Title: Trip report to Colombia, Peru and Brazil
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00095689/00001
 Material Information
Title: Trip report to Colombia, Peru and Brazil April 14-25, 1980
Physical Description: 9, 6 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Sánchez, Pedro A., 1940-
Donor: unknown ( endowment )
Publisher: North Carolina State University
Place of Publication: Raleigh
Publication Date: 1980
Copyright Date: 1980
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Research -- Colombia   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Research -- Peru   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Research -- Amazon River Valley   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Colombia
Peru
Brazil
 Notes
Summary: "The purposes of this trip were: 1) to attend the Amazon Land Use Research Conference to be held at CIAT, including a field trip to Yurimaguas, 2) develop cooperative agreements with the Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario (ICA) in Colombia and the Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA) in Brazil relevant to the Soil Management CRSP and further discuss with Peruvian and CIAT representatives the CRSP developments since the signing of the letters of intention with INIA and CIAT in January."
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: Typescript.
Statement of Responsibility: Pedro A. Sánchez
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00095689
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 436171270

Full Text


TRIP REPORT TO COLOMBIA, PERU AND BRAZIL


April 14-25, 1980


Pedro A. Sanchez
North Carolina State University


The purposes of this trip were: 1) To attend the Amazon Land Use Research
Conference to be held at CIAT, including a field trip to Yurimaguas, 2) develop
cooperative agreements with the Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario (ICA) in
Colombia and the Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA) in Brazil
relevant to the Soil Management CRSP and further discuss with Peruvian and CIAT
representatives the CRSP developments since the signing of the letters of inten-
tion with INIA and CIAT in January.


PALMIRA, APRIL 14-18

The Conference on Amazon Land Use Research was held at CIAT from April 16-18
in order to 1) review the present state of knowledge of land use research in the
Amazon, 2) review the present research policies of the six amazonian countries,
and 3) if appropriate, develop mechanisms for collaboration and cooperation among
national institutions international donor support. This Conference, which has
been in the making for two years, was co-sponsored by the Rockefeller Foundation,
the German Agency for International Collaboration (GTZ), the International Council
for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF), Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical
and North Carolina State University. The organizers were Dr. Gary Toenniessen
(Rockefeller Foundation), Dr. Gustavo Nores (CIAT) and myself.

A total of 47 people attended the conference; a list of the names and ad-
dresses are attached herewith. There were representatives of both the research
leadership and scientists from Brazil, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia and
Venezuela, and representatives of the following international agencies in addi-
tion to the five co-sponsoring institutions: USAID, World Bank, Federal Ministry
of Economic Cooperation of Germany, Swiss Technical Cooperation Agency, Interna-
tional Development and Research Center of Canada (IDRC), the United Nations De-
velopment Program (UNDP), FAO, Interamerican Institute for Agricultural Sciences
(IICA), Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID) and the Ford Foundation.

The Conference was divided into three sections; the first day was devoted to
country reports stating the research and development policies of their Amazon
territories. The second day concentrated on the state of knowledge reports pre-
pared in advance by teams of scientists from different institutions, and the third
day was devoted to developing and discussing collaborative mechanisms. All pre-
sentations were written and will be published in a book form by CIAT.

Country Reports

The salient feature of the first day was the diversity of Amazon development
policies among the different countries. Peru and Ecuador, because of the tremen-
dous demographic pressure they presently have are totally committed to the develop-
ment of their Amazon territories. This is not a matter of debate but established






national policies, particularly in Peru where special agencies such as ORDE-
LORETO have been developed to implement that policy. Emphasis in these coun-
tries is on fairly intensive agricultural production systems primarily on
food crops and pastures, but integrated with permanent crops, agroforestry
and ecology.

In sharp contrast, Venezuela has a clearly defined policy of not develop-
ing its Territorio Federal de Amazonas. It appears to be a sound one since it
is characterized by very steep topography and about the poorest soils of the
Amazon. Consequently, Venezuela is concentrating on ecological research and
is not at all pushing for the development of agriculture in that region. Simi-
larly Bolivia is not placing high priority because of inaccessibility, but they
would like to do more because parts of the Bolivia Amazon seem more closely
related to Brazil than to Bolivia, and this has become an issue of national
security. The Bolivian position is that they would like to take advantage of
the research already done in order to develop a sound strategy for their Amazon
territories.

The Colombian position is a rather ambiguous one. They state that the
Amazon has the lowest priority in the development plans of the country since
there are plenty of better lands in the high base status soil regions, and
within the acid, infertile soil region, it is expected that the Llanos Orien-
tales will develop first and the Amazon later. Consequently, the Colombian
position is not to encourage development in the Amazon but to conduct research
to be ready when the demographic pressures begin. Its ambiguity lies in the
fact that there is quite a bit of land cleared in the Colombian Amazon, parti-
cularly in the Caqueta, and planted mostly to pastures on a fairly large scale.

The Brazilian position is a mixture of the two. Brazil has encouraged
large scale agricultural development along its vast network of roads in the
Amazonia. Due to the failure of large scale beef production because of inappro-
priate technology, and pressure from ecologists, there is a bill presently under
consideration before the Brazilian Congress that would sharply limit development.
The issue of Amazonia is politically sensitive in Brazil as this country does
not appreciate people from other parts of the world telling them how to develop
their country. In this regard, there are two sharply different research insti-
tutions following rather different goals in the Brazilian Amazon. EMBRAPA is
committed to the development of sound, stable agricultural technology which in-
cludes annual crops, improved pastures, permanent crops, and agroforestry. Its
main stations are: Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuaria do Tropico Umido (CPATU) in
Belem and the Unidad de Execucao de Pesquisa no Ambito Estadual (UEPAE) at Man-
aus. INPA (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisa Amazonicas) concentrates on natural
systems and the ecological consequences of agricultural development. Fortunate-
ly there has been increasing communications and understanding between INPA and
EMBRAPA with the last few months and we were fortunate to have representatives
of both institutions at this Conference. A third and most powerful institution,
CEPLAC is pursuing a vigorous policy of cacao development in the Amazon, under
the direction of Dr. Paulo Alvim.

The Brazilian land use policy in the Amazon is based on a rational use of
the land according to scientific knowledge, including the occupation of specific
areas in which technology is available. The physical potential of the Amazon
has been exhaustively analyzed through the RADAM Project and fortunately about
50% of the area that has been cleared has medium to high fertility soils, mainly
in the "varzeas" (flood plains). This figure excludes pastures which have concentrate






on Oxisol regions many of which have been degraded, at least 0.5 million hectares
are completely degraded. With the CPATU PROPASTO technology these degraded pas-
tures are simply recuperated using 50 kg P205/ha burning and good grazing manage-
ment. Very high rice yields have been recorded in the varzea areas. There is a
new oil palm hybrid short-statured and highly productive and cacao is flourish-
ing throughout the region. The government emphasizes growing food crops and
cacao in high input agriculture on soils high in native fertility, perennial
crops and forestry on acid infertile soils, and pastures only in areas of secon-
dary forests, savannas or seasonal forests but not in virgin forests.

It is noteworthy to describe the atmosphere in which these very delicate
subjects were dealt with. It was frank and open, clearly concentrating on re-
search issues and the differences between national policies. It was not one of
confli between the ecologists versus the agronomists or dogmatic positions as
has happened in many other meetings about Amazonia. Dr. Paulo Alvim of CEPLAC
noted that the Amazon is probably the region of the world which has the highest
number of meetings per capital.

State of Knowledge Reports

The following day was devoted to the state of knowledge reports. Herbert
Schubart and Eneas Salati of INPA (Manaus) presented the report on natural sys-
tems; Tom Cochrane of CIAT and Pedro Sanchez of NCSU presented a joint report on
land resources and soils; Carlos Valverde of INIA and Dale Bandy of NCSU presen-
ted the one on annual crops, Jose Toledo of CIAT and Adilson Serrao of CPATU-
EMBRAPA, the one on pastures and livestock, Paulo Alvim of CEPLAC, the one on
permanent crops and Robert Peck and Juan Valencia of CONIF presented the agro-
forestry and forestry report. The last report was presented by John Bishop on
integrated systems but unfortunately this was limited to his own personal expe-
riences in Limoncocha, Ecuador.

The quality of these reports and the quantity of data presented was perhaps
the most impressive part of this Conference. The consensus is that there is
quite a bit known about the Amazon in terms of its climatic and soils variability,
and also quite a bit known about development of sustained systems for specific
land use such as annual crops, pastures, permanent crops, etc. This knowledge,
however, is not sufficient by any stretch of the imagination, but proves that work
has and is being done on a broad geographical basis in terms of natural resources,
and at specific points in terms of agronomic practices.

The isolation of some of the individual research project is a major limita-
tion of its usefulness. The work on annual crops has concentrated at Yurimaguas,
Peru and to a lesser extent in Manaus, Brazil. The work on pastures has been
primarily done by the PROPASTO Network throughout the Amazonia of Brazil, and in
Pucallpa, Peru. The work on permanent crops is primarily in Brazil. The work
on forestry is very limited per se. Perhaps the best example is Jari Plantation
in Brazil. The work on agroforestry is widely scattered and most superficial.
Finally, in only one place, Limoncocha, Ecuador has an attempt been made to inte-
grate all these components into one system but unfortunately this has been done
on high fertility soils and without much of a commercial orientation.

Although in need for some editing, these reports present a massive amount of
information and when published they will become a very fine baseline study of what
is known about Amazon land resources and use in early 1980. Some highlights of
the discussions follow.







Schubart emphasized the differences in the color of the river waters as
indicative of soil fertility. The "white water" rivers are high in calcium
and produce high fertility alluvial deposits. The "black water" rivers are derived
primarily from Spodosol areas and their chemical composition approximates that
of distilled water. Fishing is very poor in those rivers and even mosquitoes
are not abundant. There seems to be some evidence that the ecosystem extracts
nutrients from the plants into the river rather than the opposite. The "clear
water" systems stem from watersheds with Oxisols and Ultisols and occupy a
somewhat intermediate position but along the low side.

Dr. Alvim mentioned that agroforestry is beautiful but there is no tech-
nology yet. (He also mentioned that ignorance is not the privilege of the less
developed countries such as those of the Amazon but also of the developed country
institutions when it comes to solutions on the problems of the Amazon).

The potential of perennial crops is obviously a high consideration. Oil
palm is perfectly tolerant to acidity and produces four times as much oil as
soybeans on a per hectare basis and five times more oil as peanuts. Its poten-
tial as a direct energy source is enormous and it is just being investigated.
Unlike production of alcohol from sugercane, cassava or sorghums, palm oil does
not have to be distilled, just purified and put directly into gasoline tanks.

On the ecological front, the old arguments about oxygen depletion if the
Amazon is cleared and CO2 pollution were discarded by INPA. The main concern is
the possible alteration of hydrological cycles. In the Amazon forests, water
physically stays in the ecosystem for two to three months and then blows down
south as water vapor. If there is a change in the canopy this might decrease
ground water, but if a new canopy develops there might not be any change. There
are problems of heat balance if a crop cover is changed not necessarily because
of evapotranspiration or because of the albedo. Nevertheless, there is no ques-
tion that crop or pasture systems are more fragile in terms of not having a com-
plete ground cover than the forest.

Dr. Alvim again emphasized that annual crop production is the most difficult
issue and was impressed by the Yurimaguas work which demonstrates the feasibility
of continuous annual crop production.

The Amazon Research Network

The third day was devoted to the conclusions of the meeting and the framework
for cooperation. It was agreed that the interested institutions form an Amazon
Research Network in order to strengthen and expand land use research in this re-
gion. The specific objective of the Network is to develop a regionwide, integral,
multi-disciplinary cooperative research program. Such a program is aimed at de-
veloping technology for land use systems based on research on ecology, soils,
annual crop agronomy pastures and livestock, permanent crops, forestry, agro-
forestry, and socio-economics. An organizing committee was appointed and formed
by representatives from the six Amazon countries. Carlos Valverde of Peru was
elected Chairman, Herminio Maia Rocha of Brazil, Secretary, Jaime Navas, the
Colombian representative, Marcial Machicado, the Bolivian representative, Sergio
Benacchio, the Venezuelan representative, and an Eduadorian representative is to
be named by INIAP. This Committee met afterwards and decided to invite repre-
sentatives from international agencies to join. The Committee was expanded






5

therefore, to include the following members: Gary Toenniessen, Rockefeller
Foundation; Rudolf Binsak, GTZ; Pedro Sanchez, North Carolina State Univer-
sity; Gustavo Nores, CIAT; and Paulo Alvim from Brazil as senior advisor.
In addition, Rufo Bazan, Coordinator of IICA Tr6picos, was invited to join
the Committee.

The Network Committee will meet again in Manaus on June 24-26 in order
not to lose time. The purpose of the Manaus meeting would be to define the
institutions and geographical points to be involved in the network. Each
country will bring a list of institutions and sites that will form part of
the network with an abbreviated description of each one. In addition, a
list of research components prepared at the meeting will be prioritized and
the countries themselves will prepare a joint request for support from the
international donors.

Many of the participants expressed that this was the best Amazon Confer-
ence they had been to because of its objectivity and the concentration on re-
search. The implications of this Network for the Soil Management CRSP are
major. Although the CRSP will likely concentrate on one location in the humid
tropics of South America, this network will facilitate the validation and trans-
fer of technology to other areas as well as provide technical inputs for the
work to be done at Yurimaguas. Tony Babb, Deputy Assistant Administrator of
AID, was present at the meeting and very much supports the concept of the Net-
work and the CRSP's participation in it.


YURIMAGUAS, APRIL 19-20


A field trip to Yurimaguas was organized in order to provide an opportunity
for a limited group of scientists attending the Conference to visit this station.
There were some doubts whether the trip would take place at all because CORPAC,
the Peruvian aviation agency refused landing of the CIAT plane at Yurimaguas
because the airport has been closed for three months for expansion. However,
a quick telex to Bandy took care of that and we did receive permission the next
day. A group of 8 people (Pino and Toenniessen from the Rockefeller Foundation,
Alvim from Brazil, Bishop from Ecuador, Machicado from Bolivia, Tom Cochrane
and Jim Spain from CIAT, and Sanchez) left Cali on the CIAT plane early Saturday
morning and arrived at Iquitos two hours and 40 minutes later. After clearing
customs in Iquitos, we proceeded to Yurimaguas, another 50 minutes flight. Upon
landing in Yurimaguas, we were received by national television cameras and
Bandy's first words were: "Smile, you're on candid camera." A major show was
put on our behalf, the idea being to publicize the Amazon from the scientific
point of view. All the participants gave speeches that were sent live on Lima
television as well as reported in newspapers. Following that we went to the
Yurimaguas Station where we were briefed on the work by Dr. Bandy, Ing. MesTa
and local Yurimaguas officials such as Dr. Chu, the Head of Agricultural Develop-
ment for ORDELORETO in Yurimaguas, the Mayor and Provincial Prefecto as well.
Dr. Oswaldo Vargas, Director of CRIA III (Tarapoto) headed the INIA delegation.
We did spend the rest of the time touring the station facilities and later that
night had an opportunity to obtain the reactions of this interesting group of
scientists.







After a nice dinner at the Bandys, we had a full session in which each of
the members expressed their opinions as to where Yurimaguas should go. They
were all genuinely pleased and convinced that continuous cropping is indeed
possible under the specific Yurimaguas socio-economic conditions, but several
questioned the validity of the economic data and all encouraged the necessity
to extrapolate the findings to other areas with similar demographic density
in the Amazon for validation.

Bishop suggested that it is absolutely essential to incorporate trees into
the present systems, at Yurimaguas. This was also seconded by Cochrane but Pino,
Toenniessen and Spain objected on the grounds that the Yurimaguas program is
stretched as far as it can go, and rather than opening such a major research
front such as permanent crops, it should concentrate and gain depth on the pre-
sent emphasis on annual food crops, soil dynamics, and the beginnings of the
pasture work. There was considerable disagreement on this very crucial issue
and it is certainly worthy of major consideration. On the more positive side,
Alvim mentioned that the Yurimaguas Station has provided the best data to
demonstrate that the Amazon can produce food. Economics is the main question
and agriculture must be profitable. There is no question that fertilizers must
be used but reducing the level of input are necessary. Pino also mentioned
that there shouldn't be any question whether fertilizer should or should not be
used. Alvim made a plea to apply the Yurimaguas technologies to other places
such as Manaus. He also made plea for cooperation with CEPLAC, his own home
institution in the State of Bahia where new areas are being cleared for the pro-
duction of annual food crops. CEPLAC would be delighted to have an extrapola-
tion site with the Soil Management CRSP work in which CEPLAC will pay all local
expenses in order to extrapolate such technology to a similar environment, al-
though outside the Amazon.

Spain emphasized that one should look more closely at increasing the effi-
ciency of fertilizer use and that herbicides must be used. Finally, Pino
stressed that the INIA participation in this program should be increased to the
extent possible although recognizing the present budget limitations of INIA.

The next morning we visited two of the technology validation trials along
the Paranapura River, the Santa Felicia farm of Jose Valdivia and the San Juan
farm of German Gonzalez. Both these sites are on their second consecutive crop
of rice and peanuts and look very good. The visitors drilled the farmers as to
what they think about the system and the contrast between the two farmers pro-
vided some interesting insights. Valdivia is a more progressive man and he said
that as soon as fertilizers become commercially available in Yurimaguas and
credit is given, he will change from shifting to continuous cultivation.
Gonzalez however, said he would like to try it on a smaller scale, that it re-
quires more work but it is certainly not quite as difficult as clearing another
area.

We then saw some supposedly degraded pastures along the road and left Yuri-
maguas at 12:00 arriving back at CIAT at 5:00 p.m. On the route back, there was
no cloud cover over the Colombian Amazon; we were all amazed to see the extent
to which it has been cleared. There was little rainforest left (perhaps 5 to
10%), in a broad area starting from Tres Esquinas at the Caqueta River all the
way to Florencia. What I mean is that flying at an altitude of 19,000 feet,
one could hardly see any of the natural forest left; it was mostly pasture.







This certainly is in conflict with the Colombian position presented in the
Conference which states that the Colombian Amazon is not to be touched until
the research is ready.

It was a most pleasant trip and a most efficient use of time. In terms
of cost, it was also competitive: $500 round trip per person which is pretty
similar to the commercial flight costs going from Cali-Bogota-Lima-Tarapoto-
Yurimaguas and back. The beauty of it is that everything was done in two full
days, which would have taken about three times as much by commercial routes.


PALMIRA, APRIL 21


Monday morning was spent finishing some of the details for the publica-
tion of the proceedings of the Amazon Conference. Susanna Hecht of Berkeley
and Rockefeller Foundation apporteur and Alejandro Jimenez of CIAT were
named editors, and an editorial committee was formed with them plus Toenniessen,
Sanchez and Nores. All papers will be edited for technical and editorial con-
tent and will be published in two languages by CIAT.


BOGOTA, APRIL 21


The afternoon was spent at the ICA Tibaitata Station and headquarters in
downtown Bogota to discuss the participation of ICA in the Soil Management CRSP.
Most of the details were actually discussed with the ICA representatives present
at the Amazon Conference at CIAT, in which it was agreed that ICA would develop
the draft for the Letter of Intention concerning the Carimagua component pre-
viously indicated in the Letter of Intention with CIAT. This was done and a
Letter of Intention was signed Monday afternoon specifying the input of one
senior scientist to develop annual crop systems in Carimagua and graduate stu-
dents and short-term stopping support. The ICA soil scientists involved were
Drs. Jaime Navas, Gildardo MarTn and Rodrigo Lora. They expressed strong in-
terest for Colombia to be a secondary site for the Steeplands project as they
have severe problems in that direction. The Letter of Intention was signed by
the Gerente General, Dr. Pedro Leon Valasquez and then I left for my night
flight to Rio and Brasilia.

While at Tibaitata I also met with Dr. Enrique Alarcon, the ICA Director
of the National Pastures Program who informed me that ICA is ready to release
Andropogon gayanus CIAT 621 as a commercial variety next week. This is based
on its successful performance not only in Colombia but all throughout Latin
America, which is indeed remarkable. In over 30 sites where Andropogon gayanus
has been tested it has only failed in one. This site is in Puyo, Ecuador where
the annual rainfall is about 4,000 mm and the soils are poorly drained. Else-
where both savanna and forest areas as well as areas with high fertility soils
Andropogon is working fine. Luis Tergas of CIAT estimates that there are about
2,500 hectares of commercial production of Andropogon gayanus in Colombia and
there are at least two major Colombian seed producers making a killing on the
market selling seed at a very high price. The trick in managing Andropogon
gayanus is to put very high stocking rates during the rainy season in order for
it not to grow very tall.








BRASILIA, APRIL 22-24


I was met by Walter Couto, CIAT Soil Scientist,at the airport and after a
change of clothes was taken directly to the Cerrado Research Center (CPAC)
where I had a long conversation with Elmar Wagner, the Director of the Center.
Surprisingly, the first thing that Wagner mentioned is that CPAC is releasing
Andropogon gayanus as a commercial variety for Brazil the following Monday.
It was personally very rewarding to me to see that both Colombia and Brazil
have elected to release this most exciting acid-tolerant pasture within the
same week. Wagner also mentioned that Stylosanthes guyanensis "tardfos" are
doing extremely well and CPAC might consider releasing one accession in a year
or so.

Wagner had received copies of all the previous Letters of Intention before,
and mentioned that indeed the Cerrado Research Center is most interested in
joining the Soil Management CRSP. This is based on the very productive rela-
tionships CPAC has had in the Cornell/North Carolina State Project and would
like a continuation of it with those universities that are elected to parti-
cipate with the CRSP. He mentioned that the "aproveitamento" program, that is,
the soil-plant-water relationships, is probably the weakest point of CPAC at
this moment in comparison to the two other major programs, natural resource
evaluation and cropping systems. There is a need to ask more fundamental ques-
tions and get out of the rut of mechanistic research that they are presently
in. Inquiring graduate students, coupled with frequent visits of their pro-
fessors or specific visits of U. S. professors to help on certain issues are most
welcome.

It has been over a year since I last visited the Cerrado Center and the
physical development has been most remarkable. A new set of buildings are
being built with over 4,000 square meters of net laboratory space. They have
received about 2.8 million dollars in equipment from Japan. CPAC now houses
a total of 430 people, 94 researchers, 14 of which are studying abroad. In
addition to their direct hire staff, they have four CIAT staff members, 6
Japanese staff members, and two scientists hired by the World Bank, Dale
Ritchey (formerly Cornell) and another individual whose name I didn't catch.
This makes a total of 26 Ph.D.'s, 42 M. S. and the rest are B. S. level. They
have also established a network of 14 other sites in the Cerrado and three more
are coming.

Later I met with Wenceslau Goedert, Technical Director and Morethson
Rescende, the new Coordinator of the "aproveitamento" program who has a Ph.D.
from Davis in irrigation and who replaces Edson Lobato. Edson has been "pro-
moted" to researcher and he is ecstatic about it. A list of topics were de-
veloped in discussions with Morethsonand Edson and they were included in the
Letter of Intent. They are attempts to gain deeper understanding on the low
fertility of the Cerrado soils, specifically the interaction between lime and
phosphorus applications. This is not the usual interaction that one reads in
textbooks, but the very real fact that if you lime some acid-tolerant crops,
the phosphorus requirements become less and the economic implications are quite
important. Other issues of importance are calcium, potassium, magnesium imbal-
ances, sulfur and micronutrient fertilization, the latter is quite












weak, and mycorrhizae. There is a very positive but very preliminary first
field response to mycorrhizae inoculation in soybeans.

The second major issue is how to better characterize the water stress
problem (veranicos). In this regard, the most striking part of my visit was
the totally different behavior of the Latossolo Vermelho Escuro (Haplustox)
on the second erosion surface and the Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo (LVA) on the
chapada or top erosion surface, in areas where LVA has a water table during
the rainy season. The grass pasture trials of CIAT show a completely infe-
rior behavior across a wide variety of germplasm on LVA in spite of similar
fertility treatments. LVA is an Acrustox.

Afterwards we went to EMBRAPA headquarters and met with Eliseu Alves,
President of EMBRAPA, Raymundo Fonseca, the Director for the North, Herminio
Maia Rocha, the Technical Director, and Juan Carlos Scarsi, the IICA repre-
sentative. The latter visit was to explore the possibility of CRSP personnel
assigned in Brazil to be under the IICA umbrella which is possible under the
present IICA/North Carolina State convenio. Similar agreements could be de-
veloped with other participating universities or perhaps with the management
entity as well. This was acceptable to Dr. Scarsi who called his superior,
Jorge Soria in Costa Rica about it. This was also confirmed in a later con-
versation I had with Ireneu Cabral, the IICA representative for Brazil in Rio.

The Letter of Intention was finally drafted by Wagner and myself and was
accepted by Eliseu Alves. He, however, was not able to sign it, because he
needs to have it checked by the legal advisor of EMBRAPA, but initialed one
copy and promised to send me the signed copy as soon as it passes the legal
part. His instructions to the legal advisors were that he agrees with the
contents but just make sure it is in the right form.

The Cerrado Research Center is certainly maturing as an institution and
although the physical improvements are perhaps more impressive than the re-
search improvements, especially in the soils area, there is no question that
this would be an excellent place to work. The Cerrado of Brazil is too impor-
tant in the world scene to be ignored by the Soil Management CRSP and the
mutual benefits that can be obtained by working with an institution with ample
facilities, a good track record and a good satisfactory history of collaborat-
ing with the U. S. universities in tropical soils is certainly a major asset.

After the delivery of the Letter of Intent, Walter Couto drove me to the
Brasilia airport where I caught my flight to Rio and then on to Miami and
Raleigh.







PARTICIPANTS


INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON AMAZON LAND USE

AND AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH



REPRESENTATIVES OF GOVERNMENTAL AND NON-GOVERNMENTAL

ORGANIZATIONS CONDUCTING RESEARCH IN THE AMAZON BASIN


BRAZIL (Cont.)


Dr. Marcial Machicado,
Institute Boliviano de
Agropecuaria (IBTA)
IBTA MACA
La Paz, Bolivia
Tel. 374289-374291

Dr. Francisco Pereira,
Institute Boliviano de
Agropecuaria (IBTA)
IBTA MACA
La Paz, Bolivia
Tel. 370883

BRAZIL


Coordinador
TecnologTa





Director
TecnologTa


Dr. Herbert 0. Schubart, Ecologist
INPA
Caixa Postal 478
69.000 Manaus AM
Brazil
Tel. 236-5650

COLOMBIA

Dr. Pedro Leon Velasquez,
Gerente General
Institute Colombiano Agropecuario (ICA)
Calle 37 No. 8-43 80 Piso
Bogota, Colombia
Tel. 2322181


Dr. Paulo de T. Alvim
CEPLAC
Caixa Postal 7
45600 Ibabuna
Bahia, Brazil
Tel. 211-2211 or 211-1683

Dr. Herminio Maia Rocha
EMBRAPA
Edificio Super-Center
Venancio 2.000
70 Andar
Brasilia, Brazil
Tel. 223-6680

Dr. Eneas Salati, Diretor
INPA
Caixa Postal 478
69.000 Manaus AM,
Brazil
Tel. 236-5650


Dr. Manuel B. Alvarez,
Gerente de Investigacion
ICA
Calle 37 No. 8-43 80 Piso
Bogota, Colombia
Tel. 2322182

Dr. Jaime Navas A.,
Director de AgronomTa
ICA
Apartado Aereo 151123
"El Dorado"
Bogota, Colombia
Tel. 2814942

Dr. Robert B. Peck
Ave. Guadalupe No. 1A-10
Cali, Colombia
Tel. 514266


BOLIVIA










COSTA RICA

Dr. Hector Munoz
CATIE
Turrialba, Costa Rica
Tel. 56 05 01 or 56 08 11

ECUADOR

Dr. John P. Bishop
INIAP/UFLA/IBRD
Apartado 5080
Quito, Ecuador

PERU

Ing. Javier Gazzo F.
Institute Nacional de Investigacion
Agraria (INIA)
Sinchi Roca 2728
Lima, Peru

Dr. Jose H. Lopez Parodi
Proyecto Asentamiento Rural
Integral "Jenaro Herrera"
Cooperacion Tecnica Gobierno Suizo
Casilla 546
Iquitos, Peru

Dr. Carlos Valverde
Institute Nacional de Investigacion
Agraria (INIA)
Sinchi Roca 2728
Lima, Peru
Tel. 404885

VENEZUELA

Dr. Sergio Benacchio
Fondo Nacional de Investigaciones
Agropecuarias (FONAIAP)
Apartado 4588
Maracay 2101 A
Aragua, Venezuela
Tel. 043-832549








GERMAN AGENCY FOR TECHNICAL COOPERATION (Cont.)


Dr. Alexander Graf zu Stolberg
C. P. 48 CPATU
66.000 Belem, Brazil

INTERAMERICAN INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES OEA-IICA

Dr. Rufo Bazan
IICA-OEA
Apartado 55
Coronado, San Jose
Costa Rica
Tel. 29-02-22

Dr. Mario Kaminsky
IICA
Oficina Colombia
Apartado Aereo 14592
Bogota, Colombia
Tel. 249-4234

BANCO INTERAMERICANO DE DESARROLLO BID

Dr. Oscar O. Fuster
BID
808 17th Street, N. W.
Washington, D. C. 20433
Tel. 202-634-8642

INTERNATIONAL BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT IBRD

Mr. Klaas Haasjes
Banco Mundial
1818 H Street, N. W.
Washington, D. C. 20433
Tel. 202-477-5935

Mr. Maurice Asseo
Banco Mundial
1818 H Street, N. W.
Washington, D. C. 20433
Tel. 202-477-1234

Mr. John Collins
IBRD
1818 H Street, N. W.
Washington, D. C. 20433
Tel. 202-477-5315






REPRESENTATIVES OF TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE, FUNDING AND SPONSORING AGENCIES


CENTRO INTERNATIONAL DE AGRICULTURE TROPICAL CIAT

Dr. John L. Nickel, Director General
Dr. Thomas Cochrane, Land Resources Specialist
Dr. Peter Jones, Climatologist
Dr. Jose Toledo, Pasture Agronomist
Dr. Gustavo A. Nores, Director of Land Resources Research
Dr. Fernando Fernandez, Coordinator
Dr. James Spain, Soil Scientist
Dr. Armando Samper, Board Chairman Emeritus
Dr. Rosemary S. Bradley, Soil Microbiologist

CORPORATION NATIONAL DE INVESTIGATION Y FOMENTO FORESTAL CONIF

Dr. Ignacio Bustos, Gerente
CONIF
Calle 84 No. 20-05
Bogota, Colombia
Tel. 236-1702

Dr. Juan E. Valencia G.
CONIF
Apartado Aereo 091676
Bogota, Colombia
Tel. 2567410

FEDERAL MINISTRY OF ECONOMIC COOPERATION WEST GERMANY

Dr. Werner Treitz
Fed. Ministry for Economic Cooperation
Karl Marx Str. 4-6
D 5300 Bonn
Federal Republic of Germany
Tel. 535-233

FORD FOUNDATION

Dr. Richard Norgaard
207 Giannini Hall
University of California
Berkeley, California 94720
Tel. 415-642-3465

GERMAN AGENCY FOR TECHNICAL COOPERATION GTZ

Dr. Rudolf Binsack
GTZ
Postfach 5180
6236 Eschborn 1
Federal Republic of Germany
Tel. 06196.4011








INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH CENTRE IDRC

Dr. Edward Weber
CIID
Apartado Aereo 53016
Bogota, Colombia
Tel. 255-8600

NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY NCSU

Dr. J. Lawrence Apple, Associate Director
Agricultural Research Service

Dr. Charles McCants, Head
Department of Soil Science

Dr. Pedro A. Sanchez, Coordinator
Tropical Soils Program

ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION RF

Dr. John A. Pino
1133 Avenue of the Americas
New York, New York 10036
Tel. 212-869-8500

Dr. Kenneth 0. Rachie
1133 Avenue of the Americas
New York, New York 10036
Tel. 212-869-8500

Dr. Gary Toenniessen
1133 Avenue of the Americas
New York, New York 10036
Tel. 212-869-8500

Ms. Susanna B. Hecht
501 Earth Sciences Building
University of California
Berkeley, California
Tel. 312-642-8273

SWISS TECHNICAL COOPERATION

Dr. Rolf Wilhelm
Swiss Technical Cooperation
3003 Berne
Switzerland
Tel. 031/61 34 77

























UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM- UNDP

Mr. Jens Christensen
UNSP/FAO
Apartado 4488
Lima, Peru

UNITED STATES AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT SAID

Mr. Tony Babb
AID
DAA/05
Washington, D. C. 20523
Tel. 703-235-2240




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