Title: Methodologies which enable the inclusion of gender analysis in agricultural research and development
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00095670/00001
 Material Information
Title: Methodologies which enable the inclusion of gender analysis in agricultural research and development
Physical Description: 7 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Poats, Susan V
Feldstein, Hilary Sims, 1950-
Publication Date: 1988
Copyright Date: 1988
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Research   ( lcsh )
Women in agriculture   ( lcsh )
Genre: international intergovernmental publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: S. Poats & H. Feldstein.
General Note: "Draft."
General Note: Typescript; Photocopy.
General Note: "November 6, 1988."--leaf 3.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00095670
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 436089037

Full Text















DRAFT

METHODOLOGIES WHICH ENABLE THE INCLUSION OF GENDER ANALYSIS IN AGRICULTURAL
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT. a 3 /J e


CONTEXT FOR DETERMINING METHODOLOGY


1. Projiect,Research, or Policy Objectives: How widely or narrowly focused
are the overall research objectives--whole farm? crops only? specific
commodity? Specify clearly the research objectives for the overall
project and for any specific enterprise or experiment.

And whose objectives are they? researcher? institution? project? policy?
participants?

2. Questions critical to the technical scientist. What do they want to
know? Understand their objectives.

3. Methodologies and modes of analysis already in use and accepted by your
technical and social science colleagues. How can they be modified to
incorporate information on gender? Disaggregated data? Inclusion of a
wider scope of enterprises?

4. Time frame, stage of research. Early? Middle? Late? What data,
including secondary data, is already available? What level of detail and
reliability is required for decision making?

5. Nature of the population: literacy? accessibility? ethnicity? class,
caste? cultural constraints and expectations?

6. Political constraints

7. Resources available and time constraints. Personnel, time allowable for
data collection and analysis, transport.








Good Practice: Important Points to Consider in Integrating Gender and
Intrahousehold Dynamics into Agricultural Research and Development at the
Field Level.

1. Keep good field notes which identify the context in which interview or
survey has taken place for each respondent. Include location, time of
day, who was present, who spoke, who was consulted by the respondent; of
a group whether it expands or shrinks? Who stays or goes? Who speaks, who
doesn't? This context information may be useful for analyzing patterns
of responses to see if they fit a pattern related to location or to who
was present.

2. Surveys and household recordkeeping take a long time for gathering and
analyzing information. Try more rapid techniques such as RRA, focused
group interviews, etc. to get a "quick and direct" understanding of the
system and identify researchable problems for technical scientists.
Surveys and recordkeeping may be useful in establishing or documenting a
baseline against which to measure change over time.

3. Develop interdisciplinary agreement on data needs. Before doing your
research, consult with other scientists on the project. Learn their
fields of expertise, how they see the farmer's world and understand the
technologies with which they are experimenting. As much as possible go
with them in the site and discuss with them the importance of being
sensitive to likely users of the technologies.

Identify bias areas, your own and your colleagues'. To cut through
biases and foster awareness, look for questions which do this, such as
ones which will provide evidence to verify or contradict an assumption
about roles or incentives.

4. For any experimental intervention, document effects in concrete terms:
What are the new resources required and who supplies them? Do additional
labor requirements conflict with other activities or seasonal
availability? What are the specific benefits (including labor saved) and
who gets them? Who will have the incentives to adopt the technologies?
Monitor specifically the changes in labor patterns disaggregated by
gender.

5. Be creative and clear about sampling decisions whether sampling randomly
or deeply within blocks. Think about the advantages and disadvantages of
random vs focused sampling to learn more about the research question.
Consider 'exploratory sampling', i.e. letting farmers pick and choose
technologies on their own terms and then monitoring their use and
results as a way of learning more about farmers' perceptions and patterns
of use.

6. Be physically present at the project site as much as possible. Let your
cooperators and your field staff know how much you, personally,
appreciate the work they do, and why, what they do is important for the
institution. Correct timing of field visits is more important than the
length of time in doing participant observation. If women are involved
in rice production, processing, sericulture, etc. observe how specific
















activities are done in sequence, document the time and costs involved for
technology generation, testing and evaluation purposes.

7. If your technological field tests can be done only on certain kinds of
farms (for instance of a certain size or soil type or under irrigation),
recognize that the technology you are testing may only be relevant to
certain kinds of farmers. Consider experimentation relevant to other
groups.

8. When making recording instruments for use by farmers or extension
workers, make them appropriate, e.g. if too spaces are too small, farmers
may list only one activity rather than several for a half day.

9. Present data in terms acceptable to decision makers.

10. Be flexible as you work with your cooperators. Do not go the field with
rigid time schedules, and always have a back uyp plan when something goes
wrong with a field trial. Remember, if monitoring is done well, even
field "failures" provide valuable information for future activities. Was
the technology wrong for that setting? Why: Bad institutional support?
Unfavorable climate? Poor integration with the existing system?

11. Organize frequent meetings to gather feedback from the cooperators to
inform them of the results of the experiments. Making them participants
in design and evaluation as well as implementation will provide them
incentives to cooperate fully. If you are monitoring income,
profitability of cropping patterns, etc., provide the cooperators with
the results and let them know the usefulness of generating the
information.

Contributors:
Participants in Women in Rice Farming Systems Conference, IRRI, May 1988
Participants in Training of Trainers, Gender and Agriculture Project,
Fayetteville, Arkansas, October 1988

Prepared by Hilary S. Feldstein
November 6, 1988






STAGE AND OBJECTIVES OF
RESEARCH

EARLY
INITIAL DIAGNOSTIC'
To determine the
existing pattern of
production including
agroclimatic factors,
labor and resource use;
to identify problems and
opportunities for
improvements in
technology; to identify
appropriate indicators
for measuring
improvements in the
system.


DATA AND ANALYSIS NEEDS





A general pattern of the
production system with
specific information on
particular enterprises
if already included in
the objectives of the
project.
.Agroclimatic
.Current crop and
livestock management
including seasonality of
specific activities
.Markets and conditions
of access
.Other Economic
Activities which
contribute to/compete
with agricultural
production including
household production and
off farm opportunities.
.Sense of social system
and relationships within
and between households.
In terms of cash income
or meeting family
subsistence
requirements, what is
the proportionate
contribution of each
enterprise.
.Demographics including
household types,
population stability.


GENDER QUESTION: WHO?





Data should include the
identification of the
general pattern of
.who decides about or
does each enterprise or
task?
hosee resources are
used?
.who benefits?
.who has historical
knowledge of crop and
livestock production?


METHODOLOGIES





.Rapid Rural Appraisal
.Key Informant
interviews outside and
inside target community
.Focus groups
.Interviews with local
experts re climatic and
land use patterns
.Field mapping of
production enterprises
.Formal survey
.benchmark
.resource monitoring
.subject focus
.Sampling
.random
.stratified
.purposive
.Wealth indexing
.Decision mapping with
individuals or groups
.Life histories
.collection of
individuals
.community
.Exploratory trials
with farmers to
identify farmer
practices and
constraints,
variability.


Methodologies draft/November 7, 1988/4






PLANNING2
To specify research
agenda


.Identification of
constraints and
opportunities for
research
.Screening for
appropriate off-the-
shelf technologies
.Establishing priorities
among researchable
problems;
.Determination of on-
station and on-farm
experimentation.
.Identification and
screening for resources
required.

.understanding of
criteria--agroclimatic,
resources, or task
assignment--which
separates one group of
farmers from another in
terms of determining
acceptability of a
given technology


.Specification of
research problem;
.Identification of
dependent and
independent variables;
levels and numbers of
treatments;
.Selection of farmers
for on-farm trials
.Identification of data
to be collected which
will be used for
assessment of a trial.


To determine research
oosains or targeting










To design trials3


Are the research
priorities proposed
appropriate for all the
farmers in the area? or
only for some? Is
there an equitable
distribution of
research activity?


Same as above











.Ex-ante screening for
timing (seasonality)
and gender division of
labor
.Specification of whose
activities or resources
are used or changed for
proposed technological
improvement;
.Identifying data from
who or about who to be
collected which will be
used for assessment of
a trial


Conceptual framework
for Intra-Househoid or
Gender Analysis to use
for screening proposed
technological
improvements as to
suitability or fit for
this environment.


.Focused or non-random
farmer selection.
.Wealth indexing
.Farmer-managed
exploratory trials.







.Farmer-sanaged
exploratory trials.
.Farm trials conducted
with groups as vell as
individuals.


Methodologies draft/November 7, 1988/5






MIDDLE
EXPERIMENTATION
AND EVALUATION4
To test for the output
fro',' the impact of
changes from, and the
appropriateness of the
e-pirimental
technology.





















To fill in data reeds
'vith f :cus and/or depth
as r:e .e to -larify
th i.-pli:catiori off
different ior earch
po-sitilitie s.


.Monitoring of labor
and other resource
inputs
.Specification of
farmer practices
.Measurement of
physical output
including use of by
products
.Feedback from farmers
on advantages and
disadvantages of
experimental technology
.Post harvest uses of
products and by-
products including
taste and processing
and other requirements.







.Indiwenous knowledge
.Ouantification of
specific labor
patterns, resource,
use, productivity.
.better understanding
of decision-making
processesandcriteria-
.Understanding the
farmer priorities and
criteria (constraints
or incentives) for
acceptance or non-
acceptance of
production changes.
.post harvest uses of
products.


.Ulhose resources,
including land, labor,
water, inputs are
actually used in
experimental
production.
.Who uses the various
outputs of the
enterprise? What are
their criteria for
acceptability?















.Soecifying whose
interests are at stake
or are influential in
any decision-mal:ino
about the experimental
technology.


.HH Record Keeping
literate
low literate
.Field observations
.Informal conversations
with farmers
.Periodic visits
.Getting farmer
estimates on average
time for tasks,
measurements (e.g. of
harvest)
.Focus groups
.Field days: perhaps
separated by gender
.User evaluation
.Using groups as a
medium for carrying cut
trials.
.Cooking or other post-
harvest processing
trials


.Reanalysis of- \ i-, -
,* isaggregation of ,ic .r-,'. ~, -
existing data
.Focused formal surveys
on particular subjects
.Household
recordkeeping
.Time allocation
studies
.Group interviews with
field assistants
.Life histories
.Community
investigation
.Focus groups


odologies draft/November 7, 1988/6








LATE
rENDATIONS
Extension to Farmers'
To provide means for
extending infor Ftion
or inputs necessary for
technology acceptance









OTHEP
TRAINlING
To provide incentives
;nd t :ls for
incorporation of gender
analysis


.An understanding of
existing patterns of
extension, input
supply, and markets.












.identification of
participants as to
characteristics in terns
of education levels,
status, interest in the
issue, technical
orientation, own work
requirements and output
measures.


.Who are extension
agents?
.Hho receives extension
and where does
extension happen?
.Who has control of
and/or access to
inputs?
.Where are markets
located and who has
access and/or control?




.What are the salient
gender issues in this
area?
.'!ho are the
participants?


TO FIND OUT:
.Focus group interviews
with farmers, extension
agents, decision lakers
in extension services.
.Formal surveys
ACTION:
.Gender disaggregatkd
field days
.Working with groups
rather than
individuals.



TO FID OUT:
.orognizational
analysis
.focus group interviews
.key informant
interviews
ACTION:
.Introduction of
conceptual fraaewor'
.Case Studies
.Field practicun u~ing
pre-set gender related
questions and/or
conceptual framework
for analysis.


Methodologies draft/November 7, 1988/7




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs