Group Title: Progress report. Caribbean Coastal Pollution Project
Title: Progress report
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 Material Information
Title: Progress report
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Caribbean Coastal Pollution Project
Publisher: UNU-INWEH
Place of Publication: Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
Publication Date: 2007-2008
Copyright Date: 2009
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Bibliographic ID: UF00095631
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Caribbean Coastal Pollution Project (CCPP)

Assessment, Monitoring and Management of Persistent Organic Pollutants
(POP) and Persistent Toxic Substances (PTS) in the Coastal Ecosystems of
the Wider Caribbean Region

Progress report

Prepared by Hanneke Van Lavieren and Peter Sale


(1 November 2007 31 December 2008)

M 1*


The Caribbean Coastal Pollution project (CCPP) aims at the assessment, monitoring and
management of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and Persistent Toxic Substances (PTS)
in the Coastal Ecosystems of the Wider Caribbean Region and commenced in September
2007. It is being funded by the World Bank through the Canada Persistent Organic Pollutants
Fund from the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) as well as by UNU-


Past studies show POP and other PTS pollution is of ecological and human health concern in
many locations within the coastal environment of Wider Caribbean countries, but that there is
a lack of knowledge and capacity to monitor and manage PTS. In particular, coastal marine
managers do not have jurisdiction, nor adequate inter-departmental connections to ameliorate
this pollution, most of which arises from on-shore activities, sometimes some distance inland.
The UNEP GEF PTS Regional Assessment for Latin America and the Caribbean (2002)
reported that data gaps for PTS are considerable, and that reliable inventories of sources and
monitoring of emissions, transmission and deposition of PTS, are needed if effective
amelioration is to be realized. Furthermore, it concluded that 1) monitoring capacity for PTS
varies among countries across the region, 2) internationally accredited labs are few, and 3)
enhancement of lab capacity, updating of equipment, and improvement in analytical QA/QC
are all urgently needed.


The project currently includes eight countries, in all of which selected POPs and other PTS
have been identified as an issue. The four mainland countries -- Belize, Guatemala, Honduras
and Mexico -- were selected because of their participation in the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef
System (MBRS) and the Coral reef Targeted Research (CRTR) GEF projects aimed at
improving management of their coastal marine ecosystems. The four island countries --
Dominican Republic, Jamaica, St Lucia and Trinidad & Tobago are participants in the
UNEP GEF Integrating Watershed & Coastal Areas Management Project (IWCAM) project
which seeks to build integrated management of watersheds and coastal areas of these
countries. By engaging these eight countries, CCPP builds upon the evident success of the
South-South partnerships already developed in previous efforts, while working
collaboratively with these larger projects to further enhance the capacity of these nations to
manage POP and other PTS pollution effectively.


The purpose of CCPP is to build a network among environmental managers, analytical
laboratories, and other appropriate governmental agencies in countries of the WCR that will
be effective in measuring, evaluating and then reducing pollution from POPs and other PTS
in the coastal marine environment. These reductions will be achieved through changes to
behavior that stem releases of pollutants into the environment in upstream agriculture and


By the end of the two years of Phases One and Two, CCPP will have accomplished the

1. A South-South network involving coastal marine managers and environmental
laboratory personnel, spanning 8 countries in the WCR, will have been established.
2. That network will have sampled fish (White grunt) in their coastal marine
environments at a set number of sites and obtained baseline-level data on the
prevalence of POPs and other PTS in the coastal marine environment in these
countries. Data will be maintained in a open-access online database.
3. The 10 participating laboratories will have had a portion of their capacity-building
needs fulfilled, through training workshops on analytical rigor, QA/QC, and data
management, through provision of new equipment, and through close mentoring by
a North-South expert team. Further, they will have assisted each other in
undertaking needed analyses, and may see the benefit in specialization and regional
4. Several research projects will have been initiated or conducted on POPs and other
PTS identification, contamination sampling and analysis methods, and possible
source tracing.
5. Participating countries will have had their obligations under the Stockholm
Convention furthered, through the monitoring effort and through the enhancement
to laboratory capacity. Further, through the network, they will have access to
technical expertise that may be available if needed as they proceed in developing
their NIPs under the SC.
6. The groundwork will have been set for i) further upgrading of laboratory capacity at
the participating laboratories, ii) implementation of a region-wide, continuing
monitoring program for POP and other PTS pollution, and iii) an explicit effort to
trace two or more particularly worrisome cases of PTS pollution to their upstream,
terrestrial sources, planned for Phase Three, and for the eventual amelioration or
cessation of those particular instances of environmental pollution.


A list of the 10 laboratories involved in this project is given in table A and a list of other
individuals and institutions participating, and other initiatives, programmes, agencies etc.
with cognate interests in the Caribbean region is given in table B of annex 1 to this report.

An affiliated network includes researchers and individuals who have been recruited to
become involved in developing and implementing activities related to the project objectives.
This list is evolving as the project network expands.

o Dr. KG Drouillard, University of Windsor (consultant)
o Dr. C Metcalfe, Trent University (consultant)
o Dr. D.G. Haffner, University of Windsor (participant in both workshops)
o Dr. Gerardo Gold, CINVESTAV Unidad Merida, Mexico (consultant)


Phase 1 Planning Workshop

The sole objective in Phase One was to hold a planning meeting at UNU-INWEH in
Hamilton, Canada, involving potential participants from the identified WCR countries,
representatives of the MBRS and IWCAM projects, and a number of Canadian experts. This
Planning Workshop was held in Hamilton, Canada from 25-27 November 2007 and included
25 participants from 10 laboratories and 4 management agencies in the region, 4 experts from
Canada, 2 experts from other locations, and 3 UNU-INWEH personnel.

It reviewed the status of POPs and PTS pollution in the marine environment and rivers and
other water bodies close to coastal areas of the WCR of the eight countries covered by the
project (Belize, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, St Lucia and
Trinidad & Tobago). It also discussed the obligations of these countries under the Stockholm
Convention, and presented an overview of other initiatives/partners dealing with similar
issues in the region. Finally, it discussed and refined the scope and implementation modalities
of the project, and developed an initial list of possible laboratories to include in the lab
assessment exercise planned for 2008.

Following this workshop official consensus was sought through letters from UNU-INWEH
addressed to the agency and laboratory heads to participate in the activities of the project,
including commitment of in kind support in the form of staff time to collect samples and
analyze data. The responses to these letters and official commitments from these agencies and
laboratories were received during the first 5 months of the project.

Phase 2

Regional Initiation Workshop

This three-day regional workshop was held in Trinidad from 10-12 June 2008 and aimed to
consolidate commitment to join a regional network including the eight participating countries
and to finalize the detailed program of activities to be undertaken commencing this summer.
The activities agreed upon at this workshop, in the form of a unanimously endorsed
Consensus Statement were:

a) The collection of white grunt samples from one or more agreed coastal locations in
each country to develop a baseline of PTS pollution of coastal waters;
b) The delivery of those samples to identified labs, either for preliminary treatment
and onward shipping, or for final analysis for a range of PTS;
c) Formal evaluation of capacity in PTS analysis for each of the laboratories
participating in the project;
d) Some augmentation of that capacity through a combination of training and
provision of new infrastructure; and
e) Initiation of regular monitoring for PTS in coastal waters to build from the baseline

Within the consensus statement participants committed to the provision of technician time to
monitor and to evaluate samples, identified the sampling sites in each country and reached
agreement on who is responsible for what in each country.

A. Capacity Building

Laboratory Evaluation

A team of three experts was selected to execute the laboratory evaluation exercise. The three
experts were contracted to play a lead role in the project, serve as the evaluation team to visit
ten designated laboratories and report on current analytical capacity with respect to POP and
other PTS pollutants in coastal marine ecosystems (water, sediment, biota), advise UNU-
INWEH on most effective use of project funds for upgrade of laboratory facilities, and/or
mentoring of laboratory technical staff at each designated laboratory and play a major role in
preparation of proposals from UNU-INWEH seeking support for continuation of the project.
The experts contracted are:

Dr. Chris Metcalfe, Environmental and Resource Studies, Trent University
Dr. Gerardo Gold Bouchot, Departamento de Recursos del Mar, CINVESTAV Unidad
Dr. K.G. Drouillard, Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of

During May-June 2008, questionnaires were sent to all the participating laboratories
assessing their current capacity in terms of staff, infrastructure, laboratory equipment and
capacity needs to sample and analyze POPS and other PTS. The questionnaires were
developed using an existing similar questionnaire developed by the IWCAM project (and
CEHI in St Lucia). The responses from these questionnaires were synthesized by the expert
team and used as preliminary information for their evaluation report.

The experts conducted their first laboratory visits during 12- 22 June 2008. Five laboratories
were visited (2 laboratories in Trinidad, 2 laboratories in Jamaica and 1 laboratory in St
Lucia). The second set of visits took place from 17-26 August 2008. Four Laboratories were
visited (2 in Mexico, 1 in Honduras and 1 in Guatemala). The remaining laboratory in the
Dominican Republic was visited during the second week of September. The Final Laboratory
Evaluation Report was submitted in October 2008.

This evaluation exercise revealed that there is a wide range in the capacity of the 10
laboratories involved in the project to participate in a monitoring and research program on
POPs and other PTS in the marine environment of the WCR. The assessment showed that the
Pesticide Laboratory at the UWI in Mona, Jamaica, and the Marine Geochemistry Laboratory
at CINVESTAV in Merida, Mexico, have the greatest capacity to take lead roles in regional
POPs and PTS monitoring networks. This is because of their access to appropriate facilities,
equipment and technical expertise, and institutional capacity to manage and implement a
monitoring program.

The evaluation proposes the creation of a laboratory network for POPs and PTS monitoring
and research in the WCR with the Pesticide Laboratory at UWI, Mona taking a lead role
among English speaking partners in the Caribbean (i.e. "AngloPOPs" group) and the Marine
Geochemistry Lab at CINVESTAV taking a lead role among Spanish speaking partners in

the Caribbean (including Belize) (i.e. "HispanoPOPs" group). The project participants have
been divided into partner institutions that operate in Spanish and those that operate in
English, with the exception of Belize. The geographical proximity and history of
collaboration with Guatemala, Honduras and Mexico in the MBRS project, make it easier for
Belize to collaborate with the Spanish-speaking countries.

For the white grunt monitoring survey, the UWI Mona and CINVESTAV labs will rely on
partner institutions in the WCR to collect and provide samples for POPs analysis, and will
conduct all subsequent analyses. A significant component of the project will involve
reporting results to all partners within the network. There will also be opportunities to
involve partner labs in specific research projects.

Laboratory Equipment Upgrades

The laboratory evaluation developed a proposal for laboratory equipment needs for each of
the laboratories that was evaluated to enhance their capacity for POPs and PTS analysis to a
required level for the project. Due to budget constraints during this phase of the project, the
initial laboratory infrastructure investments will be targeted at the two leading Regional
Analysis laboratories (CINVESTAV and UWI lab in Jamaica). If additional funds become
available after 2009, then further investments will be made for equipment upgrades of the
remaining satellite laboratories. Negotiations are currently underway for purchasing the
necessary equipment from SHIMADZU Inc. Purchasing is expected to commence in January

Laboratory Inter-comparison

This exercise commenced in October 2008 and aims at doing an inter-comparison between
the two regional Analysis Laboratories (CINVESTAV and UWI Jamaica) and the two
Canadian laboratories (University of Windsor and Trent University Laboratories). The inter-
laboratory comparison exercise will provide an initial quality check to ensure consistency in
analytical results between laboratories and to harmonize selection of standards and certified
reference materials (CRMs) used for quality assurance purposes.

The IAEA Marine Laboratory in Monaco provided the project with the certified reference
materials (CRMs). UNU-INWEH distributed certified analytical standards purchased in
Canada (Organochlorine pesticides and PCB Standards), a spiking internal standard (2,4,6-
trichlorobiphenyl) and a certified reference material (a IAEA tuna homogenate was selected)
to the two regional analytical laboratories and the two participating Canadian laboratories.
Each laboratory will perform sample extractions, clean-up and chemical analysis of 8
replicate samples of the supplied CRM. The supplied spiking internal standard will be added
to each sample and blank prior to extraction to generate a sample recovery. Instrumental
analysis of the blanks and replicate CRM samples will be completed by GC-ECD. Electronic
reports from each of the 4 participating laboratories will be combined and analyzed. Each
laboratory will then be given a report documenting the analytical results and comparability of
the 4 laboratories.

Staff Secondments

The original plan included secondments of 2-4 identified lab staff to Canadian labs for 3
months. This activity has been moved to Phase Three of the project (after 2009) because it

was decided that at this point in time it would be more effective and more economical for the
project to first focus on holding targeted training sessions in the region on specific capacity
needs in the laboratories.

Specific training needs were identified during the laboratory evaluation exercise and included
sample preparation and analysis, risk assessment, quality assurance and control.

The first training for laboratory analysts and managers is planned for 19-21 January 2009 in
Merida Mexico and will focus on POPs in Biological Tissues and will include sessions on
QA and QC procedures, examples of different extraction and clean-up methods, instrument
detection limits and method quantization limits and POPs extraction methods. The training
involves 21 participants (with at least 2 representatives from each project country) and 4

B. Environmental Monitoring

Sample collection and analysis

The sampling scheme and details on sampling sites and the sample material, as well as the
responsible agencies/laboratories were agreed upon by all project participants in a consensus
statement adopted during the regional initiation workshop in Trinidad and Tobago in June
2008. Participants agreed to sample a coastal fish species called the white grunt (Haemulon
plumieri) which has also been sampled within the MBRS project. Sampling commenced in
the months following the Regional workshop in Trinidad in June 2008, and one round of
baseline sampling has been conducted in almost all 8 countries at 6-8 sites in each country
sampling 3 fish at each site. A sampling and sample analysis protocol was developed which
all agencies/laboratories will follow.

The countries will send their samples to the 2 lead regional laboratories following the interim
reporting workshop in January 2009, and the regional analysis laboratories will then start
analyzing these samples. The regional laboratories will receive white grunt samples (2-5 g,
skin-off, dorsal muscle fillet) from each of the participating laboratories and member
countries. A document was developed outlining the roles of the regional labs and the
analytical requirements and procedures.

Research projects

During phase 2 of the project 2 research projects are being initiated:

1. Passive Sampler Monitoring for Contaminants in the Caribbean Coastal Zone of the
Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Principle investigator: Dr. Chris Metcalfe
2. Quantitative Bio monitoring of POPs in Caribbean Coastal Zones Using Oysters.
Principle investigator: Ken Drouillard.

Project 1: The Caribbean coast of the Yucatan peninsula is highly susceptible to
contamination of groundwater and the coastal zone as a result of the unique Karst geology
and the rapid development in the region. This study evaluates whether contamination is
currently occurring in the area by monitoring selected areas using passive sampler
technologies. Permeable membrane devices (SPMD) and Polar Organic Chemical Integrative

Sampler (POCIS) passive samplers will be deployed in selected locations along the
Caribbean coastal zone of the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico in order to assess whether there is
currently contamination of these water resources from municipal wastewater, urban runoff,
livestock production and pesticide use in the region. This project commenced in December
2008 and samplers were deployed at 4 sites. In the initial deployment, the passive samplers
were placed in: i) caves that discharge into Carwash cenote near Tulum, ii) an underground
cave system that passes under Tulum, and iii) at sites in the marina and near the golf course at
Puerto Aventuras near Playa del Carmen. During January 2009 the samplers will be retrieved
from the monitoring sites and extracted at the Marine Sciences Laboratory of CINVESTAV
in Merida, with the cooperation of Dr. Gerardo Gold Bouchot. Instruction in the deployment,
retrieval and extraction of the passive samplers will be provided to CINVESTAV personnel
by Dr. Metcalfe and his research staff from Trent University.

Project 2: This project aims to implement an oyster biomonitoring survey and to calibrate
Caribbean oyster species as POP biomonitors for the region. Researchers, and their respective
graduate students, will be trained in biomonitoring methods and toxicokinetic modelling
techniques to interpret POPs bioavailability and bioaccumulation in each of their respective
regions. The data will also provide calibration of chemical toxicokinetics in oysters that will
facilitate better interpretation of spatial scale biomonitoring data sets implemented according
to classic biomonitoring approaches as well as provide information on site-specific seasonal
changes in bioavailable residues. Surveys will be completed in regional waters of Trinidad,
Jamaica and Mexico. During the first year, a classic biomonitoring survey will be implement,
where investigators will collect native mussels from each study location and submit them for
chemical analysis (OC-pesticides, PCBs, PAHs and PBDEs). During the 2nd year, a
quantitative biomonitoring survey will be implemented, whereby pre-dosed mussels will be
transplanted in regional waters in each country and destructively sampled over time. This
project is expected to commence in February 2009.

C. Information Dissemination

Table 1 summarizes documents and reports prepared as part of the project so far. More focus
on outreach will be given during 2009, including outreach to public and policy makers.


Table 1. List of Project Documents.
Document Date
Report of the Planning Workshop, Hamilton Nov. 2007 January 2008
Laboratory Evaluation Questionnaire May-June 2008
Consensus Statement on activities in the project June 2008
Sampling Protocol for White Grunt (Haemulon July 2008
DRAFT Overview of past studies and data on POPs and Nov 2008
PTS in coastal ecosystems of eight project countries
Report of the Regional Workshop, Trinidad June 2008 July 2008
Final Laboratory Evaluation Report October 2008
Caribbean Regional Analytical Laboratories Roles and Nov 2008
Participation in the Analysis of POPs Samples


List of participating laboratories

A. List of laboratories

13eI1ze IN JIUNI2 A V AII-i
Dominican Ramon Antonio Ramon Antonio Lab. Ciencias Lab. Ciencias Nucleares
Republic Delanoy de la Delanoy de la Nucleares Instituto de Fisica
Cruz Cruz Instituto de Fisica Universidad Autonoma de Santo
Domingo Santo Domingo.
Republica Dominicana Tel.: 1 809
Guatemala Bessie Oliva Bessie Oliva and Facultad de Ciencias Laboratorio de Investigacion.
Marta del Cid Quimicas y Farmacia Facultad de CCQQ y Farmacia de
Universidad de San la Universidad de San Carlos de
Carlos de Guatemala Guatemala. Ciudad Universitaria
Zona 12. Ciudad Guatemala
Tel (502) 52026232; 22887808
Honduras Danellia Francisco Centro de Estudios y Centro de Estudio y Control de
Sabillon Garcia Control de Contaminantes,
Contaminantes Secretaria de Recursos Naturales y
(CESCCO) Secretaria Ambiente Barrio Morazan frente
de Recursos Naturales Central de Bomberos, Edificio
y Ambiente (SERNA) CESCCO, Tegucigalpa M.D.C.
Honduras, C.A.
Jamaica Dr Leary Myers Paulette NEPA Lab Pollution Control and Assessment
Kolbusch and Branch (NEPA)
Mrs. Winsome 191 Old Hope Road
Townsend Kingston 6, Jamaica

Jamaica Tara Dasgupta Raymond Reid Pesticide Residue Pesticide Residue Lab
Laboratory, University University of the West Indies,
of the West Indies, Mona
Mona Kingston 7, Jamaica W.I.

Mexico Gerardo Gold Gerardo Gold CINVESTAV CINVESTAV Unidad Merida, Km
and victor ceja 6 Antigua Carretera a Progreso
Merida, Yucatan 97310 Mexico
Mexico Dr. Alberto De Ariana Zavala ECOSUR-Unidad Chetumal,
Jesus Navarrete and Ma. Resp. Lab. El Colegio de la Frontera Sur,
Guadalupe Institucional de Unidad Chetumal, Av. Centenario
Nieto Lpez Quimica ECOSUR km 5.5,
Apdo. Postal 424, Chetumal,
Quintana Roo. 77000 Mexico
St Lucia Patricia Aquing Allison Caribbean Caribbean Environment Health
Astwood Environmental Health Institute
Institute (CEHI) The Morne, P.O. Box 1111
Castries, St. Lucia
Trinidad and Dr. Lebert Denise Beckles University of West University of the West Indies, St.
Tobago Grierson Indies (UWI) St. Augustine
Augustine Chemistry Department of Chemistry
Department St. Augustine, Trinidad and
1-868-662-6013 Tobago

Wendy Norville,
Daryll Banjoo

Institute of Marine Institute of Marine Affairs
Affairs (IMA) Marine Marine Chemistry Department
Chemistry Department P.O. Box 3160, Carenage Trinidad
and Tobago

B. List of other project contacts

Jose Robledo La Autoridad para el manejo sustentable de la Cuenca Hidrogrffica del Lago de Izabal y
Rio Dulce (AMASURLI), Ministerio de Recursos Naturales


Dwight Neal Friends of Nature Main Road, Placencia Belize
Isaias Majil Fisheries Department, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries &
P.O. Box 148, Princess Margaret Drive
Belize City, Belize
Jos6 Juan Dominguez Jos6 Juan Dominguez Calder6n
Calder6n Subdirector T6cnico
Regi6n Peninsula de Yucatan
Calle Venados 71 y 73 SM 20 MZ 18
Centro, Cancun, Q. Roo, MEXICO

Alejandra Fregoso Coordinacion program
Dominguez conservation de agua dulce
Amigos de siaan ka'an
Calle Fuego # 2, Mza 10, SM. 4,
Cancun, Q. Roo, M6xico. C.P. 77511,
Apartado Postal 770
T: +52 (998) 892 29 58 y 59

Albert Franquesa Coordinacion program
conservation de agua marinas
Amigos de siaan ka'an
Calle Fuego # 2, Mza 10, SM. 4,
Cancun, Q. Roo, M6xico. C.P. 77511,
Apartado Postal 770
T: +52 (998) 892 29 58 y 59
Roberto Rivas Gulf of Honduras Project
Puerto Cortes,
Tel: (504) 665 23 43
Tel/fax: (504) 665 3072
Cintya Pamela DeLeon UGAM (Unidad de Gesti6n Ambiental Municipalidad de Puerto Cortes)
Planta Barrio Copen 5 calle, 9 avenida Estadio
Honduras Excelsior Segunda

Trinidad and


Dominican Republic:
Nancy Valdez Guerrero Head of the Monitoring Department
Subsecretaria de Gestion Ambiental (SGA)
Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
Juan Jos6 Arias Dipr6 Director
Institute de Quimica de la Universidad Aut6noma de Santo Domingo (UASD)
Tony Greenaway Senior Lecturer
Applied Chemistry
The University of the West Indies
Mona, Kingston 7
Tel: 876 9271919, 876 5123029
Fax: 977 1835
St Lucia:
Yaneldis Boullon Anthony Chemical Engineer
Pesticides and Toxic Chemicals Board Ministry of Agriculture, Lands, Forestry and
Greaham Louisy Administrative Building
Waterfront, Castries
Saint Lucia
Tel: (758) 468 5600/4
Fax: (758) 450 3206
Guy Mathurin Senior Research Officer
Pesticides and Toxic Chemicals Board
Greaham Louisy Administrative Building
Waterfront, Castries
Saint Lucia
Tel: (758) 468 5600/4
Fax: (758) 450 3206
Tel: 758 450-2375
Chris Corbin UNEP CAR RCU AMEP programme
14-20 Port Royal Street
Jamaica WI
Nadia-Deen Ferguson AMEP Assistant Programme Officer
14-20 Port Royal Street
Jamaica WI
Alex Cooman GEF-REPCar Project
Reducing Pesticides Runoff to the Caribbean Sea

Jean Marc Racine Sound Management of Chemicals (SMC)
Department of Sustainable Development (DSD)
Organization of American States (OAS)
Vincent Sweeney UNEP GEF IWCAM project
c/o Caribbean Environmental Health Institute P.O. Box 1111,
Castries, St. Lucia
Tel 758-452-1412/2501 Fax 758-453-2721
Karen Morisson Assistant Professor
Environment & Resource Science/Studies
a.115 Environmental Studies
Trent University
Peterborough, Ontario

Dr. Eric Dewailly

K9J 7B8 Canada

Unit6 de recherche en sante publique
Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600
2875, boul. Laurier, 6e 6tage
Qu6bec (Qu6bec) G1V 2M2
Tel: 418 525-4444 poste 46518
Fax: 418 654-2726

Miguel Garcia Monitoring Specialist
MBRS Projects
MBRS Project Coordinating Unit
Coastal Resources Multicomplex Building
Princess Margaret Drive
P. O. Box 93
Belize City, Belize
Luisa Espinosa Marine and Research Institute, INVEMAR
Cerro de Punta Betin
Santa Marta, Colombia
Tel. (57-5) 4214775, Fax: (57-5) 4315761

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