• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Copyright
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Acknowledgement
 A. ptychochilus, new species
 A. sphinctinion, new species
 A. rhamphodon, new species
 A. stenopus, new species
 A. colpodon, new species
 Systenostoma Bavay and Dautzenberg,...
 S. concava, new species
 S. elevata, new species
 Gyliotrachela Tomlin, 1930
 G. adela, new species
 Literature cited
 Figures
 Back Cover






Group Title: Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History
Title: Vertiginid land snails from Thailand (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, pupilloidea)
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00095785/00001
 Material Information
Title: Vertiginid land snails from Thailand (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, pupilloidea)
Series Title: Bulletin - Florida Museum of Natural History ; volume 39, number 7
Physical Description: p. 221-245 : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Thompson, Fred G ( Fred Gilbert ), 1934-
Upatham, Suchart
Florida Museum of Natural History
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1997
Copyright Date: 1997
 Subjects
Subject: Snails -- Classification -- Thailand   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 235-236).
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "Publication date: May 23, 1997"--P. 2 of cover.
Statement of Responsibility: Fred G. Thompson and Suchart Upatham.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00095785
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 37682960

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 219
    Copyright
        Page 220
    Table of Contents
        Page 221
    Introduction
        Page 222
    Acknowledgement
        Page 223
        Page 224
    A. ptychochilus, new species
        Page 225
    A. sphinctinion, new species
        Page 226
    A. rhamphodon, new species
        Page 227
    A. stenopus, new species
        Page 228
    A. colpodon, new species
        Page 229
    Systenostoma Bavay and Dautzenberg, 1909
        Page 230
    S. concava, new species
        Page 231
    S. elevata, new species
        Page 232
    Gyliotrachela Tomlin, 1930
        Page 233
    G. adela, new species
        Page 234
    Literature cited
        Page 235
        Page 236
    Figures
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
    Back Cover
        Page 247
Full Text



BUL IN'


of the



FLORIDA
MUSEUM OF
NATURAL HISTORY


VERTIGINID LAND SNAILS FROM THAILAND
(GASTROPODA, PULMONATA,
PUPILLOIDEA)

Fred G. Thompson and Suchart Upatham


Volume 39, No. 7 pp. 221-245


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


GA\INESVILLE







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VERTIGINID LAND SNAILS FROM THAILAND
(GASTROPODA, PULMONATA, PUPILLOIDEA)


Fred G. Thompson' and Suchart Upatham2




ABSTRACT

Eight new species of Vertiginidae (Gastropoda, Pulmoata Pupilloides) are described from Thailand.
Acinolaemus (type species: Acinolaemus ptychochilus n. sp.) is proposed as a new genus in the subfamily
Gastrocoptinae. The genus also includesA. sphinctinion n. sp.,A. rhamphodon n. sp.,A. stenopus n. sp, A.
colpodon n. sp., Hypselostoma dayana Stoliczka, 1871, Hypselostoma laidlaw Collinge, 1902, and
Paraboysidia neglecta Jutting, 1961. Three other Gastroooptina are also described: Systenostoma conica
n. sp., S. elevata n. sp., and Gyiotrachela adela n. sp.



TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction.......................................... .................................................. ............................... ...... 222
Acknowledgements...................................................... .... ........................................................ 223


Nesopupa Pilsbry, 1900 ..............................
N. malayana samuiana (Moellendorff 1894).
Hypselostoma Benson, 1856.......................
H. holimanae Thomson and Lee. 1988..........


Acinolaemus, new genus......................................... ... .................................................................. 223
A. ptychochilus, new species ............................................... ............................................................... 225
A. sphincinion, new species.......................................................................................................................... 226
A. rhamphodon, new species........................................... ....................................................................... 227
A. stenopus, new species........................................................ ................................................................ 228
A. colpodon, new species........................................... ........ ........................................................... 229
Systenostoma Bavay and Dautzenberg, 1909........................................ 230
S. concava, new species................................................... .. .............................................................. 231
S. elevata, new species................................................ ........................................................................... 232
Gyliotrachela Tomlin, 1930 .................................... ............................................................................ 233
G. adela, new species............................................... ............................................................................ 234
Literature Cited ......................................................................................... ............................................. 235
Figures .................................................................. 237
Figures ............................................................................................................................................................ 237

SDr. Thompson i Cmator of Malaoloy, Deprtmnt of Nttual Saeno s, Florid Museum of Naturl Histry, Univsity of Ploid,
Gainvill, F da 32611-7800, U.S.A.
SMr. Uptham is in the Deatm nt of Bioogy, acuty ofScience, Mahido Uni sity, Ba ok, TMi


THOMPSON, R.G., and S. UPATHAM. 1997. Vertiginid land snails from Thailand (Gastropoda,
Pulmonata, Pupilloidea) Bull Florida Mus. Nat. Hist 39(7):221-245.


......................... ................. .... ..






BULLETIN FLORIDA MUSEUM NATURAL IISFORY VOL 39(7)


INTRODUCTION

The purpose of this paper is to describe eight new species of pulmonate
landsnails of the family Vertiginidae, subfamily Gastrocoptinae, and to provide a
brief synopsis of species previously reported from Thailand. The new species are
described on the basis of the shell only. Anatomical material of these taxa is not
available.
Vertiginidae are a characteristic and important component of the terrestrial
snail fauna of southeast Asia. Species are numerous and very localized in their
distributions. They have very limited vagility, and local endemism is high.
Extensive endemism in Gyliotrachela, Systenostoma and a new genus described
herein occurs among isolated limestone hills and mountain ranges. Species of these
genera are sensitive to environmental degradation and are early casualties of
deforestation. They are abundant on limestone terrains that are sheltered with a
rain forest canopy. Live specimens can be found crawling on cool, damp rocks.
Shells can be collected in abundance by sifting through leaf litter gathered from
within rock crevices and from along the bases of stone ledges.
Four species of vertiginids have been recorded from Thailand, including
Nesopupa malayana samuiana (Moellendorff, 1894), Hypselostoma holimanae
Thompson and Lee, 1988, Gyliotrachela transitans (Moellendorif, 1894) and
Gyliotrachela striolata (Moellendorff 1894). This is a very small measure of the
Thailand fauna, and we estimate that it represents less than five percent of the
actual vertiginid fauna based on our field experiences subsequent to 1987.
Most measurements follow standard convention. Departure from normal
procedure is necessary in some cases because of striking allometric growth
features. Allometric growth is a common feature among vertiginid snails in
southeast Asia. In some species the aperture is detached from the preceding whorl
and may be deflected upward or downward. Thus, the last whorl may ascend to
varying extents or it may project to the side for a considerable distance.
Measurements of the aperture and the umbilicus are modified accordingly. The
height of the aperture is made in the plane of the aperture, regardless of its
orientation. The width of the umbilicus is transverse to the neck of the last whorl.
The ratio of umbilical width/shell width is based on the width of the shell before
the neck becomes detached from the previous whorl and does not include the width
of the aperture. Measurements were made with a calibrated ocular micrometer and
converted to mm. Ratios were calculated from micrometer units. The terminology
for the aperture barrier is standard and follows Jutting (1950: 7) and earlier
authors. The term "teeth" refers to any of the structures that form the internal
barrier of the aperture. The primary teeth that occur on the parietal wall and the
columella are called lamellae. Those teeth that occur on the palatal and basal walls
of the aperture are called plica or folds. Small secondary folds on the parietal and
columellar walls are also called plica.
Field work relating to this report was conducted by the senior author in 1987.


222






THOMPSON AND UPATHAM: VERTIGINID LAND SNAILS FROM THAILAND 223


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This study was greatly enhance by the amstance of the following individuals. Margaret Lngworthy
produced the micrographs that illustrate this paper. Laurie A Walz auted with the preparation of
illustrations. We are grateful to both for their contributions. Field work in Thailand was made possible by
funds from the Thomas LaDue McGity Endowmet in Malacology, at the University of Florida.

Family VERTIGINIDAE Fitzinger, 1833
Subfamily Nesopupinae Steenberg, 1925
Genus Nesopupa Pilsbry, 1900

Nesopupa malayana samuiana (Moellendorff, 1894)

This subspecies is recorded only from Samui Island in the Gulf of Siam
(Moellendorff, 1904; Haas, 1937; Zilch, 1982).

Subfamily Gastrocoptinae Pilsbry, 1918
Genus Hypselostoma Benson, 1856
Hypselostoma holimanae Thompson and Lee, 1988

Hypselostoma holimanae Thompson and Lee, 1988; Nautilus, 102: 78-81; figs. 1-
6.
Type locality.- Thailand, Kanchanaburi Province, a small limestone range
on the west border of the Kanchanaburi Agricultural College, ca. 15 km
W of Kanchanaburi.
Distribution.- Known only from the type locality.
Remarks.- The taxonomic placement of this species within Hypselostoma
remains problematic. Hypselostoma contains many diverse species groups which
have not been critically evaluated with respect to their phylogeny or systematics.
No doubt Hypselostoma will be divided into additional genera and subgenera as the
fauna of southeast Asia becomes better known.
The species described below form a group that is sufficiently distinct from
typical Hypselostoma and other genera to warrant generic recognition.

Acinolaemus, new genus

Type species: Acinolaemusptychochilus, new species.
Etymology.- The name Acinolaemus is from the Classical Greek aKravor
thorn and Aaipog, throat, alluding to the thorn-like lamella located deep within
the aperture. The name is masculine.
Diagnosis.- The most distinctive feature of Acinolaemus is the enlargement
of the angular lamella. It is the most conspicuous tooth in the aperture. In the
closely related southeast Asian genera Hypselostoma, Gyliotrachela, Boysidia and
Paraboysidia the angular lamella is underdeveloped compared to the parietal






BULLETIN FLORIDA MUSEUM NATURAL HISTORY VOL 39(7)


lamella. The auriculate-shaped aperture has a well-defined bay in the posterior
corner formed by the angular lamella and the upper palatal fold. This is
accentuted by a tendency for the species to have a strong tubercle along the margin
of the peristome in front of the upper palatal fold at the point where the lip is
indented. In closely related genera the bay is not nearly as well differentiated from
the rest of the aperture. In Acinolaemus one or more of the palatal, basal and
columellar teeth are developed as sharp thorns that point toward the aperture,
although this feature is repeated in some species of closely related genera. The last
whorl is constricted behind the aperture in the region of the internal dentition. The
genus also is characterized by having a minute, yellowish, tuban-shaped shell with
a nearly straight-sided spire, although these feature are not unique to the genus.
The last whorl regularly descends or is deflected upward. The lower whorls are
sculptured with raised spiral threads that are crossed by oblique axial threads.
Spiral threads are reported in other genera, but they are not crossed by oblique
threads. The microsculpture of the protoconch consists of a fine mesh of granular
reticulations upon which are superimposed evenly spaced continuous raised spiral
threads (Figs. 1-5). Raise spiral threads on the protoconch are not know for the
other genera, except in Systenostoma.
Six genera of Gastrocoptinae occur in southeast Asia: Acinolaemus,
Hypselostoma Benson, 1856, Gyliotrachela Tomlin, 1930, Boysidia Ancey, 1881,
Paraboysidia Pilsbry, 1917, Systenostoma Bavay and Dautzenberg,1909 and
Anauchen Pilsbry, 1917. The following key will assist in their identifications.

1. Embryonic whorls with raised spiral threads. Posterior corer of aperture
forming a district by bay nearly separated from the main area by the angular
lamella and the upper palatal fold. Angular lamella most strongly developed
of aperture teeth. Size minute, less than 2 mm high or wide........................2.
la. Embryonic whorls without spiral sculpture. Posterior corner of aperture
without a conspicuous bay formed by angular lamella and upper palatal fold.
Parietal lamella most strongly developed of aperture teeth. Size variable, but
generally greater than 2 mm.................................................................. 3.
2. Aperture with teeth on parietal, palatal and columellar walls..............
............................................................................ A cinolaem us.
2a. Teeth absent in aperture or a low fold may be present on parietal wall
.......................................................................Systenothoma.
3. Angular lamella present.......................................... ............................. 4.
3a. Angular lamella absent....................................................................Anauchen.
4. Parietal and angular lamella separated....................................................5.
4a. Parietal and angular lamella concrescent..................................................6.
5. Part of last whorl free from preceding whorl...............................Gyliotrachela.
5a. Last whorl attached to preceding whorl throughout it length....... Paraboysidia.
6. Part of last whorl free from preceding whorl.............................JHypselostoma.
6a. Last whorl attached to preceding whorl throughout it length............... oysidia.






THOMPSON AND UPATHAM: VERTIGINID LAND SNAILS FROM THAILAND 225


The known species of Acinolaemus are from Thailand, Malaysia and Burma.
The genus includes Hypselostoma dayana Stoliczka, 1871, Hypselostoma laidlawi
Collinge, 1902, and Paraboysidia neglecta Jutting, 1961, as well as the five
species described below.

Acbioaemus pychochilus, new species
(Figs. 7-11)

Description.- Shell minute, 1.43-1.55 mm long and 1.30-1.36 mm wide.
Turban-shaped, 1.11-1.15 times as high as wide (Figs. 7, 10); last whorl not
ascending in contrast to two previous species. Spire nearly straight sided with last
whorl slightly expanding. Umbilicus open and funnel shaped, about 0.26-0.30
times width of shell (Fig. 9). Periostracum light yellowish brown in fresh
specimens. Shell with 4.3-4.5 whorls. Protoconch containing 1.5-1.6 protruding
whorls; microsculpture consisting of a mesh of fine reticulating granules
superimposed on which are distinct evenly spaced spiral threads (Fig. 1).
Teleoconch sculptured with raised spiral threads which are crossed with oblique
growth threads; sculpture most distinctly developed on last whorl; irregularly
developed or poorly developed in whorls of spire. Peristome auriculate in shape
due to strong indentation on parietal wall and middle of palatal wall (Figs. 8, 11).
Aperture with a complex arrangement of plica and lamella. Posterior corner of
aperture with a bay demarcated by a large angular lamella and the upper palatal
fold. Angular lamella relatively high, flat and moderately long (Fig. 8, A); upper
palatal fold short and stout, confined to margin of peristome. Face of parietal,
columellar and basal margins of peristome with nine short low plica. Deep-set
within aperture are five small denticles within the bay and nine other denticles that
are aligned with the plica; usually denticles along basal wall and bay wall are
modified into forward pointing hooks, the largest of which is the basal plica
(Fig.11, B). Parietal lamella very long and almost as high as angular lamella but
narrower (Fig. 8, P); usually separated from plica by a moderate gap, but in two
individuals the two are continuous. Subparietal lamella low, but nearly as long as
parietal lamella. Columellar lamella stout and long (Fig. 11, C).
Measurements in mm of the holotype and two paratypes (UF 113503) selected
to show variation are as follow.
Specimen height width aper.h aper.w. umbil. whorls
Holotype 1.45 1.30 0.62 0.60 0.37 4.4
Paratype 1.45 1.30 0.59 0.56 0.34 4.3
Paratype 1.55 1.36 0.68 0.60 0.40 4.5
Type locality.- Thailand, Chiang Mae Province, Doi Pha San Sao
(Mountain), 3 km west of Ban Prang Ma-O; 500 m altitude (19026.0' N, 99003.5'
E). HOLOTYPE: UF 113502 (gold plated); collected 29 June, 1987 by Fred G.
Thompson. PARATYPES: UF 113503 (4 specimens), Mahidol University (4
specimens); same data as the holotype. UF 113504 (3 specimens); Doi Pha San






BULLETIN FLORIDA MUSEUM NATURAL HISTORY VOL 39(7)


Sao (Mountain), 1 km west of Ban Prang Ma-O; 500 m alt (99004'26"E,
19025'41"N); collected June 19, 1987 by Fred G. Thompson.
The specimens from both stations were recovered from leaf-litter samples
gathered at the bases of limestone ledges in densely shaded thickets.
Remarks.- Acinolaemusptychochilus is most closely related to the following
two species. It is immediately recognized from other known species by its complex
aperture dentition. In addition the last whorl does not ascend behind the aperture
and the shell is narrower than high. The postembryonic sculpture is also less well
developed than in closely related species.
Etymology.- The specific name ptychochilus is taken from the Classical
Greek nrvxc;, folded and ZsZAor, lip, referring to the plicate peristome around
the aperture.

Acinolaemus sphincinion, new species
(Figs. 16-19)

Description.- Shell minute, turbiniform, wider than high, about 0.8 times as
high as wide (Fig. 16). Spire straight sided. Last whorl projecting forward as a
short neck (Fig. 17). Shell containing 3.9 whorls. Suture deeply impressed.
Umbilicus large, greater than half width of shell. Protoconch protruding, with 1.5
whorls; strongly demarcated from teleoconch; dense microsculpture consisting of
raised reticulating granules and threads (Fig. 5). Teleoconch sculpture cancellated
with strong widely spaced spiral threads and weaker, less regular vertical threads
(Fig. 19, subperipheral area on last whorl in front of aperture); sculpture
continuing undiminished into umbilicus. Last whorl shouldered, with a blunt
peripheral angle, flattened below periphery, and with a narrow basal crest around
umbilicus; umbilical wall of last whorl flattened; last whorl weakly ascending
constricted behind aperture (Fig. 17). Peristome weakly reflected, heart-shaped
with the posterior corer weakly impressed in areas of parietal lamella and upper
palatal fold. Interior of aperture with four deeply immersed folds (Fig. 18).
Parietal lamella discontinuous, consisting of a large high blade deeply set within
aperture and extending nearly to edge of peristome with two small knobs. Palatal
wall with two short folds, which are moderately high and are separated from
parietal lamella by a distance about equal to their own height Lower palatal fold
higher than upper palatal fold and extended slightly deeper into throat. Columella
lamella about the same size as lower palatal fold. Exterior surface of neck weakly
indented over parietal and upper palatal lamella.
(The posterior wall of the holotype was punctured when it was removed from the
SEM stub).
Measurements for the unique holotype are: height, 1.41 mm; width, 1.71
mm; aperture height, 0.70 mm; aperture width, 0.70 mm; umbilicus, 0.92 mm.
Type locality.- Thailand, Prachuap Khiri Khan Province, Khao Sam Roi
Yot National Park, limestone knoll on east side of brackish marsh 3 km south of


226







THOMPSON AND UPATHAM: VERTIGINID LAND SNAILS FROM THAILAND 227


park entrance; (12012.5' N, 99059.6' E). HOLOTYPE: UF 113507 (gold plated),
collected May 31, 1987 by Fred G. Thompson. The unique holotype was recovered
from a dried leaf-litter sample that was gathered at the base of the knoll.
Remarks.- This species is distinguished by its forward projecting aperture,
the constricted neck behind the aperture, The indentations overlying the parietal
lamella and the upper palatal fold, the number and arrangement of its aperture
lamella, the peripheral angle and the basal angle on the last whorl and the
flattened subperiphery of the last whorl. It is most similar in appearance to the
following species where differences between the two are discussed.
Etymology.- The species name sphinctinion is from the Classical Greek,
crivyor, to bind, and iviov, a neck. The name refers to the constricted neck of
the last whorl behind the aperture.

Acinolaemus rhamphodon, new species
(Figs. 20-25)

Description.- Shell small, about 1.36-1.38 mm high and 1.46-1.52 mm
wide. Turban-shaped, wider than high being about 0.92-0.93 times as high as
wide (Figs. 22,24). Spire straight sided. Periostracum yellowish brown.
Umbilicus broad, funnel-shaped, about 0.36-0.39 times as wide as shell (Fig. 21).
Shell with 4.74.9 rounded whorls. Last whorl weakly ascending behind the
aperture (Fig. 20). Protoconch consisting of 1.5 whorls. Microsculpture of
protoconch consisting of minute granules upon which is superimposed raised
granular spiral threads (Fig. 4). Teleoconch sculptured with regularly spaced
spiral threads that are crossed by more widely spaced oblique axial threads; spiral
threads becoming stronger on base and in umbilicus; axial threads less distinct on
last quarter of last whorl, on base and in umbilicus. Last whorl behind aperture
with a vertical impression overlying area of palatal lamella. Peristome complete
but adnate to the preceding whorl; moderately reflected except along posterior
corer. Aperture tri-lobed; parietal and palatal margins of peristome indented;
palatal margin of peristome with a conspicuous tubercle that lies opposite the outer
end of the parietal lamella to form a bay in the posterior corner of the aperture.
Interior of aperture with 4-5 deeply immersed lamella (Figs. 23, 25). Parietal
lamella long and blade-like, extending outward to edge of peristome. Mesad and
deeper within the aperture is a shorter and lower subparietal lamella. Palatal wall
with two short flat infrapalatal folds opposite subparietal lamella. Columellar
lamella a large sharp hook pointing forward to opening of aperture. Columellar
lamella present in the two paratypes (Fig. 25); holotype with a weakly developed
low elongate lamella that has not yet completed development into a hook.
Measurements in mm of the holotype and the two paratypes are as follow:
Specimen height width aperh. aper.w. umbil. whors
Holotype 1.36 1.46 0.68 0.68 0.53 4.7
ParatypeUF 1.36 1.47 0.68 0.71 0.50 4.8
ParatypeMU 1.38 1.52 0.65 0.68 0.53 4.9







BULLETIN FLORIDA MUSEUM NATURAL HISTORY VOL 39(7)


Type locality.- Thailand, Chachaengsao Prov. Khao Tam Raet, 5 km ENE
Ban Nan Khok, 100 m altitude (1326.1' N, 101044.2' E). HOLOTYPE: UF
113505 (gold plated); collected May 11, 1987. PARATYPES: UF 113506 (1
specimen), Mahidol University (1 specimen, gold plated); same data as the
holotype.
The type locality is a long narrow limestone hill that is honeycombed by
numerous caves, and is the sight of a major Buddhist temple. The specimens
constituting the type lot were recovered from a dried leaf-litter sample that was
collected on top of the hill in a densely shaded grove of small trees.
Remarks.- This species is similar in appearance to A. sphinctinion, but it
differs by several characteristics that warrant specific separation. The shell has
one whorl more, the aperture is adnate to the preceding whorl, the palatal margin
or the peristome has a well developed tubercle, a subparietal lamella is present and
the columellar lamella is developed into a forward projecting hook-like spine.
Superficially the umbilicus is narrower, but it is difficult to make this comparison.
In A. sphinctinion the umbilical wall tapers to the basal angle, giving the
appearance of a wider opening, whereas it is about the same in relative size as in A.
rhamphodon if one ignores the tapered appearance.
Etymology.- The species name rhamphodon is from the Classical Greek
papog, a hook and oSoug, a tooth, and alludes to the hook-like columellar tooth
that characterizes this species.

Acinolaemus stenopus, new species
(Figs. 2, 12-15)

Description.- Shell 1.46-1.61 mm high and 1.55-1.71 mm wide. Turban-
shaped, about as wide as long, spire relatively long and narrow, with the last
whorl noticeably expanded; shell 0.87-1.04 times as high as wide (Figs. 12, 13).
Color of fresh specimens grayish-white. Umbilicus funnel-shaped, 0.40-0.46 times
width of the shell. Whorls 4.9-5.4. Protoconch consisting of 1.4-1.6 whorls;
sculptured with a dense mesh of reticulating granules upon which is superimposed
12-13 evenly spaced fimbriated spiral threads (Fig. 2). Teleoconch sculptured with
evenly spaced spiral threads and less regularly spaced and less well developed
oblique axial threads. Sculpture equally developed over the surface of the shell and
in the umbilicus. Aperture attached to preceding whorls; slightly oblique; heart
shaped with a strong indentation over the parietal margin and a weak indentation
along the palatal margin. Peristome moderately expanded along parietal,
columellar, basal and lower palatal margins. Interior of aperture with five deeply
recessed teeth and a strong tubercle on palatal margin just below indentation (Figs.
12, 14). Angular lamella (Fig. 15, A and upper palatal fold (Fig. 15, P) greatly
developed and forming a nearly completely closed bay in posterior corer, the two
teeth are separated only by a very narrow passage. Angular lamella long and high,
extending to edge of peristome; tapered posteriorly (Fig. 15,A). Parietal lamella







THOMPSON AND UPATHAM: VERTIGINID LAND SNAILS FROM THAILAND 229


low and short; confined to zone near posterior end of angular lamella (Fig. 15, F).
Columellar lamella situated low on columella, short and developed into a forward
projecting spine; a second columellar spine occurs posterior to the columellar
lamella in some specimens. Upper palatal fold originating behind palatal tubercle
and extending into aperture as far as angular lamella (Fig. 15, F). Lower palatal
fold low and short and lying opposite parietal lamella.
Measurements in mm. of the holotype and three paratypes (UF 113531) are as
follow.
Specimen height width aperMh per.w. umbil whors
Holotype 1.61 1.55 0.68 0.68 0.62 5.4
Paratype 1.49 1.64 0.68 0.68 0.56 4.9
Paratype 1.49 1.71 0.65 0.68 0.59 5.4
Paratype 1.55 1.64 0.65 0.65 0.68 5.2
Type locality.- Thailand, Chantaburi Province, limestone ridge 3 km w N
Yai Ham; 25 m altitude (12044.3' N ,101052.9' E). HOLOTYPE: UF 113530;
collected April 25, 1987 by Fred G. Thompson. PARAYPES: UF 113531 (4
specimens), Mahidol University (4 specimens); same data as the holotype.
The type locality lies about 48 km west of Chantaburi, and is on a limestone
ridge that was about 500 m long and 100 m wide. The ridge has been cleared of
most of its forest cover and only small patches of vegetation remain. The ridge is
being mined on all sides for limestone, and in a few more years it will be
completely removed from the landscape Snails were recovered from a leaf-litter
sample that was gathered at the base of a low ledge within a small grove of vines
and shrubs.
Remarks.- This snail can be recognized from other known species by the
elaborate development of the angular lamella and the upper palatal fold, which are
separated by only a narrow sinus. In other respects the shell is somewhat like that
of the following two species, although the sculpture is not as well developed.
Unfortunately, this species will soon be extinct because its total habitat will be
removed by mining!
Etymology.- The name stenopus is from the Classical Greek stenopos
orevorog meaning a narrow passage and alludes to the very narrow gap between
the angular lamella and the upper palatal fold that characterizes this species.

Acinolaemus colpodon, new species
(Figs. 26-31)

Description.- Shell small, about 1.74-1.92 mm wide and about 0.90-1.02
mm high; about 0.50-0.57 times as high as wide. Depressed turban-shaped with an
aperture that projects vertically on a long neck above the tip of the spire (Fig. 26).
Color of fresh shells grayish white. Umbilicus broad, about 0.48-0.50 times width
of shell (Fig. 29). Whorls 4.2-4.5. Protoconch consisting of 1.7 whorls;
microsculpture typical for subgenus. Teleoconch sculptures with fine fimbriated
spiral threads on top of weaker irregularly spaced oblique growth threads;






BULLETIN FLORIDA MUSEUM NATURAL HISTORY VOL 39(7)


sculpture equally developed over surface of whorls. Neck of last whorl expanding
toward aperture; strongly furrowed over angular lamella and with weaker
indentations over upper palatal fold and columellar lamella. Aperture auriculate;
posterior corner forming a bay separated by angular lamella and palatal tubercle
(Figs. 27, 28). Peristome broadly reflected around parietal, columellar and basal
margins. Interior of aperture with four teeth, the angular lamella, columellar
lamella, upper palatal fold and lower palatal fold. Face of peristome with a low
palatal tubercle opposite angular lamella. Angular lamella high, thick and long;
extending from edge of peristome to base of neck; bi-lobed, posterior half forming
a thick forward pointing spine (Fig. 30, A). Columellar lamella deep-set, low and
narrow, with a bay-like gap in center of tooth (Fig. 30, C). Palatal folds very small
and tubercle-like, deeply set within aperture opposite columellar lamella; upper
palatal fold behind palatal tubercle, occasionally absent (Fig. 31, F); lower palatal
fold slightly larger and a little posterior to upper palatal fold.
The measurements given below for the holotype and two paratypes (UF
113529) are not standard because of the deflected neck of the last whorl. The
height of the shell is measured from the base of the last whorl to the apex of the
spire. The figure in parenthesis is the height of the shell to the top of the aperture.
The height/width ratio given above is based on the height of the spire. The aperture
is measured across the same respective points as in the preceding species.
Specimen height width aper.h. aper.w. umbil. whorls
Holotype 1.02(1.09) 1.92 0.65 0.65 0.68 4.5
Paratype 0.99 (1.05) 1.74 0.62 0.59 0.65 4.3
Paratype 0.87(1.05) 1.74 0.62 0.62 0.74 4.2
Type locality.- Thailand, Rayong Province, Khao Bot, about 6 km north and
2 km west of Ban Syaek Batan; 150 m altitude (13002.8' N, 101038.5' E).
HOLOTYPE: UF 113528; collected 25 April, 1987 by Fred G. Thompson.
PARATYPES: UF 113529 (5 specimens), Mahidol University (5 specimens). The
type specimens were recovered from a leaf-litter sample that was gathered at the
base of a limestone ledge in a dense thicket of vines and shrubs. The locality is
immediately behind a Buddhist temple.
Remarks.- This species is immediately distinguished from its congeners by
its shape and its aperture dentition. Superficially it resembles some species of
Gyliotrachela because of its shape and extended aperture, but it is readily
distinguished from members of that genus by the absence of a parietal lamella and
by the enlargement of the angular lamella.
Etymology.- The species name colpodon is from the Classical Greek,
KoAro,x a bay, and osoov a tooth, in reference to the bay-like gap in the
columellar lamella.

Systenostoma Bavay and Dautzenberg, 1909

The microsculpture of the teleoconch is similar to that of other Indo-Asian
genera although it is weaker. It consists of a dense mesh of very fine granular






THOMPSON AND UPATHAM: VERTIGINID LAND SNAILS FROM THAILAND 231


reticulatiion superimposed upon which are fine spiral threads. Spiral sculpture
may be present or absent on the protoconch.
This genus is described by previous authors as lacking teeth within the
aperture (Bavay and Dautzenberg, 1909, Pilsbry, 1917, Zilch, 1059). A new
species described below has a low rounded lamella on the parietal wall which
occupies the same relative position as the angular lamella in Acinolaemus, and the
upper palatal margin of the peristome has a slight tubercular thickening that
occupies the same position as the upper palatal tubercle in Acinolaemus. In
addition the last whorl is deflected in its growth. A close relationship between
Systenostoma andAcinolaemus is hypothesized based on these similarities.
Systenostoma contains five species. Three occur in Vietnam, S. pauperimma
(Bavay and Dautzenberg, 1908), S. defixa Bavay and Dautzenberg, 1912, and S.
pulveria (Bavay and Dautzenberg, 1908). Two others described below occur in
Thailand.

Systenostoma concava, new species
(Figs. 32-38)

Description.- Shell minute, 1.02-1.21 mm high. Color grayish white.
Conical with a blunt apex and a deflected body whorl which rises slightly along the
periphery of the penultimate whorl on the left side of the shell and then descends
onto the base near the umbilicus (Figs. 32-34). Spire concave in outline due to
deflection of last whorl. Shell 0.87-1.09 times as wide as high. Umbilicus broad
and funnel shaped; about 0.28-0.31 times width of shell (Fig. 36). Whorls 4.6-
5.3; rounded, strongly shouldered; periphery above middle of whorl;
subperipheral area weakly convex. Protoconch with 1.6 whorls; microsculpture
consisting of very fine reticulating granules (Fig. 37); very weak spiral threads
occasionally present Teleoconch with microsculpture similar to protoconch, but
spiral threads more apparent (Figs. 36); superimposed on microsculpture are
irregularly spaced growth wrinkles. Aperture slightly free from preceding whorl;
oblique, lying at an angle of about 46-48* to shell axis; slightly higher than wide,
being about 1.1 times as high as wide; broadly kidney-shaped in outline with a
weak parietal indentation and a sinuous outer lip (Figs. 35). Parietal wall arched
forward near middle and with a low ridge-like angular lamella. Palatal lip sinuous
in lateral profile; margin with a slight tubercular thickening.
Measurements in mm for the holotype and three paratypes (UF 113542) are
as follow.
Specimen height width aper.h aper.w umbil. whorls
Holotype 1.12 1.09 0.43 0.40 0.34 5.0
Paratypc 1.15 1.09 0.43 0.37 0.34 5.1
Paratype 1.21 1.05 0.43 0.40 0.31 5.1
Paratype 1.02 1.12 0.43 0.40 0.34 4.6
Type locality.- Thailand, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, limestone hill 3.4
km west of Ban Mu Si, 380 m altitude (14*32.0'N, 101022.5'E). HOLOTYPE: UF






BULLETIN FLORIDA MUSEUM NATURAL HISTORY VOL 39(7)


113541; collected 5 May, 1987. PARATYPES: UF 113542 (9 specimens),
Mahidol University (9 specimens); same data as holotype. Specimens were found
in a leaf-litter sample that was gathered at the base of a limestone ledge.
Remarks.- This species differs from other known Systenostoma by its
deflected last whorl, its concave spire and its angular lamella within the aperture.
The upper palatal tubercle also is more pronounced than in other known species.
Etymology.- The species name concava is from the Latin, in reference to the
concave outline of the spire.

Systenstoma levata, new species
(Figs. 39-43)

Description.- Shell minute, 0.92-0.99 mm high. Conical with a blunt apex
and a narrow spire, whorls regularly descending; shell 1.15-1.27 times as high as
wide, (Figs. 39-40). Fresh shells light gray in color. Umbilicus 0.20-0.26 times
width of shell (Fig. 41). Whorls 4.2-4.3, evenly rounded, with a strong shoulder.
Protoconch with 1.5 whorls; microsculpture consisting of minute, low
anastomosing granules; no indication of spiral threads observed in the specimens
examined (Fig. 43). Teleoconch with similar but finer microgranules and fine
raised spiral threads that are crossed by irregularly spaced oblique axial threads;
base and umbilicus lacking spiral threads. Aperture ovate in shape, about 0.87-
0.92 times as wide as high; very slightly free from preceding whorl along parietal
margin (Fig. 39); oblique, lying at an angle of about 450 to shell axis in lateral
profile (Fig. 40); parietal margin extending forward as a slight tongue-like
projection along columellar curvature. Aperture lacking any indication of
dentition.
Measurements in mm for the holotype and four paratypes are as follow.
Specimen length width aper.h aper.w umbil. whorls
Holotype 0.92 0.80 0.37 0.34 0.17 4.2
Paratype 0.99 0.81 0.38 0.35 0.20 4.3
Paratype 0.92 0.81 0.35 0.31 0.21 4.2
Paratype 0.99 0.78 0.38 0.34 0.18 4.3
Paratype 0.98 0.83 0.38 0.34 0.17 4.3
Type locality.- Thailand, Chiang Mae Province, Doi Chiang Dao
(Mountain), 7 km west of Chiang Dao; 600 m altitude (19024.3'N, 98054.2'E).
HOLOTYPE: UF 113544; collected June 18, 1987 by Fred G. Thompson.
PARATYPES: UF 113545 (3 specimens), Mahidol University (2 specimens);
same data as the holotype.
Doi Chiang Dao is a high dome-shaped limestone mountain that rises to over
2000 m in elevation, and is surrounded on all sides by nearly vertical cliffs. Snails
were collected near a Buddhist monastery along the north base of the mountain
among huge karsted boulders. The area around the boulders and tallus was shaded
by a dense over-story of trees and shrubs and the ground was covered by a thick
damp layer of leaf litter. Sytenostoma elevata was recovered from leaf-litter
gathered around the bases of limestone cliffs and in solution pockets in the rock.






THOMPSON AND UPATHAM: VERTIGINID LAND SNAILS FROM THAILAND 233


Remarks.- This species is distinguished from it congeners by its minute size,
narrow high spire and narrow umbilicus. The tongue-like extension of the parietal
wall of the aperture is unique. It differs from S. convexa by lacking any indication
of dentition within the aperture. In this respect it is similar to other species in the
genus.
Etymology.- The name elevata is from the Latin, and refers to the narrow,
raised spire that characterizes this species.

Gyliotrachela Tomlin, 1930
Group of Gyliotrachela crossei (Morlet, 1885)

This is a small group of species known from Vietnam, Thailand and Perak
(Pilsbry, 1917: 211-217). Two species have been recorded from Thailand. The
group is characterized by having a rounded peripheral keel with a concavity above
it, the surface is minutely granulose, and there is an external concavity between the
palatal plicae.

Gyliotrachela transitans transitans (Moellendorff 1894)

Hypselostoma transitans Moellendorff, 1994; Proceedings of the Zoological
Society of London, 1894: 16: figs. 12-13.
Gyliauchen transitans (Moellendorff). Pilsbry, 1917; Manual of Conchology, Ser.
I, 24: 214-215; pl. 36, figs. 5-8.
Gyliotrachela transitans transitans (Moellendorff). Jutting, Bulletin Raffles
Museum, (24): 28.
Type locality.- Samui Island, Gulf of Siam, Thailand.
Distribution.- Known only from the type locality.

Gyliotrachela striolata (Moellendorff, 1895)

Hypselostoma striolatus Moellendorff, 1895; Proceedings Zoological Society of
London, 1895: 152; [unfigured].
Gyliauchen striolatus (Moellendorff). Pilsbry, 1917; Manual of Conchology, Ser.
II, 24: 215.
Gyliotrachela striolata (Moellendorff). Jutting, Bulletin Raffles Museum, (24): 46.
Type locality.- Samui Island, Gulf of Siam, Thailand.
Distribution.- Known only from the type locality.

Group of Gyliotrachela adela, new species

This group from Thailand is characterized a depressed turban-shaped shell
with a widely expanded last whorl, a low spire and distinct raised spiral threads on
the teleoconch. The microsculpture of the protoconch consists of a dense mesh of






BULLETIN FLORIDA MUSEUM NATURAL HISTORY VOL. 39(7)


granular reticulations and lacks spiral sculpture (Fig. 6). The following is the only
species assigned to this group at present

Gyliorachela adela, new species
(Figs. 6, 44-47)

Description.- Shell small, about 1.30-1.46 mm high and about 1.55-1.80
mm wide. Depressed turban-shaped with a forward projecting aperture that
descends along the last quarter turn (Figs. 44, 46). Spire low and slightly oblique
to plane of last whorl. Shell about 0.76-0.90 times as high as wide. Color of fresh
specimens yellowish-white. Umbilicus broad, about 0.43-0.47 times width of shell
posterior to aperture (Fig. 47). Whorls 3.7-3.9. Last whorl strongly shouldered;
weakly convex along periphery; neck weakly constricted behind aperture around
area of teeth. Protoconch with 1.4 strongly protruding whorls; microsculpture
consisting of a dense mesh of granular reticulations that lack any apparent spiral
component (Fig. 6). Teleoconch sculptured with uniformly spaced spiral threads
that are equally developed across the whorl and into the umbilicus. Occasional
incremental growth striations are present underlying spiral threads. Aperture free
from and slightly forward of preceding whorl; auriculate in shape with a weak
constriction over parietal margin and palatal margin. Peristome broadly expanded
along palatal, basal and parietal margins (Fig. 45). Interior of aperture with six
teeth. Angular lamella and upper palatal fold forming a shallow bay in posterior
corner. Angular lamella low and short, lying mostly anterior to outer end of
parietal lamella and other teeth. Upper palatal fold, lower palatal ford and
columellar lamella about equal in size, moderately long and about as high as their
distances from the parietal lamella. Basal fold small and tubercular. Parietal
lamella slightly higher, longer, and thicker than other teeth and arched toward
columellar lamella. Exterior surface of shell without any apparent indentations
over teeth.
Measurements in mm of the holotype and three paratypes (UF 113509) are as
follow.
Specimen height width aperh. aper.w. umbil. whors
Holotype 1.36 1.80 0.78 0.74 0.81 3.9
Paratype 1.30 1.58 0.71 0.71 0.71 3.8
Paratype 1.40 1.55 0.71 0.68 0.65 3.7
Paratype 1.46 1.71 0.74 0.71 0.74 3.9
Type locality.- Thailand, Surat Thani Province, box canyon in limestone
range 6 km south of Na San; 100 m altitude (08039.6'N, 99023.9'E). HOLOTYPE:
UF 113508; collected 3 June, 1987 by Fred G. Thompson. PARATYPES: UF
113509, Mahidol University; same data as the holotype.
The type locality is in a box canyon that is about two hectares in area and is
surrounded on all sides by vertical limestone cliffs. Access to the canyon is
through a narrow pass, outside of which is a small municipal park. The area is cut
over and planted with various fruit trees. Natural shrubbery, vines and herbaceous






THOMPSON AND UPATHAM: VERTIGINID LAND SNAILS FROM THAILAND 235


vegetation grow along the base and faces of the cliffs. Snails were recovered from
a leaf-litter sample that was gathered at several places along the base of the cliff.
The specimens were unnoticed in the field, so their ecological station was not
determined.
Remarks.- This and the folWowing species are alike and differ from other
known species of Gyliotrachela by having well defined spiral sculpture on the
teleoconch. The following four species may belong in the adela species-group, but
information concerning their mi sculpture is insufficient at present to make this
allocation. None are described or illustrated as having raised spiral threads, but
early descriptions frequently were deficient in making the distinction between
incised striations and raised tlreds. Thus, the descriptive term striation
frequently referred to either. GyliotrIhela salpinx Jutting, 1961, is described as
having fine spiral lines [threads or striations?] below the periphery of the last
whorl (Jutting, 1961: 38). Gyliotrachela fruhstorferi (Moellendorff 1897), G.
everetti (E. A. Smith, 1896), and G. dohertyi (Fulton, 1899) also have spiral
striations [threads?] over portions of last whorl (Pilsbry, 1917: 217-220).
Gyliotrachelus adela is most si to Gyliotrachela salpinx Jutting, 1961 in
the general shape of the shell, although they differ in various details. In G. salpinx
the aperture is deflected upward, no downward, the umbilicus is not as wide as it
is in G. adela, the shell bears spiral lpture below the periphery, and the aperture
has numerous secondary tubercles between the major teeth, in contrast to the
simplified and basic tooth pattern described above for G. adela (see Fig. 45).
Etymology.- The species name adela is from the Classical Greek, cseXoq,
meaning unseen or obscure in reference to the fact that the snail was unnoticed at
the time it was collected.

LITERATURE CITED

Bavay, A and P. Dautzenberg 1908. Molluscoum terestrium Tonkinorum diagnoses. J. Conchyliologie
56:229-251.
and 1909. Description de coquilles nouvelles de lndo-Chine, Suite 5. J. Conchyliologie 57:
163-206; pls 4-8.
and 1912. Description de coquilles nouvelles de LIndo-hine. Journal de Conchyliologie 60: 1-
54;pls. 1-5. Collinge, W. E. 1902. On the non-operculate land and freshwater mollusc collected by
members of the "Skeat Expedition" in the Malay Peninsula, 1899-1900. J. Malac. 9:71-95; pts. 4-6.
Fulton, H. 1899. A list of the species of land Mollusca collected by Mr. W. Doherty in the Malay
Archipelago; with descriptions of some supposed new species and varieties. Proc. Malac. Soc.
London 3: 212-219; pl. 9.
Haas, F. 1937. Neue und kritische Pupilliden. Ardiiv fr Molluskenkunde 69:2-18, pa. 1-3.
Jutting W. S. S. van Benthem 1950 The Malayan species ofBoysidia, Paraboysidia, Hypselostoma, and
Gyliotrachela (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Vertiginidae) with a catalogue of all of the species hitherto
described. Bull. Raffles Mus. 21:5-47.
1961. Additional new species and new localities of the family Vertiginidae and the genera Oophana
and Opisthostoma from Malaya. Bull. Raffles Mus. 26: 34-48; pls. 8-14.
. 1962. Coquilles teesres nouvelles do qualques ollines calcaires du Cambodge at du Sud Vietnam.
J. Conchyliologie 102:3-15.
Moellendorff 0. v. 1894. On a collection of land-shells from Samui Island, Gulfof Siam. Proc. Zool. Soc.
London 1894: 146-156;pl. 16.







236 BULLETIN FLORIDA MUSEUM NATURAL HISTORY VOL 39(7)



S1897. Neue Landschedenvoan Java. Nachridctsblatt der Deutchen Malakozoologischen Gesellchaft
6: 57-103.
Pilsbry, H. A. 1916-1918. Manual of conchology, ser. I 24: 1-380; pls. 1-49. Philadelphia.
Smith, E. A. 1896. On a collection of land-shells from the islands of Selayar, Jampea, and Kalao. Asm.
Mag. Nat. Hist.: Ser. 6, 18: 144-152; pl. 10.
Stoliczka, F. 1871. Notes on the terrestrial Mollusca from the neighborhood of Moulmein (Tenesserim
Province, with descriptions of new species. J. Asiatic Soc. Bengal 40: 143-177, 217-259; pis. 6-8, 15-
19.
Thompson, F. G., and H. G. Lee. 1988. Hypselostoma holimanae new species, a pupillid land snail from
Thailand. Nautilus 102:78-81.
Zilch, A. 1959-1960. Euthyneura, Gastropoda. Handbuch der Pallozoologie, 6 (2). i-xii, 1-834. Gebruder
Bomtraeger, Berlin.
.1982. Die Typen und Typoiden des Natur-Museums Senckenberg, 70): Molusca: Pupillacea(3):
Vertiginidae: Nesopupinae. ArchivflrMolluskekunde 113: 103-116,229-230.






THOMPSON AND UPATHAM: VERTIGINID LAND SNAILS FROM THAILAND


Figures 1-6.- Apical whorls of Thailand Vertiginidae. Fig. 1.- Acinolaemus ptychochilus n. sp.,
HOLOTYPE (UF 113502). Fig 2.- Acinolaemus stenopus n. p., PARATYPE (UF 113531). Fig. 3-
Acinolaemus colpodon n. sp.; PARATYPE (UF 113529). Fig. 4.- Acinolaemus rhamphodon n. sp.,
HOLOTYPE (UF 113505). Fig 5.-Acinolaemus sphinctinion n. sp., HOLOTYPE (UF 113507). Fig
6.- Gyliotrachela adela n. sp., HOLOTYPE (UF 113508). Scale bars = 100 p..








BULLETIN FLORIDA MUSEUM NATURAL HISTORY VOL 39(7)


Figures 7-11.- Acinolaemus ptychochius sp. Figs. 7-8.- PARATYPE (UF 113504). Fig. 9-11.-
HOLOTYPE (UF 113502). Scale bars =1 mm..


.i
r~iQ-







u


L B a -LL ~
~f~;* I t
1~12~' i!


,,







THOMPSON AND UPATHAM: VERTIGINID LAND SNAILS FROM THAILAND


Figures 12-15.- Acinolaemus stenopus n. sp., PARATYPES (UF 113531). Figure 14 is a posterior view
within the aperture showing the forward projecting hook-like columella lamella. Figure 15 shows the short
receded parietal lamella (F) and the narrow gap between the angular lamella (A) and the palatal fold (P).
Scale bars = 1 mm.








BULLETIN FLORIDA MUSEUM NATURAL HISTORY VOL 39(7)


Figures 16-19.-Acinolaemus phinctinion a sp., HOLOTYPE (UF 113507). Scale bars for Figs. 16, 17 18
= 1 nmm. Scale bar for Fig. 19 = 100p.








THOMPSON AND UPATHAM: VERTIGINID LAND SNAILS FROM THAILAND


Figures 20-25.-Acinolaemus rhamphodon n sp. Figs. 20-23.- HOLOTYPE (UF 113505). Fig.. 24-25.-
PARATYPE (Mahidol Univ.). Scale bars =1 mm.








BULLETIN FLORIDA MUSEUM NATURAL HISTORY VOL 39(7)


Figures 26-31.-Acinolaemus colpodon n sp. PARATYPES (UF 113529). Scale bars for Fig. 26,27,29-
31 = 1 mm.. Scale bar for Fig. 28 = 0.5 nm.







THOMPSON AND UPATHAM: VERTIGINID LAND SNAILS FROM THAILAND


Fig. 32-38. Systenostoma concava na sp., PARATYPES (UF 113542). Scale bas for Figs 32-34,36 = 1
mm.. Scale bars for Figs. 35,37 = 0.5 mm. Scale bar for Fig 38 = 100 I..







BULLETIN FLORIDA MUSEUM NATURAL HISTORY VOL 39(7)


Figures 39-43.- Systenostoma elevota n. sp., PARATYPES (UF 113455). Fig. 42.- Base offig. 41. Scale
bar for Figs. 39-41 = mm. Scale bars for Figs. 42-43 = 100..







THOMPSON AND UPATHAM: VERTIGINID LAND SNAILS FROM THAILAND


Figures 44-47. Gyliotrachela adela n sp. Figs. 44-45.- HOLOTYPE (UF 113508). Figs. 46-47.-
PARATYPE (UF 113509). Scale bar for Figs. 44-46 = 1 mm.. Scale bar for Fig 45 = 0.5 mm.







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