Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Draught animals and developmen...
 Magnitude of DAP
 Economic evaluation of DAP
 Farming operations
 Harnessing devices
 Infrastructure for DAP
 Transfer of technology
 Problems and prospects for...
 Proposals for modernization of...
 Appendix I: Contribution of...
 Appendix II: Livestock dispersion...
 Appendix III: Draught animals
 Appendix IV: Draught animals in...

Title: Report on draught animal power as a source of renewable energy
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00095665/00001
 Material Information
Title: Report on draught animal power as a source of renewable energy
Alternate Title: Draft report on draught animal power as a source of renewable energy
Physical Description: vii, 150 p., 12 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Ramaswamy, N. S
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore
Conference: United Nations Conference on New and Renewable Sources of Energy
Donor: unknown ( endowment )
Publisher: Indian Institute of Management
Place of Publication: Bangalore
Publication Date: 1981
Copyright Date: 1981
Subject: Draft animals   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 140-147).
General Note: At head of title: "Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome."
General Note: "Prepared ... for the UN Conference on New and Renewable Sources of Energy."
General Note: Draft; typescript; photocopy.
General Note: "January 1981."
General Note: Cover title.
Statement of Responsibility: prepared by N.S. Ramaswamy.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00095665
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 436149470

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
        Errata 1
        Errata 2
    Table of Contents
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Draught animals and development
        Page 1
        Page 1a
        Page 1b
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Magnitude of DAP
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Economic evaluation of DAP
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
    Farming operations
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
    Harnessing devices
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
    Infrastructure for DAP
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
    Transfer of technology
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
    Problems and prospects for modernisation
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
    Proposals for modernization of DAP
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
    Appendix I: Contribution of ruminants
        Page 133
        Page 134
    Appendix II: Livestock dispersion in developing countries
        Page 135
        Page 136
    Appendix III: Draught animals
        Page 137
    Appendix IV: Draught animals in farm work
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
Full Text


of the



Report on


as a Source of

Renewable Energy

Prepared by

Professor N.S. RAMASWAMY

FAO Consultant and
Director, Indian Institute of Management
Bangalore, India

for the



January 1981


DAP Consultancv Reoort


F.12;. line 2

delete and replace by "UN agencies and International Financing Bodies"

F.125, line 6

delete and replace by:

14.1 FAO breeding and feeding of animals, appropriate DA.- equipment
slaughter modernization, D.-A development p-cgra.mes.

F.125, lies 6 & 9

delete paragraph 14.3 and replace by:

14.3 TUNID small scale industry for carts and implements.

P.125, line 10


14.4 World Bar.k, 1A, IFAD financing of DAF development projects.

F.125, line 12

delete: "that the UN set up" and replace by: "to set up".

P.125, line 21

instead of "5UN Regional Commissiond' read

"Appropriate agencies or

F.12f, line 23

instead of "tUN Regional Com.rissions"read "Appropriate agencies or

P. 126,lines I & 2


F.127_, line 8

instead of urbann areas" read "in small and medium sized townsof DCs
where it is feasible and justified".

- 2 -

P.127, line 32

after "laws" add "to ensure rational DAP programmes".

P.127, line 33

instead of "coordination of programmes" read "coordination of DA
program e s",

P.127, line 35

instead of "funding or research" read "funding of DaP research".

P.127, line 37

instead of "progress of schemes" read "progress of DAP schemes"y

P.127, line 39

instead of "national policies" read "national DAP policies".

P.125, lines 26-27

delete and replace by "growing higher yielding and better quality
fodder crops"

P.125, lines 29-r20

delete and replace by improvingg quality of straw by appropriate
treatment s".

P.128, lines 35, 36 j 37

delete and replace by "Training a sufficient number of veterinarians
and develop adequate para-veterinary skills to suit specific draught
animal health problems".

c o :r T E :N T S


Food and Ener, 1
DA? Renewable E.er g 2
Other Products of DAs 4
DAs Convert the Sun's Energy 5
DAP and :.echanisatior.
Significance of DA? 5
Consequences of Nezlect 6
DA? to be Part of Agricultural System 6
DA? to be Subsidised 6
Changed Cost of Mechanisation 7
Difficulties in Developing DA? 7
Tractors and DA? 8
Trucks and DA? S
DAP Comilementary to COther Sources 9
Factors Against DA? 9
DAP and Pasture for Feed 10
DAP and Milk--Meat System 11
Animal Lovers 11
Conclusion and Recocmendations 12


Introduction 14
Large Animals Regiorwise Distribution 14
Estimate of DAP Population 15
Market Value of DAs 17
Power Available 17
Employment, Pate of Return, etc. 20
DAP by Species and Countries 21
DAs in Farm Operations 21
Area Cultivated 21
Tractors 22
Share of DAP for a Few Countries 22

Other Comments in the Winrock Report 24
Tillage Effort for Different Sources 24
FAO Projections for 20CO AD 25
Conclusion 29


Draught Horse Technology and Literature 30
Forces Towards Mechanisation 30
DAP versus Mechanisation Studies 31
Factors Econcrmic -valuation --
Employment Aspect 32
Fragmentat ion -33-
Adverse Effects of Mechanisation 33
Current Evaluation Only Tentative 33
Draught-Milk-Meat Systems 33
Importance of DAs 34
Models for Economic Evaluation 34
Wastes in the System 35
Other Benefits 36
Policy Implicaticns 36
Micro Studies 38
Conclusion 39


Shortage of Farm Power 40
Need for Increased DA? 40
Increased Productivity of DA? 41
Upgrading Levels of Technology 41
Five Categories of Countries 42
East African Countries: Tanzania, Sierra Leone 43 -44
and rMala;i, Botswana Democratic Malagasy
Republic ( adagascar)
Implements and Extension 44
Training 45
India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, China 47 50

DXCv-Ll41'G I,,-ORT.A CE 1.DEL 51
The Philippines, Thailand, Indonesia 51 52
3razil, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Chile, Peru 53

AG Pamphle;s and ?.blications 54
Desin- Centres 55
Extension 55
Market ing 56
C.. AJ..CT c??A..TIC.S 57


Vehicles the ADV Scene 58
Scope for ADV 58
Where AD7 is Inevitable 59
Ruran. Transpcrtat ion 59
Urban Transportation 60
VoljL-ne Moved_ 61
Horse-Drawn Carts 61
?neumatic Tyres and Smooth Eearings 62
Sullock Carts 62
R & D and manufacturee 64
Consequences of the Traditional Design 64
Cart Capacity 65
Benefits of Improved Design 65
Consequences of Low Capacity 66
Modernisation Steps 67
Increasing AL? Utilisation 68
Increasing ADV Nurbers and Variety 68
LCC-Gi G 69


Introduction 71
Objectives of Harness 71
Design Difficulties 71
Horse Harness 72
Cattle Harness 72
Improvement Efforts 73
Different Harnesses 74
5-rua-es for Tillage 74
Cattle for Tillage 75
Head Yokes Latin America 76
Buffaloes for Tillage 77
Other Animals for Ploughing 78
Horse Carts 78
Ca-tle Carts 79
Carts Drawn by Other Animals 81
Pack Animals 81
Logging 81
Other Equipment 82
Conclusion 82


Breeding and Raisinr- of DAs 84
Health and Veterinary Services 86
Food and Nuturition 87
Subsidies 89
Credit, Cooperatives and Insurance 89
Draught Measurement 91
Testing 91
Biological Effects on Animals 92
Hiring Services 92
Biogas 92
Slaughter and Marketing of DAs 93
Animal Welfare 94
Laws on Utilisation 95

c:-~APc~. -

C~EAPT~ 9 -

Religion and DAs
Animals and Environment
Directory and Handbcook
Audio-Visual Aids
Pamphlets on DAP
Centres for Energy Studies
Animal Energy Boards

"TR- T~~Cl" F T-E CLOGY 'f
Technology Levels and Productivity
Where DAP is not Appropriate
Prerequisites for Modernisation
Situation in Advanced Countries
Available Expertise
Asian Region
Regional Transfer
Latin America
Biogas Technolcgy Transfer


Science and Technology to DA?
Western Model for Developinmg Countries?
DAP versus Milk-Meat System
No Protagonist
Efficiency Aspects
DA? not Attractive
Gap in Knowledge
Possibilities of Intervention



Intervention from A--dvanced Countries and the T1 118
Economic Compulsions 119
Conclusion 120


Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations 121
Limitations of Study 121
Category of Recommendations 121
Implementing Agencies 122
reed for L Interventrion 122
Importance of DAP 123
Up.grading DAP 124
Int ernat ional Assistance 124
ULT Inter-Agency Body. 125
Regional Centres 125
Workshops and Conferences 125
Immediate Action for Modernisation 126
Infrastructure for DAP 127
lAP Expertise 129
Socio-Economic Studies 130
Research and Development Studies 131








For the forthcoming TUT Conference on New and Renewable Sources of
Energy (TUNCNS ) scheduled to be held in August 1981 in Nairoobi it
was decided to include Draught Animal Power (DAP) as one of the sources
of renewable energy. DAP which has served man for the last 5,0OO
years will continue to play a significant role in many developing
countries. In view of its enormous contribution and potential for
the development of these countries, DAP deserves far more attention
than it has received so far. DAP is complementary to both manual
labour and mechanical power; and can be phased out when more suitable
and economic sources become available.

7er- little of authentic and official i-fs-atio is readily
available on the various aspects of the total CAP system. aith a view
to formulating policies and programmes to develop DAP wherever it is
appropriate, UNCI.RSE requested TAO to make-a survey of the state of
the art of DA?. FAO entrusted the task to Professor N.S. Ramaswamy,
Director, Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore. The consultancy
assignment started on 1 April 1980 and was for a period of eleven months.

Due to paucity of data and time, the findings are more exploratory
than comprehensive. nevertheless, a great deal of relevant infor
nation and conclusive insights on better methods and technology have
been gathered- regarding the optimum utilisation of modernised DAP in
short, its where, why and how which will enable the launching of
innumerable projects to modernise DAP.

There may be about 400 million draught animals in the developing
countries, including young stock cattle, buffaloes, horses, donkeys,
mules, camels, yaks, llamas and elephants. The market value of these
animals and the adjunct equipment may be of the order of $100 billion.
They make available 150 million horsepower, the replacement of which by
petroleurm-based mechanical power may need about $300 billion for the
tractors and trucks. The recurring cost of oil, to be imported in most
cases, will be beyond the means of many countries.

DAP provides motive power to plough 50 percent of the cultivated
area and to haul over 30 million vehicles. Besides, the animals yield
milk, fibre, fertilizer, fuel, meat, skin and numerous other products
and services. They are equitably distributed among millions of small
farmers and poor people, to whom they are the main asset and means of
livelihood. Being highly labour intensive, there is considerable scope
for increasing employment and earnings.

The report gives specific proposals to modernise all aspects of the
whole DA? system by way of improvements to: animal breeds and raising
programmes, feed and pasture development, health and veterinary services,
agricultural implements and equipment, vehicles and carrying methods,
harnesses and hitching devices, biogas generation, credit and cooperatives,
slaughter methods, recovery of by-products, organization and management of
R & D, etc. When implemented, all these will help the development of
this massive renewable energy for increased food production and small-
scale transportation.


Professor Ra-aswams y collected data from several sources from
published material and through surveys of and field visits to a few

He held useful discussions with many DAP experts and concerned
government officials, to whom he is grateful for their help. He
thanks Dr. D. Angels and Dr. A. Garciduenas who assisted him in
surveying the DA? situation in Latin America and African countries.
He thanks the Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore, for the
research and secretarial support extended.

Professor .?amaswary wishes to express his appreciation to FAO for
its guidance and help, particularly to those too numerous to be
mentioned by name who advised him on the various aspects of DAP.

Professor Ramaswamy is deeply grateful to Dr. F.J. 1M:outtapa and
Dr. R. Van Vaerenbergh who were closely associated with the study, and
to Iiss Liza Girling who typed the final report.

1 -

A ND D E V E L 0 P M E N T

Food and Ener-v

1. The third world has entered the third development decade with more
anxieties than ever before in human history. In spite of spectacular
achievement's in nuclear, electronic, space and numerous other scientific
and technological fields, the problem of achieving economic and social
progress, on an equitable basis, continues to be_formidable and has
eluded the ingenuity of man. Among the several issues confronting the
developing countries, food and energy will be the major ones for the
nex- two decades. Development is usually associated with industrial-
isation and the use of sophisticated technology. While this is largely
true, the experience of the last two development decades shows that
even a high growth ra-e and prosperity in industrial islands will have
less overall impact, unless the large masses of people engaged in agri-
culture in the developing countries are lifted from the backward tech-
nology and privation in which they are mired. In spite of a high
grow~-h rate in Brazil (a middle income country), the bottom 80ob were
hardly better off in 1970 compared to 1960 (their share of national
income declined). In spite of a good agricultural growth rate and
having the third largest scientific and technical manpower in the world,
in India (a low income country), the number of people below the so-
called "poverty line" has increased over the last two decades (now 40c).
The top 10 zo 15% have benefited more from development inputs. Even
under the best of conditions where indus-ry grows at a rate of 8 to 10:c,
organized industry cannc absorb the millions that will be added to the
workforce during the next two decades. A way has to be found to retain
as many as possible in the rural areas by utilising local resources by
employing labour intensive technic-ues. It is precisely here that DA?
fits in nicely with its labour intensive and low skill character, least
capital-consuning technology well in tune with rural life because of
its multifaced uses. Therefore, while efforts towards rapid industrial-
isation and high technology (where it is a 'must') should continue, develop-
ment of the decentralised rural sector through the effective delivery of
modernisation and organization to it will offer new life and hope to the

2. Draught Animal Power (DAP) has now been condemned as archaic and
left to die slowly. But DAP is an outstanding exa-ple of mass-level
application of appropriate technology to the millions of small men who
have missed the fruits of development in the third world. For both
food and energy, the renewable draught animals integrated with the
popular milk and meat systems produced by its own species have no equal.
They convert the sun's infinite energy through plant life into energy
and numerous products and services for man's well'being. The draught
animal has its own domain, where it functions effectively, treading on no-
body's toes, eating grass and rejected crop residues, and silently making
itself useful in life and in death too. A graphic representation of the
Land Draught Animal Man relationship is shown below:

- la -


Symbiotic relationships and interdependence, (adapted from a chart given
in the "Role of Ruminants in Support of Man", produced by the Winrock
Livestock Research Centre, Morrilton, Arkansas, USA-72110).

- 2 -


3. 85 to 9C0 of Asia and. Africa depend on manual and draught power,
and the benefits of mechanisation go to barely 10C. Thus, man and
beast still share the energy burden between them mutually dependent
on a symbiotic relationship. As the main instrument of production
of the small man, it is more fairly and evenly distributed than any
other. 400 million draught animals in the developing countries, valued
at 3100 billion, make available 150 million h.p., the replacement of
which may need $250 billion. The modernisation of DA? would amount to
strengthening the instruments that would enable the small man to make a
decent living which he has been unable to do so far, as he has not been
able to join the development stream fully in the last two decades.

Ll. Already, a billion people are suffering under severe conditions
of hunger and pover-. Two-thirds of the population of Asia and Africa
are engaged in agriculture. Cnce nett exporters of food grain, the
third world countries (TiCs) as a result of wrong priorities in their
national plans are now importing approximately 90 million tons of food
grains. It is feared that this figure may go up to a staggering
150 million tons by the end of this century, by which time two more
billions would have been added to the world population, the bulk of them,
again, in the developing countries (DCs). Although the advanced
countries (ACs) can perhaps produce this additional food requirement,
most of the low income countries (LICs) cannot afford to pay for the
same. Moreover, the non-oil-producing countries need their precious
foreign exchange to pay for the ever-increasing and forbidding cost of
petroleum imports. ?For many such unhappily placed countries, the foreign
exchange burden will be beyond their means.

DA? Renewable Enersy

5. In many world for--s, the opinion has been expressed that the
developing countries should increase their food output in the aggregate
at the rate of 3.4t that is, about 1% above the population growth rate.
Power a-ailability is one of the main constraints to achieving the increase
in land and labour productivity essential for meeting world food
production targets and for raising rural incomes. Energy is the key
input, around which the impact of other inputs such as fertilizer, water,
pesticides, etc. would show better results. Energy is required for
increasing the area and the intensity of cultivation. It is in this
context that leaders and professionals should look at DA?- as a possible
source of renewable energy and give more attention to it than hitherto -
as an input to agriculture and small-scale transportation. The search
for new energy sources such as the sun, wind, tide, etc. will and should
continue with vigour. However, it will take many years for these new
forms of energy to become available for mass application at a price within
the means of millions of farmers. Meanwhile, DAP technology is known,
and is available (or can be made available) within the financial and
organizational means of most farmers. All that is required is modern-
isation and developmen-t, wherever DAP is the only way out, and/or
appropriate to given situations.


c. Further, the current biological revolution offers great potential
for locally available and renewable resources as well as for traditional
knowledge and skills. It is based on genetic variability that 'can be
induced in the seeds, improvements in the nitrogen-fixing bacteria and
adapting the latter to cereal strains. The prospects of increasing
the chlorophyll assimilation of solar energy are also now regarded as
feasible. This revolution is labour rather than input intensive and
will provide badly-needed employment in the rural areas of the third
world. It is, above all, based on the close integration of animal
husbandry with farming and applies the genetic knowledge of improved
breeding in the case of both crops and animals.

7T Draught animals (DAs) were first harnessed for farm power in
3000C 3C, and since then they have been closely associated with the
progress of civilization. During their working life, they provide
not only motive power to millions of ploughs and other agricultural
implements but also fuel for rural homes and fertilizer for the soil.
When dead, they yield meat, skin, bone-and numerous other valuable
products useful to man. The important role of work animals which has
been critical for man's sustenance for thousands of years strangely
enough, continues to be so even today for many developing countries,
which will have to depend on DA? for many more years to come. Unfortunately,
over the centuries man's symbiotic relationship with animals has progres-
sively changed. Due to alienation, animals today are a mere inert
commodity for utilitarian exploitation under market forces, resulting in
economic loss to society and needless suffering to animals. It is not
even now too late to restore harmony and balance in the Land Draught -
Animal !Man ccrntiuum for the benefit of all. The relationship is
shown graphically in the chart.

8. Oxen were perhaps the first and most widely-used work animals.
Even today they continue to be the mainstay in- most parts of the developing
countries for agriculture and transport operations. Buffaloes are
popular for ploughing in Asia; and they haul vehicles in India and to a
lesser extent elsewhere.

9. The horse an efficient work animal well developed in the advanced
countries displaced oxen in the first half of this century. Although
they continue to play a part in agriculture in Poland, China and some
Latin American (LA) countries, elsewhere in Asia they are mostly used for
light transportation in urban areas only. Donkeys are mainly used as
pack animals, although they haul carts in a few countries in Africa and
Latin America, and in China in a big way. Mules are used both for
ploughing and carting, wherever horses and donkeys are in use.

10. Camels are largely used as pack animals, and in many dry tracks they
are the main means of transportation for goods and people. In a few
countries, such as India, they also haul carts. Llamas are used only
as pack animals in the high altitudes of Peru and Bolivia. Yaks are
extensively used as pack animals in Tibet and the adjoining mountainous
provinces of China. They are used for ploughing and carting as well.
Elephants are used for logging in Sri Lanka, India, Burma and Thailand.
For logging, ACs use horses and LA countries cattle.

4 -

Other Products of DAs

11. Besides draught power, animals yield. a variety of products
valuable to man. Dung and urine are useful as fertilizer. Dung is
used as direct fuel, and for producing methane gas. It is used in
construction as plaster, and as feed (recycled). India annually uses
60 to 80 million tons of dried cattle and buffalo dung for fuel,
replacement of which by coal and oil would cost $3 billion. Camels,
llamas and yaks yield fibre. In some African countries, draught
animals are kept for companionship and prestige and as a status symbol.
For example, cattle are given as brides' dowry in Africa. Draught
animals can be exchanged for cash and act as an insurance in times of
emergency. Elephants and cattle are sacred to Eindus, and are used
in festivals in Asia. Scme animals are used for e-xhibi--r-s, -figti-g,
hunting, herding, racing and riding; others are usec for sacrifice in
religious rites. They store capital and grain for the future. As
regards conservation, they contribute to ecological maintenance and
restoration, which is not well recognized. Grazing animals help in
distribution of seeds of grasses and legumes through their feces.
Plant coverage prevents soil erosion. Animals provide the incentive
and income for grass and plant cover. In Indonesia, Mexico and Brazil,
the opening up of new lands was facilitated by animals grazing, clearing,
etc. Even in pest control, buffaloes are used for crushing snails
under their feet, as for example in certain rice/paddy areas of South-
East Asia.

12. While their utility during their working life is impressive,
their value after death is equally so. Most parts of the animals are
useful. Mea- of all the species is eaten, as 905 of the world
population is non-vegetarian. The skin of all animals is extensively
utilised. Buffalo hair is used for brushes. Blood, bone, hoof and
horn are used for a variety of purposes. Tankage and endocrine
extracts and numerous other by-products are used by industry, particularly
the pharmaceutical sector. Draught animals help in maintaining and
restoring the ecological balance.

13. Thus, draught animals are not merely for draught. They have many
other uses all of which enhance the status of DA in the economic and
social sense. For the marginal farmers of some of the developing
countries, animals are not only an integral part of their rural economy
but also of their lives. They are the main assets of the poor millions
in the developing countries. Winrock Internaticnal Livestock Research
and Training Centre, in their publications on "Ruminant Products" and
"Role of Ruminants in Support of Man" has described the contribution of
draught animals, some of which are reproduced in Aooendix I.

14. In terms of numbers, cattle and buffaloes are the main sources of
DA?, roughly 300 million. It is not as though animals have to be
raised exclusively for draught. Females of cattle, buffaloes, camels
and yaks give milk; they also work as in China, Thailand, Indonesia and
the Philippines. They are part of the agriculture and rural life. The
cost of the animal is one of raising it up to working age only.

5 1-5

DAs Convert the Sun's Energy

15. vost of the food consumed by these animals is roughage and grass,
not useful to man. Fodder is generally grown on land where grain
carno-. be easily grown. Thus draught animals do not in reality compete
with man for land to any significant extent. They use the sun's energy
through plant life (and consume rejects) and make themselves useful to
society in numerous ways. In fact, an appreciation of the important
role and massive contribution of these ruminants and equines to man
would help in reviewing the current state of neglect of the DAP system.
A matching effort to modernise DA? will bring in enormous economic and
social benefits. It is essential to remember that flAs are living,
sentient creatures, which experience pleasure and pain, and so deserve
better_ reat.ent: than they generally receive now in Asia and Africa.

DAP and Mechanisation

16. Development of DAP does not mean discouragement and/or
discontinuance of mechanisation by petroleum-based power (?PP). In
fact, BP? can be encouraged wherever technically feasible and
economically viable. Similarly, DA? need be developed only where
it is recognized as being inevitable and/or appropriate where circum-
stances conducive to it exist. DLAP could be considered as complementary
to manual labour on one side and ?3? on the other. In most situations,
there is no real competition or conflict between DAP and P?P, as has been
demcnstrated in China and some parts of India. Widom lies in using
all sources manual labour, DAP and P?B in the right mix, and not to
consider one in place of the other.

17. Finally, DAP need be only an interim phase in development. When
other more suitable and economic sources of energy are developed in
the next few years, DAP could possibly be phased out. Meanwhile,
developing countries should upgrade their DAP system so that this source
of energy within their reach and capacity can serve them better.

Significance of DA?

18. The current population of the world is approximately 4 billion
which will rise to 6 billion by the turn of the century. The major
problem worrying the planners, scientists and also the policy makers
is how to feed the extra 2 billion, particularly when most of the
developing countries are already deficit in food. The additional
agricultural output required will largely depend upon the increased
availability of energy and other inputs such as fertilizer, water,
pesticides, etc. As their resources for mechanisation are limited,
the only way by which such an incremental need for energy could be met
is by increasing the DAP component its numbers and quality, better
feed and health care on the one hand and improved implements, equipment,
carts and. other adjunct infrastructures on the other. Along with these,
the other products of the DAP system during the working life of animals,
such as animal wastes for biogas production (incidentally enriching the
soil) and efficient recovery and utilisation of meat, skins and other by-
products will increase the viability of the system as a whole. There-
fore, many of the low income countries will continue to depend on DAP
for years to come.


Consequences of Neglect

19. In spite of its significant contribution and further potential,
DA? continues to be the most neglected factor in the rural economy of
most DCs with the result that there is an enormous wastage of its
potential due mainly to:

(a) under-utilisation and misuse of animals;
(b) poor feed and health service;
(c) inefficient application of their draught effort
due to poor design of implements, vehicles and
C~) injury and reduced working life due to-defective
(e) in many countries, needless agony during slaughter,
and wastage of by-products.

Neglect of D-AP the primary energy input to agriculture is perhaps
one of the main reasons for food deficits in some countries. A
modernized and well-managed DAP system will benefit man and society,
and hopefully animals too.

DA? to be Part of Agricultural System

20. The development of DA? has suffered by default due to various
reasons. Even where it has been accepted grudgingly as the only
feasible means of providing draught power to millions of marginal and
small farmers, the system has not been upgraded to critical levels.
One reason is that DA? is now not part of an integrated agricultural
production system, as it legitimately ought to be.

21. All countries are concentrating their attention on fertilisers,
seeds, water and other inputs which, though essential, can contribute
more with the required minimum amount of energy. The other reason
for DAP neglect is perhaps that its benefits are not perceptible to
the small farmers. Most extension work has tried to show the benefits
of the other inputs such as water, fertilisers, pesticides, etc. The
mechanised system, however, has always concentrated on energy as the
primary component, and other inputs adjunct to mechanised energy are
easily quantifiable for input-output calculations. DAP is in a way
an invisible input which does not easily lend itself to calculation.
DAP should be made part of the integrated agricultural system.

DAP to be Subsidised

22. It is well known that there is a direct correlation between energy
and rate of development. Conscious of this, many countries have
subsidized energy in varying degrees, particularly to rural enterprises.
Diesel oil is subsidized; so also rural electrification for energising
pumpsets. Water is supplied almost free in some places; elsewhere, only
nominal charges are collected. However, it is noteworthy that ani-mal
energy, which is the primary input to agriculture, has not been subsidized
as it ought to be.


Chanzed Cost of Mechanisation 1-7

23. In the ACs, the farmers knew the importance of energy and draught
horses were developed at enormous effort and expense. Even today the
best draught horses are still working in parts of the western world -
at a cost cheaper than current rates of energy. In fact, in Poland,
it was observed that DA? was cheaper. 3ut Poland is discontinuing
animals at a steady pace as "the new generation does not want to walk
behind the animal". The third world countries seething with
unemployment and under-employment should have no difficulty in getting
labour for agricultural production with DAP. However, there are also
many regions in the developing countries where labour itself may still
be a limitation for developing DA? either in numbers or attitude.

-2m e-osthani-sation tok ?-5eee i We t sh We he. t-he eost of enesPgy
was oasea on ;Z per carrel of crude ol. anc rf-bour costs were niagi.
The current price of oil is between "30 to C40 per barrel, which may go
up to 60C in the near future, c-anging the proportion of energy cost ._
drastically. The economics of mechanisation, justified in terms of
savings in labour and increased yields, are no longer universally valid.
A review is called for by altering the parameters of the calculations
in order to identify situations where D.A? is economical and to be
preferred. Even where it is not exactly economical by cost
considerations, there are innumerable situations where DAP will be the
only feasible solution, due to factors such as lack of infrastructure,
maintenance, spare parts, and foreign exchange for the import of oil,
as well as the high cost of equipment and oil.

Difficulties in Developing DA?

25. With the change in energy cost and other factors compelling the
continuance of the DA? system, the governments' attitude should undergo
change by way of new policies and priorities, whereby DA? gets at least
as much attention as the other agricultural inputs. Of course, the
effort required will be more than that needed for pesticides,
fertilisers and water. DA? constitutes live animals; their development
and care take time and effort. They are in the decentralised sector,
the modernisaticn of which is not easy for countries with millions of
fragmented holdings owned by marginal farmers. Since there is no
glamour and immediate cost-effect demonstration effect in DA?, there is
a tendency among governmental bodies to overlook DA?.

26. As the advanced countries had already passed the staze of DA? by
the time the developing countries started development, it was generally
not included as a consistent part of their development assistance.
Further, whatever attempts were made by the advanced countries to foster
the third world's interest in DA?, these were often and still are -
misinterpreted as an attempt to impose a backward technology on them.

27. Since DAP is visible and dispersed, there is the prestige issue as
well. l1ations wanting to modernise and Lndustrialise think that DA? is
an antiquated system a symbol of poverty and backwardness which
should be discouraged rather than sustained. It has hardly been
realized that DA? can be modernised within the concept of appropriate
technology, whereby the resources of a nation are optimally utilised.

Tractors and DAP

23. There are literally millions of small holdings below 5 hectares
in the LCs, particularly LICs, where tractors are uneconomic, except
on a hire services system basis. For paddy cultivation under certain
conditions, in muddy and slushy areas, water-logged situations, etc.,
tractors are not of much use. 3angladesh, Thailand and parts of the
rice-growing areas of India and China have similar conditions. In
hilly terrain, where fields are terraced and narrow, tractors become
unsuitable. in some cases, tractors cannot gain access, while in
other cases, tractors cannot turn round because of the narrowness of
the field. Bali Island of Indonesia, the mountainous regions in
southern and western China, and part s of Colombia and Mexico are
-ypica -eeca ~ie where-such-terrain conditions make it necessary to
use DA? although most of these countries have enough petroleum.
Tractors are costly and most countries do not make them; they have to be
imported. Most of the small and marginal farmers cannot bear the cost
of tractors. ',here tractors were introduced with government subsidies
and loans or international funding, some farmers were unable to make full
use of them, thus making them often uneconomic. Tractor cooperatives
and hiring systems have worked out well in some parts of all countries;
but not in all parts. In India, the states of Earyana, Punjab and
Kerala have successfully tried cut the hiring system; so too, in parts
of Mexico, Pakistan and the Philippines.

29. The lack of spare parts and technical personnel for maintenance
has adversely affected tractorisation programmes. and their utilisation
in some countries. In those countries where rapid mechanisation was
attempted, the full benefit of mechanisation was not realised due to
maintenance problems. Ccnse.uently, the cost economics, worked out
as favourable earlier, later on proved to be against the farmers'
interests. While such problems are inevitable in any 'change' situation,
the lesson to be learnt is that mechanisation should be carried out on
a selective basis after careful thinking and preparation.

30. In some parts of Africa, the soil is not deep. Deep ploughing with
tractors did not bring in expected benefits. In some areas such as
Botswana, there was a counter-productive effect as the poor soil was
brought to the surface by deep ploughing. It has been reported in some
studies that tractorisation has led to an increase in inequality.
Richer and educated farmers tend to take advantage of modernisation
inputs such as tractors, and their dominant power enables them to push
out small farmers.

Trucks and aAP

31. There are terrains which are not paved or where pathways are too
narrow. In such conditions, motorised transport is not feasible.
Even in India, 50% of the villages are not connected with motorable
roads. For small-scale transportation, say, less than one tonne, for
distances less than 30 km., trucks are generally uneconomical. Trucks
need 100 km. of run and average load of 5 tonnes to become economic.
So also in operations where the loading time and unloading time is high -
compared to travel time trucks are not economic because of low
utilisation. Trucks have also become very costly far beyond the
reach of small farmers and operators.

9 1-9

32. For transportation of goods between villages on unpaved roads,
between villages and market places, etc., ani.al-dramw vehicles (ADVs)
seem more economic. W'h.'7en animals are kept for ploughing, the recurring
cost for rural transportation is only the incremental maintenance cost
on the animals. Thus, ani-al-drawn vehicles become comple.mentary to
DA? ploughing, with a little additional cost, making DAP more viable.

33. Even in tcwns, A-Vs are appropriate for a number of needs and
situations. For small-scale trans-ortation over short distances in
cities, A3-s are economic. For jobs such as garbage collection and
disposal and movement of kerosene, water, oil, vegetables, household
effects, stationery, etc., ADVs are convenient.

34. In m.ar-y pars of the deve? Iping countries, including the sIanr
-ub--cntinent, the c.ny means of passenger transportation is ADV.
S-4 1arly, A37s, particularly horse and donkey carts, are the main means
of transport in some parts of China, M.emico and a few Asian countries.

35. There are a number of areas and situations in.the developing
countries where the only me-ans of transporting goods and people is by
pack ani.mal.. Lla.-as are used in Bolivia and Feru for transporting
goods of 10C-20CO k. Dcreys and -ules are used all over the world
as pa-c animals. Yaks are used as pack an-ials in China. In India,
Pakis.an., Afghanistan, the "ear East, -orth Africa and parts of China,
the canel is the mai-- means of transportation for people and goods in
certain areas.

AP Complerme.tary to Other Sources

36. The complementarity cf 3 ? to manual labour and mechanisation
depends on the specific country situation in terms of agronomic and
climatic conitircns, level of technolcy', dispersion of holding size,
etc. M.ost. of the coc-arative studies available on the relative
efficiency of these three sources of energy have been skered towards
farming mechanization. But some of the studies done by FAC, ICISAT
and other international az-"ncies rein-force the fact that DAP is
complementary to manual labour in certain sit-aticns and to mechanisation
in others irn a1 regicns.

Actors Against DA?

37. For situations where DAP is appropriate and perhaps the cnly
feasible solution, there are restraining factors as well. Although
DAP may be more economical, in some countries such as Poland, the
Philippines and Malaysia, the new generation does not like to work with
animals. It takes far more time to till with animals, which is tiring
and involves dr--'ery. This is true even in China where the new
generation prefers tractors and trucks. The maintenance of animals has
been found to be cu-.bersome and sometimes not even feasible. It is a
round-the-clock all-year-round job without holidays. So, in spite of
the economic compulsicns, there are psychological and social factors
which restrain the use of DA?.

10 1-10

33. Various diseases such as the ?'D, rinderpest, etc., are
afflicting many DCs. The programmes for the eradication of these
diseases in Asia have not yet *been fully successful in most countries
of the continent. Countries which have successfully tackled this
problem are afraid to bring in animals from other countries (though
they may need them) because they wish to keep such diseases away.
Trypanosomiasis is a special problem in some African countries,
although it is not likely to be a hindrance to DAP with control measures
and spread of agriculture.

39. The need for speed of operations, that is, timely ploughing, is
an important factor where animals are at a disadvantage, particularly
so when working ;with *:ad implements. But China has shown that it is
possible to raise two crops with animals alone, if they are properly
trained and used.

40. In many African countries there is no tradition of using animals
for draught. It has been difficult to introduce work an-ials in some
countries; but once people become familiar with using DAP, it tends to
become very popular. Tractors and associated equipment have a lot of
prestige behind them. So some countries and regions are reluctant
to use DAP although it is cheap and appropriate.

41. Draught animals are mostly owned by small and marginal farmers
whose monetable surplus is too meagre to fetch enough money to take
care of themselves. -ule to this, draught animals are not given enough
care and they are left to fenda for themselves which leads to disease
and insanitation. Lack of infractructur_-. facilities such as credit,
subsidies, ins-arance, etc. does not motivate the maintenance of draught

DAP and Pasture for Feed

42. Cne argument against DAP is that animals compete with humans for
the use of cultivable land. This view has been contested by many
experts on the grounds that the feeds given to animals are not edible by
human beings, 'and that, for the most part, they constitute agricultural
waste. The feed which draught animals consume is largely forage which
includes fodder grasses, straws, hay, and wayside leg-mes. According
to FAO, grazing and harvested forage account for 75% of the feed
available to drang--t animals. Only in a few countries does the feed
include food grains, milling by-products, oil cakes and meals and
vegetable residues.

43. Conditions differ in specific situations and some countries find it
difficult to make appropriate choices. For instance, 3gypt has a high
population density and has very little arable land. There is no pasture
land for grazing animals. Although land is fragmented and scarce -
suggesting the use of lAP it =ay not be still feasible to continue
with DAP because of ncn-availability of pasture land and fodder for
animals. Here is a situation where the animal competes with man for
land areas. Bangladesh is facing the same predicament. They do not

11 -

have petroleum and hence they would like to use DAP; but they have
almost no pasture land because of the high density of population.
The animals are undernourished and are too weak even to work.

"l1. But in certain countries there is enough pasture land which
could be used for the cultivation of legumes and fodder as well as
the leucaena tree, which not only provides forage but also improves
the soil fertility through nitrogen fixation. Inter-cropping of
legumes in arable land is also recommended. Growing of grass in
coconut farms has been successfully tried. The use of industrial,
vegetable and fruit processing wastes is another component which can
be used for animal feeding.

45. Protagonists of DA? have further pointed cut that most draught
animals are given only feeds raised on lands which are of marginal use
to man. Although in advanced countries horses are fed with grain,
draught animals in Asia and Africa are not normally given grain. Some
experts have estimated that feeds for draught animals consume no more
than 55 of land which could be deemed to be useful to man. Therefore,
it is argued that the use of DAP is an excellent form of converting
reject and waste into energy on the one hand and utilisation of land
which otherwise cannot be used on the other. Production systems have
to be integrated whereby both crop and fodder can be raised without
affecting crop output.

DA? and Milk-M'eat System

46. There is a suspicion in some circles that DAs will compete for
land with animals of the milk-meat- system. Although animals are raised
for meat in ACs (and some DCs would do the same), in Asia it may be
possible to raise animals in an integrated way, whereby females'give milk
and males work both of which will be available as meat in the end.
Such a sub-opti-mal solution is inevitable in countries where DAP is a
critical need and there is no oil resource.

47. In some dairies, male calves are either sold or abandoned.
Possibly, they could be raised fo'r work and then sold for slaughter.
At a time when there is a shortage of power for farming in the Indian
sub-continent, most of the male calves of buffaloes are abandoned or
are slaughtered immediately. The possibility of raising them for
work and much later slaughtering them can be investigated. The dung
and urine are not used. China's 7.3 million biogas plants are
improving the economics of the animal system. These are ways in which
DAP can be made viable.

Animal Lovers

48. Yet another group of people who are worried are the animal lovers
who are legitimately concerned about the bad treatment given to draught
animals in many parts of the DCs, and are afraid that this new interest
in draught animals may cause further agony to the already suffering
animals. But it must be noted that the major part of the suffering
the animals undergo now is due to the poor efficiency and neglect of the
DAP system. With its upgrading, the agony of the animals can be

12 -

considerably reduced. Through better breeding, increased food and
nutrition, health care, etc., animals will be in a better condition
to carry on the work. Similarly, when implements, carts and harnesses
are modernised, their burden will be reduced.

Conclusion and Recommendations

49. It is noteworthy that draught animals are equitably distributed
among millions of poor people in the DCs marginal and small farmers
and small-scale transport operators to whom draught animals are the
main instruments of production and capital. When the universal goal
is to improve the productivity and the lot of the small man, the
significance of DAs is far more than what is perceived today. It is
therefore opportune that the Conference on New and. Renewable Sources of
Energy has included DAP as one of the subjects for enquiry. The R & D
studies on other sources of renewable energy such as solar, wind, geo-
thermal, etc. are receiving millions of dollars for development. DAP
should be included in this effort, and adequate funds made available.

50. Although a detailed world-wide survey has not been possible due to
a paucity of time, enough interesting information has been gathered to
identify areas and aspects where DAP has to be strengthened and techniques
on how to go about it. There is ample conclusive evidence to take policy
decisions for improving the numerous components of the DLAP system. This
study suggests a number of modernisation steps to be started immediately,
to be followed by a number of socio-economic and R & D studies in specific
regions and problem areas in order to identify progra.mes and projects as
well as resources allocation required by countries and the U= system.

51. For upgrading the DAP system, policy makers and professionals must
have an appreciation of their critical role and the wastages and lost
opportunities caused by long years of neglect. Some of the obvious
ways of accomplishing this are:

(a) fertilizer, water, diesel oil, electric power, artificial
insemination for milch cattle and numerous agricultural
needs to be subsidized. DAP also to be supported and

(b) countries to collect and maintain statistics of DAP;

(c) bank credit and insurance to be made easily available
for DAP, as in the case of tractors, milch cattle, etc.;

(d) agricultural implements to be improved;

(e) animal-drawn vehicles to be redesigned for increased
efficiency for local working conditions;

(f) adequate feed and health care to be made available to
draught animals;

(g) DAP to receive the same attention as milk and meat
production systems.

All these are feasible, within the reach of developing countries.

13 -

52. Thus, for the poorer half of the third world, livestock (and DAP)
provide many avenues for earning a livelihood. More relevant.1ly, it
fits in well with all aspects of extant lifestyles and needs. 'It
satisfies all the requirements and stipulations prescribed for appropriate
technology it depends on local resources and endowments, it is labour
intensive, involves waste-recycling, and is least pollutive. It is also
renewable, does not compete for resources with others, does not hinder
their development, is integrated with crop production, and so on. The
upgrading of DAP to the level it so obviously deserves will automatically
mean the development of that segment of the world's society which is most
in need of attention from all concerned with development.

- 14 -

Chapter 2 2-1



1. Except for vague notions in some circles that DAP is playing some
useful role in agriculture (with reference to small plots of land),
most policy makers and professionals have no clear comprehension of the
magnitude of LAP in terms of numbers, energy input, other contributions
by way of products and services, value of investment involved, replace-
ment -cost- -was-: s in the system, scnaPe and nte-nia, t. hi. lack
of comprehension applies also to other sources of non-commercial energy
as well. Makhijani, in "Energy and Agriculture in the Third World",
has estimated that.the magnitude of non-commercial energy wood, dung,
crop residues, labour of humans and animals used in TWCs may be as
much as the equivalent of the total crude petroleum flow in the inter-
national market (30 million barrels a day in 1975). He feels that the
unfortunate aspect is that the amount of useful work DCs get out of this
colossal quantum of energy is small in many DCs due to the manifest
inefficiency in the systems and processes.

2. The same situation obtains with regard to DAP as the system has
been neglected and allowed to function inefficiently. Many preconceived
and inaccurate prejudices exist and are aired against DA?, mainly by city
dwellers and urban-raised decision makers. Such evaluations are at
macro levels and tend to be based on half-k-nowledge. Therefore, an
understanding of the order of magnitude of DAP will perhaps evoke enough
interest among decision makers to give more attention to it as regards
resource allocations, R & D, extension, etc.

Large Animals Regionwise Distribution

3. Most countries maintain statistics of livestock numbers and report
the same to FAO. But they do not collect and give figures of draught
animals separately. As per the FAO handbook, the total number of large
animals (cattle, buffalo, equines, camels) in the world may be about
1,477 million:

Developed all countries 451.2 30
Developing all countries 1,025.8 70

1,477.0 100

Pegion-wise distribution of large animal species -
as under:


Developed market economies
(293.0) 2Ce
Eastern Europe and USSR
(158.2) 11
Developing market economies
(899.8) 6c
Asian centrally planned economies
(126.0) 8%

Developed all

Developing all
(1 025.8)

is given in Table A (see next page).

Estimate of DA? Population

It may be noted that the total constitutes all purposes, i.e.:

Milk and then meat
Meat only
Draught and then meat
Other purposes.
In order to arrive at the order of magnitude of draught animal population,
a combination of methods and sources was used. A few DCs provided precise
data, while some others gave rough figures. As regards the rest, the-
guesses made were both informed and ill-informed. The ultimate result of
all these efforts has helped to make a rough estimate about the possible
number of draught animals species wise in the developing countries,
which is given in Table 3.

Table B

(All figures are given

in millions)

Milk + Meat + Draught Possible DAP
Species Total Developed Developing in developing
World all all countries
Cattle and yaks-/ 1,212.0 425.0 787.0 246 61
Buffaloes 130.6 0.9 -129.7 60 15
Horses 61.8 22.4 39.4 27 7
Mules 11.6 0.7 10.9 10 3
Donkeys 42.8 2.0 40.8 40 10
Camels 16.8 0.2 16.6 16 4
Llamas 1.4 1.4 1 -
21ephants -

1,477.0 451.2 1,025.8 400 100

_/ Yaks of China have been included under ca-tle.
2/ There may be about 20,000 elephants engaged in logging work.
Packing and logging included. 9

(1 ,477.0)

Cattle and





figures ire


Table A

given in millions)

Camels and


Developed market economies 277.0 0.2 14.0 0.6 1L0 293.0

Eastern Europe and USSR 148.0 0.6 8.5 0.1 0.A 0.2 158.2

Developed all 425.0 0.8 22.5 0.7 21.b) 0.2 451.2

Developing market economies
Africa 137.5 3.6 2.1 91. 9.3 161.6
Latin America 267.3 0.3 22.5 6.6 P.' 1.4 306.2
Near East 51.2 3.8 1.7 0.6 81.7 3.7 69.7
Far East 260.7 92.7 2.6 0.2 3.4 2.0 361.6
Others 0.6 0.1 0.7

Total: 717.3 96.8 30.5 9.5 29.3 16.4 899.8

Asian centrally planned 69.7 32.9 8.8 1.5 11.5 1.6 126.0

Developing all 787.0 129.7 39.3 11.0 40.8 18.0 1,025.8

WORLD 1,212.0 130.5 61.8 11.7 42.,8 18.0 1,477.0

17 -

6. It may be seen from the above that there may be about 400 million
draught animals, including young stock below 3 years of age which are
not put to work. The number of animals at present working may be between
280 to 300 million. FA.O had estimated that the number of animals working
currently exclusively for agriculture and adjunct transportation may be
about 165 million (excluding China about 5C million).

7. China's 50 million animals at work takes this figure to 215 million.
To this figure, animals engaged in the following kinds of work are to be
added to get at a figure for DAs working:

urban transportation by all the animal species;
--ncn--fr7 a-cperat-ions--ani-t enspo-taten-
pack animals camels, donkeys, mules, llamas;
logging, herding, etc.

Thus, a figure of between 280 to 300 million for DAs at work appears to be
a reasonable estimate. It may be noted that these estimated figures are
given here only to indicate the order of magnitude.

Market Value of DAs

8. The market price of DAs varies considerably. Leaving the
ycung cattle and donkeys at one end and the large-size and top breeds at
the other, the range of prices may be between 2150 and $500. Taking a
figure of $200 for the most widely used typical animals, the market
value of DAs and associated equipment may be about $100 billion. In the
Indian sub-continent, the market value of large animals and associated
equipment may be close to the investment in organized industry $25 billion.

Power Available

9. The draught power of an animal depends on the species, breed, size,
body weight, etc. Further, it will of course vary depending on food and
nutrition, state of health, environment, terrain condition, training and
management. It may be misleading to give typical and average figures -
since there could be as much a variation as 100C within each of the para-
meters. Nevertheless, in order to give a 'sense' of the order of
variance in some localities, FAO figures of body weights and draught power
of the medium range among the animal species (leaving puny and giant
sizes on either side of the spectrum) are given in Table C.

- 18 -


Normal Drauzht Power of Different
Animal Species ('-ediumr Range O l.y)

Source: FAO "Farm Implements for Arid Tropical Regions".

Table C


Horse power developed is calculated from the formula:

Speed in feet per second x Draught power in pounds per second

550 (foot pounds per second)

Thus, for a draught power of 60 kg. per second at a speed of 2.5 miles
per hour, the horse power developed is:

(2.2 x 60 kgs) x (2.5 m.p.h.

x 5,280)

550 x 60 x 60

= 0.88 h.p.

The majority of DAs produce 0.4 to 0.8 h.p. on a sustained basis.
Taking a lower conservative figure of 0.5 h.p. per DA~, the power made
available by 300 million draught animals may be of the order of
150 million h.p.

These animals are spread out amongst millions of small farms and
small-scale transport operators. The number of small holdings below
5 ha. may be over 100 million. Tillers become economic for plots
above 5 ha., though on a hire basis, tractors and tillers can serve
many small plots. The distribution of holdings, as per size, for a
few countries, is given in Table D.

Average Approximate ae Power
weight draught speed of developed
kg. kg. 14/sec. Kgm/sec h.p.

Light horses 400-700 60-80 1.0 75 1.00
Bullocks 500-900 60-80 0.6-o.85 56 0.75
Buffaloes 400-900 50-80 0.8-0.9 55 0.75
Cows 400C-600 50-60 0.7 35 0.45
Mules 350-500 50-60 0.9-1.0 52 0.70
Donkeys 200-300 30-40 0.7 25 0.35



- 19 -


Table D

(All figures are given in thousands)

Total Percentage distribution of holdings
CofUt> number by size of total area
of holdings Less than-
Less ha 1-2 ha 2-5 ha 5-10 ha

India 70,493 50.6 19.1 19..0 7.4
Indonesia 14,375 70.4 18.1 9.4 1.5
iPR 2, 121 66.1 26.4 6.7 -
Pakistan 3,762 13.8 14.3 39.9 21.1
Philippines 2,354 13.6 27.4 43.8 10.4

Iraq 591 11.3 11.2 18.1 21.5
Saudi Arabia 181 38.1 21.0 18.2 9.9

Latin America
Brazil 4,906 8.1 10.'G 18.7 14.7
Costa Rica 82 17.1 9.8 15.9 11.0
epDominica 305 32.1 20.0 24.9 11.1
Jamaica 193 56.3 19.7 15.3 4.2
Mexico 1,020 25.0 11.1 15.1 10.0
Puerto Rico 33 6.1 15.1 36.4 18.2

Botswana 48 10.1 14.6 29.6 25.6
Lesotho 187 28.3 33.7 32.6 4.3
Zaire 2,538 41.5 38.3 18.9 1.0

20 -

13. Replacing the majority of them by tractors is not very feasible
in many low income countries, at least in the foreseeable future,
although it will have to be done ultimately when the necessary conditions
emerge progressively. But purely as an academic exercise, it is possible
to work out the approximate capital cost of replacement. In India, it
costs about $1,000 to make available one kw. of electric power at the
point of application. As regards farm operations, in practical terms,
one tractor can take care of the work of the equivalent of 5 pairs of
oxen, i.e. to 5 h.p. Therefore, approximately 150 million h.p. can
perhaps be replaced by 30 million tractors. At the rate of 38,000
per tractor, replacement: cost would be about $240 billion ($200 to
$300 billion). One can easily assess the implications of such a
situation in terms of capital flow, foreign exchange, petroleum
con su-rsIon, dis-acement or Iaoour anc oollution o: various kinds.
Also, the figure quoted represents merely, one might say, the tip of
the iceberg. The investment required to produce this equipment and
the oil would be more than-three times that figure perhaps $700-1,000

Employment. Pate of Return, etc.

14. The above figures indicate the order of magnitude of DAP in terms
of numbers, investment, replacement cost, etc. Further, DAs are
more ecuitably distributed among millions of people than the other
instruments of production of society. Also, animal husbandry and DAP
are highly labour intensive. Development in DCs should focus on
creating jobs and incomes for those who have been missed out (though
not deliberately) in the conventional development strategies and
programmes. For instance, the number of people directly and in-
directly, part-time and full-time in the ADV system in India may be
15 million, close to that of organized industrial employment. Although
India may be a special case, its experience may be valuable to a few
other countries who are discouraging urban transport by DAP. At least
3 million carts ply in the urban areas, providing employment and a
reasonable return to the owners and carters in fact, to the more than
6 million people involved in the system. The investment per person
employed will be less than $500 and when the system is made more
efficient, the return will be much more. This may be true of some other
countries as well. Studies show that in urban areas, a hired carm
with two animals costing about $700 would bring in a revenue of $7.50
per day shared equally by owner, carter and the animal and affording
employment to more than one person. In India, DA power is nearly
equal to the installed capacity of electric power (30,000 mega-watts).
The investment in the animal-drawn vehicle system ($4 billion) is two-
thirds that of the railways and equal to that of the roadways. t'hile
it is true that ADV cannot do what the railway and roadway systems can
do (in terms of ton-kls moved), it is equally noteworthy that these two
modes cannot accomplish what DAP does under a given set of conditions.
Therefore, each has its place in the economy,.

21 -
DAP by Soecies and Countries

15. Most countries do not give details of the number of animals used
for different kinds of draught work. In the case of camels, mules
and donkeys, the totals can be considered as representing mainly
draught. Horses are used for riding in Latin America, the Near East
and North Africa. In the Far East, horses are mostly for draught.
In the case of cattle and buffaloes, it is difficult to estimate the
numbers used for draught as they are used for milk and meat as well.
Appendix II gives the FAO figures of the total number of animals
including young stock (without separating those for draught) for a
few countries in each region.

16. An attempt has also been made to estimate (and/or guess) the
number of cattle, buffaloes and horses engaged in draught work of
all kinds, including packing and herding, for a few countries, which
is given in Amoendj- III. These are put on record., in spite of
their limitations and discrepancies between figures in different
tables in order to enable verification when precise census figures
become available later, or when authentic figures become available.
In anyr case, errors will not materially change the arguments and

DAs in Farm Coerations

17. FAO has been making estimates of the contribution of DAs for
agricultural operations, based on available data from various sources.
Its estimates of DAs at work for 1975 and projections for 2000 AD
of probable numbers engaged in farm operations and adjunct transportation
for a few countries are given in Apoendix IV. It may be noted that
there will be discrepancies between figures given in different tables
as they are taken from different sources.

Area Cultivated

18. Countries inhabited by about 2 billion people depend on DAP for
agricultural operations to a varying extent 20 to 90,. FAO has
estimated the share of manual, animal and machine for soil preparation
as given in Table E.
Table E

Area cultivated in million hectares 1975
Power sources
Total Hand labour DI? | Tractors
Area Area Area ~ Area | .
Developing countries 470 100 125 26 250 52 104 22
Developed countries 644 100 44 7 63 11 537 82
World 1,123 100 169 15 313 28 641 57

The above excludes China. China cultivates 100 million ha., 50o of which is
cultivated by DA? and 50e by tractors. Contribution of hand labour and per-
centage shares are not known. It may be seen that 52% of area is still
cultivated by DA? and the other half is shared by hand labour and machine.

22 -

19. The number of tractors in developing countries in 1978, according
to FAG, was about 2.7 million:

Africa 202,887
Latin America 898,905
Near East 538,541
Far East 436,156
Others 4,303
Asia centrally 69,8
planned economies
Total: 2,700,639

As against this, the advanced countries had 17 million tractors.

Share of DAP for a Few Countries

20. A number of figures are available giving the share of hand labour,
DA? and P3P. Different methods of calculation and presentation give
different figures for the same countries. This is partly because some
figures are for area cultivated only, while others represent total energy
consumed for all farming operations including irrigation (where PBP is *
high), harvesting (where manual labour.is high), threshing, etc. Some
figures are in h.p., while others are in man-day equivalents, M..calorie,
million joules, etc. Each has its own significance for specific purposes.
In this section, figures for the report by Winrock International are
given. They have published two reports on ruminants "The Role of
Ruminants in Support of Man" and "Ruminant Products: More Than Meat and
MiLk". The main purpose here is only to indicate the magnitudes of
various sources of power, and the figures speak for themselves. In
their report on "Ruminant Products", the share of LAP as a proportion
of DAP plus mechanical power for a few countries has been given as
follows in Table F.


Animal and Tractor Power Used. in A-rji-
culture in Selected Regions and Countries

Table F

Region or 'Type of Power Animal
Country- Animal Mechanical (% of total)
103 Mcall/ 1 3 Meal 103 Meal

Africa 2,095 449 2,544 82
Far &ast- 19,591 282 19,873 99
Near East 3,320 436 3,756 88
Latin America 6,731 2,289 9,020 75
Morocco 231 102 333 69
India 15,481 119 15,600 99
Japan 200 1,466 1,666 12
Turkey 1,480 192 .1,672 88
Brazil 2,604 326 2,930 89
Spain 536 520 1,056 51
Greece 293 135 428 69
South Africa 24 535 559 4
Italy 800 1,557 2,357 34
Argen- ine 671 568 1,339 54
France 902 2,883 3,785 24
Germany (Fed. Rep.) 378 3,453 3,831 10
USA 28 21,238 21,266 1

1 Mechanical power is expressed as animal power divided by five; animal power
is converted to Mcal equivalents used directly in agriculture.
2/ Excluding China.

The same report estimates power sources by farm size for Thailand and the
Philippines as below:
Table G

Mechanical power
Farm Hand power Animal power Mechanical power hanical power
Farm + animal power
size Farms % Farms % Farms Farms 1%
Ea. thousand thousand thousand / thousand '
1 355 40 495 55 19 2 27 3
1-2 263 19 1,026 75 23 2 62 4
2-5 267 14 1,484 76 40 2 166 8
5 76 7 852 74 31 3 190 16
Total: 961 18 3,857 72 113 2 445 8

- 4 -

24 -

Winrock estimates of average farm size, agricultural workers per ha. and
power available from various sources for cultivation in several rice-
producing countries of Asia are given below in Table H.

Table H

Arable -Ari- Type of Power
Country land cultural
per farm workers Human Animal I Mechanical Total
Ha. No. per ha. - - Kcals per ha. per hour - - -

Sri Lanka 1.59 1.20 77 95 71 243
Taiwan 1.11 1.95 125 105 105 335
India 2.62 .90 577 131 713
Iran 6.17 .37 237 31 99 367
Korea 0.90 1.96 126 151 2 279
Nepal 1.22 2.49 160 308 3 471
Pakistan 2.37 1.09 70 185 8 263
Philippines 3.66 .71 46 67 15 128
Thailand 3.64 1.10 71 118 35 224
Vietnam 1.57 2.10 135 157 15 307

Other Comments in the Winrock Reoort

From the above it can be seen that DAP constitutes a major share in
farm input. The report further comments as follows:

(a) A minimum of 6CO Kcal per hour per ha. is required to achieve
sustained agricultural growth in DCs. Only half of that figure
is available in South Asia and South East Asia.

(b) If some of these countries were to mechanise, all their foreign
exchange earnings would have to be allotted for oil and equipment.

(c) Investment for mechanisation in a typical African country would
be $10,000 as against- 600 for animal-based technology.

(d) Twenty percent of the world's population depends largely or wholly
on DAP for movement of goods by animal cartage or packing
(Dr. R.E. McDowell).

Tilla-e Effort for Different Sources

To prepare one ha. of land for planting, FAO estimates the requirements
as follows:

500 man-hours, if done by hand with a spade or hoe;
60 man/animal hours, if done by a pair of bullocks;
25 man/tractor hours, if done with a 6 h.p. 2-wheel
tractor and tiller;
4 man/tractor hours, if done with a 50 h.p. A-wheel
tractor and plough.

Each country, each region, and even each farm, is a special situation.
One source or a combination of sources of energy would only be feasible
or appropriate at a given time. The total demand as well as the local
needs being far above present levels, there is no real conflict amongst
these three sources. The figures for DA? would perhaps be much less
if improved implements (multi-purpose, wheeled tool bars) were used.
ICJLSAT studied ._havey_so. such possibilities for semi-arid areas.

FAC Pro sections for 20C00 AD

23. Taking past and current trends and making reasonable assumptions
of future probabilities, FAO has made certain calculations for arriving
at inputs for agriculture toward 2000 AD. For an overall growth rate
of 3.4% for output of crops, FAO estimates that an increase of 2-3% of
total power input is required both for extension of the harvested area
and an increase in yield.

Regional differences in growth of power requirements have been
estimated as: Latin America 2.5f, Africa 2.8, T ear East 2.3- and
Far East 2.1/. Grc'rth rates as well as the use of tractors will be
higher for Latin -America and the Near East, where 530 cf the total
tractor power in the developing countries is now located.

24. It has been projected that their share of mechanical power (per-
centage out of total) would rise from 27 and 18 to 54 and 26 percent
respectively; while for Africa and the Far East, the share of mechanical
power would still be only 8 and 9 percent respectively. The FAO figures
indica-e that the gr-cwvh of DAP will be slow; and, therefore, apprehends
that the gap may have to be met by hand labour, which may result in
shortages during peak demand periods. The impact of shortages can be
minimised if DAB is augmented through conscious efforts and mechanised
power brought in wherever possible.

25. There is obvious scope for choice in the mix of power input, provided
planning is done properly. The share of mechanical power will rise; but
the bulk of power needs has to still come from human labour and DAP. The
FAO projections show that the relative share of DAP may decrease because:

(a) additional demand for power may be more for yield
increases, implying more harvest operations;
(b) heavy pressure on livestock products in those countries
where DAV is predominant.

- 26 -


FAO estimates that, for the 90 developing countries, DAP numbers
would go up from 165 million in 1980 to 185 million in 2000 AD
(excluding China, where animals in farm work may be 50 million). These
figures refer to working DAs engaged in agriculture and adjunct'to the
farm, and exclude other transportation and work as well as young stock.

In terms of harvested area for soil cultivation operations,
machines provided about 24% in 1980, which is expected to go up to 50%
by 2000 AD. But the total power inout would go up from 8% (19.75) to
19% in 2000 AD. The FAO estimates of levels of requirements in terms
of man-days equivalents, percentage share of different sources in
power input, growth rates of power input from different sources, and
the number of animals and tractors for the period 1980-2000, excluding
China, are given below in Tables I, J, K. L and M. At the end, a note
has been added to explain the method of calculation employed by FAO.

Power Recuirements for Croo Production
(a) Levels of Recuirements 1/

(b) Percentage Share of of Different Sources
in Total Power Outout I/

Table I

Table J

I/ Power requirements are set equal to power output

1980 1 2000
.an Day Ec-uivalent Re-ui'ements I 1,an Day Equivalent Recauirements
Se&o,--- --- i;--- .CU .---------------r=o--en------
Region igt Drau- ,
Total Lbour Draughtnimals mechanical Total Labour a I echanical
__animals animalsI
- - - Billion Man Day Eqcuivalene - - -
90 Developing 82.6 55,1 20.8 6.7 128.4 80.5 23.8 24.1
Africa 12.0 10.1 1.5 0.4 20.7 17.0 2.0 1.7
Far East 51.9 34.1 16.1 1.7 76.0 50.1 18.9 7.0
Laticn 13.0 7.3 2.2 3.5 22.8 8.4 2.1 12.2
I'ear East 5.7 3.7 1.0 1.0 8.9 4.9 0.8 3.2
Low income 56.0 37.9 16.6 1.5 84.3 58.4 19.3 6.6

1980 2000
Region abour Draught M i. aur Draught Machimes
__animals I animals_

90 Developing 67 25 8 63 18 19
Africa 84 13 3 82 10 8
Far East 66 31 3 66 25 9
Latin America 56 17 27 37 9 54
Near Fast 64 18 18 55 9 36
Low income 68 29 3 69 23 8

in the calculations.

(c) Growth Rates of Power Innut from
Different Sources in Power Provision

Table K

(percent per annum)

Region Total
Man-Day La'bour .Draugh Machines
Seauivalent _______

90 Developing 2.3 1.9 0.7 6.7
Africa 2.8 2.7 1.3 7.2
V -r -ast 1.9- 270 78 ,-.-
Latin America 2.8 0.8 -0.2 6.5
Near 3ast 2.3 4.5 -0.7 5.7
Low income countries 2.1 2.2 0.8 7.6

(d) Number

of Draught Animals and Tra

actors Table L
(Figures are in millions)

(e) Annual Current Inout Costs for Tractor
Mechanisation and identified Cost of
Feed for Draught Animals


19o0 1 1990 1 2000
Reio raught Tractors Draught Tractors Tracors
animals animals an als

90 DeveopLn 165 2.6 175 5.8 185 14.2'
count rides
Africa 14 0.2 16 0.5 17 1.3
Far East 126 0.6 135 1.6 145 4.9
Latin America 17 1.3 17 2.9 16 6.2
'Near East 7 0.5 7 0.9 6 1.8
Low income countries 130 0.5 140 1.3 150 4.4

Table M

Tractors I Feed for Draught Animals
Region 1980 1990 2000 1980 1990 2000 Growth
rtRegion 1980 1990 rte r ate
1980-2000 ___198C-2000
- 'COO million S % n.a. - - million P - % I.a.
90 Developing 8.9 20.1 48.5 8.9 989 1,034 1,078 0.5
Africa 0.5 1.1 3.1 9.6 32 35 38 0.9
Far East 1.4 4.1 13.4 12.0 712 767 821 0.7
Latin America 5.0 11.5 24.9 8.3 61 60 59 -0.1
Near East 2.0 3.4 7.1 6.6 184 172 160 -0.7
Low income
countries 1.3 3.4 12.3 11.9 844 907 970 0.7

- 28 -

"Note by FAO on the treatment of draught animal 2-15
power inputs in the 'Agriculture: Towards 2000'
FAO Study"

To be able to treat draught animal power inputs into agri-
cultural production, a so-called "power model" was developed. In
this model, all power inputs including human labour, draught animal
labour and machine power were all converted into Man Day Equivalents
as a common denominator for aggregation and allocation purposes. The
Man Day Equivalent (ME) represents average amount of "work done" by
an adult male in a day's time. It is not a measure of "energy input",
but is of work accomplished. Its substitution ratios between the
various sources of energy (as listed above) have been accomplished
by analysing empirical data mainly from farm management records which
show _the .rateas-al +~h y -ubstitui1t_:or -each. other-in overa-ll
farming -operations. ?o-e -Ae, = putr= te nd !zbo=_r o..=.-i_,
a person can generally handle about 0.4 he. of crops in a year
(season). If a pair of bullocks is added, a family of 2.5 working
persons can handle about 3 ha. of crops a year. This means that,
in this specific situation, the pair of oxen substitutes for 5.0
additional people. Assuming annual use rates of 50 days for
bullocks and 100 days for labour (average figures for India), the
substitution ratio of one bullock day is for 2.5 man-days. Similar
values were derived for tractor use also.
In the estimation of future draught animal populations,
differences were made between regions of the developing world. For
Latin America and the Near East it was assumed that there will be a
small decline in their numbers, for Asia and the Far East a slow
growth of about 1.0-1-.5 p.a. and for Africa a growth of about 5% p.a.
Then it was assumed that annual use for Africa would improve; but in
the rest of the world it would remain at the 1975 level. In turn,
the projected number of draught animals was multiplied by their annual
days of use and by the substitution ratio to E, which was estimated
at 2.6 per bullock (draught animal) day. This gave the total work
performance for draught animals, which was deducted from the total
power requirements estimated for the production programme postulated.
The residual "power input requirement" was subsequently allocated
between human labour and tractor, as influenced by labour availability
and income levels, the latter serving as an indication for wages.

28. From the above, it can be seen that a structural transformation is
expected to take place. Tractor power would go up 2.5 times faster
than hand labour, while the DAP growth rate would be slower. FAO also
feels that DAP cannot be expected -o go up fast in Africa because of the
problems of disease.

29. FAO has also estimated annual input costs for tractors and for DAP
(only cultivated fodders and concentrates, leaving labour grazing, by-
products, etc.) in Table M above. It can be seen that heavy outlays are
involved in mechanisation including foreign exchange. Corresponding
benefits only can justify such large outlays, which need planning and other
infrastructural requisites.

Zb *

Conclusion 2-16

30. The above figu-res are, of course, rough, indicative of the order
of magnitude. In any case, the action to be taken to optimise a given
situation will not change even if trends do not turn out as expected.
All the three sources of power have to be optimally used, taking the
private and social cost-benefits. As has been expressed on a number of
occasions, DP- can play its potential role only if conscious attempts
are made to upgrade it. If a laissez-faire attitude is taken, there
will be overall loss to agricultural production, the farmers and
society at large.

31. Upgrading the system does not mean that more animals have to be
brought into position, although this is also required for a number of
countries, particularly in Africa. The emphasis should be to get more
output from the same system:

(a) increase the number of days' utilisation of DAs;
(b) better feed and health care which means more
(c) better implements and carts, which means better
utilisation of power generated;
(d) better recovery and use of by-products during
working life and after dea-h.

- 30 -



1. Economic evaluations of draught animals have been made from time
to time from various points of view, analysing a particular component
or situation. The DAP system as a whole has never been assessed.
Only recently, when the energy crisis reached critical levels, were
serious reviews of the system's efficiency attempted in a comprehensive
manner. The problem was, no doubt, complex because of the inherent
difficulties in measurement and establishing concepts and norms for
comparisons. The conditions existing in different countries were so
different that evaluations were usually done under varying
assumptions and using different formulae without a rigorous or
standardised approach.

Draught Horse Technology and Literature

2. In the early part of this century, in order to utilise the draught
horse efficiently, considerable amounts of economic analysis and R & D
were carried out with regard to breeding, feed, measurement of draught
power output, biological effects, etc. These efforts led to the
increased productivity of the draught horse system in Europe and America.
A good deal of literature on every aspect was published, which could,
even now, be retrieved for current use.

Forces Towards Mechanisation

3. Wben the internal combustion engine was perfected, tractors and
multi-purpose equipment for all farm operations were introduced. With
low-cost energy, farm mechanisation progressed in Europe, North America,
Japan and other industrialized countries at a rapid pace. This was
partly due to the high labour costs and unwillingness of the younger
generation of farmers to work with animals. ,'Many developing countries
in Latin America (Brazil, Chile and Argentina) and a few in the Near
and Far East (Korea and Taiwan) followed the lead of advanced countries
and opted for farm mechanisation as quickly as possible.

4. Some developing countries believed that mechanisation was a good
thing per se without bothering about economic analysis and implemented
this policy. Others made a comparative analysis of DAP versus
tractors. Most studies were at the micro level and did not cover all
relevant factors. No studies were launched which would help to arrive
at a country-wide policy decision. It was generally believed that crop
yields would increase due to intensity of ploughing, which in itself was
considered as sufficient argument for going in for mechanisation. In
some countries, the milk-meat system got high priority in government
thinking and planning, which resulted, unwittingly perhaps, in some bias
against, and neglect of, work animals even as regards professional studies
and research.

31 -

DAP versus Mechanisation Studies

5. The comparative studies done in the 1940s and 1950s were
unrealistic, as they were based on an unequal comparison of the
primitive non-modernised state of DA? with the sophisticated tractor
technology. For instance, cost-benefit of the traditional wooden
plough drawn by half-starved animals was compared with tractors and
tillers, assuming a high-level tractor utilisation and efficiency.
It later turned out that, in some countries, the high intensity of
tractorisation could not be sustained under the prevailing conditions
of poor infrastructure. Doubts were also expressed whether the
expected yields were actually realized, and even where outputs went up,
whether these were not due to a combination of other inputs such as
fertilisers, hybrid seeds, pesticides, water and so on.

6. The situation became worse in some areas because of the technical,
organizational and social factors, which reduced the level of tractor
utilisation. Lack of credit, failure of extension service reaching
farmer levels, lack of facilities for maintenance and repair of tractors,
non-availability of spare parts for the mechanised equipment, etc., upset
the balance and belied the high expectations and ad hoc assumptions
made earlier. Such conditions have been reported in several countries
in Asia and Africa. An economic evaluation of the role of DAP in the
T'Cs has to be viewed against this background of experience.

Factors in Economic Evaluation

7. The new knowledge emerging from recent studies provides a new
basis on which energy concepts and policies are being developed.
According to this, the picture can be complete only if all segments
of the animal energy system are utilised properly. Although the
draught- animal by itself may not be able to compete with fossil energy
in conversion efficiency, if the system is upgraded, all the resultant
products will be credited to the animal, and the DAP may become viable
as also distinctly advantageous to small farmers. The assessment of
the economic contribution of DA? should not be based only on the volume
of work done and its efficiency. Only the animal is feasible for such
work, and therefore the index of its utility should be that factor
rather than the volume of work done.

8. For-instance, forestry logging practices differ considerably from
country to country. It is highly developed in the advanced countries
where excellent breeds of work horses are used along with well-designed
adjunct equipment. In Latin American countries, oxen are used for
forestry work. In India, Sri Lanka, 3urma and Thailand, elephants are
used for logging. The adjunct equipment used for oxen and elephants
is not well developed. Mechanisation is not possible. In view of
these factors, an economic analysis may not be even worthwhile.

9. Economics of DAP will also change the way it is utilised. 'When
animal-drawn vehicles (A.Vs) are used for transportation as adjunct
to farm operations, the utilisation cf draught animals increases, making
DAP economically more viable. It is not so much the volume of goods
transported that should count for assessing the importance of ADV to the

32 -

economy, nor comparison with the railways and roadways. Even in a
country like India, which has the largest number of ADVs in the, world,
their share may be only 5% in terms of tonne-c-ms. moved. But this
low figure does not tell the whole story, since this 15 billion ton-kins
in 500,000 villages and hundreds of towns could not have been handled
by any other means. Similarly, in China, most rural transportation
near the farms is being carried by ADV, while in Thailand and the
Philippines, they use mechanised transport. It is not correct to
compare DAP transport volume with mechanised systems for purposes of
policy and resource allocation. Criticality, optimisation and the
opportunity cost of resources should also be taken into account in
economic evaluation.

DAP contribution to the economy is enhanced as it creates
facilities and provides benefits, thus making rtal areas self-reliant.
The social cost of importing petroleum fuel and equipment, and the
investment involved in the manufacture of mechanised equipment must
be included in the evaluation. The foreign exchange involved and
the financial resources for the creation of the infrastructure required
for mechanising the system may be beyond the financial and organizational
capability of many developing countries. Of course, the situation
differs from country to country and therefore needs specific studies
to evaluate the implications and consequences. For this, it is
important to evolve models with which developing countries can decide
on policies for mechanisation vis---vis importing equipment, investment
required for manufacturing machines and the creation of infrastructure,
employment, impact on ecology, etc.

Employment Aspect

11. In the DCs, employment generation is one of the main goals of
development planning. No discussion on the economic evaluation of
DAP will be complete without considering the employment aspect.
It has been widely recognized that animal husbandry is highly labour
intensive, a technology easy to transfer and involves the acquisition
of skills having relevance to the rural areas of developing countries,
A large proportion of farm households keep livestock such as cows,
buffaloes and donkeys, which can be handled by women and younger members
of the family. Rearing and utilisation of livestock enables the
better utilisation of farm family labour and also provides employment
to landless labour. Transportation of goods using the draught animals
provides employment and earnings during the off-season. Studies
conducted by I21, Bangalore show that a double bullock cart, hired out
from agents, brings in 37.5 a day for about 300 days a year. The
investment in such a cart with animals is about 3700. Usually, the
proceeds are shared equally by the owner, the carter and the animals.
This gives a rate of return of about 10C% to the owner and a reasonable
remuneration for the carter. Figures for a single bullock cart are
between 50 to 70e of the above. In sugar cane growing areas in India,
the traditional cart was giving a nett of $1.5 to the carter, while the
improved ones with three times the capacity more than doubled his
income after paying for all expenses. In the 'Meerut division, all carts
are modernised and the carters recover the investment in one year. The
improved single buffalo carts routinely carry 2 tons, earning a nett $4
for the professional carters.

33 -
Pra--mentat ion

12. The trend in most DCs is towards increasing land fragmentation.
Attempts at consolidation have been largely unsuccessful. Under the
most favourable conditions, it has affected only 505 of the area' and
number of operational holdings. DAP is the feasible solution for the
large mass of small farmers who are eking out a pittance from cultivating

Adverse Effects of Mechanisation

13. Some of the adverse effects which mechanisation has caused in
certain areas within the existing social structure, such as displace-
ment of labour, inequality, etc., are social costs to be included in
evaluation. It has been reported that in some cases the benefits
of intensive cultivation have gone to the better-off farmers, often
at the cost of the small and marginal farmers. Studies in the
evaluation of socio-economic impact of the green revolution in India
pointed out that the benefits of high cost intensive inputs are taken
advantage of largely by rich farmers. The cultural viewpoint has also
to be taken into account in the tribal areas of some African countries.

Current Evaluation Only Tentative

14. DA? is a classic example of how animals can be integrated with
rural life, where the energy and products of the animal during working
life or meat and by-products after death are used. Economic and social
benefits can be considerably enhanced if all aspects are developed and
mana-ged efficiently. As DA? is yet to be modernised, figures of
current evaluation can be considered only as tentative.

15. Some of the segments of the DA? are not even considered as part of
the system, and therefore economic evaluation of the total system is
not easily feasible now. The picture gets distorted since academic
discussions are often confined to the comparison of the conversion of
plant food to animal energy and its utilisation with the oil-based
sophisticated tractor technology, leaving out other factors.

Drauzht-Milk-'Meat Systems

16. If the idea in the developing countries is to look for energy
conversion from sunlight to its ultimate desired effect human welfare -
then draught animals will have a better case than meat animals or tractors
for specific situations in some countries. The conversion of plant food
to draught effort (particularly in the absence of any alternative
possibility for substitution), which is easily feasible, will have a
higher economic and social value than conversion of plant to meat energy
when substitution of meat by high protein vegetable foods is feasible.
In the case of meat, one more step of conversion is involved. This
factor has to be taken into account while considering DAP for attention,
evaluation and resources with the competing milk and meat system in
some countries.

34 -
Importance of DAs

17. None of the above arguments should lead to consideration of
mere magnitudes in the evaluation of the economic contribution of
animals. In some developing countries, in the absence of animals,
the cultivable area cannot be taken up for crop production, as has
happened actually in the case of Sri Lanka and the bigger islands
of Indonesia. Similarly, poor yields in some cases are possibly
due to the lack, or insufficiency, of DAP. What can be gained by
the proper and efficient utilisation of DAP is demonstrated by the
conditions in China where the food crop yields are more than twice
those of India. The combination of other inputs is somewhat
comparable, except that the rural social organization has been able
to make more intensive use of human, animal and machine energy
re -i.--t rigt -." for-ci-i si- cp+ of crops from land.

Models for Economic Evaluation

18. FAO and other international agencies, such as ICRISAT and IRRI,
have evaluated the economics of draught animal power for farm
operations. PAO has presented a simple method for calculating the
cost-benefit analysis of using draught animals in tropical countries.
This method is in a way incomplete because, apart from work in farm
operations, animals make other contributions which are not considered
such as animal waste during their working life and meat and by-products
after death. However, this methodology is useful for certain purposes,
which can be used for similar studies in the DCs.

19. Binswanger- has reviewed several studies conducted in India
using various models of economic evaluation of animal-dra-wn implements
versus tractors. Ee has observed that the advantages of tractors are
exaggerated because of the non-treatment of social costs and returns.
According to him, the social returns have to be calculated on various
assumptions. For instance, labour saving due to tractorisation can
be assigned a lower social value if there is little scope for employing
released labour force. Similarly, the shadow pricing of foreign
exchange will work out higher than the official rates for imports of
fuels for tractorisation. He further states: "The surveys fail to
provide evidence that tractors are responsible for substantial increases
in intensity, yields, timeliness, and gross returns on farms in India,
Pakistan and Nepal. At best, such benefits may exist, but are so
small that they cannot be detected and Statistically supported even with
very massive survey research efforts."2/ In view of his finding,
many of the cost-benefit studies reported may have over-estimated the
benefits, both social and private, which arise out of the use of tractors.

20. Arj'.n Makhijani and Alan Poole]/ have dealt elaborately with the
issues of energy utilisation for agriculture in TWCs, and have made a
number of suggestions for optimising the use of all resources, aiming
at using the available levels of renewable and non-renewable energy
efficiently, rather than raising the levels of technology in the short-
term. Dealing with the peak labour requirement in agricultural

1/ "The Economics of Tractors of South Asia an Analytical Review".
2/ Ibid.
3/ "Energy and Agriculture in the Third World".

. 35 -

operations, which is one of the major problems in agriculture all
over the world, they suggest that a complementary package of manual,
animal and mechanical pcwers with their optimum combination .- will
offer the best solution. Their model suggests a more intensive use
of grazing land and limited increases in cattle population where

21. The Cl b of Rome sponsored studies, summarised by the Potomaco
Associates !/, have emphasised that most of the DCs are at the lowest
level of energy consumption, while advanced countries have the highest
energy consumption per capital as well as high GNP. If draught
animal power is used in the most effective manner through scientific
breeding, feeding and management, improvement of vehicles and designs
-ef --ar-i-plements, DA? will yield much bert--resla forf..arrs
of cer.-in developing countri-s than through mechanisation. In fact,
in the context of the present oil crisis, mechanisation for certain
developing countries at any substantial pace is neither feasible nor

22. Another factor is pollution due to carbon-dioxide. It has been
calculated that the increase in the atmospheric concentration of
carbon-dioxide, at about 1.5 part million each year, will reach 300
parts per million by the year 2000 AD. Serious health problems will
arise due to the combined effect of malnourishment and other environ-
mental factors and increased atmospheric pollution if large-scale
mechanisation is attempted.

23. It has also been pointed out that, taking into account the
capital cost required for developing new land for bringing it under
the plough, over 50- of the total cultivable area of the world will be
beyond the reach of developing countries for a long time. The DA
population can use such land for its feed requirements if each
country identifies such land and produces animal feed. on cultivable
wastes, marginal forest lands and other types of under-utilised land
resources. In economic evaluation, benefits arising out of such
measures should find a place.

Wastes in the System

24. A few examples will illustrate the wastes in the existing system,
which serve to depress the economic contribution. Pilot studies have
shown that due to the vertical load and injury to the neck, the working
life of an animal is reduced by as much as 2 to 3 years. If half of
the 100 million "As in the Indian sub-continent lose 2 years out of
their estimated 10 years of working life, 100 million animal years are

25. India is one of the biggest exporters of leather. It is estimated
that by modernizing slaughter, export potential will go up from
$500 million to $2,000 million. Similarly, by recovering the wastes in
slaughter houses, another $500 million can be saved.

1/ Donella H. Meadow et al. "The Limits of Growth".


36 -

26. Although India had an early start in gobar-gas technology, only
600,000 units are in operation, while China has over 7 million units.
In India the dung is used directly as fuel for household use and some
part is used as manure. Passing dung through a gobar-gas plant will
improve its quality as manure. At present, farmers are felling trees
for firewood resulting in deforestation and upsetting the ecological
balance. It is possible to work out figures to show the impact of
gobar-gas units on soil enrichment, utility value of gas for lighting
and heat, saving out of less deforestation, the imputed values for
ecological balance, sanitation and environmental hygiene, etc. Other
countries have not done much with regard to gobar-gas. There is
enormous potential for processing human, animal and vegetable wastes
into energy. Thus, while working. out the ecoromic-ccntr-_ibution-of
.AP-, gobar-gas ought to find a place.

Other Benefits

27. DAs are mostly owned by the small and marginal farmers. Most
of them do not have adequate insurance or bank accounts and credit
facilities. Animals constitute one of their assets, and DAP
functions not only as cash tradable but also as an insurance in
case of emergency accidents, death, marriage, etc. Studies have
shown that people in some parts keep animals precisely for that risk.
In Africa, some communities keep animals as a source of wealth, and
for emphasising a higher social status.

28. Most farming in many countries of Africa is still carried out
by hand as much as 90 Part of this can definitely be transferred
to animals. This will increase the productivity of land and also
release men, and more particularly women, from the bondage of drudgery
and labour. The women could possibly involve themselves in other and
less health-hazardous activities.

29. The above explanations are more illustrative than comprehensive.
It is only when models are worked out and studies conducted in different
countries that one will get to know the magnitude of current wastes and
potential benefits to the economy if the DAP system were modernised.

Policy Implications

30. Some countries are interested in evolving policies on DAP with
regard to animals, equipment, implements, mechanisation and so on; but
they have been unable to do so because of a lack of awareness of the
importance of DAP among professional and scientific personnel. Most
of the studies have been at the micro level, conducted for temporal and
spatial situations carried out as a part of rural development studies.
Other studies are those made at the time of mechanisation, with a focus
on the economic viability of tractorisation, together with the good
points related to higher yields and adverse effects on employment.
Because of the energy crisis, a lot of effort is going on new in evolving
input and output concepts and tables, energy conversion analysis, social
cost-benefit studies, and so on.

- 37 -

31. The fact that the UN system does not even have the basic statistics.
of draught animals in various countries with data such as distribution of
species, breeds, draught capabilities, effect of energy on yields, etc.,
goes to show the gap in current information and awareness. it may also
be noted that there are no special groups working in the L" system on the
comprehensive aspects of DAP, although a good deal of work has been done
on agriculture, implements, harnessing devices, introduction of animals
in Africa and so on, as part of projects undertaken on agricultural
production or rtal development.

32. Agricultural economists and emerging energy specialists have been
compelled to work on models based on limited data. Since thec
.has been-nc r--r &ic'al cnfrance or working -Egrou 1a 1-q oQf _-, s
on D?, these studies stand isolated withcu- the benefits of interaction
amongst scholars and experts, which would have helped in finding out
the applicability of such models for the varying situations among
countries. The contribution of yield in relation to energy input has
not been isolated in the case of DAP, although a lot of work has been
done on the effect of tractorisation energy input to yield/outputs.
Since a combina-tion of other inputs come into play resulting in the
aggregate output, there are no conclusive studies of the delineated
causative impact of DA? or tractor. In fact, studies have shown that
an increase in yield from tractorisation has not been as per the set
targets. The impact of energy on agricultural production has to be
studied over a uTch longer period. Studies under controlled conditions
are to be taken up in the DCs on such aspects. A lot of work has been
done in advanced countries relating agricultural yields to different
inouts. It will be useful to collate all -hese studies for the benefit
of the developLng countries.

33. Energy, transport and communication have been subsidized to varying
degrees in some DCs in order to provide the necessary infrastructure for
economic development. Similar subsidies have also been given for
social services education, R & D, public health and so on. Specifically
in the agricultural sector itself, subsidies have been extended to
fertilizer, pesticides, seeds and extension work in order to foster and
facilitate higher agricultural yields. For some reason, DAP is one
energy element which has not yet merited attention for such a subsidy
prcgrarmme, whereas, in fact, it ought to receive the same attention as
any other energy infrastructure. In India, diesel oil and rural
electrification for pumps are subsidized directly, both in terms of
capital and recurring cost. No subsidy is given to the DA? system and
the farmers have to rely on themselves to develop animal power.

34. In order to evaluate the economic contribution of DA?, one has to
view the system as a whole its debits and credits, the private and social
costs and benefits, etc. The other point is that DAP at present is in a
low level of technology, organization and management. On upgrading DAP,
its economic contribution will go up. As DAP will continue to be
significantly relevant at least until the end of this century, it is
necessary to have a projection of its contribution when upgraded to enable
governments to lay down policies and take investment decisions for up-
grading. In the absence of a figure for the social return of the upgraded
system, the present picture is not realistic. Further, with the rising
energy costs, we must have a model with which upgraded DAP can be compared
with future fossil energy costs.

38 -
micro Studies

35. In a number of locations, where tractorisation has been
considered for increasing yield, to reduce cost, or to solve the
peak labour requirement, studies have been conducted. Comparative
.studies of A?2 and P3P have also been made. The number of such
studies and findings are far too large, and often conflicting, so that
no attempt is made here to list or summarise them. Dr. H.?. Binswanger,
in his book "Economics of Tractors in South Asia" (where DA? is pre-
dominant) has dealt extensively with the matter. He talks of the
"bewildering variety of methods" used in cost-benefit studies. He also
observes that tractors are used for transportation and as a substitute
source of power rather than as a means of improving management or

36. ICFISAT has made experimental level comparisons, and opines that
_ what .is more.important. is to provide betterimplements (which they
have done with their wheeled tool carrier) to make better use of animal
power for improving efficiency and timeliness".

37. D. Pimental, in his "Energy Use in World Food Production", has
opined that the use of draught animals decreases the basic energy
efficiency for food production. He seems to think that hand labour
has the highest energy efficiency. His calculations end up in the
following type of data:

Energy inputs and food energy
production in I._er--Calories per Ea.

Inout Out ut Inout
.putt- Outpu-

Congo hand labour -572 21,450 0.03
cas sara^ 572 21,450 0.03
Mexico hand labour -210 2,970 0.07
Philippines buffalo 1,831 6,004 0.30
India oxen wheat 2,838 2,709 1.05

38. Odend'hal feels that DAs use their feed only at 4% efficiency;
but efficiency goes up to 17% when dung is used. Adding the contribution
of milk, efficiency would go up still more. Makhijani and Poole have
highlighted the differences between agricultural systems by pointing out
that "although energy inputs are estimated to be quite similar in five
countries, the rice yields vary up to fourfold according to the primary
source of energy which consists of human labour in China, draught animals
in India, tillers in Taiwan and Japan and large-scale equipment in LUSA".
G.M. Ward and his colleagues in their paper on "Animals as an Energy Source
in Third World Agriculture" comment that "the difficulty with these com-
parisons of energy is that the energy inputs are qualitatively very
different and differ greatly in economic value. They are therefore a
fallible criterion for deciding what is the best form of energy input in
a given set of circumstances.... Draught animals, when their potential
is fully used, not only supplement energy for agriculture and transport
but also food products and the means for year-round income".

- 39 -


39. They have further elaborated on all aspects of DAs, and have
concluded that development strategy should be a substantial reorientation
away from the philosophy of mechanisation based on fossil fuels. In any
case, most of the feed used by the "As are not useful to man, and energy
efficiency calculations have to be viewed in that light.

40. Several others also have expressed the view that a "systems view of
DA?" should be the approach of developing countries. The fact that such
thinking is going on is a good sign. It is for the third world to sit
up and examTine these alternatives and their implications. Let developing
countries reject such "academic exercises and acrobatics"; but let them
know what they are rejecting or missing.


41. The economic evaluation of D-A?, in the present state of affairs,
has to be necessarily tentative and gross, rather than conclusive and
precise. But some evaluation which does not exist now at policy
making levels is called for. The farmer, caught in a set of circuim-
stances, has done his best. For him, the intangibles and uncertainties
are too many. Often, he knows what is best. But he has no resources -
technical and financial to implement the optimal solution. All this
can change for the better, even dramatically, if the national and environ-
mental policies are inr his favour, and not against him.

- 40 -



Shortage of Farm Power

1. There is a shortage of farm power for the current level of
requirements, which may continue in the future as well, for the
additional area to be taken on and also for obtaining increased
yield. Even India, which has abundant labour and draught animals,
has estimated that the energy output has to be doubled in order to
get optimal output. The energy scene is worse in many of the low
income countries. Subsistence agriculture is still the situation
in large areas of Asia and Africa and a few Latin American countries.
FAO has estimated that a growth rate of 2-3% in power input is required
for the next two decades.

2. Mechanisation can continue to increase at a pace technically
feasible and economically viable. Because of continued fragmentation
of land, and the failure of attempts towards consolidation and formation
of cooperatives, there are obvious limitations to extending mechanisation
to the large number of small holdings.

3. The FAO estimates show that 80C of the tractor power in the
developing countries is concentrated in Latin America and the Near East.
Their share of mechanical power is expected to go up from 27 and 18%
to 54 and 36% respectively by 20CO AD. But in Africa and the Far 2ast,
mechanised power is expected to be only 8 and 9% of total power inputs
by 2000 AD. While the overall share of mechanical power may go up
from 8% in 1975 to 19% in 2000 AD, the bulk of power needs would still
have to come from humans and animals.
4. In Africa, human energy would still be as high as 82% in most
areas, and in the Far East, 66%. To the extent possible, part of this
labour should be passed on to DA,. Projections of mechanisation are
based on present perceptions of oil prices. In any event whatever
the increase or decrease in the pace of mechanisation the case for
increasing and upgrading DAP would not materially change.

Need for Increased DAP

5 In fact, there is some evidence that rapid mechanisation has not
been a big success (nor would it be in the future), due to technical,
infrastructural and maintenance problems, which of course have to be
remedied quickly. Meanwhile, there are so many conflicting views among
energy experts and economists about DAP's basic efficiency. Makhijani
and Poole have pointed out: "draught animals are relatively inefficient
sources of mechanical power, though they are not as inefficient if the
dung is used effectively"/. But many others Ward, Sutherland,

/ Maikhijani and Poole, op. cit.


Campbell, Eoward, Smith, Turk, McDowell, Chancellor have concluded
.tha the use of DAP is inevitable under existing situations. Binswanger,
who conducted specific studies in India on tractor versus DA?, has come
to similar conclusions. M akhijani and Poole have also opined: '"An
Lm mediate and less e:.-pensive way of achieving more benefits from energy
is to make more efficient use of present resources".1/

6. 3ut, whatever the validity of their divergent views, there is no
difference of opinion regarding the need for increased power from manual
labour and animals, as the total demand for power is more (in Asia and
Africa) than what could be met by mechanised sources. In fact, there
is no conflict or competition each source can complement and supplement
the other. China uses both machines and DA? for cultivation; but for
cther operations, they largely use their abundant manual labour. But
many countries, which are compelled to use animals for cultivation, are
using machines for adjunct transportation. Such a practice is wasteful
at both ends, as in Thailand and the Philippines.

Increased Productivity of DAP

7. Even if more animals cannot be raised or commissioned due to various
locational reasons in each country, such as the disease problems in
Africa or lack of pasture land as in -gypt and Bangladesh, etc., there is
no doubt that there is immense scope for getting more output from the
existing draught animals by:

(a) increasing the number of days of DA utilisation;
(b) improving the food and health care in order to
enable animals to give more output;
(c) improving the efficiency of implements, carts and
(d) increased recovery and use of by-products of DAs;
(e) improving the infrastructure and organizational

8. Such a conclusion has been endorsed by specialists, policy makers
and users of DAP in some of the developing countries. The analysis of
literature and written responses from a few countries also confi-r this
view. Nevertheless, while there is some vague awareness of the
important role of draught animal power, most of these countries with
the exception of China, India and Mexico have not formulated any firm
plan for improving the draught animal productivity.

Uoarading Levels of Technology

9. The situation in a few countries is briefly described to give an
overview of the scene. The developing countries can be grouped into
certain categories based on similarities of socio-econcmic and cultural

1 Makhijani and Poole, op. cit.

42 4-3

factors which influence the levels of technology in farm operations.
Upgrading of the levels of technology is dependent not only on
technical, economic, social and political conditions, but also on
eco-zones, farming systems, organizational factors, infrastructural
facilities and local administration.

10. There are basically three levels of technology available for
farm operations: hand-tool, animal draught and mechanical power
technology. Within each level itself, efficiency can be increased
by upgrading the system through technical and organizational
improvements. Successive transition from a lower *to a higher level,
or a combination, will depend upon the constraints and vantage points
inherent in every situation.

Five Categories of Countries

11. From the DAP point of view, the developing countries can be grouped
into five broad categories in terms of the stage of transition:

(i) Adoptive: Most African countries
(ii) Complementary: India, Bangladesh, Pakistan,
Nepal, Sri Lanka and China
(iii) Declining: Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia,
Korea, Philippines
(iv) Reviving: A few La-in American countries
(v) Petroleum exporting countries.


12. The countries in this category are those in transition from hand-
tool technology to higher levels. The major energy source for farm
operations in these countries is human labour which has the least
efficiency coefficient. Upgrading of hand-tool technology by itself
would not be sufficient for achieving reasonable levels of agricultural
production; and hence the need for transition to a higher level. Even
though the urge to jump directly to mechanical technology is tempting,
which in certain cases has been resorted to with partial results or
failure, it is being increasingly realized that draught animal use may
be the appropriate solution for improving farm productivity in those
countries where DAP is feasible.

13. One of the problems confronted by some countries in developing
draught animals is the disease-prone environment, particularly the
tsetse fly-infested areas. There is optimism that this problem can
be slowly solved. These countries should be able to overcome the
labour bottleneck, and upgrade local capacity for equipment operation
and maintenance. Specialists feel that intermediate-scale
mechanisation (oxen and power tillers) offers a good possibility for
countries such as the Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali and Sierra Leone.
In Mali, the use of DAP for ploughing is becoming popular. Upper
Volta has started making implements as part of their handicrafts

43 -
East African Countries

14. A similar view has been expressed regarding East African countries
(Kenya, Tanzania and_ Uganda) that, under the present labour and capital
relationship (availability and price), -A? is perhaps the most promising
source for increasing farm, productivity. The comments of Heuston Dagg,
Farm M*achinery Specialist, on agricultural mechanisation policy in
Tanzania are worth noting:

"The use of mechanical power ray be justified by the ability to
cultivate dry heavy soils and to precision seed. Animal power
may be utilised for inter-row cultivation and transport of
crop, while human power will be necessary for weeding and
harvesting. Such a combination, where conditions permit, is
not contravention of policy".!

In accordance with this logic, the first priority for local manufacture
is given to improve hand-tools and animal-powered equipment, the second
priority to small harvesting and processing machines, and the third
priority to tractor power.

15. The proceedings of the Sixth Annual Research Seminar, organized
by the Institute of Agricultural Research in Addis Ababa in November 1975,
highlighted the role of draught animal power in the Ethiopian agricultural

"It is apparent that draught animals have a well justified
place in Ethiopian agriculture. This is even mcre true
with implementation of the Land Reform proclamation into
situations where capital and maintenance facilities are
short or non-existent. Experiments with camels and oxen
as draught animals were started in April 1975."

Oxenisation programmes were initiated in many African countries with
government support. President ITyerere has been especially eloquent in
his endorsement of DAP:

"W'e are using hoes. If two million farmers in Tanzania
could jum-p from the hoe to the oxen plough, it would be
a revolution. It would double our living standard, triple
our product. This is the kind of thing China is doing."


16. In Tanzania, at least 855^ of the cultivated area is worked by hand.
Possibilities of its replacement by DA? are restrained by: small land
holdings, local custom and psychology, ignorance, non-availability of
the range of implements, poor supply of trained animals, and mixed
cultivation (e.g. beans under banana trees). A national progra-mme for
developing tractorisation and DAP was started in 1979 under the agri-
cultural mechanisation policy, which gives top priority to the use of DlAP.

J/ "Agricultural Mechanisation Development". Paper presented in
March 1980 at the Annual Conference of the Tanzanian Society of
Agricultural Engineers.


Sierra Leone and Malawi

17. In Sierra Leone, ox-ploughing was tried. in the past, but declined
to a few isolated locations. There is some enthusiasm now for reviving
it. The Integrated Agricultural Development Project involves training
at six centres with oxen and equipment. Similarly, DAP is being .
encouraged in a number of other projects and centres.

18. Oxen have been increasingly used in forestry in MLalawi since 1971.
The Department of Forestry- embarked upon an ox breeding programme in
1979 to produce animals with characteristics such as: short neck, strength,
high stamina, disease resistance, etc.


19. Agriculture in Botswana is characterized by a minimum labour input
because of the plentiful draught power donkeys and cattle as well as
ample grazing land. DAP is utilised wherever possible. Bots-wana is a
semi-desertic cattle country. About 50% of the rural households own
cattle, with a distribution averaging 10 to 15 head per household. Oxen
are used for ploughing and weeding. 10 cattle are rec-uired to raise a
team of 6 draught animals (including cows), which is the minimum size for
ploughing. UAs are borrowed and exchanged. Donkeys are also used for
ploughing. Financing for the purchase of donkeys is available. There
are no training centres.

Democratic Malazasy Republic (Madagascar)

20. Three million oxen are used for ploughing. They start work only
at the age of 5 years and the retiring age is around 12 years, after
which they are fattened and slaughtered for meat. Oxen fetch good
value for slaughter. They are still widely used for social and religious
functions. There is no competition between draught power and tractor-
isation; they are complementary. Eand labour still continues to be a
dominant source of farming operations. Substituting manual labour with
draught animals is possible, but the main constraints are plot size and
steepness of terrain in many areas. There is no special effort for
improving animal-d-rawn implements.

Implements and Extension

21. DAP-based cultivation in many African countries was developed only
in recent years usually sporadically and unevenly. DA? is mainly for
ploughing. All other operations such as weeding, seeding and harrowing
are done manually. In Botswana, threshing is done by donkeys. Compared
to other parts of the third world, the African farmers generally do not
know much about the training of animals and the efficient operation of
agricultural implements. DAP was introduced in some countries of West
Africa only during the 1960s. Most of the agricultural implements were
imported from temperate regions. Gradually, the local manufacturers are
adapting these implements to suit their agronomic requirements.

45 -


22. Suitable animal-drawn implements were developed for rice cultivation
in Guinea and 'adagascar, for groun-nut cultivation in Senegal and
Nigeria and cotton cultivation in the French-speaking tropical countries
of Africa. In general, a twofold approach may be tried:

(i) extension of suitably designed equipment over large areas
where some implements are already in use, thus modernising
the major part of the more important cultivation work;
(ii) intensive training and systematic modernisation of certain
operations, assisted by outside agencies with specialised
experience in tropical crop production.

23. Past experience, including successes and failures, has produced a
useful knowledge of the problems of cultivation with DA? equipment at
present available, partially adapted to local conditions. Improvements
to animal-draw. implements for working dry soil such as mould board
ploughs, riders, secondary tillage implements (often with teeth or tines
and rarely with discs), surface-working implements such as harrows and
rollers have been attempted to suit the environmental conditions.
Besides, a category of implements, designed specially for use in the tropics,
classified as "multi-puzrpose frames" or as "polycultivators" has also been
tried with donkey and bullock power.

24. Similarly, experimen-s have been going on in designing DA? equipment
for soil preparation in irrigated ricefields for primary and secondary
tillagze as well as surface tillage equipment such as zig-zag harrows,
puddlers, etc. Of the various types of sowing and planting equipment,
only the single row planters are used in appreciable numbers in Africa.
Animal-drawn groundnut lifting equipment has been introduced recently.

25. As regards trading and extension for DA?, two trends are seen:

(a) oxenisation prcgra.-ze;
(b) agricultural engineering research in a few countries.

Oxenisation progran-e relates to the "mechanical ladder" process of
technology transition which has been accepted by many African countries:

hand cultivation;
single-purpose ox-drawn cultivation;
multi-purpose cx-drawn tool frame;
one-wheel tractor;
conventional tractor.


26. Training for draught animal power was initiated through ox-ploughing
training schools and centres. Such schools were established in Gambia
in the mid-195Cs and developed very rapidly. In 1965 there were
24 schools catering to about 4CO trainees. The functions of these centres
have been:

46 -

(a) to act as demonstration centres;
(b) to provide farmer training in two categories:
a residential training of farmers and their
sons in practical farming skills, e.g. ox-
cultivation; and
non-residential training in the form of field
days, etc.;
(c) to conduct observational trials in field crops;
(d) second stage bulking up of improved seed;
(e) administrative centres for extension work.

27. In Tanzania, there are about 40 ox training centres, offering
a two-month progressive ox training procedure. Similar programmes
to disseminate the "Indian method" of training were initiated in
Uganda in the 1960s and in Kenya in 1975. The courses include training
in the use of DAP and tractors. In Sierra Leone an ox training scheme
was developed in the 1950s but petered out later. But there is renewed
enthusiasm for reviving it. In Malawi an ox training institute for
logging was established in 1975.

28. ,'Many of the ox training programmes, started with enthusiasm, seem
to have fizzled out. The criticism against the mixed farming centres
in Gambia is that the training is not an advanced one. Another
frequent criticism is that young trainees do not absorb the training
and that the older ones do not have the status to influence the
management of their sponsors' farms. In Uganda, the programme was
allowed to lapse because of the government's promotion of tractors
imported under aid programmes. The policy that farmers could and
should shift directly from the current predominant reliance on human
labour to tractor-powered farming systems has weakened efforts to foster
the use of draught animal power. A study on Tanzania in 1974 did not
find evidence of a concerted effort to promote a wider and more
intensive use of animal power. The situation in Kenya is in no way
better. Major reasons quoted for the failure of ox training programmes

indiscriminate tractorisation due to political compulsions;
psychological factors associated with "modernity" of
tractors and a tendency to look down on animal-drawn
equipment as an inferior and backward technology.

29. In spite of the impetus given to the adoption of animal-drawn
implements, commercialization of the new and improved designs has not
taken place. Almost all the countries have design centres or
institutes for agricultural engineering. The major reason for failure
of the DAP implement promotion is perhaps the lack of infrastructural
facilities for coamercialisation, resistance by the farmers because of
traditions and the absence of immediate perceptible benefits.

47 -


30. DA? constitutes the major traditional source of energy in these
countries, but it is increasingly being supported by mechanisation in
holdings of area more than 5 hectares. For the majority of the small
holdings, draught animal power is still the exclusive input. Improved
animal-drawn implements and mechanised equipment are the focus of
agricultural engineering research where they have been supported by
international institutions as well as private organizations. Inter-
national institutions such as IRRI and ICRISAT and national institutes
in most countries (e.g. ICAr, IARI and 1-IA1 in India) have been set up
for this purpose. Surveys have pointed out the relative advantages
of draught animal power, and the need for designing improved implements.
In spite of their efforts, the pace of adoption of iLproved animal-
drawn agricultural implements and machinery has been slow because of
infrastructural factors.


31. The situation in India is typical of many countries in Asia, and
therefore has been given elaborately. India has the largest draught
animal population in the world consisting of 80 million animals -
70 million bullocks, 8 million buffaloes and 1 million each of horses
and camels. Nearly two-thirds of the energy for cultivation is met by
animal power. There are several breeding tracts of good draught breeds.
However, it has been observed that the quality of draught animals is
deteriorating due to apathy and indifference.

32. It has been estimated that the percentage share of draught animal
power in the total requirements of farming operations would- decrease in
2000 A;, but that the number of work animals would remain at 80 million.
A higher efficiency coefficient per animal is envisaged. But a power
gap, eqiivalent to the needs of 30 million hectares, has to be met
during the next Two decades. Dependence on animal power may increase

(a) nearly 50 million holdings, covering only 20% of the
cultivated area, are of less than 2 hectares:
(b) draught animals provide an additional source of income
and employment for the small and marginal farmers;
(c) by user habit, the Indian farmer is accustomed to
training and maintaining the draught animals;
(d) fuel prices are increasing.

33. India has large-scale facilities and good expertise for the design
and manufacture of DA? implements. Many excellent designs have been
developed by universities and special institutions. But, even today,
the bulk of the farmers still use only the traditional "desi" plough.
It has not been possible to influence the large mass of small and
marginal farmers in the use of improved agricultural tools and implements.
Some of the difficulties encountered in the implementation of extension
work are:

48 -

lack of knowledge amongst farmers about the working,
handling, and. repairing of the improved implements;
absence of facilities for repairs and obtaining spare
parts in rural areas;
high prices.

34. The following suggestions were made by the ICAR report on
"Indigenous Agricultural Implements of India an All-India Survey"
in 1958, which hold good even today not only for India but also many
countries in Asia and Africa:

(a) information literature regarding the various parts,
their proper working and handling, repairs and
maintenance should be circulated in the form of
pamphlets and illustrated posters amongst the
farmers as well as the field staff. Such literature
should be in the regional languages. Programmes in
rural communication regarding the efficiency of the
improved tools and implements should also be carried
out for selected villages;

(b) demonstration of the improved implements should be
organized regularly on farmers' land to show their
proper use and handling;

(c) village craftsmen should be given training in the
fabrication and repair of improved agricultural
implements under the technical supervision of a
competent government agency;

(d) adequate workshop facilities and tools should be made
available to these craftsmen to carry out the repairs
efficiently and cheaply;

(e) arrangements should be made to stock spare parts in
sufficient numbers for these implements;

(f) arrangements should be made to make these implements
available to the cultivators on hire purchase or outright
purchase through cooperative societies;

(g) medium- or short-term loans with a low rate of interest
should be liberally granted for the purchase of such

(h) state governments should set up workshops in each
district where repair work, particularly of an advanced
nature, could also be undertaken. Such workshops are
to be utilised as training centres for village craftsmen.

49 -

35. Non-availability of raiw materials and s-ares has been a hindrance
for the continuous usage of improved implements. Because of this, even
though the far-.er is convinced cf the utility of the improved
implements, once the new implement needs spare par-ts, 'because of their
non-availability, he discards the new one and returns to the old one.
In using the country wooden plough, he does not require either
additional resources or skills to repair or replace parts.

3a. A review of product development and extension clearly indicates
the following points:

(a) in view-, of the importance of improving the design, and
thus the effectiveness, of small agricultural tools
and implements, target-oriented progra.-nes should be
seriously attempted;

(b) there has to be adequate attention paid to the production
of small agricultural tools and implements, extension and
other supporting services;

(c) in order that the institutions, established in the area
of agricultural research, extension and training in
rural areas, should not disintegrate, organized efforts
should be made to link them as an integrated infra-
st ructure;

(d) the transfer of technology has been only in the areas of
farmn machinery where imitation of foreign technology was
easier. Obviously, the rural segment which has been
benefited by this is the limited large-far_ sector.
tension should focus on the small-farm sector;

(e) the type of extension work done so far in the rural areas
has left the area of the adoption of small agricultural
tools and implements mostly untouched. The traditional
designs still hold sway; they are to be replaced.

37. The experiments done at ICRISAT are very encouraging. With
improved tools (work being done by I.Thierstein and Jean Tolle), such as
multi-puroose frame on wheels, the time for and; cost of tillage have
been drastically reduced. But the equipment and methods have not been
popularised yet. A massive campaign has to be launched to extend these
innovations to other parts.


35. Bangladesh has meagre pasture land, and has no oil resources; and
hence is in a dilemma regarding agricultural mechanisation and DA?.
Farmers have to depend mostly on animal draught because of fragmented
holdings, water-logged fields, etc. 90~/ of the cultivation is by
draught animals using traditional ploughs. Bangladesh is short of oxen
by 1 million. It is thinking of improving breeds rather than increasing
the number. Animals are underfed and weak.

50 4-11


39. Although Pakistan has a policy towards mechanisation, it is.
dependent upon animal draught for soil cultivation and rural transport
(see table below). About 70e/ of farms are under 2.5 acres in size,
where usage of DA? has a relative cost advantage over tractors. The
situation regarding animal-dra-wn agricultural implements is similar to
that of India. Agricultural engineering research is more oriented
towards mechanisation using commercial fuels.

Comparison of Animal Traction
versus Mechanical Traction
in Pakistan

mechanical I
Province area mchanical %
('000 ha) ('000 ha)

Baluchistanr/ 1,210 63 5.2
3W'??2/ 1,871 314 16.8
Punjab3 11,214 1,659 14.8
Sind. 5,249 386 7.4

Total: 19,544 2,422 12.4

j/ Development Statistics of Baluchistan, 1975-76.
2/ PAK/74/018 Reconnaissance Survey, R..H. Atkinson,
Peshawar, compiled from Agricultural Department data, 1972-76.
A/ Agricultural Statistics of Pakistan, 1975 (data 1973-74).
4/ Agricultural Statistics of Pakistan, 1975 (data 1971-72).


40. Unlike other countries in Asia and Africa, China's experience
with DAP shows complementary and increasing use of DAP along with rapid
mechanisation. China is able to raise twice the output of India per
hectare, partly because it gives special attention to energy, as much
as to the other farm inputs. DAP cultivates half of its 100 million
hectares, and the other half uses tractors. It has 50 million draught
animals at work, 500,000 large and medium sized tractors and 1.6 million
tillers. The animals are healthy as they are well fed and receive good
health care. Most of the DAP agricultural implements and rural carts
are modernised. Also, there is no problem of the farmers not being able
to afford the high cost of improved agricultural implements, as is the
case in other third world countries.

51 4-12

41. One of the arguments against DA? has been that it is too slow for
timely agricultural operations. But China has shown that it is
possible to have two or three crops with DA? energy alone. It is able
to do this because of .a combination of healthy animals, imroved
implements and The use of independent hitching devices which enable
3 to 4 animals to be used to draw The heavier implements, and, finally,
better rural organization and infrastructure in the collectives.

42. An interesting feature to be noted by other developed countries is
that China uses manual labour, DA? and a mechanised system in an
appropriate combination. Most operations, other than tillage, are
done by manual labour. It does not have combines and other equipment
attached to the tractors. In the field, heavier work is done by
tractors and lighter work cy DA?.


43. In this category of countries, traditionally, draught animal power
was used for farning operations. 3ut of late, the cattle and buffaloes
are being slaughtered for meat, affecting their availability for farming
operations. Tractors are mostly imported. The International Rice
Research Institute advocates tractorisation for increasing agricultural
productivity. The changed situation has led to some rethinking i-n the
Philippines and Thailand which are not petroleum producing economies.

The Philionines

44. Even though the Philippines has been mechanising, it is now being
realized that it has to review this policy. Factors restraining the
growth of mechanisation are:

(a) amount of loan finance available to the farmers and the
difficulty and time involved in processing loan
(b) low level of awareness among farmers on farm machinery; -
(c) lack of irrigation facilities in certain regions
or areas;
(d) preference in some areas for traditional ways in farming;
(e) social pressures to employ as many workers as possible
where labour is abtundant

45. Some of the Philippine farmers want to go back to the buffalo
(carabao). Not much work has been done in improving the design of
animal-drawn implements. However, some of the implements, which are
being designed by IRRI for tractors, can be used for animal draught
also with necessary modifications. The Government of the Philippines
has plans to breed draught buffaloes in a big way and has sought UN
assistance for this purpose.

46. Dr. R.M. Lantin, in his study on "Assessment of the Use of Animal
Power in Agriculture", highlights the need to maximise utilisation of
animal power. He has suggested engineering designs for the use of
animals for transport, threshing crops, etc. The buffalo remains
reliable as an energy source. However, the technology for its use
has remained undeveloped. The use of buffalo for transport has not
been encouraged.

52 -


47. Thailand exports rice. It has a buffalo population of 6.5. million,
mainly for draught, which includes ploughing, harrowing and puddling.
80/o of the land holdings are small abcut 2.5 hectares. Ploughing is
usually done with one animal using the traditional wooden plough.
Even though there is a slant towards tractorisation, the fuel crisis
has highlighted the role of animal draught as a relatively cheaper
source. DAP is declini- in transport.


Widely dispersed in terms of geograpnical. location and ownership, nearly
all livestock is kept under traditional husband-ry systems and at low
productivity levels on small holdings where they are used for draught.
Practically all beef is from draught animals. Indonesia has a livestock
population of 6.2 million cattle and 2.3 million buffaloes. Most of the
cattle and buffaloes are for draught. Their number has been decreasing
during recent years, due to large-scale slaughter to meet the demand for
meat. FAO studies have advocated increased importance to DAP, including
their use in their transmigration programmes in the outer islands.


49. Almost all the Lazin American countries fall into this group wherein
the use of draught animal power, which was the traditional source of energy
for farming operations, was deliberately discouraged. Agricultural
mechanisation was introduced as early as the 1950s. But due to the latest
fuel prices as well as the adverse effects of indicriminate tractorisation,
some of these countries are thinking of reviving the use of draught
animal power. But no decision or step in that direction has been taken.


50. Brazil went in for rapid mechanisation. DA? mostly oxen are
used in north-eastern Brazil. Horses are used for pulling carts in the
South. Mules and donkeys are used as pack animals. Of late, there is
some interest in developing draught animals and also encouraging ADV
equipment. But no clear-cut policy has been initiated in this


51. 65% of the farm households are small. There are 2.5 million cattle,
of which .5 million are used for traction. Logging is done by bullocks.
Colombia is trying horses for ploughing. Only 15% of the farm operations
are done by tractor. There is no clear-cut policy regarding mechanisation
or for improving DAP farming implements.

53 4-14

Dominican Renublic

52. The Dominican Republic has been fostering mechanisation, but there
is some rethinking. In sugar cane fields, DA? is used (from the field
to the road) by harnessing pairs of oxen in tandem. Wood and charcoal
produced in the mountains are brought down to the doors by mules. In
rural areas they carry water, milk and vegetables.


53. Around 40o of agriculture was done by animal power in 1979. Only
oxen are put to farm operations. The high selling price for meat
generally allows the purchase of new draught animals. There is no
special breed for draught. Tractorisation is mainly in the centre of
the country. The National Programme for developing tractorisation has
been largely non-operative. There is no progra.-ne for DAP development.
The usual factors have hindered tractorisation. Horses and mules are
used for carting and farming operations. Donkeys are used for carrying.
Oxen are used for carting, logging, harrowing, weeding and land
reclamation. All over the agricultural regions of Chile, DAP is


54. In the flat coastal region, horses, mules and donkeys are used for
ploughing, carrying and hauling carts. In mountainous regions, oxen
and donkeys are used for ploughing and threshing. In the high altitudes,
llamas and donkeys are used for carrying. Horses are used for carrying
and logging. Most of the draught oxen are slaughtered at the age of
8 years to meet meat requirements. Ploughs are still the traditional
primitive ones with low efficiency.


55- Most of the areas in these countries are deserts, and cultivated
areas are small and cover only some 5 to 7/5 of the total area. Farming
is still largely for local subsistence. Crop and other animal husbandry
remain largely unintegrated. The productivity of draught animals is
low due to natural hazards, pests and diseases. In certain countries
such as Afghanistan, horses are used for soil tilling. But there is no
particular breeding programme for draught horses. Camels are used for
carting and packing. There is no particular programme for breeding and
development of camels.

56. An FAO study on the Near East (1972) observes that the importance
of draught animal power in agriculture and commerce is often overlooked,
even though DAP contributes the major portion of energy for agriculture
in most of the countries. The survey forecasts that DAP will remain
as an important energy source in spite of the increasing use of tractors
and trucks.

54 -

57. There is no programme for the feeding and management of draught
animals. Even though FAO publications on agricultural implements
have suggested various improved agricultural tools and implements
for use in countries such as Afghanistan, Egypt, and other countries
of the region, due to the lack of extension work and other infra-
structural facilities, farming operations in these countries still
continue to be on the traditional pattern.


58. There has been considerable agricultural engineering research
- --conducted by the international organizations such as FAO, I?RI and
ICRISAT which aim at improving the design of animal-drawn agricult ral
tools and implements. FAO has produced a publication on T'arm Imple-
ments for Arid and Tropical Regions" (1969) which serves as a
compendium on the existing tools and implements used for various
stages of agricultural operations in the arid and tropical regions.
Highlighting the role of these implements, the report comments:

"Research and extension workers undertaking programmes
for the introduction of hand and animal powered farm
implements should stress that it is not a sign of lack
of progress to use improved simple implements under
conditions where expensive power machines cannot be
successful. .It should be noted also that 'simple' is
not synonymous with 'primitive'. Simplicity of
design and operations is often the most desirable
characteristic in any equipment."

59. The report also sets out the major factors which should be borne
in mind while attempting to improve tools and equipment. They are:

(a) adapted to allow efficient and speedy work with
the minimum of fatigue;
(b) not injurious to man or animal;
(c) of simple design, so that they can be made locally;
(d) light in weight for easy transportation;
(e) ready for immediate use without loss of time for
preparatory adjustments;
(f) made of easily available materials.

FAO Pamohlets and Publications

60. The other FAO publication on "The Employment of Draught Animals
in Agriculture" is a manual which admirably presents the application
of animal-drawn equipment in the tropical regions of Africa. The
report deals with:

draught animals;
implements using direct traction or involving an
intermediary machine;

55 -

rural skills which must play their part so that
the animals and implements may be properly used;
some economic considerations having a major
influence on the rational use of animal traction.

61. FAO has also brought up under its '"Better Farmirng" series a
manual on 'Farm.ing with Animal Power", which deals with choosing and
preparing feeds, types of working animals, tools for use with animal
power, income from animal power, mechanised farming, etc. It also
gives certain examples of animal power farming, which deals with the
cost benefit analysis in a simple way to make the.farmers understand
the gains from using animal power. This is a good extension
exercise which should be used extensively in all the developing
countries which are in need of increased draught ar-.mal power as a
source of energy for farming operations. On behalf of FAO, ICRISAT
and other international agencies, a number of experts have fabricated
improved tools and implements. Among them,Jean Nolle has worked in
all three continents and developed a number of models including a
multi-purpose tropicultor. As an advocate of DAP for the small man,
he has retained features which can be locally made.

Design Centres

62. Developing countries have set up a number of agricultural
engineering centres for the design, development and standardisation
of agricultural tools and implements. In addition to this, invariably
almost all the agricultural universities in these countries have
departments of agricultural engineering. One of the criticisms
levelled against these is that agricultural engineering is mostly
oriented towards mechanisation rather than manual or animal power.
Even where research has been done for improving the design of animal-
drawn implements, due to lack of extension work, the research has not
reached the farms. i7ost of the output stays at the applied research
levels and does not get commercialised or widely applied in field


63. One of the major obstacles in the extension of tools and implements
(as compared to other agricultural inputs such as fertilisers and better
varieties of seeds) is that imn.ediate benefits are not perceptible. The
input ratio between an improved plough or any other implement as compared
to the traditional one cannot be easily calculated nor can the illiterate
farmer be convinced of its benefits. The farmer usually gets interested
in the tangible outputs which could be directly ascribed to the

64. Changing the user habit of the farmer from the traditional plough
to the improved plough needs a lot of persuasion. The "desi" plough
is portable and easily carried on the farmer's shoulders. The repair
can be done by him without much trouble, whereas a mould board plough
or any other implement with an increased steel content would call for
the services of a village blacksmith who, with his ill-equipped facilities

56 -

and knowledge, may not be able to help the farmer in distress. There
have been attempts to train the blacksmith in the new materials and
process technology by rural development organizations and departments.
The trained blacksmiths are also given a kit of improved tools for
their use. The end result has been rather disappointing in many
locations. Either the trained blacksmith gets no work in the village
or he migrates to the city in search of better opportunities.

65. Many governments have set up organizations and other agencies
for extension work in order to make the farmers aware of the improved
design of agricultural implements; but their work has not made much
impact, perhaps due to inadequate follow-up. Moreover, most of the
extension workers are either urban-based or technicians who do not
appreciate the difficulties of the farmers regarding DAP. These
anomalies have to be corrected.

66. Most of the implements are not designed as an integrated unit to
suit the animals. Mis-matching of the implements.with the animals
creates problems. The farmers are often not told about the draught
strength required by the animal for using the improved implements.
Hence when the farmer uses a sickly or old animal with the improved
implements, the end result is disappointing. W'hat is required is. an
integrated look a- the complete system and evolving specifications for
the usage of improved implements. This not only calls for providing
the improved implements but also assisting him to improve the strength
of the draught animals by better feeding and maintenance. Unless
these two aspects, i.e., the draught animal power and the improved
implements, are coordinated, the effort in the extension work of
improved implements is likely to have less impact, particularly on the
marginal and small farmers. Since most of the agricultural programmes,
which are aimed at the improved implements, overlook this aspect, a new
orientation is called for in the right direction


67. The marketing of improved agricultural tools and implements is
usually done by the state-owned cooperatives and only in certain cases
by commercial enterprises. Most of these organizations do not have
commercial sense; and hence no motivation for promoting the sale of tools
and implements. Farmers have to approach them for buying tools and
implements, while the private hardware merchants dealing in tools and
implements have a better profit motive. Farmers are accustomed to
going to the nearby towns to buy their agricultural tools and implements,
which are mostly locally manufactured and not standardized. These
dealers have an understand-ing of the local needs and hence get the tools
and implements- suitable for their operations. Some of the state-owned
cooperatives do not go in for such differentiated varieties of tools
and implements.

68. It has been found that many of the state-owned organizations for
agricultural implements both marketing and manufacturing have failed
to a large extent. The manufacturing cost has been on the high side
due to the use of steel in most of these improved tools and implements.
Moreover, due to the lack of a big sales volume, the cost goes up. The

- 57 -

cooperatives also have high overheads due to more people being employed.
Compared to this, a hard;-are merchant or a private dealer not ohly has
a smaller cost component because of the localised manufacture using
metal scrap but also does not require much of promotional and other
overhead expenses. He has better access to the fa.r-er than these
cooperative organizations. Government agencies and cooperatives have
to be strengthened and reorganized in many of these aspects.

69. There is a need to review the entire framework of manufacturing,
marketing and extension work in the area of improved animal-dramn tools
and implements as it functions today in the developing countries.
Surveys should be conducted at the field level in different countries
in order to assess the specific reasons for the failure of extension,
marketing as well as the escalating manufacturing costs.


70. Draught animals are used for other adjunct operations such as
threshing, water lifting, grinding, crushing, cotton ginning, etc.
In terms of volume, the use of DA? for such work is declining. Not
much effort has gone into redesign, methods improvement, etc. Surely
there is scope for increasing productivity. Animals walking up and
down a ra..p to lift water in a bucket is patently absurd. Egypt uses
cattle and.buffaloes for water lifting, as does India. In order to
increase the utilisation of As, it is proposed that studies be
conducted to impLrove the technology currently in use and also to locate
new uses for DAs in rural areas.



TRA S P 0 T A T I 0N

Vehicles the ADV Scene

1. Animal-drawn vehicles (ADVs) are used in most developing countries,
but are popular in only a few. Their numbers seem to be significant
only in Mexico, the Indian sub-continent and China. In all countries
save India and China, the number of ADVs seems to be declining. India
conducts a regular census of ADVs and maintains -statistics. Elsewhere,
data on ADVs are not readily available. Despite having been neglected,
ADVs play a critical role in many developing countries. They have
further potential if modernised and introduced wherever appropriate and
complementary to the mechanised system.

2. In the first half of this century, horse-drawn carts were perfected
in the advanced countries, but the automobile has now replaced them.
Horse carts are used in many Asian and Latin American countries for the
urban transportation of light goods. In China and Mexico, horse carts
draw heavy loads as well. Other countries should e-mulate this practice.

3. India and China have large numbers of ADVs India 15 million and
China possibly over 10'million. Bullock-dra;-wn carts are the most
popular category in South and South East Asia, and FAO and C=,UAT have
introduced bullock carts in a few African countries. Buffalo carts are
widely used. in China, India, the Philippines and Thailand. Unlike horse
carts, however, bullock and buffalo carts are not well designed. Mule
carts are in use wherever horses are used for transport. Donkey carts
are very popular in China, and are used in many developing countries,
though not in large numbers. Camel carts are used in India, Pakistan
and some Near Eastern and North African countries.

Scone for ADV

4. China, India and Mexico have shown some interest in ADVs, whereas
most other countries have shown very little interest. ADV is in a
neglected state in all countries, except possibly China. Consequently,
there is enormous economic loss and wastage in the system, and excellent
opportunities for better transport capability, employment, increased
earnings, etc. are not exploited. There is tremendous scope for
augmenting the contribution and increasing the productivity of the ADV
system in many developing countries by way of:

(a) improving the design of existing ADVs;
(b) increasing the utilisation of ADVs;
(c) increasing ADV numbers and varieties, and their
diversified uses;
(d) introducing suitable ADVs where appropriate;
(e) improvement of breeds and DA numbers suitable
for ADVs;
(f) creation of, and improvement of existing, infra-
structure for the development of ADVs.

59 -

Where ADV is Inevitable

5. There are many types of situations where ADV is the only way of
transportation for people and goods. Even in India, 50 of the.
500,000 villages are not yet connected by motorable roads. Similar
conditions exist in some other parts of Asia and many parts of Africa.
Even where some sort of roads exist, they are often too narrow or
rugged for motorised transport. In some places, there is no infra-
structure for mechanised transport. In many parts of Africa, there
are no roads fit for motorised vehicles. Loads are carried on heads;
mainly by women in some countries. In all these situations, ADV mray
be a feasible solution, provided other conditions are conducive. The
output of energy for human and animal is rated as 6 and 27 kilo
calories respectively.

6. There are situations where ADVs can do an equally good job as
motorised transport. In such cases, ADVs should be preferred
wherever possible and socially desirable. For instance, trucks, small
vans and tractors are manufactured only in a few countries; they have
to be imported, involving foreign exchange. Oil has to be imported.
There are more i-pcrtan- activities of the econr.cr needing foreign
exchange, where substitution is not feasible.

Rural Transoortation

7. Iost rural transportation in the developing countries is small-
scale for short distances. ADVs are economical for loads of half to
two tons for distances up to 40 km. Trucks need 5-ton loads and long
distance rnms in order to become economical. Trucks and vans have to
be utilised for 250 to 300 days a year to pay their way. But ADVs,
because of their low capital cost, are economic even with a 50 day
utilisation in rural areas, although a higher utilisation level is
desirable and feasible if modernised. In operations involving high
loading and unloading time compared to the travel time trucks are
uneconomical due to low utilisation. Transport of sugar cane, cotton
and tobacco to the processing factories from nearby fields comes under
this category. When the number of distribution (vegetables, fertilizer)
or collection (dung, hay) points are many, ADV has a distinct advantage
over trucks.

8. Much of ADV transport is farm-based in rural and semi-urban areas -
within and between villages, between villages and markets and urban
centres, etc. When a farmer uses DA? for tillage, he goes for a cart
as well, thus becoming self-sufficient. Those who do not own carts
often hire them. The use of ADV, as an adjunct equipment on farms,
improves the utility and economics of DAP. Animals have to be maintained
anyway for tillage; they have to be fed (unlike tractors) throughout the
year although they work only for about 100 days a year. During the off-
season, farmers can ply the ADVs for others and earn extra income. The
additional cost is only of the incremental food for the DAs for providing
the extra energy for working.

60 -

9, This concept has not been exploited by most countries, except by
China in a big way, and India and. Hexico to a lesser extent. Thailand
and the Philippines are using more motorised transport than ADV for rural
transportation in certain areas resulting in the low utilisation of DAs,
and perhaps the vans as well. China is able to use rural-based DAs for
300 days a year. Detailed surveys in India show that India obtains only
50 to 100O days of use for the rural carts. When DAs are productive and
earn during a greater number of days, it is possible to feed them well.
Today, in most developing countries, they are kept on a low maintenance
diet during the off-season (or left to fend for themselves), thus
affecting their ability to work when the intensive ploughing season
starts. This is a typical situation in many African countries as well.

10. There is a small amount of professional carting in rural areas,
which can be augmented when better organize 1. There is good demand for
transporting cash crops such as sugar cane, tobacco, cotton, etc.,
where there is continuous work. As the ADVs have to compete with
motorised transport, they are modernised to a certain extent for such
work situations. In India, half of the carts engaged in (short distance)
sugar cane transport have been i.mroved by the provision of pneumatic tyres
and smooth bearings, which have doubled the cart capacity for the same
draught effort. Carters earn good incomes $3 a day; and the employment
is high. In the Dominican Republic also, ox carts are used to bring
sugar cane to factories from nearby fields. Loading and unloading time
is high in such work. The factories themselves have helped in modernising
the carts through loans, repair facilities, etc.

Urban Transoortation

11. Unlike in the rural areas, urban ADV transport is by professional
carters. A number of people own carts for hiring out. ADVs compete
with small vans, have work for most days, and earn a fair amount. Studies
in India have shown that earnings are split equally amongst owner, carter
and animals roughly $60 a month each. ADVs are used for transporting
innumerable kinds of articles: water, oil, garbage, household effects,
cutlery, furniture, paper, construction materials, beverages, vegetables,
fruit and so on. Some of these can be transported at night, or during
off-peak hours. The scope for ADVs in urban areas is high. By its very
nature, the intra-city transport involves short distances, small loads,
a number of collection (garbage, furniture) and distribution (oil, water,
vegetables, crockery) points, high loading and unloading time, narrow roads
and lanes, etc. For constru-ctic materials from nearby areas to the city
as well as from warehouses/factories to construction sites, ADVs are more

12. .Out of India's 15 million carts, about 3 million are in urban areas.
When villages expand, more carts come into being; when small towns grow
into larger ones, more carts become necessary. Only when the town becomes
a metropolitan city does the number of carts come down drastically. India
and China seem to be special cases where the cart population is increasing.
ADVs, being slow moving, reduce traffic capacity in cities. To overcome
this problem partially, that part of 'he load which need not necessarily be
moved by day could be shifted to during the night or during off-peak hours.
Since the kinds of materials moved differ greatly, platform designs have
to be different for water, vegetables, hay, firewood, coal, bricks, etc.

- 61 -


Volume Yovea

13. There is no information available on the volume of freight and
people moved. Of course, volume in terms of tonne-kmns or passenger-kms
is not the proper indicator of the contribution of ADV. The significant
point to note is that, for certain types of movements, ADVs are the only
feasible or economic means of transport. In India, two-thirds of rural
transportation is by ADVs. Total freight handled by ADVs may be in the
region of 15 billion ton-ss. A casual glance indicates that the figure
for China will be impressive as well. The most significant point to
note here is that these loads are scattered among millions of points
of collection and distribution. Loads are not available on a continuous
basis, except where inputs and outputs are high as in urban areas. in
villages, markets are a weekly affair. Movement of people by ADV is
also significant both in rural and urban areas. It is high even in
India which has reasonable comr-unication facilities compared to o' er
low income countries. Replacement by a motorised system is not
technically or economically feasible for some years. In fact, there is
scope for expansion in certain areas.


14. The first step in modernizing and upgrading the AUV system is to
improve the design of vehicles, whereby:

(a) the capacity of the cart is increased, for a given
draught effort by the animal;
(b) the burden and injury to the animals is reduced;
(c) damage to roads is reduced;
(d) versatile and more efficient designs are evolved
to suit terrain, produce to be carried, animal
characteristics, etc.

15. These improvements would, in turn, lead to:

(a) enlarged and multi-purpose capability;
(b) reduced costs of operation per unit volume moved;
(c) improved earnings to the carters.
(d) enhanced and diversified employment opportunities;
(e) comfort and longer working lifespan to the animals;
(f) better deal for the animal better feed, less overwork,
less cruelty in handling, etc.

Horse-drawn Carts

16. Horse-drawn carts used in the developing countries are in much better
shape than the ox-drawn carts as regards design, since Western technology
had been adapted to some extent. But horse-drawn carts are mostly used
for light loads only (people and goods) in urban areas, except in China and
Mexico. Horses and males are better draught animals, and can haul heavier

62 -

goods at a faster pace, essential and desirable requirements for urban
operation. Bullock carts are slow, and reduce traffic capacity.
Therefore, it will be profitable to the carters and socially desirable
to have horse- and mule-drawn carts in urban areas for heavy transport
as well, which is now being carried out mostly by ox carts and buffalo
carts. City-based carts are independent of the village economy, and
studies show that load and earnings are adequate to meet the higher
feed requirements of horses and mules.

17. It is therefore proposed that horse- and mule-drawn carts be
encouraged for urban transport. The basic design for the improved
cart should include pneumatic tyres and smooth bearings -(the same as
for the improved ox carts). Improved harnesses are described elsewhere.
Implementation of these proposals would need extensive breeding and raising
programmes for horses and mules. Horse- and mule-drawn carts will be
also feasible for situations in rural areas where there is continuous
professional carting, i.e. independent of tilling work for the animals.
In fact, in North China all rural ADV transport is represented by carts
drawn by horses, mules and donkeys.

Pneumatic Tyres and Smooth Bearings

18. In urban light transport carts, only cab (solid rubber) tyres are
used. Pneumatic tyres of 3 or 4 ply to support 3 to 4 tons of load
are required for heavy duty transport. Special ADV tyres are made in
India by the Dunlop Company. In order to encourage ADV tyres, it is
proposed that rebates on taxes and other incentives should be extended
to tyre companies. ADV tyres are to be of a special design so as to
accommodate the following features:

(a) slow movement, unlike trucks;
(b) rugged terrain stones, thorns, etc.;
(c) should not puncture easily as repair facilities
are inadequate;
(d) should be cheap and easy to maintain.

Now carters are using worn-out truck wheels and tyres which are heavy.
Because of the low volume of tyres required, tyre companies have no
incentive to manufacture specifically designed tyres for ADVs. The
same points hold good for ball bearing or taper roller bearings. Now
ADVs are using track bearings which are costly as they are meant for
high speed, high precision, heavy loads, etc. ADVs need slow speed and
cheap bearings. Here again, bearing companies have to be encouraged with
incentives to make suitable bearings for ADVs slow speed and cheap, but
smooth; and finally easy to maintain and lubricate.

Bullock Carts

19. Most of the carts in the developing countries are bullock-drawn.
The typical cart is a two-wheeler drawn by two animals, although there
are thousands of four-wheelers and single-animal carts as well. The
traditional Indian design has two large-diameter wooden wheels with an
iron rim/tyre, fitted with rough and loose mild steel bearings. The

63 -

capacity of this cart is about one tonne, and costs about $200 to $400.
The same design concept is in use in other Asian and African countries
with the animals harnessed using a wooden pole yoke placed on the neck.
There are infinite variations in the materials used, wheel type and diameter,
platform features, yokes, shapes, etc.

20. The first attempt to improve the cart was the provision of pneumatic
tyres and smooth "ball or taper roller bearings. I'ost of the carts in
China and Latin American countries and about 15% of India's 15 million
carts have been i-mroved in these two aspects. The rest of the carts
have yet to be improved. Due to continuous wobbling, the iron rims or
steel wheels damage the roads by breaking the surface or cu-ting ruts
all the way. The annual cost of road repairs is estimated to be
$100-200 million for India alone. The large diameter wheel with
an iron rim plain or rubber-coated may have to be retained for
special rugged terrain conditions in rural areas. But the bearings
have to be made smooth for such carts also. The main benefit of rubber
tyres and smooth bearings will be reduction in the. friction of the axle
bearing and rolling on the road, leading to a higher hauling capacity
for the same draught effort. By these two improvements alone, the
capacity has been increased from 1 to 3 tons on level roads. As there
is no spring or shock absorber, all the shocks are transmitted to the
animals neck in the traditional cart. With pneumatic tyres, the shock
impact is reduced. Whem pneumatic tyres are difficult to obtain,
hard rubber tyres will be the nert best alternative. Similarly, plain
bearings machine turned would be a substitute for roller bearings.
The cost would go up by 50 to ICC0%; but the benefits would offset the
incremental cost. Wherever higherr capacity is not required, a single
animal can pull one or even one and a half tons easily, thereby reducing
both capital and recurring cost. Rubber tyres and roller bearings
require better maintenance facilities, which are lacking today in many
parts where A-Vs ply..

21. There is scope for improving the platform features to suit the
materials to be carried. Tare weight also can be reduced by 50e,
thereby increasing the carrying capacity. The provision of a braking
device is essential. A simple device is to use a log of wood, which
will rub against the wheel rim (when activated), thus slowing or stopping
the cart. At present the animal itself is used (with its neck) to
reduce speed and to stop the vehicle. Improvements to harnessing
devices, described elsewhere, have a provision for braking (using the
animal's body weight) with the help of a belt taken around the animal's
rump, as in the case of the present single-horse cart. The same kind
of design improvements are applicable to vehicles drawn by animals
such as buffaloes, donkeys, mules, horses and camels the harnessing
being different.

22. In the existing traditional design, a good part of the draught effort
is unnecessarily wasted in overcoming the friction of the rough and loose
crude bearings and rolling, and hauling the heavy platforms. Animals
soon become tired because of wasted effort in hauling, braking and turning.
With improved design, one animal can pull where two were needed with the
traditional design, thus reducing the maintenance cost of ADVs. The
increased capacity makes them more competitive with motorised transport
and enables higher earnings.

64 -

23. For moving heavy loads of 3 to 4 tons on level ground for short
distances, four-wheel carts with castors and pneumatic tyres can be
used, as is done in India. Special vehicles have been designed 'o
carry specific materials such as long iron bars, kerosene, water, etc.

R & D and Manufacture

24. No R & D institution is seriously engaged in ADV design work.
Centres engaged in the design of multi-purpose farm implements and
equipment have come up with concepts where some.of them can be con-
verted to farm-based carts. But a great deal more design facilities
and effort are called for in all the developing countries interested
in ADVs. The Indian Institute of 'Izanagement in Bangalore, the Central
Road Research Institute in New Delhi, CE=VAT in France, the Dunlop
Company and a number of individual experts have tried to improve the
bullock cart. But the efforts are far below the critical level of R & D
needs. Far more remains to be done by the proposed Centres for Animal

25. At present, in order to retain the employment opportunity in the
local areas, manufacture is in the decentralised village industry sector,
which has its normal problems such as:

(a) non-availability of the right materials;
(b) non-standardisation;
(c) no help from R & D institutions for design
and testing;
(d) lack of credit facilities;
(e) flight of skilled artisans to cities;
(f) no feed-back from users.

There is great variation in the cost, manufacturing facilities and
marketing channels. Bamboo carts are light and cheap and are popular
in eastern India. In Burma, there are carts made entirely of wood with
not a single piece of metal. Each village manufacturer has his own
design features. Even the wheel diameter varies from 3 feet to 6 feet.
The weight of the cart varies from 250 kg. to 800 kg. In the single-
animal cart, the rigid pull beams are so narrow that they constantly rub
against the animal's body. The yoke is rough (it becomes smooth after
constant usel). In fact, there are as many designs as manufacturers -
in the thousands in India. The lack of standardisation or norms is
causing huge losses everywhere.

Conseqcaences of the Traditional Design

26. In order to appreciate the importance of modernisation, it is
necessary to understand the consequences of the present state of affairs.
The defective aspects of design namely, rough and loose bearings,
iron-rimmed tyres on wooden wheels or iron wheels, heavy platforms,
crude harnessing devices, etc. have led to many unfortunate consequences:

65 -

(a) low carrying capacity and low earnings;
(b) reduced life for the animals;
(c) injury to the animals;
(d) damage to roads.

As a consequence of the uneconomic working of the above and some other
factors, such as lack of credit and availability of better designs at a
reasonable cost, the ADVs have declined in most countries. Simultaneously,
DAP in tillage also suffers as animals are under-utilised.

Cart Capacity

27. The largest number among ADVs in Asia and Africa is the traditional
Indian type two large-diameter wooden wheels with iron rims drawn by
two bullocks. Buffalo-drawn carts are of the same design. Single
animal-drawn carts have essentially the same design, except for the harness.
The same design is used all over the world, except .in China. Neck or head
harness does not make much difference as regards the capacity aspect. The
capacity of the cart depends not only on the design features but also on:

(a) draught capacity of the animal, its state of health,
food intake;
(b) terrain conditions: rough or smooth, level or sloping;
(c) training of the animal;
(d) efficiency of the harness (described later).

28. The capacity of a typical two-animal cart is about one ton; and-of
a single animal half a ton or a bit more. For the same design, the
capacity can be 50 to 100 more with well-fed and healthy, high-quality
draught animals. The scope for increasing capacity has already been
demonstrated in carts with pneumatic tyres and smooth roller bearings,
where the capacity has gone up by two to three times without imposing
any additional burden on the animals. The adverse consequences of the
traditional cart, and possible benefits from improvements will help to
identify and highlight the important areas needing improvement.

Benefits of Iorroved Design

29. When the village-based cart is improved, farmers can ply their carts
for others in the nearby towns during the off-season as their carts will
be competitive with the rates offered by motorised transport. The cart
will have an edge over PBP transport for small loads and short distances.
With the present capacity, the cart rates are not competitive. Improved
design will lead to some employment for the landless, and higher earnings
for the farmers. Out of their increased earnings, they can feed the
animals better (now they are often kept on low maintenance during the off-
season), which will keep the animals fit for ploughing when the ploughing
season starts. With no occupation and earnings during the off-season, the
farmers often sell their animals to meet their regular needs or emergencies.

- 66 -


30. Millions of rural people have no land. Carts will provide
employment on a professional basis. They can cater to rural needs
during demand periods and ply in towns during slack periods. marginal
farmers have no animals to till the land (20 million in India) as they
cannot afford to keep animals. The practice of ploughing with a single
animal and using it for carting will enable the marginal farmers to keep
animals, increasing their earnings and raising the productivity of land
as well.

31. With an improved vehicle, the carters can transport in a sLngle
animal cart as much as they do now in a double animal cart. The
recurring cost will come down, assuring that the cost saved _because of
having one animal less is-.ofse.t by the increased-cost-of-the-impr-oad
cart. The professional carters in the towns can do the same. Thus,
if single animal ploughing for marginal farms (less than 1 ha.) and
improved single animal carts are introduced, the number of animals
required for a country can perhaps be reduced which, in turn, will
have its consequent advantages. The present tradition in the Indian
sub-continent (and elsewhere) of invariably using two animals for carting
(and ploughing) can be changed for certain situations and load levels.

Consequences of Low Capacity

32. When the capacity is low, earnings are low and the cart hardly pays
its way. The farmer does not worry about cart economics, as he has to
keep the animals anyway (he does not realise the potential of professional
carting). But the carter in the town now earns only a pittance. The
adverse consequences, observed in studies, are that the carter

overloads the cart to make his rate competitive with
motorised vehicles
overworks the animals
does not feed the animals well, as nothing much is left
after meeting his own needs
makes sick animals work as he would starve if the cart
were not on the road every day.

33. The above factors lead to the slow deterioration of the animal's
health, further reducing its ability to haul even normal loads. But
as the carter has to earn a living, he overworks the animal. Deteriorating
health progressively reduces its lifespan as well. Finally, when the
animal cannot haul loads any longer, it is sold at a 'distress' or low
price. Often, carters are unable to buy new animals for replacement,

(a) the money realised by selling the old ones is too little;
(b) savings have not been much, as the daily surplus is little
after meeting the needs of the carter and his animals;
(c) credit is not easy as a cart is not considered viable
enough for the return of a loan on it.

67 -

34. The picture changes dramatically with improvements, as observed
in studies in-India conducted by the Indian Institute cf Mainagement,
Bangalore. When earnings are doubled due to increased capacity, all
these adverse points disappear. Animals get adequate feed; and there
is less need to overstrain or overwork them. Nor will there be need
to work sick animals always, as the carter can afford to rest them
occasionally. Banks are prepared to give credit when the cart is

35. Further, at present, animals are subjected to unimaginable
cruelties. In order to goad them to haul loads beyond their capacity -
weight and duration they are beaten mercilessly, their tails are
twisted and their undersides pricked with sharp nails, etc. Apart
frcm their suffering, the animals' lifespan and value of skin are
reduced. Bruised skin is a familiar sight in the Indian sub-continent.
There are few laws against overloading; even where they exist, they are
not enforced. It is a sad commentary on the value systems of these
societies that machines are protected by numerous legal and other
measures, while the need for similar safeguards for live animals is

36. The ultimate consequence of all these factors is that ADVs become
less and less-viable, and the carters ultimately abandon ADVs. The ADV
numbers slowly decline, as is observed in most countries, except in
China and India. It has been noticed that improved carts in China
and India are viable, and that carters and animals get a better deal
and so they work better. Finally, the economy and society benefit
tremendously when the designs are improved. A modernized ADV system
will have a pronounced impact in all the developing countries if they
take a sustained interest in this programme. Most countries have not
only neglected ADVs, but are adopting policies to eliminate them. A
review is called for in the context of the increased cost of fuel and
motorised equipment which have made transport costs in towns pro-
hibitive. The employment opportunities are also significant. Transport
will open up new areas in Africa for industry and trade. If these
countries wait for motorised transport, it will be a long and non-
productive period, as roads have to be built. A beginning could be made
with ADVs.

Modernisation Steps

37. All over, worn-out truck axles, wheels and tyres are improvised
for use in carts. 'hen volume picks up, special ADV wheels and tyres
can be made at a cheap rate. The introduction of steel sections has
made the carts lighter. A simple wooden pole, acting against the rim,
can function as a brake. In order to modernise ADV, the following steps
are essential:

(a) R & D and manufacture of standard parts;
(b) training in manufacture for village artisans;
(c) supporting infrastructure;
(d) credit, subsidy and insurance;
(e) extension.

68 -

Unlike in the case of agricultural implements where research
institutions have taken an interest in design work, cart designs
have not evoked much interest. If socio-eccnomic surveys confirm
the view of this report that ADVs have a significant role to play,
then R & D and extension have to be taken up in a big way. Some
parts have to be centrally made for standardisation and precision,
while everything else can be left to the village artisans. Govern-
ments will have to legislate on rules and regulations, standards, etc.
Watering facilities on busy roadways and sheds (totally lacking today)
should be provided. All carts should be registered so that their
design and use can be regulated. For city-based carts, commercial
feed has to be manufactured. Carts with iron-rimmed wheels should be

Increasing ADY Utilisation

38. Farmers using DAP for tillage, landless rural people, the unemployed
urban population, etc. should be encouraged to possess or obtain on hire
ADVs. Suitable incentives and organisational means should be introduced.
Programmes similar to the promotion of village industries and handicrafts
should be extended to ADVs. When the cart is i-proved, it will stand on
its own merits, attracting private initiative. Even in India, a
countrywide survey of rural areas (by III -B and NTCA.) shows that carts
are used only for 50 to 100 days a year. City-based carts are engaged
for 300 days a year. Therefore, there is good potential to raise the
level of utilisation of the rural-based carts. Rural-based cartage is
not monetised. City-based carts in India carry as much as
12 billion tcn--ks based on a load of .75 tons moving 20 kmns for 260
days a year. When the capacity rises to 2 tons, these figures will
double, giving a nett increase of $2 billion to the carters alone, and
equal amounts to owners and animals. If the carters can own these carts,
their lot will be further bettered. Cooperatives are a possibility.

Increasing ADV Tumbers and Variety

39. ADV numbers have declined in most countries. It should be
encouraged in all areas where there is DAP-based tillage. Donkey carts
have immense possibilities. China has over 6 million donkeys, most of
them drawing carts. It is well known that donkeys subsist on very little
food. In urban areas, ADV should be introduced for certain types of
materials. There should be at least 3 categories light for less than
half a ton, medium for less than two tons and heavy for more than two tons.
In Africa, it should be considered a basic infrastructure to open up
areas for cultivation. Similarly, Indonesia should provide subsidized
carts in its trans-migration projects. Special designs to suit material
transported should be evolved such as sugar cane, cotton, construction
materials, water, oil, garbage, etc.

40. Even in India, which has a good motorised and railway system, there
are numerous areas where people have access only to bullock carts. This
could be true of many parts of Africa, too. Mules are hardy, and need
less attention. A mule can haul up to two tons in a well-designed cart.

69 5-12

They are capable of sustained hard work for 6 to 8 hours. They have
played a pioneering role in the West and in Australia. The he-buffalo
also can haul 2 tons, although at a slower pace. The Indian breed is
such that males are excellent for work and females give good mrilk. It
is a pity that over 5 million male calves are abandoned at birth as
there is no organization to raise them (at a time when 20 million farmers
have no animal to work with). Camel carts can be introduced in China,
where they can ply during certain seasons. Camels also make good use of
plant energy; and they are inevitable in desert tracks. The potential
of yaks has not been investigated yet.

41. A power tiller costs $2,000, a mediu.m-size tractor $8,000 and a track
$10,000. A cart plus animal would cost only $500 to $600. The employ-
ment involved in manufacture ard repair remains with the small man with
DAP. The long-term goal should, of course, be to go in for mechanised
transport. But until that time, the ADV should play its rightful role -
not as a competitor but as a complementary device for certain kinds of
jobs, and as the sole mode where nothing else is possible.


42. Camels, donkeys, mules, yaks and llamas are used as pack animals.
There is scope for increasing this mode in Africa and Asia, where not
even roads for AV7 are available. Frames and carriages used should also
be improved considerably. In fact, except for general information, very
little has been done to study and explore their potential. Wherever
possible, packing should be converted to hauling as the latter is far
more efficient where there are roads. In some countries, even now, materials
are transported in sledges (even in the Philippines). It is proposed that
a special study on Pack Animals be made to tap its potential.


43. Logging is done by well bred work horses in advanced countries.
The technology, equipment, harnessing devices, etc. are to be documented for
use in the developing countries where the practices are still inefficient.
Oxen, with head harness, do logging in Latin America and Malawi. Head
harnessing does not seem to be the right method. Elephants do logging in
India, Sri Lanka, Burma and Thailand; they have been successfully used in
Zaire in the forests.

44. FAO has dealt with logging by elephants in its booklet on logging
operations for a training course. It has suggested a number of steps to
improve the system. Random observations indicate that adjunct equipment,
used in the advanced countries, will be of great help in improving the
efficiency and in reducing the cost of elephant logging operations.

45. Logging by horses in Sweden employs a variety of equipment for
handling, skidding, rolling, pushing, dragging and carrying.. Some of
them are simple tools and two-wheeler carriages. They also use four-
wheeled carriages which make the movement of logs easy for the horses.

70 -


For heavy logs to be moved over rough or slushy terrain, they use
crawler-type vehicles (like the drag lines of earth--moving equipment).
Sweden holds annual shows to demonstrate the best varieties of work
horses, harnesses, equipment, etc. Pedigree certificates for horses
as well as medals and prizes are awarded in order to provide the
necessary incentive. It is not knowrn whether anything of this nature
to upgrade the technology and techniques is being done in the case of
logging by cattle and elephants. Methods i-mprovement projects and cost
economic studies are to be conducted in order to improve the system

CH.APTE 6 6-1



1. The efficiency of DAP application is dependent on the harnes-
sing device, which is the link between the animal and the implement
or cart. It is analogous to the transmission assembly of mechanical
systems. However strong and healthy the animal, and however well
designed the implement/cart, the animal's effort will be wasted if
the harnessing system is defective. Thus, harnessing devices are an
important part of the DAP system. Harnessing needs much improvement
in most parts of the DCs.

Objectives of Earness

2. The object of the harnessing device is to ensure that the maximum
of the draught power generated by the animal is utilised. Besides,
it should also satisfy the following conditions:

not injure the animal
be comfortable for the animal and be easy to put on and
take off
be amenable for manufacture with local' materials and
talent, to the extent possible
be cheap enough for purchase by farmers and carters.

Design Difficulties

3. Unlike in the case of mechanical equipment where there are
universal standards and the variables are not many and are largely
controllable in the case of animals, there are innumerable diversities.
Therefore, their design is difficult on account of numerous factors, such

many species of animals cattle, buffaloes, horses,
mules, donkeys, camels, etc.
wide variation in their body structure, sizes,shape,
strength, temperament, etc.
draught power varies considerably, according to the above
draught power varies with food and nutrition, ecological
conditions, intensity of use, soil and terrain conditions
tapping point of draught power is in different parts of the
body for each animal
the range between sustained average output and maximum
output is small
since the output itself is small, compared to mechanical
devices, more than one animal is called for to provide the
necessary draught power. Conjunction of more than one
animal say 2, 3, 4, etc. to obtain higher draught
power makes harnessing more difficult.

72 -

4. Further, the harness has to be fabricated in numerous dispersed
locations, making use of local materials and talent in the small-scale
sector in order to retain the employment potential. This is unlike
the case of mechanical equipment which can be manufactured in a few
centres with the advantages of modern technology and organization.
In addition, the cost has to be within the reach of the marginal and
small farmers as well as carters, all of whom are poor. Thus, there
has to be a compromise in a number of factors between what is ideal
and what is feasible under the circumstances technically and

5. A combination of the above multiple objectives and problems and
constraints has rendered design and use of harnesses in a very
unsatisfactory condition in most parts of the world, except in the case
of equines used in -he advanced countries, and to a lesser degree in
some developing countries.

Horse Earness

6. Whenever an activity generates enough demand and surplus to
become viable, modernizing inputs from commercial interests have
improved the component parts of the system. This is true of harnesses
as well. In all the advanced countries, agriculture was organized
as a cocsercial enterprise. Therefore, they were able to deploy the
necessary R & D resources in order to improve the efficiency of the
system, of which im-plements, carts and harnesses form important parts.
Therefore, during the first half of this century, the advanced nations
designed excellent harnesses for work horses. The efficiency of
draught .power transmission went up by many times with the least burden
and injury to the horses. The same concepts and design features
were applied to donkeys and mules, which have a somewhat similar body
structure, enabling horse harnessing devices to be adapted for them.
The design adopted in most of Asia for horses was for light transport
work. In China, Mexico and a few countries in Latin America, design
for heavy vehicles has been evolved and applied extensively.

7. The use of work horses for ploughing and carting has disappeared
in the advanced countries, except in Poland and a few East European
countries. The design concepts for adaptation, and also the experts,
are still available, which can help third world countries in improving
the harnessing methods for equines.

Cattle Harness

8. But most of the developing countries use cattle for ploughing
and carting. The situation regarding harness for cattle and buffalo
is indeed bad in most developing countries. Advanced countries had
developed some good designs in Europe, when they were using cattle.
These have not been adopted by the third world, where a tremendous
amount of work remains to be done in improving the efficiency of
harnessing. Existing methods are the outcome of historical evolution
and are limited by constraints such as local availability of materials,

73- 6-3

the need for simple and inexpensive designs, etc. They are in a
primitive condition in scme areas, and inefficient in others.
Draught power is wasted. Economic losses as a result of injured
neck and shortened work life of animals are colossal in magnitude,
not to mention the needless suffering of the animals.

Improvement Efforts

9. A number of educational institutions and a couple of design and
development agencies had tried to introduce better harnesses.
These attempts were largely failures because the efforts were in the
field, with no back-up from scientific laboratories for design
experiments, testing, measurement, etc. FAO introduced conventional
devices for oxen head and neck yokes in Africa as part of the
oxenisation programmes. Harnessing for cattle and buffaloes needs
urgent att mention.

10. Improvements to the harnesses can be taken up by short- and long-
term measures. I-mmediately, better technologies already available
in some parts of the world, which appear to be more efficient than
others, should be transferred to these countries which could possibly
take advantage of them. Within the countries, these designs have to
be adapted to local conditions by R & D institutions and, later,
disseminated through extension work. Projects of this kind can be
started forthwith, as there seems to be enough better harnessing
technology in use in some parts of the world, introduction of which
will improve efficiency in many other parts. Collection of
detailed information, documentation and dissemination are the first
steps in this progra-me.

11. Typical examples would be harnesses evolved by the developed
countries for equines and the double yoke harness and independent
hitching devices used in China for agricultural implements and vehicles.
These are substantially better than devices used elsewhere. The
logging methods employed in Europe and Canada are worth adopting in
similar situations in developing countries.

12. In the long run, improved harnesses are to be designed in R & D
centres and tested in the field under varying conditions. Priority
is to be given for cattle and buffaloes which are the most extensively
used animals in Asia and Africa, where draught animals will continue
to play a significant role for a number of years to come. Although
the collar concept was tried out in Europe on cattle, advanced countries
have not done R & D work on cattle as in the case of horses. As
there is not much material already developed, it is necessary to start
almost afresh. In the case of buffaloes, a better method has been
tried in China and Thailand. After testing in the field, this idea
could also be tried in other countries.

13. An understanding of the state of the art in developing countries
would help to identify:

better technologies, and the countries where they are
in use

74 -

crude methods, and the countries where they are
in use
improvement possibilities and priorities
policy measures.

Examples of practices followed in some countries are given below
which, though not. comprehensive, are indicative of the situation.

Different Harnesses

14. Earnesses are used. in the following kinds of operations:

agricultural oper-eions: ploughing, harrowing, ridging,
seeding, pulling, weeding, etc.
adjunct to farm operations: threshing, water lifting, etc.
transportation heavy and light loads
logging operations
frames for pack animals.

For each of these categories, harnesses have to be different to some
extent. Also, for the same work, harnesses have to suit the different
species and sizes of animals used. Thus, a variety of harness
concepts and design are required.


15. Agricultural operations constitute the bulk of DAP use.
Ploughing by horses and mules is significant in China, Mexico and
a few Latin American countries. Elsewhere in the world, -bullocks
form the largest number engaged in ploughing; nert come buffaloes,
used only in the Far East.

Ecuines for Tillage

16. Harnesses for horses and mules for ploughing are already well
developed after a great deal of R & D in advanced countri-es collar,
hames and traces. Designs have been documented in detail in
reference manuals, books, and in numerous other forms. What is
required for disseminating this knowledge to the developing countries

assembling this literature in a central place
extracting such information as will be useful for the
developing countries
preparation of manufacturing manuals together with
photographs and drawings of designs and tools, and
performance data
preparation of pamphlets in a simple form that can be
used by the extension workers.

75 -

17. Fortunately, there are even now experts in the advanced
countries who are doing R & D work on draught horses, whose
experience would be of value to the developing countries. In the
Department of Animal Sciences at Lublin, Poland, experiments and'
designs are even now being carried out and management of the draught
horse is still a subject for study and training. Since this
generation is due to disappear soon, it is proposed that this pool
of available knowledge be tapped immediately for use in the future.

18. Males have the same physical characteristics as horses, and so
harnesses for mules can be the same in concept as those for horses.
Donkeys are not normally used for ploughing, except in isolated
areas in Africa and in some parts of Latin America and China. The
harness concept for donkeys is somewhat similar to that for horses
and mules.

19. Horses and mules are worked one at a time. Sometimes two,
or even more than two, are hitched together to draw heavier equipment.
The most common method is to connect the traces to an even bar, to
which the implements are hooked. By adjusting the position of the
hitching on the even bar, the efforts of different animals are
evenly balanced. The independent hitching device is extensively
used in Poland and China.

Cattle for Tillage

20. Cattle both male and female, but mostly oxen are the most
widely used animals for ploughing and other agricultural operations
throughout the developing countries. The popular method of using
oxen is to use tw-o animals hitched together, with a wooden pole
placed on the neck or head. Animals are also used singly in some
regions. A rigid pull beam connects the yoke to the implement.
As this method has survived for centuries, changes proposed later
should be introduced only after sufficient evaluation.

21. The collar similar to that of the horse is not suitable for
cattle on account of their anatomical features, but a collar design
was used in Europe, which is claimed to be better than the wooden
yoke. The device consists of a soft collar with a hame, to which
traces are attached. This design did not spread to the developing
countries. Currently, on account of the revival of interest in
cattle as a source of power, some universities and R & D centres are
evincing interest in the collar harness for cattle.

22. The wooden pole yoke, placed on the neck of two animals, is the
most typical harness for cattle in the Indian sub-continent, in South
East Asia, some countries in Africa and the Near East. In some
cases, the yoke is shaped like an arch to increase the area of contact
in order to distribute the load on the neck. The typical practice is
to have a pull beam or a chain at the centre, to which the plough or
equipment is attached. It is felt that there is scope for improvement.
The collar yoke is definitely one possibility. The additional feature

76 -

is to hitch the animals independently to an even bar with the traces.
In the Chinese method, a V-shaped yoke sits on the neck to which the
traces are attached. The traces are connected to the even bar, to .
which the implement is attached. With single animals also, the
v-shaped yoke is used, with traces. The concept of traces being
attached to the even bar was used for horses in the developed

23. In some locations in China, in addition to the V-shaped yoke
pulling the implement, one end of the implement is attached to a belt
slung on the animal's back on the rear side, which is supposed to take
the vertical component of the pull. In the case of two animals
hitching, the traces are connected to the even bar. They also hitch
three animals for pulling heavy implements when they are hitched in-
dependently through traces to the even bar.In China, animals are also
hitched to the sane even bar, and different animals cattle,horses
and mules also of various sizes are used. By adjusting the
positions of hitching, the differing pulling effort is balanced.

24. The relative efficiency of the neck yoke and the Chinese method
described above has to be assessed. In the Indian system, only two
animals can be used, while in the Chinese method more than two of
different sizes and strength can be yoked. In the Chinese design,
the vertical component rests cn the animal's back, while in the Indian
design it rests on the neck. In the Indian method, the plough is
close to the animal, while in the Chinese, it is farther behind. Since
there are no wheels, the exertion on the a.ni!al is not even. IC.ISAT
has designed a wheeled tool frame, to which i=le-ents can be attached.
The suitability of different types of harnessing and hitching devices
to soil conditions has to be tested and draught effort measured. There
are no facilities today where such measurements can be done conveniently.
The proposed R & D centres should have facilities for such testing and

Head Tokes Latin -America

25. Latin American countries are using the head yoke, which was in
vogue in Spain and Portugal. The FAO has introduced the head harness
method in some African countries. The Zebu cattle of Asia have long
necks and a hump. The Latin American cattle have short necks. It is
claimed that the head harness is suitable for short-necked cattle without
humps. On the contrary, it is argued that the head harness is not the
right way of harnessing. Some experts have also pointed out that it is
not only inconvenient to the animal but also injurious to it. The
horn often breaks rendering the animal unserviceable. The ill effects of the
head yoke on the animal, including the effect on draught capability and
injury to it, are to be investigated.

26. In the head yoke concept, a suitably-shaped wooden pole is fitted
behind the horns, to which it is anchored with rope and leather belting.
There is a cushion pad to give comfort. Since two animals are rigidly
hitched together, their freedom of movement is restricted. When one
animal moves its neck in any direction, the other animal has to follow

- 77 -

suit. When the animal can use its whole body weight, draught power
is increased. It is doubtful whether tais effort can be transmitted
through the head. The Chinese method of independent hitching with a
V-shaped yoke on the neck (or the collar) should replace the headyoke.

27. The horse harnessing device is elaborate and costly; but the
collar method for cattle is relatively simple. Therefore, the collar
harness design is worth pursuing even for countries in the Indian sub-
continent where farmers cannot afford costly harnesses.

28. The Zebu cattle have humps which disappear when these breeds
are cross-bred with humpless cattle. This has caused some concern
among eastern people, who believe that the hump is essential for using
the neck yoke. However, the hump seems to be a weak part and
therefore cattle should not be harnessed on their hum-. This opinion
has to be verified. Chinese cattle have no hump, and the V-shaped yoke
functions well.

Buffaloes for Tillaze

29. In the Indian sub-continent, the typical practice is to harness
two buffaloes with a neck yoke, as in the case of cattle. In China,
Thailand, Indo-Chinese countries, the Philippines and Indonesia, the
popular method is to use single animals with a V-shaped wooden neck
yoke connected to traces. It is believed that the neck yoke does
not permit maximum draught efficiency. The yoke also hurts the
animal's neck tissues. Experiments carried out b"y Dr. Jack Garner
in Thailand have shown that animals get choked, affecting intake of
air, as a result of which the animals get tired too soon. Dr. Garner
has tried three kinds of harnesses: a collar attached to traces; a belt
system; and a collar-cu-_-belt system. Efficiency seems to have gone
up by 25 to 5O.. These methods are to be tried and tested under
various conditions for adoption in other countries. Thailand itself
has yet to implement this new method of harnessing.

30. In some parts of China, as in the case of cattle, the agricultural
implement itself is so designed that one end of it, attached to a strap,
rests on the animal's back. A separate V-shaped yoke on the neck pulls
the implement. It is believed that the vertical load is taken care of
by the animal's back, thus reducing pressure on the neck. This has to
be verified.

31. It is worthwhile to consider a combination of the collar-belt
system and the Chinese method. R & D experiments are necessary in
order to assess the efficiency of these ideas compared to the
traditional methods. Since buffaloes are popular as DAs in a number of
Asian countries, and have further potential as a source of energy (along
with the milk-meat output of the species), these concepts call for the
serious attention of the ESCAP countries. The Animal Production and
Health Commission for Asia (APHCA) can take initiative in convening a
conference on DAP, along with ESCA? and ADB.

78 -

Other Animals for Ploughing

32. Yaks are used in China for ploughing to a limited extent.
Nothing much is known about the use andi potential of yaks and,
therefore, all aspects of the yak system for tillage, including
harness, have.to be looked into. Camels are used for ploughing
in the Near East and India. Harnesses are not well designed;
special studies are to be made to improve the design, which will
maximise efficiency of the camel's effort with least injury to it.


33. Most of the animal species cattle, buffaloes, mules, donkeys
and camels are used for hauling vehicles. Horses are the best
work animals for carting. In the advanced countries, North China,
Mexico and a few other countries, horses continue to be the most
popular animals for pulling carts. Donkey carts are popular in
China. In South and South East Asia and some countries of Africa,
carts are dr~an largely by cattle. Buffalo carts are popular in India,
and the other buffalo-using countries.
34. Harness designs are far more important for vehicles than for
tillage. Wrong designs not only reduce power transmission, but also
cause damage to animals, resulting in economic loss and injury to the
animals. This is because most of the vehicles in the world are two-
wheelers. The third point of support is the animal itself. Thus
the animal has to carry this vertical load (the two other points are
the wheels), besides hauling the vehicle. However much one may
balance it, the vertical load for a one-ton vehicle comes to 20 to
50 kgs. In a dynamic situation, it has a 'shock load' component as
well twice the normal load.

Horse Carts

35. As in the case of tillage of soil, horse carts were highly
developed in the advanced countries. The designs have been documented,
and experts who have worked on horse cart designs are still alive.
Before their expertise is lost, some action should be taken to assemble
the available information for use in the developing countries. There
is good potential for the development of horse carts in the developing

36. In South and South East Asia and the Near East, horses are used
only for transporting light loads of both people and goods in urban
areas. In Mexico and a few Latin American countries as well as in
North China, horse carts are used for transporting heavy loads 2 to 3
tonnes. Harness design for light transport in developing countries
is an imitation of the Western designs. It is fairly satisfactory,
although there is scope for improvement.

37. As regards heavy transport, the Chinese-Mexican method of double
yoke harness is an excellent concept, which has to be popularized in
other countries. The double yoke harness method is for two-wheelers.
The two oull beams are connected to a strap (transmission belt in
machines) which is placed on a saddle on the horse's back. This
distributes the vertical load (the third point of the load is the
animal's back) over a large surface. For hauling the vehicle, the
typical collar or breast belt system is used, connecting the same to
the main frame or to the pull beam by traces. Thus, the haulage is
done by this second yoke, while the vertical load is carried on the
back by the first yoke. Loads of up to one ton are hauled by one
animal. Heavier loads up to 3 tons are carried by two, three or
four animals, with one main animal carrying the vertical load and the
others merely pulling alongside the cart and/or ahead. A combination
of different animal species and sizes can be hitched, giving great

38. Although there is scope for improvement in the sophistication of
this double yoke harness, the present technology itself is good enough
for spreading to other countries. In Asia, for heavier transport,
bullocks and buffaloes are used now because of lack of knowledge of
this possibility. It is proposed that horses should be tried out
for heavy transport, as they will be faster and therefore better for
city conditions. Since city transportation is viable on a
commercial scale, the system can bear the extra cost of harness and
maintenance of horses.

Cattle Carts

39. Cattle carts are popularly called bullock carts or ox carts,
although cows are also used in Indonesia, China and Latin America.
Bullock carts are popular in Asia and Africa. India has
14 million.

40. Four-wheeler carts, drawn by two bullocks, carry 3 to 5 tonnes.
There is no vertical load on the animal's neck. It is proposed that
collar harness and hames, connected to the cart through traces, should
be tried out. Collar harness will certainly improve the area of
contact, increasing the efficiency of application and the animals'

41. At present, the single-animal and two-animal carts are drawn by
the pole yoke on the neck, connected to the cart by a pair of rigid
pull beams. The majority of bullock carts are two-wheelers. In
two-wheelers, both single-animal and two-animal drawn, the third
point of the load 20 to 50 kgs rests on a small area of the animal's
neck. Thus the animal has to not only pull the load by the neck but
also carry weight on it. Whilst in movement, due to constant rubbing
and chafing by the rough yoke, the neck tissues become inflamed, develop
sores and finally neck gall. Because of such injury to the neck, the
majority of animals are rendered unproductive a few years by as many
as 3 ahead of their normal working life. There is tremendouss loss
due to sickness and lost animal years. Draught effort is reduced.
Animals suffer unnecessary agony as well.

- 80 -

42. 'ost of these carts do not have any mechan.is for braking.
For slowing down the vehicle and stopping it, the animal uses its
neck. The yoke pushes against the horns while slowing down t.he
vehicle. This practice is injurious to the animal and tires it,
affecting its capability to work long hours. The neck is also
often injured. A simple method is to use a wooden pole, which
when activated will rub against the wheel to slow and halt the

43. The double yoke can be introduced here with great advanta-e.
The first yoke will rest on the animal's back on a soft pad (as
described for the horse earlier), and the second yoke will be .a
loose one placed on the neck. The neck yoke will come into action
when the animal moves forward., hauling the vehicle. W'en the
animal goes slowly and the cart moves forward relatively due to
inertia, the neck yoke is disengaged. Thus, there is no rubbing
or injury to the neck at all.

44. The first yoke is strapped onto the pad/saddle in such a
way that the weight is spread over a wide area. In addition, a
belt is taken around the ru-p of the animal and connected to the
pull beam. Thus, when the animal slows down, the back belt
comes into action, and the animal's body is used for slowing down
and stopping the vehicle. This desig" is the same as in the
case of the horse where the back straps help to slow down the cart
and stop it. The saddle consists of a leather piece, cushion,
wooden frame and beltings. For the second yoke, the collar concept
can be tried.

45. There is an urgent need for introducing this concept in the
Indian sub-ccntinent and elsewhere where the neck yoke is in use.
Millions of dollars in terms of lost animal life can be saved if
the double yoke method is introduced in these countries. Animals
have to be trained to take the double yoke. It is a bit more
costly, but the advantages are so great that the technology is worth
emulat ing.

46. Studies have to be undertaken to assess the extent of advantage
that the double yoke has over the neck yoke, and the damage being
caused by the neck yoke. Such experiments will take time and need
resources for R & D. R & D centres, proposed earlier, should
adapt these harnesses to suit different conditions.

47. The head yoke is used for drawing carts in Africa and Latin
America. It is believed that this is not a good method. The
animal's neck has to carry the vertical load as a cantilever,
besides hauling the load.. The maximum power out of the animal
cannot be obtained in this way. Therefore, it is proposed that
the double yoke method should be adopted in place of the head yoke.
While the double yoke concept can be copied straightaway, the collar
yoke has to be tried out instead of the V-shaped yoke.


-81 -

48. In the Chinese system, more than two animals and that too
in combinations of horses, mules, donkeys and cattle of different
sizes and ages can be hitched. This also enables hitching of
young animals for training and work.

49. Independent hitching has other advantages. More than two
animals of differing species, size, strength, age, endurance and
temperament can be hitched to haul heavy loads. When two are
rigidly yoked, efficiency is reduced. Only two animals can be
used, and they have to be of the same size and strength. All
these problems are eliminated in the double yoke method and the
efficiency of two-wheeler carts used all over the world can be
enormously increased.

Carts Drawn b7 Other Animals

50. The situation regarding buffalo carts is the same as for
bullock carts. The double yoke method can be copied straight-
aw.ay. Buffaloes suffer a great deal in the present method of
neck yokes and efficiency is poor. As regards mule carts, the
harness concept of the horse cart is applicable. With some
modification, the same is applicable to donkeys also. Camel
carts are already modernised to some extent in India. But, the
harness can be further improved. There are innumerable
variations in camel cart designs and harnesses, the efficiency of
which is to be assessed by special studies.

Pack Animals

51. Camels, donkeys, mules, llamas and yaks are the most popular
pack animals. The frames and other materials used for pack
animals need a lot of improvement. The donkeys suffer most in
this regard. The frames are rough and loads are often placed
directly on the animal's back, bruising the skin. Sand and other
construction materials are carried on its back, without any saddle
or frame. Besides the suffering of the animals, their working
life is reduced. Pack animals are important in hilly regions
and in areas with no roads. The armed forces have given a lot of
attention to the design of carrying frames for pack animals. It
is proposed that a study should be made for improving the carriages
and frames for the use of pack animals. Yaks need a special study.


52. The excellent harnesses and equipment used for logging by
horses in Europe and in North America should be made known to
other countries which are now using crude devices. The logging
harnesses are similar to draught horse harness with minor
variations to take care of the heavy leads to be pulled with

82 -

maximum effort over short distances. The head harness used in
Chile, Columbia and the Dominican Republic does not seem to be
suitable for logging. Harness concepts described earlier for
tillage and carting carn be usefully ezpployed for logging as well.
For buffaloes used for logging in some parts of Asia the
collar-cum-belt harness should be tried out, instead of the neck
harness. No effort has been made to design harness for
elephants, which needs priority attention.

Other F,7uinment

53. Equipment in use for adjunct operations, such as threshing,
water lifting, crushing, grinding, etc. vary a great deal from
country to country. Most of them are cf crude design. With
the availability of electric power to rural areas at subsidized
rates, there is a possibility for mechanised equipment to take
over these functions. But extension of electric power will
take time to materialise in some parts of Africa and Asia.
Design of harnesses and better equipment is to be taken up by
the proposed R & D centres. Meanwhile, the harnesses proposed
for drawing ploughs and carts can be adapted to most adjunct
and off-farm operations.

54. Various methods have been in use for water lifting by DAP:
(a) the.Persian wheel, in its numerous variations; (b) bucket of
water being lifted by animals walking on a ramp, up and down;
(c) animals moving in a circle, activating a rope system whereby
two buckets of water go up and do-.rn alternately; (d) ani-.als going
in a circle and the motion being converted to reciprocating move-
ment to lift water; and (e) circular movement of animals which is
made to move a set of blades in a pipe lifting water. In all
these cases, the harnessing devices will have to be adapted, taking
the concepts from ploughing and carting.


55. The above descriptions would show that a great deal remains
to be done to improve harnesses. There is tremendous scope for
transfer of technology from the advanced countries to the developing
countries and amongst the developing countries themselves.
Immediate documentation and extension of existing technology for
transfer to others can start. Concurrently, R & D has to be
launched to improve the existing designs for cattle, buffaloes and
other animals (excluding equines). Logging and packing are the
other two aspects where specific studies are called for.

56. Harness was a specialised field in the developed countries.
In the developing world, engineers and animal husbandry specialists
have not got together to work on this job. Engineers do not know
enough of the anatomy and physical characteristics of the animals,


while the animal husbandry specialists do not know enough about
the engineering possibilities. A aulti-disciplinary team,
consisting of engineering designers, ergonomists, animal husbandry
specialists and nutritionists, should work together on harness

FAO, the Ford Foundation, LSAID, Appropriate Technology
International, Interediate Technology Development Group, C33MAT,
IRI, the University of Lublin, Uppsala University, the Indian
Institute of Management at Ba-ngalore, agricultural engineering
centres in India and Africa and some UK centres such as Reading
University, the University of 3ast Anglia, the National Institute
of Agricultural Engineering at Silsoe and the Centre for Tropical
Medicine of the University of Edinburgh are some of the institutions
around the world that have at one time or another worked on
harnesses. It will be useful if the work done by these people is
assembled for analysis.

84 -



1. In order to facilitate rapid development of DAP on a scientific
basis, and at economic cost, it is essential that a number of prog-
ranmes be initiated for providing the necessary physical and soft-
ware infrastructure. Requirements would naturally vary from country
to country, depending on the state of DAP and environments. Some
examples are given below to illustrate the kinds of measures that
would support DAP.

Breeding and PRaising of DAs

2. Scientific breeding for developing farm animals to meet draught
needs and which were economically viable made tremendous strides in
Europe and Nlorth America between the two world wars. At that time,
large parts of Asia and Africa were under colonial rule. R & D
done then produced excellent work horses, breeds of which are even now
working in countries like Poland and a few other countries in Europe.
Work horses for logging are bred even now in Sweden, Canada and other
advanced countries.

3. China has ongoing prograzmes for raising work animals, particularly
donkeys, mules and horses. In India, top quality bullocks were being
bred by rich landlords and ordinary farmers for centuries. For a
variety of reasons, their enthusiasm has now waned. The emphasis by
the Indian Government during the last twenty years has been on cross-
breeding for increasing milk output of cattle and buffaloes, which of
course is commendable. In Asia, cattle and buffaloes form the main
source of draught power. Camels, horses and donkeys are also in use,
though in smaller numbers. These countries have no specific prog-
rammes for breed-ing draught animals. FAO has introduced them in a few
African countries, but there are no large-scale programmnes for breeding
work cattle.

4. In India, there are about 26 breeds of cattle, and their character-
istics have been well defined and documented by the Indian Council of
Agricultural Research. Of these, only three can be classified as pure
milch breeds. All the others are predominantly draught breeds. Most
of the breeding work of draught animals is now in the hands of thousands
of individual small farmers. There are a few special farms run by the
Government and private large-scale landowners. With the introduction of
a land ceiling, the private sector interest in breeding work animals is
declining as there is not enough land to raise them. Returns also are
not attractive.

5. There is an urgent need to have a comprehensive progr a.-e for breeding
high quality draught animals in all countries where DAB is significant and
will continue to be so for a few years more. In order to promote


successful progra.-mnes in developing countries, governments and UNT
agencies should help in a big way. Without such direct assistance for
the strengthening of individual efforts, programmes for the development
of animals of good quality and their production in large numbers will
not be easily successful. Already, Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines,
Sri Lanka and a few other countries are experiencing a shortage of draught
animals. These countries will have to not only improve the quality of
the existing breeds but also increase their numbers substantially for
intensifying agriculture. India, Pakistan and Bangladesh have to con-
serve and improve the quality of the existing DAs as there may nct be
scope for increasing their numbers substantially.

6. The breeding programmes of most countries are now concentrated on
developing milch breeds, which should continue. But the apathy of
the governments in breeding work cattle should be reviewed. A number
of concrete steps are essential to facilitate successful breeding and
raising of draught cattle. As in the case of milch cattle, promotion
progra-.es by way of price incentives, long- and short-term credits,
strengthening of small farmers' and marginal farmers' development
programmes, farmers' clubs, the marketing mechanism, etc., need to be
launched in order to make the breeding and raising of draught animals
attractive and effective. At present, there is very little incentive
for farmers to raise good draught animals, as returns are not adequate
and the- market is not organized.

7. The animal itself has to be designed to suit the economic, agri-
cultural or feed resource conditions of the area. The size of the
animal and draught power required should correspond to low, medium and
high feed availability areas. Under each of these categories, mountain
areas, with different eco-conditions, would call for special breeding
techniques. Animals for the transport of heavy loads at slow speed, and
of light loads moving fast, have to be developed.

8. Some governments have experimented with subsidies to individual
farmers raising draught animals. It is reported that they have largely
failed because the subsidy did not go to the animals. Instead of cash,
subsidy in kind by way of feed, veterinary aid, etc. could be

9. Regulating, categorising and notifying auctions and marketing fairs
by village officers who will be responsible for organizing these will
provide an incentive for farmers to raise animals. Today, distress
sales often take place because of unregulated markets and low prices.

10. In some countries, farmers' clubs are raising female calves, for
which there are fairs, calf rallies, cattle shows, etc. as promotional
aids. Similar efforts could be made for draught animals also in order
to arouse interest. For instance, only 10i of the animals in India are
cross-bred. Even in the next 20 years, the figure is not likely to
exceed 15%. The breeding programmes for draught animals will have no
adverse effect on the cross-breeding of animals for milk production.
There is no need for a compromise; and in fact the draught breeding prog-
ramme could be made complementary to the milk production programme.
Breeding targets should receive the special attention of UN agencies.

86 -

11. Apart from cattle and buffaloes, equines have to be bred and
raised in Asia for the urban transportation of light and heavy goods.
Donkeys and mules are totally neglected. China's experience of. raising
these hardy arn.-als is worth emulating.

Health and Veterinary Services

12. Many countries in Asia and Africa have still the problem of
typical livestock diseases such as 7F-, Rinderpest, etc. All of them
have prograr.mes to eradicate the same. It has been noticed that in
some countries funds, facilities and medicines are not adequate.
Economic losses arising out of such afflictions have to be quantified
so as to enable the allocation of resources commensurate with the
seriousness of the problem to DAP. Similarly, some African countries
are unable to introduce DA? because of tsetse fly and trypanosomiasis.
Of course, a great deal is being done to control and contain them. As
DAP is to be introduced in some and strengthened in others, medical
attention to DAs should receive more attention than hitherto given.
As these problems are comm-on to other livestock as well, prograces can
be common for all livestock, including draught animals.

13. Veterinary services in some countries tend to be hospital- or
urban-based. Strangely, in some areas they are more oriented to
pets, dairy animals and racehorses. Thus, genuine requirements of DAs
in the rural and urban areas are not met. Since the farmers are widely
dispersed, the mobile veterin-ary services should be strengthened,
Particularly in locations where there is a concentration of animals, and
the dearth of services is keenly felt. In urban areas, vehicles are
not easily available for bringing sick animals to veterinary hospitals.
It is reported that economic losses are considerable on account of the
lack of such facilities. A survey of needs, losses and the costs of
operating suitable services has to be conducted in order to formulate
an organizational framework for delivering such services.

14. In the Indian sub-continent, animals, particularly bullocks and
donkeys, are branded with hot irons on different parts of the body.
This is done partly to keep animals healthy (superstition) and sometimes
for identification. The value of the hide is obviously reduced as a
result of such practices. Chemical methods of branding should be intro-
duced. Earclips and metal tags can be introduced for the identification
of animals.

15. In some parts, castration is still being done by crushing the testes
with stones. This is a cruel practice indeed. It may also be dangerous
to the animal's life. Para-veterinary personnel should be trained to
carry out castration on scientific lines. Legal provisions are necessary
to prevent such cruel practices. Only in some countries is de-homning
being done. In some parts of the developing world, de-horning is done
by burning the horn-roots with hot iron. De-horning should be intre-
duced to the extent possible, but be done in a scientific and humane way,
at an early age.

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