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Title: A Partitioned bitmask-based technique for lossless seismic data compression
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Title: A Partitioned bitmask-based technique for lossless seismic data compression
Alternate Title: Department of Computer and Information Science and Engineering Technical Report ; 08-452
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Language: English
Creator: Wang, Weixun
Mishra, Prabhat
Publisher: Department of Computer and Information Science and Engineering, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: May 7, 2008
Copyright Date: 2008
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A Partitioned Bitmask-based Technique for Lossless Seismic
Data Compression


Weixun Wang
wewang@cise.ufl.edu


Prabhat Mishra
prabhat@cise.ufl.edu


CISE Technical Report 08-452
Department of Computer and Information Science and Engineering
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA

May 7, 2008











ABSTRACT

Seismic data costs companies and institutes millions of dollars for massive storage equipment as well as for huge data
transfer bandwidth. At the same time, precision of seismic data is becoming critical for scientific analysis and research.
Many existing techniques have achieved .%gnifiticlt compression at the cost of accuracy (loss of information), or lossless
compression at the cost of high computation complexity. This report addressed the problem by applying partitioned bitmask-
based compression to seismic data in order to produce a .ignitit cnt compression without losing any accuracy. To
demonstrate our approach, we compressed real world seismic data set and obtained an average compression ratio of 7-
(1.35).














1. INTRODUCTION
Seismic data is used in seismology to study earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the planet. It is usually
collected by a series of seismometers from different locations. Seismic data compression is an area in which there are a lot of
research and publications in the last decade. The motivation of compressing seismic data is that it takes enormous storage
space and demands considerable transmission bandwidth. In a modern seismic acquisition survey, in which data is acquired
by generating a loud sound at one location and recording through a receiver the resulting rumblings at another location,
usually can produce up to 100 terabytes of data [1]. This number is still increasing in the range of multiple hundreds of
terabytes nowadays due to acquisition of 3D or 4D survey instead of the traditional 2D one. Therefore, seismic data
compression has become desirable and open to be exploited in order to save storage space and access time.
Before we introduce any specific technique, a primary metric for measuring the compression ratio should be decided. In the
data compression research area, a widely accepted metric for measuring compression efficiency is compression ratio' which
is used in this article, is defined as follows,
Uncompressed Size
Compression Ratio = [ 1]
Compressed Size
There are lots of existing researches regarding seismic data compression. Different transformations, filters and coding
schemes are used to achieve great compression by losing a certain level of precision. These techniques exploit similarities of
different pieces of seismic data, find approximate image partitions, condense information, and reduce statistical redundancy.
However, in our observation, there is hardly any absolute repetition (of the entire 32-bit vector) even if millions of different
data traces were analyzed. In order to maintain zero precision loss, those differences cannot be simply ignored or rounded.
Lossless compression methods are also proposed and most of them used linear prediction as the major step. But they either
require huge memory requirement or high computational complexity which will be shown in section 2.
In the code compression for embedded systems area, there is an efficient and lossless compression technique called bitmask-
based method [2]. It uses dictionary-based compression to exploit existing repetitions as well as bitmask-matched repetitions
by remembering the differences. Due to the similar precision requirement in seismic data compression, bitmask-based
approach seems to be very promising. Unfortunately, as shown in our experiments, direct application of bitmask-based
technique resulted in poor compression primarily due to the fact that there is rarely useful repetition in seismic data.
We propose an efficient seismic data compression technique based on bitmasks. It is a domain specific algorithm which can
achieve moderate compression ratio without losing any precision. By choosing suitable partitions, bitmasks and dictionaries,
different compression methods are applied to different partitions of every 32-bit data vectors. Heuristics are also applied to
treat different parts discriminatively based on their repetitions. Our experiments demonstrate that our approach outperforms
the existing bitmask-based approach by 23.8% without introducing any additional decompression overhead. The sample data
used in this report is a 120-trace marine pre-stack data set recorded in the North Sea.

2. RELATED WORK
This section describes existing related work in three directions: lossy seismic data compression, lossless seismic data
compression and bitmask-based code compression.

2.1 Lossy seismic data compression
Many seismic data compression researches have been carried out in the last decade. Y. Wang and R-S Wu [3] [4] applied
adapted local cosine/sine transform to 2D seismic data set from which suitable window partition is generated. Duval et al. [5]
used Generalized linear-phase Lapped Orthogonal Transform (GenLOT) to compress seismic data in which a filter bank
optimization based on symmetric AR modeling of seismic signals autocorrelation is used. Duval et al. [6] proposed a
compression scheme using Generalized Unequal Length Lapped Orthogonal Transform (GULLOT) which outperforms his
former work. During the same period, wavelet-based image coding approach is also proved to be an effective compression
for seismic data for its good localization in time and frequency. Various approaches [7] [8] [9] [10] have focused on this
technique through different ways, making trade-offs between compression ratio and data quality in the SNR2 perspective.
Duval and Nguyen [11] did a comparative study between GenLOT and wavelet compression. Kiely and Pollara [12] first
introduced sub-band coding methods to this area. This technique can be constructed as a progressive system in which
required precision could be specified by end-users. Rosten et al. [13] presented an optimization and extension version of sub-
band coding lossy seismic data compression.


SLarger compression ratio implies better compression result
2 SNR stands for Signal-To-Noise ratio.














Although all the methods describe above got a high compression ratio, they lose some features of the original image, in
another word, lose a certain level of precision. They are based on reduced redundancy due to the special property of seismic
data and exploited irrelevancy, and therefore introduced information distortion. Because of this, lossy data compression
methods generally represent data samples by fewer bits.

2.2 Lossless seismic data compression
As the demand of absolute accuracy grows, multiple lossless data compression techniques were proposed. Well-known
examples like LZW and Deflates are not suitable for seismic data compression domain. It is primarily because that these
techniques do not perform well in binary data scenario, but good at text data or text-like executable compressions. Another
issue is that these techniques have high memory requirement during compressing and decompressing processes.
Steams et al. [16] developed a lossless seismic data compression method using adaptive linear prediction. This approach is a
two-stage process. In the first stage, a linear predictor with discrete coefficients is used to compress N samples of data into
keywords (essentially are the first M samples, optimized coefficients and other parameters) and residue sequence, which is
then further get compressed in the second stage. Several methods [15] [17] [18] also provide similar techniques by applying
modifications to the used predictor or using specific coding methods. Although adaptive linear prediction has been accepted
as a lossless compression and got wildly used, it requires complex computations during compression. Also these techniques
require extremely complex (time-consuming) decompression mechanism. Therefore, they are not suitable where online
(runtime) decompression is required.

2.3 Bitmask-based code compression
Due to similar requirements, it is intuitive to borrow some idea from the area of code compression in this scenario. Seong and
Mishra [2] developed an efficient matching scheme using application-specific bitmasks and dictionaries that can significantly
improve compression efficiency. It is necessary to develop a content-aware heuristic to select bitmask and dictionary entries
to apply bitmask-based technique for lossless seismic data compression. According to our experiment, direct application of
the algorithms in [2] to seismic data resulted in poor compression.

3. BACKGROUND
3.1 Seismic data format
Seismic data uses the SEG Y Data Exchange Format (version 0 published in 1975 and version 1 published in 2002 [14]) as its
standard and dominated format. The official standard SEG-Y consists of the following components:
* a 3200-byte EBCDIC3 descriptive reel header record
* a 400-byte binary reel header record
* trace records consisting of
a 240-byte binary trace header
trace data

(Optional) SEG Y Tape Label
3200-byte Textual File Header
400-byte Binary File Header
(Optional) 1st 3200-byte Extended Textual File Header


(Optional) Nth 3200-byte Extended Textual File Header
I 2-I.-1 Trace Header
1st Data Trace


Mth 240-byte Trace Header
Mth Data Trace
Figure 1. Byte stream structure of a SEG-Y file


3EBCDIC : Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (EBCDIC) is an 8-bit character encoding (code page) used on IBM
mainframe operating systems.














File headers, although most of them are optional, are used to provide human-readable information about this data file. They
can be compressed to a ratio larger than 2 using textual compression methods. Figure 1 shows the byte stream structure of a
SEG-Y file. What we are trying to compress is the space-dominate part of a seismic data file: data traces. Specified by the
reel header, the number of traces per record is usually at the magnitude of 103. A single trace is recorded from one receiver.
The recording is sampled at a discrete interval, typically around 4 milliseconds, and then lasts for some duration, typically 4
or more seconds. Seismic data is almost always stored as a sequence of traces, each trace consisting of amplitude samples for
one location.

3.2 Floating-point format for trace data
In a seismic trace, data is represented in IEEE Floating Point format or IBM single precision floating point format, with the
later one been the most widely used nowadays. The following is a description of IBM single precision floating point format,
which is also the one we used in this report.
Bit 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Bytel S C6 C, C4 C3 C2 C1 Co
Byte2 Q-1 Q-2 Q-3 Q-4 Q-5 Q-6 Q-7 Q-8
Byte3 Q-9 Q-lo Q-11 Q-12 Q-13 Q-14 Q-15 Q-16
Byte4 Q-17 Q-18 Q-19 Q-20 Q-21 Q-22 Q-23 0
Figure 2. IBM single precision floating point bit layout


Figure 2 contains the following information:
Sign bit (S): with 1 stands for negative number;
Hexadecimal exponent (C): has been biased by 64 such that it represents 16(ccccc 64)
values from 0 to 127;
Magnitude fraction (Q): is a 23-bit positive binary fraction (i.e., the number system is
point is to the left of the most significant bit (Q-1) with the MSB being defined as 2-1.


where CCCCCCC can assume

sign and magnitude. The radix


Figure 3. Seismic data trace plot diagram
Figure 3 is the plot diagram of the first data trace in the sample seismic data file. This is the first trace of all the 120 traces in
that particular data record. Every single point on this curve stands for a floating point value. To apply our compression to
these seismic data, we convert the original data into binary data in the IBM format. Table 1 shows the first three data out of
2560 in trace 1 of the sample seismic data file.

Table 1. Sample seismic trace data
IBM floating Binary value
format value
-0.072524 11000001000000010010100100001110
-0.037366 11000001000000001001100100001100
0.014643 01000001000000000011101111111010

As just pointed out, the first bit is the sign bit. Bits from 1st to 8th are the exponent bits and bits from 9th to 31st are
magnitude bits.















4. PARTITIONED BITMASK-BASED SEISMIC DATA COMPRESSION
Based on the goal of achieving greater compression ratio without precision loss, we exploit repeating patterns as much as
possible in seismic 32-bit binary data entries without affecting decompression efficiency. Our approach partitions a 32-bit
vector into several parts then tries to find the best way to compress each part differently. By doing this, we can achieve the
largest bit savings from each part of every seismic data entry. Table 2 shows our seismic data partition scheme used in our
compression technique.

Table 2 Seismic data partition layout and examples
Sign Exponent Magnitude part 1 Magnitude part 2
(1t) (2nd 8) (9th 16th) (17th 32nd)
1 1000001 00000001 0010100100001110
1 1000010 00010011 1100010011011100
0 1000001 01000011 0101110101100010
1 1000001 00001101 0111110100100000
0 1000010 01001000 1001011000000100

4.1 Hexadecimal exponent (C6 ~ Co) part
We have analyzed the seismic data trace and observed that most of the exponents have a magnitude lower than 162, which
means there are only two patterns for this part. Further observation revealed that among all the 120 traces in the seismic data
record we used, the maximum number of different exponent part is 3. So we can use dictionary-based compression to
compress this part of data using a very small dictionary whose length is at maximum 4. So the dictionary for exponent part is
simply a list of all bit patterns. Figure 4 shows an example of exponent part compression. Note that the dictionary is
generated, so the number of bits used as the index is decided, before each trace being compressed using our heuristic
algorithm which will be introduced later.

1000001 ------- 00 Index Dictionary
Index
1000010 -------- 01
00 100001
1000001 -------. 00
01 100010
1000011 -------- 11
11 100011
1000001 -------. 00

Figure 4. Exponent part compression

So the number of bits per data entry we can save from exponent part is (where n is the exponent dictionary's index length):

N=8-n [2]

4.2 Magnitude part 1 (Q-1 Q-s)
The first 8 bits in the magnitude part also shows some interesting repetition patterns. Most of them start with four Os, which
means we can use only 4 bits to compress these 8-bit vectors. For the remaining bit patterns which do not have this property,
we just leave them as it is. So we have to use 5-bit to represent those who start with 0000 and 9-bit for the rest which do not.
The extra bit put at the beginning of the compressed data is used to indicate whether this entry is compressed or not. Figure 5
shows an example compression for magnitude part 1.

0000 0110 --------------. 00110

0000 1111 --------------. 01111

00010011 -------------- 100010011

1011 1101 -------------- 1 10111101

Figure 5. Magnitude part 1 compression














So the number of bits per data entry saved here is:
N = 8 5 (C1 / Ctotal) 9 (C2 / Ctotal) [3]
Here Cl is the number of the vectors in the pattern of (0000xxxx); C2 is the number of remaining vectors. Ctota1 is the total
number of data entries in the sample trace.
Table 3 presents three traces from the sample record file and shows how many bits we can save using the method described
in section 4.1 and 4.2. For each trace, the table shows the possible bit patterns and bit savings of the exponent part and
magnitude part 1. It also shows the frequency of each of these patterns. For instance, the exponent pattern "1000001" in data
trace 1 appeared 98.7% of the time in the exponent partition and the patterns start with "0000" accounts for 87.0% of the
magnitude part 1.

4.3 Magnitude part 2 (Q-9 Q-23)
We use bitmask-based compression to compress the second part of the magnitude bits. Since it consists of 16 bits, a fixed 2-
bit mask or a fixed 4-bit mask will be beneficial, each of which uses 5 (=2+3) or 6 (=4+2) bits respectively. In order to save
bits, we are able to use dictionaries whose maximum length is 512 and 256 respectively.
We developed a new heuristic algorithm to generate the dictionary. As in the bitmask-based compression, each data vector is
represented as a node. But here we attached two heuristic values to each node. One is the number of vectors which are the
same as the one in node (Dictionary Match), which means the matching count if this vector is picked as a dictionary entry.
The other is the number of vectors which can be matched with the one in node using bitmask (BitmaskMatch). It depends on
which bitmask pattern is used. A beneficial value is calculated for every node: (the compressed data should consist of 1 bit
for compress decision, 1 bit for using bitmask or not; if a bitmask is used, then the value and location of that bitmask should
also be added).

Table 3 Exploitable partition repetitions in a seismic data trace
Trace Part name Repetition Freque Bit
pattern ncy saved
Trace 1 Exponent 1000001 98.7% 6.00
1000010 1.3%
Magnitude 0000xxxx 87.0% 2.51
partl others 13.0%

Trace 2 Exponent 1000001 98.7% 6.00
1000010 1.3%
Magnitude 0000xxxx 86.8% 2.47
part others 13.2%

Trace Exponent 1000001 90.9% 5.00
120
120 1000010 8.8%

1000011 0.3%
Magnitude 0000xxxx 65.6% 1.62
partl others 34.4%


Benefit = (14 -Dictionarylength) Dictionary Match + (9- Dictionary_
Here one 2-bit mask is used.


Match) BitmaskMatch


Benefit = (14 Dictionary length) Dictionary Match + (8 Dictionary Match) BitmaskMatch [5],
Here one 4-bit mask is used.

Each node also maintains its list of matching nodes using bitmask. Because in seismic data situation, dictionary matches are
very rare. So we decided to discard the threshold scheme used in the algorithm in [2] and remove every node in a removed
node's list. Figure 6 shows the dictionary generation algorithm for magnitude part 2. Note that we do not have to repeat step
2 every time because for the remaining nodes' Dictionary Match values after every removal remain the same, for all the data
entries in a same pattern are kept or discarded at the same time.














Algorithm 1: Magnitude part 2 dictionary generation
Inputs: 1. All 16-bit magnitude part 2 vectors.
2. Mask patterns.
Output: Optimized dictionary
Begin
Step 1: Construct a list L whose nodes represent each data vector in trace.
Step 2: Calculate Dictionary Match for each node.
Step 3: Calculate the Bitmask Match value using the input mask pattern for each vector.
Generate the bitmask matching list of nodes which match this node.
Step 4: Allocate the Benefit Value for each nodes in the list, using equation [3] or [4].
Step 5: Select node N with the highest benefit value.
Step 6: Remove N from the list and insert into dictionary.
Step 7: Remove all nodes in N's bitmask matching list.
Step 8: Repeat step 3 7 until dictionary is full or L is empty.
return dictionary
End
Figure 6. Magnitude part 2 dictionary generation

4.4 Complete compression algorithm
Figure 7 shows our compression algorithm. Note that the 4th step in Algorithm 2 can be executed serially or in parallel. If a
parallel compression is used, attention must be paid on how to correctly connect every compressed part to get a whole
compressed vector. Some synchronization should be applied to ensure the right compression sequence.

Algorithm 2: Seismic Data Compression
Inputs: 1. Original data (32-bit vectors).
2. Mask patterns.
3. Magnitude part 2 dictionary length
Output: Compressed data, dictionaries
Begin
Step 1: Generate the dictionary for exponent part.
Step 2: Analyze the two pattern counts for magnitude part 1.
Calculate the bit-saving using equation [2].
if (bit-saving > 0) ismagnitude_l compressed = true
else ismagnitude_l compressed = false
endif.
Step 3: Generate the dictionary for magnitude part 2 using Algorithm 1.
Step 4: Compress 32-bit vectors by first partition them.
Keep the sign bit as it is.
Compress the exponent part using its dictionary.
if (is_magnitude_l compressed)
Compress magnitude part 1 using the method shown in Figure 5
endif.
Compress magnitude part 2 using its dictionary.
Connect four partitioned parts together
return Compressed data, dictionaries
End

Figure 7. Partitioned bitmask-based seismic data compression algorithm














For each compressed seismic data trace, an extra header is needed besides dictionaries. It should be used to reflect
compression decisions made and dictionary length used when compressing the data in it. It is necessary for decompression. It
contains the following three parts:
a) Exponent part dictionary length
Length: 3 bits
Possible value: 001 111
b) Magnitude part 1 compression decision
Length: lbit
Possible value: "0" for uncompressed, "1" for compressed
c) Magnitude part 2 compression decision (bitmask type / dictionary length)
Length: 4 bits
Possible value: first bit -- "0" for one fixed 2-bit mask, "1" for one fixed 4-bit mask; next three bits -- dictionary length
Figure 8 shows the format of a single compressed seismic data vector. As the above algorithm suggests, compression
decisions are made before or during compression process. The length of compressed exponent equals to its dictionary index
length. For magnitude part 1, possible lengths are 5 and 9 for compressed and uncompressed vectors respectively. The
decision bits before each magnitude part 2 vector are necessary because they reveals the information of whether the data is
uncompressed, compressed using bitmask or compressed using dictionary entry. The number of compressed bits is varying
due to dictionary length and bitmask patterns.

Oxxxx last 4 digits
Dictionary index lxxxxxxxx original digits


Sign
bit Exponent Magnitude#1 Magnitude#2

1 bit 1-2 bits 5/9 bits 1 1 16 bits

Decision bi4-8 bits

5/6+4-8 bits

Bitmask match
position / value + dictionary index

Dictionary match

Uncompressed

Figure 8. Final compressed seismic data layout

4.5 Decompression mechanism
The decompression process can be carried out in parallel since each trace is independent with others. So it is simple and
efficient to develop a decompression unit that can run multiple decoders together during the decompression of a seismic data
file which may consists of hundreds of traces.
Trace header, as described in last section, can be used to parameterize each decoder by providing the information like
compression decisions and dictionary lengths. Then the decoder decompresses each partition accordingly. It simply keeps the
first bit as the sign bit. It searches exponent part's dictionary, which is stored after trace header, using the index information
(length is specified in header). According to magnitude part 1 compression decision, it either simply keeps all 8 bits (discards
the decision bit) or adds "0000" to the front of it to decompress this part. For magnitude part 2, if there is a bitmask matching,
the decoder parallelly searches for dictionary entry and construct a 16-bit mask vector then XORs those two together to get
the original 16-bit data. Dictionary matching and uncompressed data is also handled accordingly.














5. EXPERIMENTS
We used a real world seismic data set recorded in the North Sea near Norway to set up our experiments. Sample data traces
are exported from Matlab first in the decimal format. We then converted these data into binary using IBM floating point
format.

To demonstrate our approach, first we apply bitmask-based compression alone to ten randomly chosen (1st, 13th, 27th, 36th,
42nd, 55th, 64th, 77th, 80th, 95th) traces out of all the 120 traces in the seismic data file. Each data trace has a fixed size which is
10KB if the header length is ignored. By using all the beneficial bitmask patterns and dictionary length combinations, we
observed, as showed in Figure 9, that the compression ratios achieved by direct application of bitmask-based technique are
unacceptable. The average compression ratio is 1.075. Obviously, these compression ratios are far from favorable enough to
save storage space or transmission time. It is because there are hardly any repetition patterns which can be achieved from
bitmasks in a single trace.
By using our lossless compression technique and the same ten data traces, we can achieve much better compression ratio.
The sign bit, exponent part and magnitude part 1 are respectively compressed using different methods as described in section
4.1 and 4.2. The only length-varying part that can use different bitmask patterns and dictionary lengths is magnitude part 2 as
stated in section 4.3. So in our experiments, we use all the beneficial (which can be deducted by equation [4] and [5])
combinations of bitmask pattern and dictionary length in that part's compression. Figure 10 shows the result of our approach.
The average compression ratio is 1.331 with the maximum number of 1.353. So this experimental result reveals that, on
average, our approach outperforms bitmask-based compression in seismic data compression by 23.8%.


Figure 9. Seismic data compression using Bitmask directly Figure 10. Seismic data compression using our approach

6. CONCLUSION
Seismic data occupies terabytes of disk spaces. While achieving high compression ratio is desirable, maintaining an exact
precision is also critical. The contribution of this report is that it develops an efficient and lossless seismic data compression
technique which does not introduce any additional decompression overhead. Our partitioned seismic data compression
approach outperforms the existing bitmask-based compression techniques.

7. REFERENCES
[1] Paul L. Donoho, "Seismic data compression: Improved data management for acquisition, transmission, storage, and
processing", Proc. Seismic, 1998
[2] Seok-Won Seong, Prabhat Mishra, "Bitmask-Based Code Compression for Embedded Systems", IEEE Transactions on
Computer-Aided Design ofIntegrated Circuits and Systems (TCAD), 2007
[3] Yongzhong Wang, Ru-Shan Wu, "2-D Semi-Adapted Local Cosine/Sine Transform Applied to Seismic Data
Compression and its Effects on Migration", Expanded Abstracts of the Technical Program, SEG 69th Annual \ i. ... -.
Houston, 1999
[4] Yongzhong Wang, Ru-Shan Wu, "Seismic Data Compression by an Adaptive Local Cosine/Sine Transform and Its
Effects on Migration", Geophysical F,. -" i... Nov., 2000


* One 2-bit


24 2^5 26 2A7 2A8


SOne 8-bit ITwo 4-bit One 4-bit and one 8-bit

1.5
1.45
1.4
1.35
1.3
1.25
1.2
1.15
1.1
1.05


2^A5 2A6 2A7 2A8 2 9


One 4-bit














[5] L. C. Duval, V Bui-Tran, T. Q. Nguyen, T. D. Tran, "Seismic Data Compression Using GenLOT: Towards
'Optimality'?", DCC 2000
[6] L. C. Duval, Takayuki Nagai, "Seismic Data Compression Using Gullots", ICASSP 2001
[7] J. D. Villasenor, R. A. Ergas, P. L. Donoho, "Seismic data compression using high-dimensional wavelet transforms",
DCC 1996
[8] Anthony Vassiliou, M. V Wickerhauser, "Comparison of Wavelet Image Coding Schemes for Seismic Data
Compression" ExpandedAbstr, Int. Mtg., Soc. Exploration Geophys., 1997
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transform", Acta Seismologica Sinica, 2004
[10] M. A. Al-Moohimeed, "Towards an efficient compression algorithm for seismic data", Radio Science Conference, 2004
[11] L. C. Duval, T. Q. Nguyen, "Seismic data compression: a comparative study between GenLOT and wavelet
compression", SPIE 1999
[12] A. Kiely, F. Pollara, "Subband Coding Methods for Seismic Data Compression", DCC 1995
[13] T. Rosten, T. A. Ramstad, L. Amundsen, "Optimization of sub-band coding method for seismic data compression",
Geophysical F,. '-....."- 2004
[14] SEG Technical Standards Committee, "SEG Y rev 1 Data Exchange format" May, 2002
[15] G. Mandyam, N. Magotra, W. McCoy, "Lossless Seismic Data Compression using Adaptive Linear Prediction", GRSS,
1996
[16] S. D. Steams, L. Tan, N. Magotra, "A Technique for Lossless Compression of Seismic Data", GRSS, 1992
[17] Y W. Nijim, S.D. Steams, W. B. Mikhael, "Lossless Compression of Seismic Signals Using Differentiation", IEEE
Trans. on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol 34, No. 1, 1996
[18] A. O. Abanmi, S. A. Alshebeili, T. H. Alamri, "Lossless Compression of Seismic Data", Journal of the Franklin Institute,
2006




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