the northern
section increasing the annual temperature range substantially over that for
the Jupiter Inlet area.
Taylor and Stewart (1958) described an interesting temperature phe-
nomenon caused by upwellings in this part of Florida. During the summer
months, July and August specifically, an annual inshore decrease in water
temperatures often occurs along the east coast from Fernandina Beach to
West Palm Beach, with the most dramatic drop occurring around Daytona
Beach and Cape Canaveral. Readings made in the Canova Beach area, Bre-
vard County, 34 km north of Sebastian Inlet, during 1946-57 showed a tem-
perature drop that persisted through July and August, from 26.70 in June to
22.3C in July, well below the average surface temperatures taken there in
1956. Summer upwellings are also common in the St. Lucie area (S. Springer
1963). Harbor Branch personnel observed an unusually low surface seawater
temperature of 22.00C in August 1972 at Sebastian Inlet (flood tide, salinity of
35.5 o/oo).
Table 2 reveals that at a bottom depth between 30 and 150 m the water
temperature is lower during July and August than during the other months
of the year.
The seaward influence of these cold water upwellings is uncertain, but a
decline in the fishing associated with this phenomenon has been reported by
commercial and sport fishermen. The associated decline in fishing has been
observed out to a depth of 40 m (6.4 to 33.6 km offshore) and has been blamed
for fish kills (S. Springer 1963).
Studies have not yet been conducted to see what effect this upwelling
of cold water might have on the inshore reef fish fauna, which has definite
tropical affinities (see Atlantic reef biotope section below). Christensen
(1965) noted this cold water upwelling in June and August at Jupiter and saw











TABLE 2.-REGIONAL SURFACE (S) AND BOTTOM (B) SEAWATER TEMPERATURE (C) FOR THE CONTINENTAL SHELF (FROM CLARK et al. 1970).


Longitude
Latitude

and Date 8040' 8030' 80020' 80010' 80000' 79050'
(s) (b) (s) (b) (s) (b) (s) (b) (s) (b) (s) (b)


29000'

Depth (m)
May
July-August
October
Jan.-Feb.

28030'
Depth (m)
May
July-August
October
Jan.-Feb.

28o00'
Depth (m)
May
July-August
October
Jan.-Feb.


23.5 23.0
26.5 23.0
23.5 24.0
15.0 14.0


23.0 22.0
27.0 22.0
24.0 24.0
18.0 15.0


(15)
24.5 23.0
27.0 23.0
25.0 24.0
16.0 15.5


(17)
23.4 23.0
26.0 24.0
24.5 24.0
17.0 17.0


(32)
24.0 19.0


(150)
26.0 16.0
27.0 11.0
27.0 19.0
22.0 16.0


(66)
25.0 17.0
28.0 13.0
27.0 16.0
22.0 18.5







27o30'
Depth (m)
May
July-August
October
Jan.-Feb.

27o00'
Depth (m)
May
July-August
October
Jan.-Feb.


24.0 21.0
28.0 21.0
25.5 25.0
21.0 20.0


(72)
25.0 18.0
29.0 14.0
26.0 18.0
23.0 20.5


(40)
26.0 20.0
29.0 16.0
26.0 24.0
23.0 22.0


(310)
26.0 16.0
29.0 13.0
27.0 11.0
24.0 21.0


(340)
26.0 16.0
29.0 13.0
27.0 11.0
24.0 22.0








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


indications of "temporary distress in some shore fishes," but he did not see
"winter kill" as Gunter and Hall (1963) noted for low winter temperatures
in the St. Lucie area.


REGIONAL BIOTOPES AND ASSOCIATED FISHES
FRESHWATER TRIBUTARIES AND CANALS.-The major freshwater rivers,
streams, and canals that feed into the Indian River lagoon fall into this bio-
tope. Where stream vegetation has not been disturbed by man, such plants as
Panicum, and Typha form a dense shore cover. A variable quantity of sub-
merged plants such as Elodea densa and Hydrilla verticillata and a surface
cover of Eichhornia crassipes, Pistia straitioites or Pontederia lanceolata also
occur. The dominant plant depends on stream flow, substratum, and other
physical variables. All streams in this part of Florida have shallow gradients
and currents are generally moderate to sluggish, depending on rainfall or
floodgate manipulation. The water level and flow rate may increase when
a lock holding back significant amounts of stored water is opened.
Table 3 shows that 110 fish species have been collected from this biotope.
Of these fishes 59 (54%) are euryhaline and are also found in brackish to
marine waters either in the Indian River lagoon or in the Atlantic Ocean
(e.g. gerreids, cyprinodontids, poeciliids, and centropomids). Therefore pri-
mary freshwater fishes form a minority of the freshwater fauna. Kushlan and
Lodge (1974) found this to be the predominate characteristic of the South
Florida freshwater ichthyofauna. Several less common euryhaline tropical
forms have also been collected in this biotope (e.g. Gobiomorus dormitor,
Awaous tajasica, Oostethus lineatus, and Pomadasys crocro).
CANAL AND RIVER MOUTHs.-This biotope is characterized by a wide
salinity range (0.0-33.0 o/oo; mean salinity 15.0 o/oo) relative to adjacent
marine and fresh-water biotopes (Table 1). The predominant bottom type is
sand-mud. Halophilic species are lacking, and where natural shore vegetation
has not been destroyed Rhizophora and Spartina are gradually replaced by
Taxodium andTypha. The water quality varies considerably with tide cycles,
but is generally turbid with organic detrital material, tannin, and suspended
sediments.
These waters are truly estuarine and the fish fauna consists of a euryhaline
species group (109 species) with marine affinities (Table 3).
Local commercial and sport fishing interests claim that a large drop in
salinity within a short period of time, such as occurs periodically when locks
are opened in the St. Lucie Estuary, may limit the number of marine invaders
into the estuary and reduce their fish catches. Contrary to the opinion of
local sport fishermen, Gunter and Hall (1963) stated that the "St. Lucie
Estuary is characterized as an area of high production of a wide variety of
sport and food fishes, a condition which has developed and been enhanced by


Vol. 22, No. 3








GILMORE: INDIAN RIVER FISHES


periodic discharges of fresh water and nutrient materials" (from the St. Lucie
Canal). They found that the largest collections of Mugil, Brevoortia, Micro-
pogon, Menidia, and Anchoa mitchilli occurred during or after freshwater
releases from the St. Lucie canal. On the other hand, they noted that Trachi-
notus and small lutjanids left the estuary when very low salinities were
prevalent. Stenohaline marine fishes would be those most likely to be affected
by freshwater discharge. In the sport fishing category this would include
most of the lutjanids, serranids, and scombrids; the latter two are pre-
dominantly fished on the continental shelf. Many of the inshore sport and
game fishes (i.e. centropomids, elopids, sparids, and sciaenids) in this area are
euryhaline and would theoretically be little affected by salinity changes.
MOSQUITO IMPOUNDMENTS.-The mangroves Rhizophora mangle, Avicen-
nia nitida, Laguncularia racemosa, and Conocarpus erectus are the most domi-
nant and conspicuous shoreline vegetation throughout the Indian River la-
goon. A recent development in this region that has greatly affected the
mangrove community is the extensive impoundment of many acres of tidal
mangrove stands (Provost 1959, 1967). Dikes were built around high marsh
vegetation to stop tidal movement of water from the lagoon to the intertidal
zone. This prevented the salt marsh mosquitos (i.e. Aedes sollicitans and A.
taeniorhynchus) from laying their eggs in the intertidal sediments. In most in-
stances an effort was made to impound only high marsh vegetation (i.e. Avi-
cennia rather than Rhizophora). Tidal movement of detrital material from the
impounded vegetation to lagoon waters has been precluded over thousands of
acres throughout the Indian River region. In some cases water levels in the
impoundments covered the pneumatophores of Avicennia nitida and the prop
root lenticles of Rhizophora mangle, thus killing many acres of mature trees
in St. Lucie and Indian River counties. The ecological value of the mangrove
community to an estuary has been the subject of many recent studies. Odum
and Heald (1972) showed a significant contribution from mangroves to the
primary productivity of the estuary. Remnant and recent mangrove growth
can be found on the lagoon side of the impoundments, but their contribution
to the lagoon ecosystem is undetermined.
In general the impoundment ichthyofauna consists of only 26 species, but
large numbers of individuals. This response is considered typical of eco-
systems such as the impoundments that are under stress. The salinity regime
and the amount and type of vegetative growth, of each impoundment can be
very different, and the capacity to support a diverse fish fauna will depend on
such variables. In some impoundments salinity varies considerably (0-41 o/oo)
depending on rainfall, evaporation, ground water, artesian flooding, and the
salinity of the water pumped into the impoundment from the lagoon. The
fishes found consistently in these areas are generally euryhaline and capable
of living on the food resources available (e.g. Gambusia affinis, Poecilia
latipinna, Lucania parva, and Cyprinodon variegatus).








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Although the total ecological effect of impounding is unknown, the cur-
rent fish faunas of both the impoundments and the Indian River lagoon can
be compared (Table 3). All the 26 species collected from mosquito impound-
ments also occur in the Indian River lagoon, but this is only 7.3% of the 359
species recorded from the unimpounded waters of the Indian River lagoon
(Table 3).
Harrington and Harrington (1961) gave an account of the feeding habits
of 16 larvivorous fish species in the salt marsh-mangrove community before
impoundment in St. Lucie and Indian River counties. Of these species 12 still
occur in the impoundments while 4 have been found only in the lagoon.
Provost (1967), in referring to unpublished data taken by Harrington, noted
a decrease after impounding in fish species that prior to impounding lived
in the mangrove community but spawned elsewhere (e.g. Megalops, Centro-
pomus, Eucinostomus, and Diapterus). A similar decrease was noted in herbi-
vorous fishes. Nonlarvivorous species were reduced from 34% of the total
mangrove fish community to 5% after impoundment, while predators on
mosquito larvae comprised the remaining 95%.
OPEN SAND BOTTOM.-Most of the lagoon bottom is fine sand-shell mixture.
Generally a fine anaerobic mud ooze lies next to the inshore mangroves and
a very fine silt layer over the exposed bottom in the Intracoastal Waterway.
The salinities over these sand flats away from freshwater tributaries range
between 18.0 and 37.0 o/oo (mean approximately 30 o/oo, Table 1).
On or over this bottom type 121 fishes commonly occur. Of these the
bothids, triglids, dactyloscopids, and synodontids have been found here con-
sistently. The other fishes recorded here make feeding forays or migrations
that bring them out over an open bottom from a more sheltered lagoon
habitat (i.e. lagoon reefs and grass flats).
MANGROVE MARSH.-Where mangroves have not been impounded (see
above) or where recent intertidal mangrove growth has occurred, a prominent
vegetative shore cover has formed. The prop root system of Rhizophora and
adjacent waters have been observed to have an associate fish fauna. Of the
84 species recorded from this biotope, many species appear to be resident
(e.g. Blennius nicholsi, Gobiesox strumosus, and Bathygobius soporator) while
others seek refuge among the prop roots as larvae and juveniles (e.g. Cen-
tropristes philadelphica and Epinephelus itiara).
SPERMATOPHYTE GRASS FLATS.-Lagoon flats (depths of less than 2 m)
near shore support heavy to moderate growths of the marine spermatophytes
Syringodium filiforme, Haldoule wrightii, Ruppia maritima, and Thalassia
testudinum. The Thalassia beds are generally isolated and are apparently not
found north of Melbourne. Syringodium is dominant in the lagoon as far
north as Mosquito Lagoon. Halodule is found throughout the lagoon and is the
next most abundant grass. Ruppia is relatively uncommon in the lagoon


Vol. 22, No. 3







GILMORE: INDIAN RIVER FISHES


compared to the other seagrasses, but it has been found at Sebastian Inlet
and the mouth of the St. Lucie River near St. Lucie Inlet. It has also been
noted in several freshwater lakes in the vicinity and as far north as the Haul-
over Canal. Halophyla baillonis is found in the lagoon but is rare and associ-
ates with the more common spermatophyte species (Halodule and Thalassia).
During late summer and fall large amounts of fleshy algae (e.g. Graci-
laria foliifera and Acanthophora spicifera) accumulate in the grass beds.
During this period filamentous epiphytic algal growth on the spermatophyte
grasses can be considerable. The actual contribution of algae to the primary
productivity of this biotope is undetermined.
Salinities here are identical to those discussed in the previous open sand
bottom biotope.
In the grass flats 208 fish species have been collected (Table 3). This
biotope harbors the richest fish fauna in the Indian River lagoon. Of these
species, 181 (87%) are found here primarily as juveniles (e.g. serranids, lut-
janids, sciaenids, and pomadasyids). The prominent role the grass flat biotope
plays as a nursery for the local fishes is obvious.
LAGOON REEFS.-This biotope may consist of artificial (wrecks, pilings) or
natural relief above the lagoon bottom. The submerged rock ledges cut in the
Intracoastal Waterway (depths 3 to 5 m) show a relief up to 1.5 m and support
a gorgonian coral growth.
In this biotope 90 fishes have been collected, of which 51 (67%) are
considered primary reef fishes (e.g. chaetodontids, pomacentrids, poma-
dasyids).
INLETS.-All five inlets and Port Canaveral have granite rock jetties extend-
ing seaward. The inlets are kept open to boat traffic by periodic maintenance
dredging. Prior to dredging, the inlets were ephemeral and when open were
very shallow. All typically have a shallow (2-4.5 m depth) sand bottom. Tidal
currents are generally swift with a 3.1 kt average ebb tide velocity recorded
from midstream in Ft. Pierce Inlet. The salinity range in the inlets is generally
not so great as that further up or down the river or in the back estuary
(Table 1). This obviously depends on the amount of freshwater input from the
hinterland plus the fact that those inlets associated with substantial river
systems such as St. Lucie and Jupiter inlets have the larger salinity ranges.
Of the 275 fish species recorded from the inlets (Table 3) 129 (47%) are
normally associated with the inshore Atlantic reefs and occur around inlet
jetties from Sebastian Inlet south. Those fishes that make periodic migrations
from the lagoon to the Atlantic or vice versa are also occasionally found
associated with the jetties. These fishes are either maturing and leaving the
lagoon nursery grounds for adult feeding grounds offshore (e.g. serranids) or
are making temporary offshore spawning migrations (e.g. sciaenids). Many
larval and juvenile fishes enter the lagoon through these inlets.


1977







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


CONTINENTAL SHELF
SURF-ZONE-SAND/SHELL BOTTOM.-This biotope is characterized by a
sand shell bottom and is continuously under the influence of wave turbulence.
The shallow sub-littoral (less than 2 m depth) and littoral zones are included
in this region. Besides the surf, a major limiting factor is the lack of cover
over the sand substratum. This becomes apparent when the surf zone reef
fauna is compared with this open sand bottom fauna (see below). Little or
no macroscopic attached vegetation grows here, but many burrowing inverte-
brates do occur (e.g. Emertia, Donax).
Because of the limiting nature of this biotope only 78 fish species have
been found here to date (Table 3). Although roving carnivores (jacks, mack-
erels, ladyfish, bluefish) and planktivores (herrings, anchovies) may occur in
the surf zone, the dominant fishes are bottom feeding carnivores catfishess,
lizardfishes, croakers, threadfins, and pompanos) that feed on the burrowing
invertebrate fauna.
SURF ZONE REEF.-Coquina rock forms a protective littoral and sub-
littoral surf zone reef at the various localities given in the regional physical
description section of this paper. This rock structure may support the growth
of sabellariid worm colonies and the protection afforded may result in an
increase in fish species in the surf zone. Although some of these inshore
rock ledges just south of Cape Canaveral disappear from year to year with
the shifting of sand masses along the surf zone, the larger reefs appear to be
permanent.
The predominant sabellariid reef builder in this area is Phragmatopoma
lapidosa, which may settle on old worm colonies, pier pilings, and other man-
made structures, or on the coquina rock formations. All of these reefs are
exposed to some extent at low tide and all give a 1 to 2.5 m relief above the
bottom, providing cover for fishes.
The surf zone reef fish fauna is dominated by individuals capable of
thriving in this turbulent high energy zone (Table 3). Although 105 fish species
have been found to associate with these reefs, they are numerically dominated
by two demersal species, Labrisomus nuchipinnis and Blennius cristatus and
three semi-demersal species, Diplodus holbrooki, Anisotremus virginicus, and
Haemulon parrai. Most of the other fishes that occasionally occur on the surf
zone reef are primary reef fishes that are commoner on the deeper (over 2 m)
coquina reefs offshore.
OFFSHORE REEFs.-Extensive lithified coquina and other types of organic
reefs parallel the shore beginning on the average 100 to 300 m out. These
inshore reefs run north of Sebastian Inlet for at least 48 km and south beyond
Jupiter Inlet. The shallow water reefs show a relief from 0.5 to 3 m above
the bottom and are in 2 to 7 m of water. Similar formations occur in 10-13 m,
20-23 m, 33-40 m, 60-80 m, and 100-110 m depths. A maximum relief of 10
to 20 m has been recorded on the deeper reefs. The inshore reefs have a


Vol. 22, No. 3








GILMORE: INDIAN RIVER FISHES


definite seaward slope to the reef top with the low end seaward, and they may
have multiple ledges running parallel to shore. The reef ledges are eroded
extensively into elaborate interconnecting caves. This provides abundant
shelter for many primary reef fishes (i.e., pomadasyids, chaetodontids, poma-
centrids, serranids, labrids) and supports a popular and highly productive
commercial/sports fishery (Moe 1963) for snappers (mostly Lutjanus cam-
pechanus and Rhomboplites aurorubens) and groupers (mostly Epinephelus
morio and Mycteroperca microlepis).
Very little coral grows on these shallow reefs, except for small coralla of
Oculina and isolated spots of siderastraeid and montastraeid corals. Deeper
reefs in depths around 30 m have a more proliferous growth of Oculina corals.
The shallow reefs south of Sebastian Inlet support an abundant algal growth
(Sargassum, etc.) throughout the year. Many of the juvenile fishes associated
with the reef school or hide amid this prolific algal growth (e.g. Bairdiella
sanctaeluciae and many pomadasyid juveniles). Gorgonians, sponges, and
ascidians also live amid the algae.
The water clarity in summer gives 5 to 6 m visibility on a good day. The
rest of the year periodic northeast or southeast strong winds (10-25 kts) keep
the water over the reefs turbid and turbulent, and observations or collections
are difficult. Nearshore water turbidity decreases farther south as the con-
tinental shelf narrows, water depths increase, and the axis of the Florida
Current comes closer to the coast. During calm weather the water visibility
in Jupiter Inlet at flood tide is between 5 and 10 m.
From the nearshore reefs (3 to 7 m depth; Table 3) 223 fish species have
been recorded, of which 191 (86%) are Caribbean reef fishes. Because of
collecting difficulties, this reef fauna has not been assessed completely and is
probably richer than indicated.
The seasonality of the tropical representatives of this nearshore reef fish
fauna is speculative. Several dives made on the Pepper Park reef (3.2 km
north of Ft. Pierce Inlet) in January and February indicated that at least
46 of these tropical fishes may remain on the reef throughout the year. Farther
north the tropicals might well make a seaward migration to deeper reefs
where the seasonal temperature change is not so dramatic (see Table 2), but
the offshore reef fish fauna (depths over 10 m) has not been investigated on a
seasonal basis.
BENTHIC-OPEN SHELF.-This biotope is an open plain of sand and shell
extending several meters or kilometers between reef lines. The predominance
of shell or sand varies. Dredges have occasionally brought up large bottom
samples consisting of the scallop Aquipecten irradians. In certain locations the
clam Chione also made up a large portion of the shell hash bottom. Near the
seaward edge of the shelf (to depths of 200 m) a fine sand-mud bottom pre-
dominates. The temperature patterns for this biotope are given in Table 2.
The current patterns are basically unknown for this shelf zone, but apparently







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


variable eddies leaving the Florida Current may change with season and wind
direction.
The fish fauna of the open shelf collected to date consists of 171 species
(Table 3). Pleuronectiform fishes, ophidids, and triglids dominate this biotope.
Other species adapted to an open bottom existence such as ogcocephalids and
rajiids are commonly found here. Several groups appear on the open shelf
in seasonal spawning aggregations (e.g. sciaenids). Some families characteristic
of the reef environment have representatives on the open bottom as well
(e.g. Hemipteronotus novacula, Labridae; Diplectrum formosum, D. radiale,
Centropristis ocyurus, Serranidae).
NERITIC ZONE.-This biotope consists of the open waters above the benthic
habitats. The Florida Current plays an important role in determining the
physical character of this biotope. Occasional weed lines of floating Sar-
gassum sp. may be seen at the interface between the Florida Current and
coastal waters. Many fishes (e.g. coryphaenids and carangids) associate with
this weed line and other floating debris that may afford food and shelter.
Of the 177 species that occur here the sharks, mackerels, tunas, jacks,
billfishes, herrings, and anchovies dominate this biotope. Large north-south
seasonal migrations of dolphin (Coryphaena), mackerels (Scomberomorous),
tunas (Euthynnus), and billfishes occur in the neritic shelf region adjacent to
the Indian River lagoon. A population of sailfish, Istiophorus platypterus,
overwinters annually off Jupiter Island from St. Lucie Inlet south. Mugil
cephalus, M. curema, Brevoortia smith, B. tyrannus, and numerous sciaenids
make seasonal migrations from the lagoon out into neritic waters to spawn.
Many juvenile fishes are transported by the Florida Current into the
neritic zone of this region from South Florida and the Caribbean. This is a
continual source of recruitment for the local representatives of the tropical
fish fauna.

DIscuSSION
Briggs (1958) estimates that the total fish population of Florida consists
of 1,120 species, including those found at depths below 200 m. Of these 453
are considered to range over the Indian River region (continental shelf and
estuary). Harbor Branch Foundation collections and the combined records
of other collections from the Indian River region have established that at
least 609 species of fishes occur in the Indian River lagoon, its freshwater
tributaries, and the adjacent continental shelf at depths less than 200 m. Of
these 135 were not previously recorded from this region (Table 3). Of the
species in Briggs' list 95 have not yet been collected in the Indian River re-
gion but are known to range both north and south of here. If the 95 additional
species from Briggs' list are added to the current regional total, at least 704
species should eventually be collected or identified.


Vol. 22, No. 3







GILMORE: INDIAN RIVER FISHES


The richness of this fauna appears to be directly affected by water tem-
perature moderation and recruitment via the Florida Current, moderate in-
shore salinities, and the transitional zoogeographic setting of the study area.
The Indian River region encompasses several biotopes, all of which affect
the distribution and composition of the local fish fauna. The study area is
broad (latitude 27000'-29000'N) and includes nearly all of the aquatic fish
communities in east Florida (lacustrine biotopes were omitted). The fish
distribution is further complicated by its transitional nature, as the warm-
temperate Carolinian and the tropical Caribbean fish faunas overlap consid-
erably here; 28% of the fish fauna is considered tropical, 22% are warm-
temperate, and 50% are eurythermic tropicals and continental species having
a wide distribution both north and south of this region. Nine fishes (1.8%) are
endemic to Florida and 10 (2%) are exotic freshwater tropicals introduced and
breeding here.
Tropical Caribbean fishes on inshore reefs are apparently not found
throughout the year north of Sebastian Inlet, yet observations indicate a
permanent population from Sebastian south. Of the 39 tropical species that
Christensen (1965:248) lists as new to the Jupiter area 35 (90%) are found
throughout the year on shallow nearshore reefs (depths under 10 m) or in the
Indian River lagoon at least as far north as Sebastian Inlet, 109.7 km north
of Jupiter Inlet. A total of 152 tropical fishes (27% of the total fauna) range
at least to latitude 2800'N and apparently have a permanent population
within this region either on shallow reefs or farther out on the continental
shelf and in the Indian River lagoon. This extends the northern limit of
permanent shallow water tropical fish populations northward 100 km from
Jupiter Inlet.
The current continental shelf and the lagoon collections show that water
depth has much to do with northerly distribution of permanent tropical fish
populations. North of Sebastian this warm water fish fauna is found farther
out on the shelf in deeper waters. At depths between 20 and 70 m the bottom
temperature range is narrow (less than 8.0C, see Table 2). The Florida Cur-
rent apparently. has much to do with this temperature moderation and the
rock reefs in these areas should act as a haven for tropical and eurythermic
tropical fish faunas. The open shelf fauna within this depth range was sampled
during this survey and is heterogenous in it faunal affinities, but euythermic
tropicals and tropical fishes (i.e. Gymnothorax nigromarginatus, Centropristis
philadelphicus, Syacium papillosum, Otophidium omostigmum, and Lepophi-
dium jeannae) are common in these samples. The reef fish fauna in these
deeper waters needs to be investigated.
Many benthic, Carolinian, continental shelf species penetrate into the
Indian River region, and a few Carolinian estuarine species are found at New
Smyrna Beach and occasionally stray to the southern reaches of the lagoon
(e.g. Alosa sapidissima and Brevoortia tyrannus). The successful penetra-








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


tion of either Carolinian or Caribbean species may depend on recruitment
occurring during successive or alternating cold and warm winters. The transi-
tional character of the lagoon fish fauna is obvious as fishes found in grass
beds adjacent to St. Lucie Inlet are never qualitatively or quantitatively
representative of a similar grass bed (both dominated by Syringodium) over
160 km north in Mosquito Lagoon or the Indian River lagoon.
Of the 110 fishes recorded from freshwater tributaries, 59 (54%) were
euryhaline, secondary freshwater species or marine invaders from tropical
families or genera; 51 (46%) primary freshwater species were mostly warm-
temperate fishes that have migrated down the peninsula (Kushlan and Lodge
1974).
It may be concluded that the fish fauna of the Indian River region is
a diverse assemblage dominated by tropicals and eurythermic tropicals. These
fishes originated in the Caribbean faunal province and apparently came into
the region via the Florida Current. Warm-temperate Carolinian fishes are
more commonly found in the open bottom continental shelf biotope and in the
primary freshwater fish families. Distribution of the Carolinian species must
be explained by adult migration, with some aid from larval fishes transported
via southbound counter-currents of the Florida Current and other inshore
water mass movements.


LITERATURE CITED
Anderson, W. W., and J. W. Gehringer. 1965. Biological-statistical census of the species entering
fisheries in the Cape Canaveral area. U. S. Fish & Wildl. Serv., Spec. Sci. Rept.-fisheries No.
514. iii-x, 1-79.
Bailey, R. M., J. E. Fitch, E. S. Herald, E. A. Lachner, C. C. Lindsey, C. R. Robins, and W. B.
Scott. 1970. A list of common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and
Canada (3rd). Amer. Fish Soc., Spec. Publ. 6: 150 pp.
Bigelow, H. B., and W. C. Schroeder. 1948. Sharks. In Fishes of the Western North Atlantic. Sears
Found. Mar. Res. Mem. 1, Part 1: 59-576.
B6hlke, J. E., and C. C. G. Chaplin. 1968. Fishes of the Bahamas and adjacent tropical waters.
Livingston Publ. Co., Wynnewood, Pa.
Briggs, J. E. 1958. A list of Florida fishes and their distribution. Bull. Fla. St. Mus., Biol. Sci.,
2(8):223-319.
Bullis, H. R., Jr., and J. R. Thompson. 1965. Collections by the exploratory fishing vessels
Oregon, Silver Bay, Combat and Pelican made during 1956-60 in the southwestern North
Atlantic. U. S. Dept. Interior Fish & Wild. Serv., Spec. Sci. Rept. No. 510: 130 p.
Christensen, R. F. 1965. An ichthyological survey of Jupiter Inlet and Loxahatchee River,
Florida. Unpublished M. S. Thesis, Fla. St. Univ., Tallahassee, Fla.: ii-viii, 1-318.
Clark, J., W. G. Smith, A. W. Kendall, and M. P. Fahay. 1970. Studies of estuarine dependence
of Atlantic coastal fishes. Data Report I. U. S. Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife,
Technical Paper 59: 97.
Cook, C. W. 1945. The geology of Florida. Fla. St. Brd. Conserv., Fla. Geological Survey, Geol.
Bull. 29: 339.
Cory, R. L., and E. L. Pierce. 1967. Distribution and ecology of lancelets (Order Amphioxi) over
the continental shelf of the southeastern United States. Limnology and Oceanography.
12(4): 650-656.
Courtenay, W. R., Jr. 1972. Exotic fish investigations. State of Fla. Game & Freshwater Fish


Vol. 22, No. 3









GILMORE: INDIAN RIVER FISHES


Comm. and Depart. Biol. Sci., Fla. Atlantic Univ., Unpublished 1970-1972 Job Completion
Reports for Investigations Project (Federal Air in Fish Restoration, Dingell-Johnson Project
F-28, Study 1).
Dahlberg, M. D. 1970. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico menhadens, genus 1rc oortia (Pisces: Clu-
peidae). Bull. Fla. State Mus.. 15(3): 91-162.
1971. An annotated list of Georgia coastal fishes In An ecological survey of the coastal
region of Georgia, p. 255-300. Unpublished report to National Park Resources. Athens.
Daly, Richard J. 1970. Systematics of southern Florida anchovies (Pisces: Engraulidae). Bull. Mar.
Sci., 20(1): 70-104.
Evermann, B. W., and B. A. Bean. 1897. Indian River and its fishes. U. S. Conmm. Fish & Fisheries
Rept. of the Commissioner. Part 22: 227-248.
Fowler, H. W. 1945. A study of the fishes of the southern Piedmont and coastal plain. Acad. Nat.
Sci. Phila. Monogr. 7: 1-408.
Futch, C. R., and S. E. Dwinell. 1977. Nearshore marine ecology at Hutchinson Island, Florida:
1971-1974. IX. Lancelets and fishes. Fla. Mar. Res. Publ. No. 25. (In Press).
Gore, R. H., R. G. Gilmore, and L. D. Williams. 1971-1973. Harbor Branch Foundation field
records.
Grizzel, R. E. January 1968-May 1971. Brevard County Health Department Lab Data.
Gunter, G., and G. E. Hall. 1963. Biological investigations of the St. Lucie estuary (Florida) in
connection with Lake Okeechobee discharges through the St. Lucie Canal. Gulf Res. Repts.,
1(5): 189-307.
Harrington, R. W., Jr., and E. S. Harrington. 1961. Food selection among fishes invading a high
sub-tropical salt marsh; from onset of flooding through the progress of a mosquito brood.
Ecology 42(4): 646-666.
Herrema, D. J. 1974. Marine and brackish water fishes of southern Palm Beach and northern
Broward counties, Florida. M. S. Thesis Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton. 275 pp.
Hildebrand, S. F., and W. C. Schroeder. 1928(1928). Fishes of Chesapeake Bay. Bull. U. S. Bur.
Fish., 43: 366 pp.
Kushlan, J. A., and T. E. Lodge. 1974. Ecological and distributional notes on the freshwater fish of
Southern Florida. Florida Sci., 37(2):110-128.
Lasater, J. A., and M. R. Carey. 1972. Quarterly Reports to Orlando Utilities Commission on
Ecological and Related Studies of Indian River Power Plant.
Longley, W. H., and S. F. Hildebrand. 1941. Systematic catalogue of the fishes of Tortugas,
Florida. Pap. Tortugas Lab., Carnegie Inst. WVash., 34: 331 pp.
McLane, W. M. 1955. The fishes of the St. Johns River system. Unpubl. PhD Thesis. Univ. of
Fla. 361 pp.
Moe, M. A., Jr. 1963. A survey of offshore fishing in Florida. Florida State Bd. of Conservation,
Professional Papers Series No. 4, 117 pp.
Nevin, T. A., and J. A. Lasater. October 1971-December 1972. Quart. Reports to Orlando Utilities
Commission on Ecological and Related Studies of Indian River Power Plant.
Odum, W. E., and E. H. Heald. 1972. Trophic analyses of an estuarine mangrove community.
Bull. Mar. Sci., 22(3): 671-738.
Phillips, R. C. 1960. Observations on the ecology and distribution of the Florida seagrasses. Fla.
St. Bd. Conserv. Mar. Lab. Prof. Pap. Ser. No. 2, 72 pp.
Powell, D., L. M. Dwinell, and S. E. Dwinell. 1972. An annotated listing of the fish reference
collection at the Florida Department of Natural Resources Marine Research Laboratory.
Fla. Dept. Nat. Resour. Mar. Res. Lab., Spec. Sci. Rept. No. 36: i-ix, 1-179 pp.
Provost, M. W. 1959. Impounding salt marshes for mosquito control and its effects on bird life.
Fla. Nat. 32: 163-170.
1967. Managing impounded salt marsh for mosquito control and estuarine resource
conservation. in LUS marsh and estuary symposium, 163-171.
Relyea, K. 1975. The distribution of the oviparous killifishes of Florida. Sci. Bio. Jour., 1(2):
49-52.
Schroeder, E. H. 1966. Average surface temperatures of the western North Atlantic. Bull. Mar.
Sci., 19(2): 302-323.
Springer, S. 1960. Natural history of the sandbar shark (Eulamia milberti). Fish. Bull., U. S.,
61(178): 38 pp.


1977








124 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM Vol. 22, No. 3

1963. Field observations on large sharks of the Florida Caribbean region. pp.
95-113. In P. W. Gilbert (ed.) Sharks and survival. D. C. Heath and Co., Boston. 578 p.
1966. A review of western Atlantic cat sharks, Scyliorhinidae, with descriptions of a
new genus and five new species. Fish. Bull. 65(3):581-624.
Springer, V. G. 1960. Ichthyological surveys of the lower St. Lucie and Indian Rivers, Florida
east coast. (Unpublished) Fla. St. Bd. Conserv. Mar. Lab. Rept. No. 60-19: 1-20, Appendix 1.
Starck, W. A., II. 1968. A list of fishes of Alligator Reef, Florida with comments on the nature of
the Florida reef fish fauna. Undersea Biol., 1(1):4-40.
Struhsaker, P. 1969. Demersal fish resources: composition, distribution and commercial potential
of the continental shelf stocks off southeastern United States. Fish. Indust. Res., 4(7):
261-300.
Tagatz, M. E. 1967. Fishes of the St. Johns River, Florida. Quart. Jour. Fla. Acad. Sci. 30(1): 25-50.
Taylor, C. B., and II. B. Stewart, Jr. 1958. Summer upwelling along the east coast of Florida. Jour.
Geophys. Res. 64(1): 33-40 p.
Thomas, T. M. 1970. A detailed analysis of climatological and hydrological records of south
Florida with reference to man's influence upon ecosystem evolution. Tech. Rept. 70-2 to
U. S. Natl. Park Serv. Univ. Miami Rosenstiel School Mar. Atmos. Sci., 89 p., 12 Tables,
32 figs.
Wilcox, J. R., and D. Mook. 1972-1973. Harbor Branch Foundation field records.
Young, D. K. 1975. Harbor Branch Foundation Field Records. (Unpublished).







TABLE 3.-BIOTOPE DISTRIBUTION OF THE SHALLOW WATER FISH FAUNA (DEPTHS LESS THAN 200 M) FROM THE INDIAN RIVER LAGOON AND ADJACENT
WATERS. FISH RECORDS BASED ON OBSERVATIONS ONLY AND THOSE THAT HAVE NOT BEEN COLLECTED NOR OBSERVED ARE FOLLOWED WITH
0, AND NC RESPECTIVELY. QUESTIONABLE RECORDS ARE FOLLOWED BY ?. PREVIOUS SURVEYS ARE CODED NUMERICALLY. BIOTOPE KEY: N=
NERITIC; B= BENTHIC-OPEN SHELF; R= OFFSHORE REEFS; SR= SURF ZONE REEF; SS= SURF ZONE-SAND/SHELL BOTTOM; I = INLETS; GF=
GRASSFLATS; MAN= MANGROVES; SB= OPEN SAND BOTTOM; LR= LA;ooN REEFS; CRM= CANAL AND RIVER MOUTHS; FTC= FRESHWATER
TRIBUTARIES AND CANALS; MI=MOSQUITO IMPOUNDMENTS. FISH ABUNDANCE CATEGORIES STARC K 1968): U= UNKNOWN; R= RARE; 0=
OCCASIONAL; F= FREQUENT; C = COMMON; A = ABUNDANT.


N B R SR SS I GF MAN SB


LR CRM FTC MI


Branchiostomidae
Branchiostoma virginiae
B. sp.
Orectolobidae
Ginglymostoma cirratum
Rhincodontidae
Rhincodon typus 0
Odontaspididae
Odontaspis taurus
Alopiidae
Alopias superciliosus NC
Lamnidae
Carcharodon carcharias NC
Isurus oxyrinchus
Scyliorhinidae
Galeus arae NC
Scyliorhinus retifer 0


U
U

0 0 F 0 0 R


NR R

7,6 0 0

11 R


8,7 U U
6 U U


*Previous surveys and new records: NR=a fish not previously recorded from the study area, 1 = Evermann and Bean (1897), 2=V. Springer (1960), 3= Gunter and Hall
(1963), 4= Christensen (1965), 5= Powell et al., 1972), 6= S. Springer (1960, 63, 66), 7= Anderson and Cehringer (1965), 8= Bullis and Thompson (1965), 9 = Harrington
and Harrington (1961), 10= Courtenay (1972), 11 = Bigelow and Schroeder (1948), 12= Daly (1970), 13= Cory and Pierce (1967), 14= Briggs (1958), 15= Harrington,
R. H., ichthyological collection, Florida State Entomological Research Laboratory, Vero Beach, Florida, 16= Dahlberg (1970), 17= Moe (1963), 18= Bailey et al., (1970),
19= Stewart Springer, pers. comm., 20= Unpublished R/V Silver Bay station data compiled by Paul Struhsaker of the National Marine Fisheries Service, 21 = Relyea (1975).


SPECIES


PREVIOUS*
SURVEYS









TABLE 3 (CONTINUED).

PREVIOUS"
SPECIES SURVEYS N B R SR SS I GF MAN SB LR CRM FTC MI


Carcharhinidae
Aprionodon isodon
Carcharhinus acronotus
C. altimus
C. falciformis
C. leucas
C. limbatus
C. longimanus
C. maculipinnis
C. milberti
C. obscurus
C. springer
Galeocerdo curvieri
Mustelus canis
M. norrisi NC
Negaprion brevirostris
Rhizoprionodon terraenovae
Sphyrnidae
Sphyrna lewini
S. mokarran
S. tiburo
S. zygaena NC
Squalidae
Squalls acanthias NC,?
S. sp. NC
Pristidae
Pristis pectinata
P. perotteti NC,?
Rhinobatidae
Rhinobatos lentiginosus


0
0 0


U 0 U F F F F
C 0 F C U U


U F F
U U U


U U F 0


F 0
0

0 0
0


0 0


0 0
0
F F 0


R R
R R


4 R R R







Torpedinidae
Narcine brasiliensis
Torpedo nobiliana NC
Rajidae
Raja eglanteria
R. garmani NC
R. texana NC
Dasyatidae
Dasyatis americana
D. sayi
D. sabina
D. centroura
Gymnura micrura
Myliobatidae
Aetobatus narinari
Myliobatis freminvillei
Rhinoptera bonasus
Mobulidae
Manta birostris 0
Mobula hypostoma NC
Acipenseridae
Acipenser brevirostrum NC
Lepisosteidae
Lepisosteus osseus
L. platyrhincus
L. spatula NC,?
Amiidae
Amia calva
Elopidae
Elops saurus
Megalops atlantica
Albulidae
Albula vulpes


C F


0


8,5,4
8,7

8,7
8
8

7
8,7,1
7,4,3,2,1
7
8,7,1

8,7,4
7,4
7

NR
11


F
C F C
F 0
R R


F F
0 U


0 0


9,5,4,3,2,1 0
9,5,4,1 F


0 0 F F F
0 0 0 F 0


0 00 0


F F


U

0 C
0 A
U U

C

F 0
F F









TABLE 3 (CONTINUED).


N B R SR SS


I GF MAN SB LR CRM FTC MI


Anguillidae
Anguilla rostrata
Xenocongridae
Chlopsis bicolor
Muraenidae
Anarchias yoshiae
Enchelycore nigricans
Gymnothorax funebris
G. moringa
G. nigromarginatus
G. vicinus
Muraena miliaris
Muraena retifera
Muraenesocidae
Hoplunnis macrurus
Congridae
Ariosoma impressa
Congrina flava
Paraconger caudilimbatus
Ophichthidae
Ahlia egmontis
Bascanichthys scuticaris NC
B. teres
Letharchus velifer
Myrichthys acuminatus
Myrophis punctatus
Mystriophis intertinctus NC
Ophichthus ocellatus
Gordiichthys springeri NC


5,4,2,1 U


0 0
U U
F F
C C


0
0 0

0

U
U
U

U
U
U
U U
U U
0 0
U
F


U U



U
U U
U


U
F F F F


SPECIES


PREVIOUS*
SURVEYS


0 F







Clupeidae
Alosa sapidissima NC,?
Brevoortia smith

B. tyrannus
B. smith x B. tyrannus
Dorosoma cepedianum
D. petenense NC
Etrumeus teres NC
Harengula clupeola
H. humeralis
H. jaguana
Jenkinsia sp. NC
Opisthonema oglinum
Sardinella anchovia
Engraulidae
Anchoa cubana
A. hepsetus
A. lamprotaenia
A. lyolepit
A. mitchilli
A. nasuta
Anchoviella perfasciata NC
Engraulis estauquae NC
E. eurystole NC
Argentinidae
Argentina silus NC,?
A. stewarti
Glossanodon pygmaeus
Synodontidae
Saurida nornani
S. caribbaea
Synodus intermedius
S. foetens
S. poeyi
S. saurus
Trachinocephalus myops


1
16,8,7,5,
4,3,2,
16,7,5,4,2,1
16
4,3
5,4,3,2
8,7
4
5,4
8,7,5,4,3
4
8,7,5,4,1
8,7,5,4

4
7,4,3
4
5,4,2
7,5,4,3,2,1
12
12
12
12

8
NR
NR


U U
A A

0 0
0 0
0


U U
U U U
A A A A A A
U U
A A A A A A
A A A A A A


C C
A A
0

A
A A


8
NR
7
7,5,4,3,2
NR
NR
8,7


C C


0 0


C C
A A
0 0
0
A A
A A


C C


U U
A 0


A 0









TABLE 3 (CONTINUED).


PREVIOUS'
SURVEYS N B R SR SS I GF MAN SB LR CRM


Chlorophthalmidae
Chlorophthalmus agassizi
Cyprinidae
Notemigonus crysoleucas
Notropis maculatus
N. petersoni NC
Catostomidae
Erimyzon sucetta
Ictaluridae
Ictalurus catus NC
I. natalis NC
I. nebulosus
I. punctatus NC
Noturus gyrinus NC
Clariidae
Clarias batrachus
Ariidae
Arius felis
Bagre marinus
Batrachoididae
Opsanus tau
Porichthys plectrodon
Gobiesocidae
Gobiesox strumosus
Antennariidae
Antennarius pauciradiatus
A. scaber
A. radiosus NC
Histrio histrio


8,7,5,4,3,2,1 C
8,7,5,4,3,1 C


NR
7

5,4,2,1


U
0 0
U


C C C C
C C C


C


C

U
O O

O O


SPECIES


FTC MI


0 C
U
U

C

C C
C C







Chaunacidae
Chaunax pictus NC 8 U
Ogcocephalidae
Halieutichthys aculeatus 8,7 C
Ogcocephalus nasutus 8 F
0. radiatus 8 F
0. vespertilio 7 0
O. sp. NR C
O. sp. NR C
Gadidae
Enchelyopus cimbrius NR U
Urophycis floridanus 8 0
U. regius 8,7 C 0
U. tenuis NR C
Ophidiidae
Lepophidium cervinum 8 F z
L. jeannae NR F
L. sp. 7 U >
Ophidion holbrooki 8,7 C
O. grayi 8,7 F
0. sp. nov. 8 U
0. selenops NR R
Ogilbia cayorum 5,4 C C C C
Otophidium omostigmum NR C
Parophidion schmidti NC 4 U
Rissola marginata NC 7 U cA
Carapidae
Carapus bermudensis NR R
Exocoetidae
Cypselurus hetenrrus 7,5 C 0 0 0
Parexocoetus brachypterus 7 C
Prognichthys gibbifrons NC 7,5,4 0
Hemiramphidae
Euleptorhamphus velox NR 0









TABLE 3 (CONTINUED).


N B R SR


I GF MAN SB LR CRM FTC MI


E. viridis NC
Hemiramphus brasiliensis
H. balao NC
Hyporhamphus unifasciatus
H. sp.
Belonidae
Ablennes hians
Platybelone argalus
Strongylura marina
S. notata
S. timucu
Tylosurus acus
T. crocodiles
Cyprinodontidae
Cyprinodon variegatus
Floridichthys carpio
Fundulus chrysotus
F. cingulatus NC
F. confluentus
F. grandis
F. heteroclitus NC
F. lineolatus NC
F. semninolis NC
F. similis
Jordanella floridae
Leptolucania ommata NC
Lucania goodei
L. parva
Rivulus marmoratus NC


8
7
8,7
7,5,4,1
NR

7
NR
5,4,1
5,4
2
7
4

15,9,5,3,1
21,5
5,4,1
4
15,9,4,3
9,5,4,1
21


C C C
C C C


O R
A A
A A
0 0
F F


0 00 0
C F F F


C C



0 F C


C C


F 0 C
R R


SPECIES


PREVIOUS*
SURVEYS


0 0
R


U
C 0
R C







Poeciliidae
Gambusia affinis

Heterandria formosa
Poecilia latipinna
Poecilia (latipinna x celifera) NC
Xiphophorus cariatus NC
X. helleri x X. variatus NC
X. maculatus NC
X. maculatus x X. helleri NC
X. maculatus x X. variatus NC
Atherinidae
Allanetta harringtonensis
Labidesthes sicculus
Membras martinica
Menidia beryllina
M. peninsula
Polymixiidae
Polymixia lowei NC
Fistulariidae
Fistularia tabacaria
Centriscidae
Macrorhamphosus scolopax
Syngnathidae
Corythoichthys albirostris
C. brachycephalus
Hippocampus erectus
H. reidi
H. zosterae
Oostethus lineatus
Syngnathus dunckeri
Syngnathus floridae
S. fuscus
S. louisianae
S. pelagicus


15,9,5,4
3,2,1
15,5,4,3,2
15,9,4,2,1
10
10
10
10
10
10

5,4
5,4,1
7,5,3
9,5,4,3,2,1
9,5,4,3,2,1

8,7


8,7,5,4,2 U R


8

NR
NR
8,4,3
4
4
4
4
4,3,2
4
5,4,3,2,1
NR


0 0


C C C


C A A


C
C A
U


R R


0 0 F C C C
0 C0 0
0 C C C C C


R R


C C
R
C
0
R R
0 0
R R
C C


C C

0


C C












N B R SR SS I GF MAN SB LR CRM FTC MI


S. scovelli
S. springer
Scorpaenidae
Neomerinthe hemingwayi
Pontinus longispinis
Scorpaena agassizi
S. brasiliensis
S. calcarata
S. dispar
S. grandicornis
S. plumieri
Setarches guentheri NC
Triglidae
Bellator brachychir
B. egretta NC
B. militaris
Peristedion miniatum
Peristedion sp.
Prionotus alatus
P. carolinus NC
P. evolans NC
P. martin
P. ophryas
P. roseus
P. scitulus
P. salmonicolor
P. tribulus
Centropomidae
Centropomus pectinatus
C. undecimalis


5,4,3,2,1 0
NR 0


NR
7
NR
8,7,5,4,1
8,7
NR
4,3
5,4
8


5
8
8,7
NR
7
NR
8,7
8,7,1
NR
NR
8,7
8,5,4
8,7,5
4,3,1

5,4,2
9,5,4,3,2,1 0


0 C C


C C


C C O


R
F F
C C C


R R


U U U


C
U
C

0 0
C C C


C C


C C
C C


TABLE 3 (CONTINUED).


SPECIES


PREVIOUS*
SURVEYS






Serranidae
Anthias sp. NC
Centropristis ocyurus
C. philadelphica
C. striata
Diplectrum bivittatum
D. formosum
Epinephelus drummondhayi
E. fulcus NC
E. itajara
E. morio
E. nigritus
E. niveatus
E. striatus
Hemanthias vivanus
H. sp. NC
Hypoplectrus gemma
H. nigricans
H. puella
H. unicolor
Liopropoma eukrines
Mycteroperca bonaci
M. microlepis
M. phenax
Pikea mexicana
Plectranthias garrupellus
Pronotogrammus aureorubens
Serraniculus pumilio NC
Serranus baldwini
S. notospilus
S. phoebe
S. subligarius
Grammistidae
Rypticus bistrispinus
R. maculatus
R. saponaceus
R. subbifrenatus


7
8,7,5
8,7,5,4
8,7,5,4
4
8,7,4
NR
5
5,4,2,1
4
NR
7
NR
8
7
NR
NR
NR
4
NR
5,4
5,4
NR
NR
NR
NR
8
4
8
8,7
5


C
C
C
c
F
F F


0

C C O
R
0 0

U
C C C F
C C C F
0 0

0 0





0 0

0 0
C C C O
0 0


0 0


C
c


0


U U


C 0 0


C C
c c

0
F


C 0
U


0
C.,,









TABLE 3 (CONTINUED).

PREVIOUS*
SPECIES SURVEYS N B R SR SS I GF MAN SB LR CRM FTC MI

Centrarchidae
Elassoma evergladei 4,1 U
Enneacanthus glorious 4,3 F
E. obesus NC,? 1 U
Lepomis gulosus 4,1 C
L. macrochirus 5,4,3,2,1 C C Z
L. marginatus 4,3 0
L. microlophus 4,3 C
L. punctatus 4,1 C
Micropterus salmoides 4,1 C C
Pomoxis nigromaculatus 3, U U >
Percidae n
Etheostoma fusiforme 4,1 C
Priacanthidae
Priacanthus arenatus NR C
Pristigenys alta 8 0
Apogonidae
Apogon binotatus NR 0 0 0 0
A. maculatus 5,4 C C C 0
A. planifrons NR 0
A. pseudomaculatus 5,4 C C C 0
Astropogon puncticulatus NR C
A. stellatus 5,4 0 C
Phaeoptyx conklini 5 C 0
P. pigmentaria NC 5 U U C
Branchiostegidae tc
Caulolatilus cyanops NR C lo
Lopholatilus chamaeleonticeps NR C Z
Pomatomidae .
Pomatomus saltatrix 8,7,5,4,2,1 C C C 0 0 0 c






Rachycentridae
Rachycentron canadum
Echeneidae
Echeneis naucrates
E. neucratoides
Remora brachyptera
R. osteochir
R. remora
Reinorina albescens
Carangidae
Alectis crinitus NC
Caranx bartholomnaei
C. crysos
C. hippos

C. latus
C. ruber
Chloroscombrus chrysurus
Decapterus punctatus
Elagatis bipinnulata
Oligoplites saurus
Selar crumenopthalinus NC
Selene setapinnis
S. ornery
Seriola dumerili
S. rivoliana
Trachinotus carolinus
T. falcatus
T. goodei
Trachurus lathami
Coryphaenidae
Coryphaena equisetis
C. hippurus
Lutjanidae
Lutjanus analis
L. apodus


7,5 F


8,5 0
7,4 C
8,7,4,1 C
8,7,5,4,3, C
2,1
4,3 C
8,5,4 C
8,7,5,4,3,1 C
7,4 C
4 R
4,3,1 C
8,7,4 U
8,7,3,1 F
8,5,4,3,2,1 C
7 C
4 U
8,7,5,4,3,1
5,4,3,1
5,4,1
8,7 U


NR
8,7,5,4

4,2
5,4,2,1


C C C
C C C
C C C

C C C
C C C
C C C
C

C C C

F F F
C C C
O

C
C
F


0
C
C
C C C

C O
F R
C C


C C
U
F F
C C


C O
C C C


C C C F


0 U

C


C C

F
C


C C 0 0 R


C C
C C


C C C
C C C













N B R SR SS I GF MAN SB LR CRM FTC MI


L. campechanus
L. cyanopterus
L. griseus
L. jocu
L. mahogoni
L. synagris
Ocyurus chrysurus
Pristipomoides aquilonaris
Rhomboplites aurorubens
Lobotidae
Lobotes surinamensis
Gerreidae
Diapterus auratus
D. plumieri
Eucinostomnus argenteus
E. gula
E. havana
E. lefroyi
E. pseudogula
Gerres cinereus
Pomadasyidae
Anisotremus surinamensis
A. cirginicus
Haemulon album
H. aurolineatum
H. carbonarium
H. chrysargyreum
H. flavolineatum
H. macrostomnum
H. melanurum


17
4
5,4,3,2,1
4
NR
5,4,3,2,1
4
NR
8,7

7,4,1

5,4,3,2,1
9,5,4,2
8,5,4,2
5,4,3,2,1
4
4
4
4

5,4,1
5,4
NR
8,5,4
NR
4
4
4,1
NR


F C
F
C
C
F
C
C C
U
C C C

0 0


C C F


0 0


O A
F F
C C C C C C A
C C C C C C A
U U U
U U
C O
C- C C C C C O


A
A

C C
0
C
0
C
R


A C
F F
C C
C


0 0


A C
A C
0
C F
O 0
C R
O R
R
R R


TABLE 3 (CONTINUED).


SPECIES


PREVIOUS"
SURVEYS







Haemulon parrai
H. plumieri
H. sciurus
Orthopristis chrysoptera
Ponmadasys crocro
Sparidae
Archosargus probatocephalus
A. rhomboidalis
Calamus arctifrons
C. bajonado
Diplodus argenteus
D. holbrooki
Lagodon rhomboides

Stenotomus chrysops
Sciaenidae
Bairdiella chrysura
B. sanctaeluciae
Cynoscion nebulosus
C. nothus
C. regalis

Equetus acuminatus
E. lanceolatus
E. umbrosus
Larimus fasciatus
Leiostomus xanthurus

Menticirrhus americanus
M. littoralis
M. saxatilis
Micropogon undulatus

Odontoscion dentex
Pogonias cromis


5,4,2
7,4
4
7,5,4,3,2,1
NR (15)

5,4,3,2,1
5,4
4
NR
4
5,1
8,7,5,4
3,2,1
7

7,5,4,3,2
18
8,7,5,4,
7,5
8,7,5,4
3,2
8,5,4
7
5,4
8,7
8,7,5,4,
3,2,1
7,5,3,1
5,4
8,7,5,4,2
8,7,5,4
3,2,1
NR
8,7,5,4
3,2,1


C


C CC
0
C C C


C

0
C
0

0 0

0 0 0


0

R
0
0 0
O O


C C
C C
0



C C
O
0
0
O
C C
0 0
A A
C


C O
0 0
0


0 0
A 0


C C C C C


0
A A


C F 0


0 0


0
0
0 0
O O


C O C

C O C
O O
0 0
0


0 0



0 0


C C C


U
F

C
C
C
0

C
0 0


C 0


F 0 F


0 0


0
0
0
R 0


F F O 0 0 0










TABLE 3 (CONTINUED).


PREVIOUS*
SURVEYS N B


R SR SS


I GF MAN SB LR CRM FTC MI


Sciaenops ocellata
Stellifer lanceolatus
Umbrina coroides
Mullidae
Mullus auratus
Pseudupeneus maculatus
Pempheridae
Pempheris schomburgki
Kyphosidae
Kyphosus incisor
K. sectatrix
Ephippidae
Chaetodipterus faber
Chaetodontidae
Chaetodon aya
C. capistratus
C. ocellatus
C. sedentarius
Holacanthus bennudensis
H. ciliaris
H. tricolor 0
Pomacanthus arcuatus
P. parnU
Cichlidae (all introduced)
Hernichromis binmaculatus NC
Tilapia melanopleura NC
T. mossambica NC
Pomacentridae
Abudefduf saxatilis


5,4,3,2,1
7,5,4,3,2
5,4

7
8,7,5,4


C
R R
F

C U
C


F F F F F
R R R
F F


F F


0 0 0


0 0


8,7,4 F F 0 F R
8,7,5,4 F F 0 F R


8,7,5,4,3,2,1 0

8
4
4
NR
NR
5,4
NR
4
5


F F C 00 0 C


C C
F
R
C C
C


F C


SPECIES


8,5,4,3,2







A. taurus
Chromis enchrysurus
Microspathodon chrysurus
Pomacentrus dorsopunicans
P. leucostictus
P. partitus
P. variabilis
Labridae
Bodianus rufus
Doratonotus megalepis
Halichoeres bethyphilus
H. bivittatus
H. caudalis
H. maculipinna
H. poeyi
H. radiatus
Hemipteronotus novacula
Lachnolaimus maximus
Thalassoma bifasciatum
Scaridae
Cryptotomus roseus
Nicholsina usta
Scarus coelestinus
S. coeruleus
S. croicensis NC
S. guacamaia
S. taeniopterus
Sparisoma chrysopterum
S. radians
S. rubripinne
Mugilidae
Agonostomus monticola
Mugil cephalus


M. curema


4
NR
NR
4
5,4
5
5,4

NR
5,4
8
5,4
NR
5
8,5
NR
NR
NR
NR

4
5,4,1
NR
NR
4
4
NR
4
4
4

NR
9,5,4
3,2,1
7,5,4,
3,2,1


0 A
R
C
0
C
A


0
C
F
F
C O
0 C
C

0
0
F

U
C
U
F
O
C


R
F F

F F


0 F F


F C
0
0
C C


0 0 0
0 0 0 0
U
A C C O


C C
F F
F F

0
C 0

0
0


R
F A


A A


F A A A A


R R
A A


A A A









TABLE 3 (CONTINUED).

PREVIOUS"
SPECIES SURVEYS N B R SR SS I GF MAN SB LR CRM FTC MI

Sphyraenidae
Sphyraena barracuda 8,5,4,3 A C C C C C C C C
S. borealis 8,4 F F F F F F F
S. guachancho NR F F F F 0
Polynemidae
Polydactylus octonemus NC 5,2 U U
P. oligodon NR U U
P. virginicus NC 5 U U
Opistognathidae
Opistognathus macrognathus NC 15, NR U U
0. whitehursti NR F
O. sp. 5,2 U
O. sp. NR U >
Percophididae
Bembrops anatirostris NR U
B. gobioides NR U
Dactyloscopidae
Dactyloscopus crossotus 4 F F F U
D. tridigitatus 4 F F
D. sp. NR U
D. sp. NR U
Gillellus greyae 5,4 F U U
G. rubrocinctus 4 F U U
G. sp. 2 U U ,
Uranoscopidae
Astroscopus y-graeum 7,5,4 0 0 0 0 0 0
Kathetostoma albigutta 8,7 0
Clinidae a
Enneanectes altivelis NR 0
E. pectoralis NR 0







Labrisomus gobio
L. nuchipinnis
Malacoctenus macropus
M. triangulatus
Paraclinus fasciatus
P. nigripinnis
Starksia ocellata
Blenniidae
Blennius cristatus
Blennius marmoreus
B. nicholsi
Chasmodes bosquianus
C. saburrae
Entomacrodus nigricans
Hypleurochilus aequipinnis
H. bermudensis
H. geminatus
Hypsoblennius sp. NC
Callionymidae
Callionymus pauciradiatus NC
Eleotridae
Dormitator maculatus
Eleotris pisonis
Erotelis smaragdus
Gobiomorus dormitor
Gobiidae
Awaous tajasica
Bathygobius curacao
B. soporator
Coryphopterus dicrus
C. glaucofraenum
Evermannichthys spongicola
Evorthodus lyrics
Gnatholepis thompsoni
Gobioides broussoneti


0 0
C A A R
0 0 0
C 0 0 0
R
R R
0 C 0


R
C
C
0
R R


C A


R R
0


U U


O F
0 0
0 0
R
0 0
0
0


0 0

0
R


U U


9,5,4,2
5
4
4

15
5
5,4,3,2,1
NR
4
NR
9,5,4,1
NR
5,4,3


0 0
0 0 0 0


C C C


U U U


U U


C C
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
O O O O


0 0
C C


U

U U












PREVIOUS*
SURVEYS N B R SR SS I GF MAN SB LR CRM FTC MI


Gobionellus boleosoma
G. gracillimus NC
G. hastatus NC
G. oceanicus
G. schufeldti
C. smaragdus
G. stigmaturus
Gobiosoma bosci
G. ginsburgi NC
G. macrodon
C. oceanops
G. robustum
Lophogobius cyprinoides
Lythrypnus nesiotes
Microgobius gulosus
M. microlepis NC
M. thalassinus
Risor ruber
Varicus n.sp.
Microdesmidae
Cerdale floridana
Acanthuridae
Acanthurus bahianus
A. chirurgus
A. coeruleus
Trichiuridae
Trichiurus lepturus
Scombridae
Acanthocybium solanderi
Auxis thazard


5,4,3,2,1
5,3
5,3
2
NR
5,4,2
4,1
5,4,3,2,1
4
NR
NR
5,4,2
5,4,2
NR
5,4,2,1
4
NR


C C
C C
0 0


8,7,4,3 0 0 0


C O
U U
U U
F F F

C F
F


A F 0
F F 0 0


C O C C C F


F 0
F 0
F

0 F C F C


7 0
NR 0


TABLE 3 (CONTINUED).


SPECIES


F C


C F








Euthynnus alletteratus
E. pelamis
Scomber japonicus NC
Scomberomorus cavalla
S. maculatus
S. regalis
Thunnus albacares
T. atlanticus
Xiphiidae
Xiphias gladius
Istiophoridae
Istiophorus platypterus
Makaira nigricans
Tetrapterus albidus
Stromateidae
Nomeus gronovii
Peprilus alepidotus NC
P. triacanthus NC
Psenes cyanophrys
Bothidae
Anclopsetta quadrocellata NC
Bothus ocellatus
B. robinsi
Citharichthys arctifrons
C. arenaceus
C. macrops
C. spilopterus
Cyclopsetta chittendeni NC
C. fimbriata
Engyophrys senta
Etropus crossotus
E. rimosus
Monolene antillarum
M. sessilicauda
Paralichthys albigutta


7
NR
7
7
8,7,5,1
5
NR
NR


C C F F
0
U
C F F 0
C F F F F


7

NR
NR
NR

4
8,7
8,7,5
8,4

8,7
8,4
NR
8,7
4
8,7,5,4,3
7,5,4,3,2,1
8
8
NR
7,5,3
8
NR
NR
8,7,5,4,2


R

0 0
C


C C


C 0









TABLE 3 (CONTINUED).

PREVIOUS*
SPECIES SURVEYS N B R SR SS I GF MAN SB LR CRM FTC MI

P. dentatus 7,5 F F F F F
P. lethostigma 8,7,4,1 F F F F F a
P. oblongus NC 7 U
P. squamilentus 8,7,5,4 F F F F F
Scophthalmus aquosus NC 7 U
Syacium gunteri NR 0 z
S. micrurum NC 4 0 U U
S. papillosum 8 A
Pleuronectidae
Poeciliopsetta beani NR 0
Soleidae >
Achirus lineatus 5,4,3,2,1 0 0 C C C C
Gymnachirus melas 7 C >
Trinectes maculatus 7,5,3,2 0 0 0 0 0
Cynoglossidae
Symphurus civitatus NR 0
S. diomedianus 8 C
S. minor NR 0
S. plagiusa 8,7,5,4,3,2,1 C C C C
S. urospilus NR 0
Balistidae
Aluterus heudeloti NC 4 U U
A. schoepfi 7,4 0 0 0
A. scriptus 4 R R R R <
Balistes capriscus 8,5,4 F F 0
B. vetula NR 0 to
Canthidermis maculatus NR 0 t
C. sufflamen 4 0 R Z
Cantherhines pullus NR R o
Monacanthus ciliatus 8,5,4 F F F F F







M. hispidus
M. setifer
M. tuckeri
Ostraciidae
Lactophrys quadricornis
L. trigonus
L. triqueter
Tetraondontidae
Canthigaster rostrata
Lagocephalus laevigatus
Sphoeroides dorsalis
S. maculatus NC
S. nephelus
S. spengleri
S. testudineus
Diodontidae
Chilomycterus antennatus NC
C. schoepfi
Diodon histrix NC
D. holacanthus
Molidae
Mola mola


8,7,5,4
8,4
NR


8,7,4
7,5,4,2
NR

NR
NR
8
3,1
5,4,3,2
8,5,4,1
5,4,3,2,1

5
8,7,5,4,3,2,1
1
4


C C F
0
R

R
0
C 0

R
R R
C

O 0
O 0


U
C
F
U


C C



R R
0 0
C C


U U
C C O
C C O
C C C

U
C C


C C


U U U
C C
C C
C C


C C C


NR R


177 171 223 105 78 275 208 84 121 90 109 110 26


TOTAL SPECIES
Total Continental Shelf
Total Indian River Lagoon
and Tributaries
Combined Species
New Records




















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