SOIL MANAGEMENT CRSP
GENERAL RESEARCH PROGRAM PROPOSAL
Submitted to AID and JRC
North Carolina State University
(the Planning Agency)
June 2, 1980
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Background and Justification . . . . . . 2
General Program Description . . . . . .. 8
The Humid Tropics Project . . . . . . 11
The Semiarid Tropics Project . . . . . . 14
The Savannas Project . . . . . . . . 15
The Steeplands Project . . . . . . . 17
Management . . . . . . . . . . 20
Suggested Staffing Pattern . . . . . ... 22
Budget . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Guidelines for submitting Preproposals * * * 23
List of Abbreviations . . . . . . . 29
Tables . . . . . . . . . . 30
The outcome of the Program Development phase of this grant was
presented by North Carolina State University (NCSU) to representatives of 22 of
the 23 interested universities and the External Adivisory Panel at the
Second Panel Meeting held at Raleigh, N. C., from May 28 to 31. The Panel
examined the information presented and recommended that the Soil Manage-
ment CRSP consist of the following:
1) A Humid Tropics component with two primary research sites at
Yurimaguas, Peru and Bukittinggi, Indonesia and a CRSP staffing of 10
senior scientists (SS) and 12 junior scientists (JS). The collaborating
institutions are INIA in Peru and SRI, IPB and CRIA in Indonesia.
2) A Semiarid Tropics component with work to be conducted by the
CRSP in conjunction with ICRISAT's West African Program, INRAN and the
Service du Sol of Upper Volta. The CRSP staffing consists of 5 SS and
9 JS. The primary sites are Ouagadougou and Niamey.
3) An Acid Savannas component with primary sites at Planaltina, Brazil
and Carimagua, Colombia in cooperation with EMBRAPA, ICA, and CIAT. The
suggested level of effort is 4 SS and 9 JS.
4) A Steeplands component with the primary site at Santiago,
Dominican Republic in cooperation with SEA (Secretaria de Estado de Agri-
cultura). A total of 5 SS and 9 JS would provide the CRSP input into this
5) A Management Entity with 1 SS and 4 JS, to coordinate the technical
and administrative structure of the CRSP, under the guidance of a Board of
6) Suggested descriptions of the senior positions to be stationed at
the primary sites and a five year budget.
7) Suggested guidelines and procedures for selecting the universities
that will participate in the CRSP.
The Planning Agency, North Carolina State University, concurs with
these recommendations and submits them to AID and the Joint Research
Committee of BIFAD for approval.
The contribution of agricultural research in increasing food produc-
tion in developing countries has been most impressive during the 1970's.
The President of the World Food Council attributed the overall food pro-
duction increase of 3.5% per year in the developing countries largely to
breakthroughs in agricultural research. Secretary Tanco has also stated
at no other time in history has the world had the political awareness and
will to solve the world food crisis. The two remaining decades of this
century however, harbor a less optimistic picture. Most of the increases
in food production have been accomplished when green revolution type
technology was applied to fertile soils with irrigation. Although
continuing efforts in this direction are essential, the rate of increase
in food production based on high energy input approaches is decreasing,
because the best lands are already in such use and because of the
increasing cost of energy derived from fossil fuels.
FAO's "Agriculture Towards the Year 2000" study shows that a 4% per
year growth in food production during the 1980's and 3.8% during the
1990's is needed in order to meet food demands in the developing
countries. This is higher than the 2.7% growth rate obtained from 1970 to
1978. Approximately 1/3 of the additional food will be produced on new
lands and 2/3 by increasing yields on lands already under cultivation.
In order to accomplish this goal, a staggering 200 million hectares of
new lands must be put into production within the next 20 years. This is
equivalent to the entire area presently devoted to cropland in the
As the better lands of the developing countries are being cultivated
more intensively, the main concerns shift from producing high yielding
varieties to the management of marginal lands for sustained food produc-
tion. By marginal we mean those lands that have serious soil and rainfall
distribution constraints, that cannot be intensively irrigated, but that
have favorable temperatures for year-round growth. The bulk of these
lands are located in the tropics. Those marginal lands will undoubtedly
play a major role in world food production during the next 20 years,
either in a positive or negative way. Most of the expected increases in
cultivated area is expected from the humid tropics and tropical acid
savannas which, for the most part, are not under heavy population
pressures, and have generally favorable rainfall and temperature regimes
but severe soil chemical constraints. There are other marginal land areas,
such as the semiarid tropics and many steepland areas, which are under
intense population pressures. To increase food production per hectare, on
a sustained basis is the main concern in such regions.
The focus on marginal lands is not only relevant for food production
purposes, but also for the preservation of the natural resource base.
Severe soil erosion and unnecessary deforestation is taking place in the
humid tropics, the savannas, the semiarid tropics and the steeplands when
farmers cultivate land without appropriate soil management technology.
The humid tropics, the semiarid tropics, the acid savannas and the steep-
lands have been identified as some of the world's most crucial ecosystems,
not only by the assessment phase of this study but also at the Soil
Constraints Conference held at IRRI, and the Bonn Conference on Agricul-
tural Production in the 1980's. The humid tropics
can be defined as those tropical regions with no less than 3 months dry
season. The semiarid tropics as those regions having a protracted dry
season of 6 to 9 months. The acid savannas have a strong dry season of
4 to 6 months duration and predominantly acid soils of the orders Oxisols
and Ultisols. The steeplands can be defined as steep, densely populated
areas of the tropics and subtropics where soil erosion is a major
These marginal areas are in great need of research to develop improved
farming systems which can increase food production on a sustained basis
and in a way compatible with existing socioeconomic conditions. Since
soil constraints are the major physical limitation, the development of
appropriate soil management technology is an essential requirement for
improved farming systems.
Soil management can be defined as the manipulation of soils and inputs
to increase agricultural production. It is the field of soil science that
puts together the knowledge of soil characterization, physics, chemistry,
microbiology and fertility into an agronomic and economic context.
Significant soil management research has and is being conducted on
marginal lands of the tropics. The level of effort, however, is woefully
small in relation to the urgency and magnitude of the task.
The CRSP Approach
The Collaborative Research Support Program provides a unique mechanism
to mobilize U.S. resourcesto intensify the development and transfer of
soil management technology in the LDC's. Many of the problem oriented
research programs conducted by national institutions and international
centers in the developing countries are organized along commodity lines.
These broad multi-disciplinary teams focus on one or two products, or on
the major crops for a particular political subdivision of a country. The
same situation occurs in those international centers, with a worldwide
crop mandate. In many countries however, the national programs are
limited to plant improvement efforts with little involvement in soils
The multidisciplinary approach is certainly the correct one, as
practical solutions depend on the team work of plant breeders, plant
protectionists, soil scientists, engineers, economists, etc. Almost
without exception, the number of soil scientists working on one discipline
in such programs is frighteningly small compared to the magnitude of the
task. For example, there is only one senior soil scientist working on the
Cassava Program of CIAT, with a worldwide mandate.
The two major kinds of soil-oriented services in developing countries
are the national soil survey and conservation service, and the national
soil fertility evaluation service. The latter is responsible for
formulating fertilizer recommendations to farmers. These soil services
seldom receive as much support from their governments as the national
commodity programs because their contributions are less obvious.
Fortunately, increasing awareness of ecological dangers, including soil
erosion, is placing the soil survey and conservation services more in the
limelight. The need for increasing fertilizer efficiency is of similar
importance, and requires strong and dynamic soil fertility-evaluation
services. In most developing countries these services are in great need
Within this framework the potential contributions of the CRSP approach
can be focused. The expertise in soil management of a group of U.S.
universities can be used to strengthen soil management research in
commodity-oriented programs and to bring closer together the national soil
services with the national commodity programs. The organization of U.S.
universities along disciplinary lines can provide the needed depth of
expertise to support the diluted efforts of national institutions and
international centers. Likewise, the multidisciplinary nature of these
LDC programs provide the necessary breadth for the U. S. university soils
research input to be effectively utilized.
This symbiotic relationship could fully exploit the comparative
advantage of U. S. universities working in developing countries and
minimize the operational difficulties found in such programs. When U.S.
efforts are part of a larger national priority program, the U. S. univer-
sities can concentrate on what they can do best, research and research
training. The developing country institutions, while responsible for
broader development issues, can take advantage of the strengthening
efforts in soil management. Both parties build on existing knowledge
and ongoing programs. Such a framework justifies the words "collaborative"
and "support" of the CRSP.
In the past, soil-related programs were too often implemented as two
to three-year projects in the developing countries. Many of the soil
management problems actually do not show up until several years of con-
tinuous production have taken place. Also the results of certain manage-
ment practices cannot be fully evaluated in one or two years because there
are important residual effects involved. The CRSP concept provides a real
opportunity for the U. S. soils expertise to come to grips with soil
management problems in the tropics on a continuing basis, just as it has
been successfully done in the U. S.
This model could be used by other technical cooperation programs of
developed countries. In fact, European, Canadian and Australian members
of the steering committee for the formation of the International Board
on Soil Resources Management (IBSRAM) expressed the desire to initiate
collaboration with this CRSP. Such collaboration, either in the proposed
sites or as an expansion in other sites is welcome by the planners of
the Soil Management CRSP.
Progress to Date
A planning grant was awarded to North Carolina State University (NCSU)
to develop the Soil Management CRSP. It consists of three phases: The
assessment phase would canvass the needs of the LDC's. establish research
priorities and indicate potential collaborative sites. The program
development phase would identify where work would be done, the cooperating
national institutions, the level of effort, staffing pattern and budget.
The program organization phase would select participating U. S. institu-
tions and develop the CRSP management structure. Each phase requires the
formal approval of JRC and AID.
The planning grant was awarded May 8, 1979. Pedro Sanchez and John
Nicholaides were appointed grant coordinators by NCSU, John Malcolm and
Fred Hutchinson as grant monitors from AID and JRC. The assessment phase
began. A seven-member External Advisory Panel composed of outstanding
scientists and administrators with ample experience in developing
countries was recruited to assist NCSU in various phases of the grant,
including travel to various countries and participating in the decision-
Inquiries were sent to all USAID Missions informing them of the Soil
Management CRSP and requesting expressions of interest from national
institutions and USAID Missions. Forty-one missions responded, 23 of
them expressing strong interest from the national research institutions
A seven-member team participated in the Soil Constraints Conference
held in Los Banos, Philippines, June 4-8, 1979 in which 70 soil
scientists from 31 countries discussed ways to alleviate soil constraints.
The conclusions were most helpful in defining research priorities for the
Visits were made to eight international centers and to 10 country
national institutions to further assess research priorities. Additional
assessment of research priorities was done via personal communications
or correspondence with scientists and administrators from developing
and developed countries including members of the U. S. research community.
A total of 197 individuals from 46 countries representing 118 different
institutions contributed their assessment of research priorities.
The first meeting of the External Panel, NCSU and AID staff was held
in Raleigh, September 3-6, 1979 to arrive at recommendations on research
priorities based on the materials assembled and on intensive discussions.
The Panel recommended that a) the CRSP be structured along agroecological
zones, b) twelve criteria be used for establishing priorities, c) the
following priority research areas and potential primary sites: 1. Humid
Tropics (Peru and Indonesia); 2. Seasonal Non-Acid Tropics* (Upper Volta
and Tanzania); 3. Seasonal Acid Tropics* (Colombia and Brazil),
4. Steeplands (no sites identified), and 5. Wetlands (Bangladesh) and
d) a list of principal research components for each priority and for all
agroecological zones as well. A detailed report of this meeting is
available (NCSU, 1979). The Panel traveled to Washington and presented
the results to AID officials on September 7.
The Joint Research Committee of BIFAD, at its September 12 meeting,
unanimously approved the Panel meeting recommendations and thus set the
research priorities. The JRC also agreed that a) funding be allocated
in accordance with the established priorities, i.e., Priority 1 is to be
funded at a functional level before Priority 2 is funded, etc., b) the
potential interest of Title XII eligible institutions be canvassed. The
Technical Program Committee for Agriculture (TPCA) approved the Panel
recommendations on October 16. The assessment phase terminated.
A call for preproposal was developed according to guidelines
received from AID and JRC monitors and was sent to all Title XII
eligible institutions on October 17, 1979. It requested institutional
expressions of interest specifying a) the executing agency within the
institution and potential principal investigator, b) portion of the CRSP
of interest, including which potential primary research sites, c)
justification for such interest, d) potential participants, and e)
complementarity with domestic activities. Only those institutions
sending a preproposal by December 17, 1979 would be eligible for further
involvement in the CRSP. Twenty-three institutions sent preproposals by
the deadline and thus become eligible to participate.
Arrangements for visits to potential primary sites were developed
through correspondence. The purpose of such visits was to assess the
interest of collaborating institutions, identify research sites and
available resources, and to discuss with national institutions or
international centers the nature of cooperative programs. After consul-
tation with AID and JRC it was decided to develop letters of intent with
each relevant institution if discussions were of sufficient mutual
interest. Such documents would describe the framework for cooperative
This terminology although accurate, was found confusing in the following
months. It was decided to call the Seasonal Non Acid Tropics simply
Semiarid Tropics and the Seasonal Acid Tropics, Acid Savannas. The
technical definition of these ecological zones has been made in page 3.
work and the contribution of the national institution or international
Given time limitations it was decided, after consulting with AID,
that only the most promising primary research sites would be visited.
These are Peru and Indonesia for the humid tropics, Upper Volta, Niger
and Tanzania for the semiarid tropics, Colombia and Brazil for the acid
savannas. The following potential primary sites were then identified
for the steeplands in consultation with AID: Sri Lanka, Dominican
Republic-Haiti and Peru. Also, on AID's recommendations plans to
develop priority 5 (wetlands) were postponed.
Visits were made to Peru, Indonesia, Upper Volta, Niger, Tanzania,
Colombia, Brazil, Sri Lanka, and the Dominican Republic from January
to May 1980. Letters of intent were signed with national institutions
and international centers of these countries except for Sri Lanka, where
sufficient mutual interest was not found. Detailed trip reports and
copies of the letters of intention are available upon request.
The interest expressed by the developing countries exceeded the
expectations of the CRSP planners. It was immediately evident that not
all the work implied in the letters of intention could be accomplished
within the means of this CRSP. NCSU assembled the available information,
including a draft of this proposal. This information was presented and
distributed to the representatives of 22 interested universities that
participated at a joint meeting with the External Advisory Panel on May
28 and 29, 1980. The Panel took note of all the questions raised by
university representatives. They have been addressed inasmuch as
possible in the body of this proposal. The Panel then met with AID
and NCSU staff on May 29-31 and developed this proposal.
GENERAL PROGRAM DESCRIPTION
To increase food production, conserve the natural soil resource
base and increase the efficiency of fossil energy use through improved
soil management practices in developing countries.
To develop and adapt in cooperation with national institutions and
international centers, improved soil management technology for productive,
sustained farming systems in marginal lands of the tropics on an
agronomic, economic and ecologically-sound basis. To foster the transfer
of such technology through a network of institutions with similar
The Soil Management CRSP consists of four integrated research
projects in the major agroecological zones plus a management entity. The
suggested program is summarized in Table 1. Each project is described in
detail in following sections of this proposal but all meet the following
a) They match the CRSP research priorities and integrate the main
researcheable soil constraints in each agroecological zones.
b) They form part of a larger program of the collaborating national
institutions or international centers, which consider the pro-
posed CRSP activities of high priority.
c) There is a sufficient critical mass of personnel to properly
conduct the research at each primary site when the proposed CRSP
resource are joined with existing resources. The levels of CRSP
effort in terms of personnel take into account the existing
d) They will be planned, executed and evaluated jointly with the
collaborating institutions, according to the mechanisms pro-
posed in each letter of intention.
e) They include, as an integral package, experiments to develop
improved soil management technology, trials to validate this
technology outside the research station and training by on-hands
f) They complement and strengthen existing efforts rather than
duplicate or rediscover them. This applies both to national
institutions, international centers and AID-sponsored projects
g) They have the support of the local USAID Missions, and in some
countries the CRSP strengthens ongoing or projected rural
development projects sponsored by USAID, other international
organizations and the national governments.
Soil Management CRSP activities will be carried out at three kinds of
locations: the seven primary research sites, at the participating univer-
sity campuses and at the network sites, as follows:
a) Primary sites. These are established research stations in the
case of Yurimaguas, Upper Volta, (Kamboinse and Saria), the Cerrado
Research Center (CPAC) at Planaltina, Brazil, the Carimagua station in
Colombia. In Niger, the primary site is the ICRISAT's proposed Sahelian
Center to be established near Niamey and INRAN's soils laboratory at the
outskirts of the city. In the case of Indonesia field research will be
conducted primarily in farmer's fields in the transmigration areas of
Sitiung and Rimbo Bujan, with possibly headquarters at the Bukittinggi
soils laboratory of the Soils Research Institute. In the Steeplands
project, work will be conducted at two watershed areas along the Cordillera
Central and Plan Sierra region of the Dominican Republic with possible
headquarters at the CENDA laboratories located at the Instituto Superior de
Agriculture in Santiago. As previously mentioned, all work, including
planning, execution and evaluation, will be conducted jointly with the
collaborating institutions. CRSP personnel will live close to these work
b) Campus-based activities. Laboratory, greenhouse, literature,
and computer-type research will be conducted at the university campus in
support of the primary site work. Included in these activities are those
necessary to fulfill the degree requirements of graduate students partic-
ipating in the CRSP.
c) Network sites.. Collaborative relationships are expected to be
developed with several institutions working at other sites on similar
problems on the same agroecological zones. No permanent senior CRSP staff
is envisioned to be stationed at those locations, although graduate
students at the junior scientist level may be, where appropriate. The
purpose of these activities would be to test the validity of the results
obtained at the primary sites to other locations and to identify the
necessary adjustments. Another very important purpose is to gain
insights from ongoing work at other locations and improve communications
between researchers from one country to another. The networks could be of
a formal or an informal nature. Training of scientists of the network
sites is also suggested, either graduate training or short-term
a) Senior scientists: are those assigned to the CRSP with a Ph.D.
degree or equivalent experience. They will be faculty members at one of
the participating universities and be based at one of the primary sites
or at the university campuses.
Campus-based senior scientists,assigned on a part-time or full-time
basis to this CRSP will initiate supportive field research projects at the
research site which will be carried by their graduate students or as
cooperative projects with scientists from the collaborating institutions.
They would also provide assistance on specialized problems through short-
term assignments, or conduct laboratory, greenhouse or computer-related
research on campus. Since only a limited number of CRSP scientists can
be stationed overseas, these campus-based faculty will provide the
necessary breadth and depth that would be absent at the research sites.
b) Junior scientists: are those with a B.S. or M.S. degree level
working at one of the primary or network sites or at the university
campus. Included in this category are graduate students candidates for
M.S. or Ph.D. degrees at one of the participating universities. They are
expected to conduct a major portion of their thesis research at the
primary sites normally with a period of residency of 1 to 2 years. They
will complete the degree requirements at the respective university campus.
c) Collaborating institution scientists: both senior and junior,
will participate in the CRSP on an equal basis as CRSP-funded personnel
and will receive the necessary assistance from campuses-based faculty
d) Principal investigator: one campus-based faculty with the
greatest time commitment to the Soil Management CRSP would be designated
as Principal Investigator by each participating university, and will
coordinate all technical activities of that university.
e) Team leader: one senior scientist will act as team leader of
each primary site (with Upper Volta and Niger considered as one site) in
addition to the person's research responsibilities. This scientist would
belong to the university assigned as lead university for this site. No
major administrative duties are envisaged for this position. If such
responsibilities develop, a junior scientist position could be used to
give the team leader the necessary administrative support.
HUMID TROPICS PROJECT
The top priority of the CRSP is the development of improved soil
management practices for continuous agricultural production and an
economically and ecologically sound basis for the humid tropics. These
fragile but potentially very productive ecosystems are presently under
shifting cultivation and are experiencing large settlement attempts. This
is where much of the 200 million hectares of new lands will be opened.
Given the importance of both the Amazon and Southeast Asia in terms
of population pressures, two primary research sites are proposed, one in
Peru and one in Indonesia. Successful research is already in progress in
Yurimaguas, Peru on soil management for continuous annual crop production
in Peru. This work needs continuation and strengthening on site, and
validation and adaptation to other sites in the humid tropics with different
socio-economic conditions such as Indonesia. In Indonesia large numbers
of people are being transmigrated from Java to Sumatra and other outer
islands. The CRSP will join efforts presently undertaken by INIA in Peru
and the SRI, IPB and CRIA in Indonesia as outlined in the Letters of
Research Topics: The main research topics are outlined below, based on the
first panel report. More details are available in the Letters of Intent
with Peru and Indonesia and the trip reports to these locations.
1) Fertility management for continuous production with emphasis on the
management of soil acidity, phosphorus, micronutrients, nitrogen
(organic and inorganic) and cation balance, including long-term
2) Select plants and rhizobia tolerant to soil constraints, mainly
acidity and low P.
3) Improved land clearing methods.
4) Develop stable, low input systems to change from shifting to
continuous agriculture, including intercropping or sequential
plantings of annual crops, grass-legume pastures and/or trees.
Emphasis on nutrient recycling.
5) Erosion control, prevention and reclamation of eroded or compacted
6) Soil fertility evaluation, including characterizing soil nutrient
deficiencies and critical plant nutrient levels.
7) Improving the land resource data base, including soil characterization
and classification, evaluation, use and improvement of Soil Taxonomy.
8) Technical soil classification systems for practical management
9) Training soil scientists on the job, including graduate training.
10) Continued field research to determine long-term effects of manage-
ment practices. Improved delivery systems, including data banks
and a documentation center.
Country Profile: Peru
1) Research Site Location: Yurimaguas, 50 45'S, 76005'W; altitude 182 m.
2) Soils: Acid, infertile soils which are representative of approxi-
mately 70% of the soils the humid tropics of South America. Research
site soils classed as Typic Paleudults, fine loamy, siliceous, iso-
3) Climate: 2134 mm mean annual rainfall; 100 mm/month in June, July,
August; the rest 200 mm/month; mean daily temp 25oC.
4) Socio-Economic: Subsistence farmers, many of whom are new settlers.
Average farm size 5 ha; cropped area approximately 1 ha. Shifting
cultivation with slash and burn. Major crops = rice, cassava, plantains,
peanuts, corn, soybeans, cattle. Average annual family cash income =
US $75. Average annual per capital agricultural production growth rate
for Peru is -3.8%.
Suggested Senior Staff Positions for Peru
1.1 Soil/Crop Management Specialist: To develop stable, low input
systems to change from shifting to continuous agriculture, including
intercropping or sequential plantings of annual crops, grass-legume
pastures and/or trees.
1.2 Soil Fertility Specialist: To research fertility management for
continuous production with emphasis on monitoring soil dynamics with
time, soil acidity, P, micronutrients, N (organic and inorganic) and
cation balance, including long-term residual effects; to select
plants and rhizobia tolerant to soil constraints.
1.3 Farming Systems Agroeconomist: To validate or adapt experimental
results from Yurimagaus for different farming systems in the area
through farm studies and farm trials; to provide a feedback mechanism
to the Yurimaguas station and to serve as a catalyst for network
sites in the Amazon and Africa.
These positions need to be supplemented by junior scientists positions on-
site and on campus, and senior scientists positions on campus in order to
accomplish the projected work.
Role of Collaborating Institution: The Instituto Naccional de Investi-
gaciones Agrarias (INIA) will provide senior and junior scientists to
collaborate with those of the CRSP. Additionally, INIA will provide fields,
laboratories, and offices with clerical, technical and non-professional
staff such as field laborers at the Yurimagaus station.
Research Site Location: Transmigration areas of West Sumatra and Jambi
Provinces; headquarters in Bukittinggi.
Soils: Acid, infertile soils which are representative of much of the
transmigration areas of Sumatra. Soils at possible research sites in
West Sumatra Province are classed as Aquic Paleudults, clayey, mixed, iso-
hyperthermic; Oxic Dystropepts, clayey, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic; Oxic
Paleudults, clayey, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic; Tropeptic Haplorthoxs,
clayey, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic. In the Jambi Province, research site
soils are Oxic Humitropepts, clayey, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic.
Climate: 2000 mm mean annual rainfall; mean daily temp26 0C.
Socio-Economic: Subsistence settlers, each family on 1-2 ha farms,
mechanically cleared. Rice yields average 1.1 t/ha, corn 2.5, peanuts 0.7
and soybeans 0.8 t/ha, cassava yields are also low; all yields decrease
with time. Frustration among settlers so great that nearly half return to
city after 2 yrs. Average annual per capital agricultural production
growth rate for Indonesia is -0.1%.
Suggested Senior Staffing and Activities
1.4 Soil Management Specialist: To investigate alternate land clearing
systems, to monitor physical and chemical properties with cropping.
1.5 Farming Systems Agronomist: To develop low input systems of annual
crops and pastures; emphasis on management of nutrient cycling and physical
1.6 Soil Fertility Evaluation Specialist: To identify the means to over-
come the various nutritional deficiencies of primary crops of the research
sites; to advise and train collaborators in establishing a soil fertility
evaluation and improvement program via integrated laboratory, greenhouse
and field activities.
These positions must be supplemented by junior scientists positions on site
and on campus, and senior scientists positions on campus to accomplish the
Role of Collaborating Institution: The Soils Research Institute (SRI),
Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), and the Central Research Institute of
Agriculture (CRIA) will provide several senior and junior scientists to
collaborate with those of the CRSP. In addition, the SRI/IPB/CRIA
collaborators will provide fields, laboratories and offices with clerical,
technical and non-professional staff such as field laborers.
Network: Envisioned to include similar agro-ecological sites in the
Amazon, such as Manaus, Brazil, in Africa, such as south of Yaounde in
Cameroon and Njala, Sierra Leone, and in other areas of Indonesia, such as
Kalimantan. Work in Indonesia will build on experience of work in Amazon
SEMIARID TROPICS PROJECT (PRIORITY II)
This portion of the CRSP will strengthen ongoing and projected work
in the Southern Sahel zone (Niger) and the Sudan Savanna zone (Upper Volta).
The main linkage will be through ICRISAT's West African Program which
operatesin both countries, and with the two national institutions, INRAN
and the Service du Sol of Upper Volta. The logistical arrangements permit
CRSP staff to operate in both countries with ease under ICRISAT's umbrella
as per the letter of intent with ICRISAT. Due to this logistical arrange-
ment, both countries will be regarded as a single primary site.
Research Topics: The main research topics are outlined below, based on
the first Panel report. All numbers 6-10 outlined in the Humid Tropics
Project are also pertinent to the Semiarid Tropics and should be given
consideration for action in this zone. More details are available in the
Letter of Intent with ICRISAT and the West Africa trip report.
1) Practices to prevent or reduce detrimental effects of surface capping
2) Erosion control, prevention and reclamation.
3) Develop low input systems that maximize the use of available soil water
and maintain a continuous plant cover, including intercropping and
4) Select plants and rhizobia tolerant to drought, low P and salinity.
5) Management of soils with low activity clays to prevent secondary
acidity and cation imbalances, including phosphorus and micronutrient
6) Nitrogen fertilizer research with emphasis on minimizing risk.
7) Alternatives to shifting cultivation, including use of improved land
clearing methods, grass; legume pastures.
8) Supplemental irrigation, where appropriate.
Country Profile: Upper Volta and Niger
Research Site Location: Kambojnse and Saria Station s '
Soils: Upper Volta: representative of much of the northern Sudan savanna:
toposequence: Plinthustalfs; Oxic Paleustalfs, fine loamy, kaolinitic,
isohyperthermic; Aeric Paleaqualfs; Aqualfs. Niger: representative of
much of the southern Sahel; toposequence: Ultic and Psammentic Paleustalfs;
Plinthustalfs; Psamments; Ultic, Psammentic; Aridic and Plinthic
Haplustalfs and Paleustalfs.
Climate: Upper Volta (Saria Station): 600 mm ppt. annually, 8 month
dry season. Niger (Niamey): 480 mm ppt. annually, only during June to
Socio-Economic: Appalling poverty; per capital GNP in Upper Volta and
Niger is $130 and $160, respectively. Native pastures for free roaming
goats and cattle, sorghum, millet, cowpeas and peanuts are major
subsistence crops. Average annual per capital agricultural production
growth rate is -0.8% and -1.8% for Upper Volta and Niger, respectively.
Literacy is 11 and 6%, respectively, for Upper Volta and Niger.
Suggested Senior Staff Positions
2.1 Soil Physicist: To develop effective soil-water management systems
to minimize erosion and reduce problems of surface sealing and
2.2 Ground Cover Agronomist: To develop and establish a continuous
ground cover during the eight-month dry season; to include legume
and rhizobia adaptation studies if needed.
2.3 Soil Fertility Specialist: To research behavior of nutrient
dynamics in relation to water stress periods and wet season on
toposequences. Develop soil fertility evaluation methodology.
These positions must be supplemented by junior scientists positions on
site and on campus and senior scientist position on campus in order to
accomplish the projected work.
Role of Collaborating Institutions: ICRISAT's West Africa Program, the
national institutions: INRAN and Service du Sol de l'Haute Volta have
on site about 4 senior scientists and a number of junior scientists that
will collaborate with those of the CRSP. Logistical support will be
provided primarily by ICRISAT. Additionally, field, laboratory and
office facilities with appropriate staff will be furnished by the
collaborating national institutions and ICRISAT.
Network: Following firm establishment of the project in Upper Volta/Niger,
envisioned is establishment of another primary, or secondary, research
site on similar agro-ecological conditions in Tanzania through the
University of Dar-es-Salaam at Morogoro and the Tanzanian Ministry of
SAVANNAS PROJECT (PRIORITY III)
This portion of the CRSP will provide limited collaborative research
to complement the excellent current crop management research on acid
savanna soils by Brazil's Empresa Brasilerira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria
(EMBRAPA)/Centro de Perquisa, Agropecuaria dos Cerrados (CPAC) and ICA
and CIAT in Columbia. Projected CRSP contributions are mainly at the
graduate student level in order to gain deeper insights of current work
rather than establishing new research thrusts in less important areas.
Research Topics: The main research topics are outlined below and are
based on the first Panel report. All zonal topics numbers 6-10 in the
Humid Tropics are also pertinent to the Savannas. More details are
available in the Letters of Intent with EMBRAPA, ICA and CIAT.
1) Select plants and rhizobia tolerant to acidity, low P and drought.
2) Phosphorus fertilizer management in high fixing soils.
3) Control of soil acidity, including Al chemistry, Al and Mn toxicity,
liming, base recycling and secondary acidity.
4) Soil-crop management systems to most economically utilize limited soil
water, particularly during temporary droughts.
5) Low input cropping systems, including crops, pastures and trees, either
intercropped or in sequence.
6) Erosion control, prevention and reclamation via improved soil manage-
7) Secondary and micronutrient research, particularly S, Mg and Zn.
8) Supplemental irrigation or in intensive agriculture.
Country Profile: Brazil and Columbia
Research Site Locations: EMBRAPA's CPAC, near Brasilia, Brazil and
ICA's Carimagua, Columbia Research Station.
Soils: Representative of the vast expanses of Oxisol and Ultisol savannas
through South America and such savannas in Africa and Southeast Asia. At
Carimagua the main soils are Tropeptic Haplustox; at CPAC the two main sub-
groups are Typic Haplustox and Typic Acrustox.
Climate: Strong ustic soil moisture regime. A 4-month dry season at
Carimagua and a 5-month dry season at CPAC. Annual rainfall is zero and
1500 mm, respectively. The soil temperature regime is isohyperthermic
at Carimagua and isothermic at Brasilia.
Socio-Economic: Although these two countries are better off than the
previous ones, their savanna anas are some of the lat developed.
Population pressure is increasing rapidly along paved roads, as the
agricultural frontier moves further in. Main crops: rice, beef cattle,
soybeans, cassava, corn.
Suggested Senior Staff Positions
3.1 Soil Fertility-Water Management Specialist (Brazil). To research
specific soil fertility problems related to alleviation of water
deficits on acid, infertile Oxisols by increasing depth of root
proliferation via improved soil management practices; to advise
collaborators researching same and related problems.
3.2. Annual Crops Agronomist (Colombia): To develop with minimum
inputs annual crop production systems adapted to acid,
infertile Oxisols, to advise collaborators researching same
and related problems.
These positions need to be supplemented by junior scientists
positions on site and on campus and senior scientific positions on
campus in order to accomplish the projected work.
Role of Collaborating Institutions:
National and international collaborating institutions will supply
at least 12 senior and 10 junior scientists to work with CRSP personnel.
Field, laboratory and office facilities with appropriate staff will be
furnished by the collaborating national and international institutions.
Anticipated is extrapolation of research results to similar agro-
ecological sites such as San Ignacio, Bolivia, Khon Kaen, Thailand.
CPAC has a network of 14 sites in the states of Minas Gerais, Mato
Grosso and Goias. CIAT has a pasture regional network throughout the
Oxisols-Ultisol regions of Latin America which could interact with the
CRSP. ICA has the Villavicencio Station in the Llanos and trials in
many farmer fields.
STEEPLANDS PROJECT (PRIORITY IV)
Important areas of steeplands are located throughout the developing
world. The primary and overriding requirement for the steeplands is
improved management of sloping land to conserve the soil resource base
and to protect the adjacent lower lands. There is a need for even
broader multidisciplinary farming systems research efforts in the steep-
lands than normally envisioned in soil management research. Initial
primary site development of the Steeplands Project will be in the Dominican
Republic with possible collaboration with Haiti and eventually primary
research sites in other steepland areas such as Nepal or Peru.
The main research topics are listed below as per the first Panel
report. Research topics listed as numbers 6-10 in the Humid Tropics
Project are also pertinent to the Steeplands. More details can be found
in the Letters of Intent signed with the Dominican Republic and Peru and
the trip reports to those locations.
1. Erosion control is the overriding problem.
2. Develop low input soil covering systems, including continuous
cropping, intercropping crops with pastures and trees, promoting
nutrient recycling, conserving lands with permanent forests.
3. Optimize utilization of limited soil water.
4. Fertility management with emphasis on acidity, nitrogen and
5. Select plants that develop a quick soil cover, and rhizobia
both tolerant to acidity, low P and drought.
6. Irrigation, small systems with minimum investment.
Country Profile : Dominican Republic
Research Site Location: Two locations in the Cordillera Central:
one between Ocoa and Constanza, the other near San Jose de las
Soil: Dystropepts and Eutropepts.
Climate: Ocoa-Constanza: average daily temperature = 180C, 1,034 mm
average annual ppt.
San Jose de las Matas: Average daily temperature = 24C, 1,253 mm
average annual ppt.
Socio-Economic: Small farmers crop the hillsides on 5 ha or less farms
with beans, pigeon peas, cassava, peanuts, corn, and have chickens
and small livestock. Soil conservation measures are not practiced
as many prefer to plant with slope of land. Family cash income of
these small steepland farmers is estimated to be $250. Average
annual per capital agricultural production growth rate for the
Dominican Republic is -0.2%.
Suggested Senior Staff Positions:
4.1 Soil/Water Conservation Specialist: To develop and adapt soil/
water conservation practices suitable for the varied soil and
rainfall conditions of the northern and southern slopes of the
Cordillera Central which are compatible with the farming
requirements and economic potential of the people who earn
living in the steeplands.
4.2 Farmin9 Systems Agronomist. To develop and adapt, in collaboration
with the soil water conservation specialist and the farming
systems socioeconomist, crop/forest/livestock systems complementary
to the soil/water conservation practices and consistent with the
needs, desires and socioeconomic conditions of the farmers in the
4.3 Farming Systems Socio-economist. To conduct, in collaboration
with the other two CRSP scientists and scientists in
collaborating institutions, studies and trials in the work
area to provide agro-economic information for orienting and
evaluating the overall, integrated effort in developing and
adapting technology for stable steeplands farming systems.
These senior staff positions must be complemented by junior
scientists positions on site and on campus and senior staff positions
on campus to accomplish successfully the projected work.
Role of Collaborating Institutions:
Senior and junior scientists of the Secretariat of Agriculture (SEA)
through CENDA (Northern Regions Agricultural Research), ISA (Instituto
Superior de Agriculture), and CESDA (Southern Region Agricultural Research)
will link with those of the CRSP, IICA, Plan Sierra, FERQUIDO (private
fertilizer company) and USAID in providing logistical and on-site support
for the necessary laboratory, field and office operations.
As soon as feasible establishment of another primary or secondary
research sites in Haiti should be done. Other potential primary research
sites should be established in steepland sites such as Nepal or Peru.
The External Advisory Panel and the Planning Entity recommend the
following organizational and management structure for the Soil Manage-
ment CRSP in order to increase the chances of success of the individual
projects and the overall program. It is understood that details of this
structure will require modification and refinement after the collaborating
institutions and the Management Entity are selected, but it is recom-
mended that the general principles inherentin this statement be adopted
by AID and JRC/BIFAD and commended to the constituent entities of the
Soil Management CRSP. The principal components are the Board of Directors,
the Management Entity and the review process.
Board of Directors
The Board of Directors will be constituted by one representative of
each participating university that has lead responsibility in an agro-
ecological zone and one representative of the collaborating institutions)
of each primary site. Each institution will appoint a member with suf-
ficient authority to make institutional commitments to the CRSP. Board
memberships will rotate every three years. The maximum size of the Board
is suggested to be no larger than five members from the participating
U. S. institutions and five members from the collaborating institutions
overseas. The Board will elect its chairman at the first meeting.
The suggested responsibilities of the Board are:
1) Formulate the general program policy of the Soil Management CRSP
and instruct the Management Entity as to its execution.
2) Review the general expenditure and staffing patterns of the CRSP
and approve the annual budget plan for allocation of funds to
projects and overseas sites.
3) Approve the addition or deletion of component projects and pro-
gram elements and changes in program objectives.
4) Review the progress and accomplishments of the CRSP on yearly
5) Concur in the selection of the CRSP Director.
The participating universities will recommend one of them to become
the Management Entity of this CRSP. The Planning Agency will then
recommend this selection to AID and JRC for approval. The Management
Entity shall perform the following functions:
1) Negotiate and execute a grant with AID to provide funds for the
2) Negotiate and execute subgrants with the U. S. universities
selected to participate in the CRSP.
3) Negotiate and/or assist the designated lead institutions at
each primary site in making the appropriate agreements with the
collaborating overseas institutions for the functioning of the
4) Perform the technical and administrative coordination of the
5) Assume fiscal accountability to AID for all grant funds.
6) Employ a qualified Director for the CRSP, and other such sup-
porting staff as needed and authorized in the Management
Entity budget of the grant. The Board shall concur in the
selection of the Director. The suggested staff includes a
communication specialist/editor, a budget officer, an
administrative assistant and clerical staff.
7) Recommend and negotiate the addition or deletion of component
projects and program elements or major modifications thereof,
with the approval of the Board.
8) Report at appropriate intervals to USAID, JRC/BIFAD and the
Board of Directors on the progress and accomplishments of the
CRSP. The Management Entity will assemble an annual report
from contributions of the participating institutions.
9) Provide mechanisms for ad hoc evaluations of Soil Management
CRSP on an as needed basis.
10) Provide the travel and subsistence support for the Board of
Directors. The proposed budget is based on a Board size of
The Panel and Planning Agency suggest that maximum operational
flexibility be given to the lead universities by the Management Entity.
The initial role of the Management Entity will be to assist the univer-
sities in initiating the field programs. Afterwards it should play a
largely coordinating role. This is expected to be accomplished by
frequent communications with the principal investigators at each
university and the team leaders at the primary sites. No formal technical
committee is proposed. The role such committees play in other CRSP's is
expected to be accomplished without a formal organization.
An annual internal review of the Soil Management CRSP will be held.
This review will summarize what has been done and the plans for the
forthcoming year. It should be held at different sites each year in order
to acquaint members with the field activities. AID and JRC representatives
should participate in such reviews.
The Panel strongly recommends that no External Review Committee be
established at this time, in order not to dilute the limited resources.
External Review Panels would be appointed to conduct reviews at times
mutually agreed upon by the Board of Directors, AID and JRC.
The suggested chart is
strong linkages are implied
and other international and
described below. Although not specified,
with USAID Missions, international centers
Humid Tropics Semiarid Tropics
The suggested staffing pattern for the first five years of this
CRSP is shown in Table 2. It assumes that only 44 percent of the
positions will be filled during the first year and 90 percent during
the second. The most critical positions would be filled first, but
this would largely depend on the results of the universities recruiting
The proposed budget is shown in Table 3. It is based on the assump-
tion of a total annual operational cost per senior staff of $125,000 and
$50,000 per junior staff in 1981, and a 10% annual adjustment for the
subsequent years. The costs of the Management Entity are charged
entirely to the AID side.
The total cost includes a 25% matching contribution by the participating
universities. One possible approach to estimate these contributions is by
sharing the expenses of campus based staff. It is proposed that the
AID contribution support a ratio of 2 senior scientists overseas per
senior scientist on campus. The universities then would contribute the
support of remaining campus based faculty. Table 3 shows an example of
such a calculation which corresponds to the 25% matching contribution. A
similar formula could be developed for the junior scientist positions.
GUIDELINES FOR SUBMISSION OF PROPOSALS
The External Panel devoted considerable thought the criteria to
be used for selecting universities, bearing in mind many of the opinions
expressed by the university representatives at the joint meetings. The
Panel decided to develop the following guidelines for submission of
universities proposals. Although these guidelines represent the views
of the Panel and Planning Agency, it is hoped that they leave sufficient
room for improvement by the universities,within the general framework.
The proposal document would indicate clearly which portion of the
CRSP the university wishes to undertake in accordance to the staffing
pattern described in Table 2. In would include an outline of the job
description of the senior and junior posts in each project. The
suggested staffing pattern outlined in Table 2 is based on the Panel's
assessment of the minimum number of scientists needed to make a
perceptible impact on the problem, concomitant with the likely scale
of funding and the capacity of the collaborating institutions.
The Panel suggests that there be a lead institution for each of
the four projects. Universities are encouraged to submit joint proposals
with other universities that submitted preproposals whenever such
additional expertise would strengthen the technical and institutional
capacity to carry out the project. Provided they are relevant to the
problem area, proposals for cooperation with disciplines outside the
field of soil science are also encouraged.
It should be clearly understood that only one proposal be made by
each university. The proposal, however may include research in more than
one agroecological zone. It should specify whether the university wishes
to play the leadership role for a specific agroecological zone project
and/or whether it wishes to play a supporting role in that zone with
No proposals for the Management Entity role should be sent. The
appointment of the Management Entity will be recommended by the univer-
sities which are selected for participation.
For the panel to evaluate the different proposals, the following
information should be included:
1) The overseas experience of the institutions) in the agro-
ecological zone(s) for which it wishes to be considered. Such informa-
tion could include a brief description of previous work in this or
similar areas, the objectives, duration and accomplishments of such
work in terms of institutional development, and impact.
2) A description of any domestic programs of the university which
would have relevance to those areas in question.
3) The institution's assessment of how its experiences might be
applied to the solution of problems in the selected areas.
4) An outline of a tentative 5-year plan showing how the university
would develop, staff and manage the proposed program, including staff
assignments, liaison with other organizations (including international
organizations) use of support staff and graduate students, development of
linkages with the collaborating institutions and the assessment of
5) A description of the nature of training programs it would wish
to develop, with an. indication of the number of trainees it could handle
(assuming that funds could be available).
6) The staffing proposals, including where possible names, duration,
and qualification of staff for senior overseas assignments, when regular
staff are not available, the method of recruitment should be indicated
and the tenure status likely to be offered such staff.
7) The names, qualifications and experience in overseas work of
the proposed campus staff and the time for which each would be
8) A proposed annual budget
for five years of operation along the
Travel and Transportation
Other Direct Costs
It is fe Planning Age understanding hat CRSP policy.dfes not
permit arguing overhead, but all direct costs can be charIfed.
The universities are expected to clearly show how their matching
contribution would be used. This contribution can be no less than 25
percent of the AID funds requested.
Suggested Partial Outline
The following outline is offered to assist universities in organizing
the requested information regarding the institution's capability to conduct
the program covered in its proposal under this CRSP. It does not include
other information requested in the previous section.
A. Institutional Qualifications
1. Research program underway
a. In soils and/or other pertinent disciplines.
b. In related disciplines.
c. Pertinence of research to developing country problems.
d. Pertinence of research to tropical zones.
e. How does proposed activity under CRSP relate to ongoing
f. How are research results utilized.
2. International Programs and Experience
a. In soils and/or other pertinent disciplines.
b. In related disciplines.
c. University's commitment to international activities.
d. University's organizational structure for international
(1) Do staff conducting international programs have
appointments in appropriate subject matter departments?
(2) What is the tenure policy regarding staff hired
specifically for international service?
e. University support for international programs
f. University's record regarding filling of overseas positions.
(1) With well qualified staff.
(2) With permanent departmental staff.
g. University's specific experience in zones/countries in CRSP.
h. Have any linkages already been established with pertinent
countries/institutions in CRSP and/or what is the intent
regarding forming such linkages.
3. Graduate programs of university
a. Training experience in L.D.C. problems.
b. Experience in training of L.D.C. nationals.
4. Language competence of staff
a. Capability of providing training in languages required in
countries in which you propose research.
b. Plans to provide such language training to staff who will
B. Qualifications of staff who are proposed for CRSP research
1. Research program underway.
2. Outreach experience, training, capability.
3. Overseas experience, especially in zones/countries where
activity is proposed under CRSP.
4. Graduate training experience especially with L.D.C. nationals
and with others with L.D.C. interests.
5. Language capability, especially in languages pertinent to
proposed activity. Plans to correct deficiencies.
Assuming AID and JRC concurrence of this proposal within the month of
June 1980, University proposals should be received at the following address
by registered air mail no later than August 15, 1980:
Dr. John L. Malcolm
Room 420 Rosalyn Plaza
Washington, DC 20523
Dr. Malcolm will assemble the proposals and will send them to the Planning
Agency (NCSU) after this deadline. Copies of the proposals will be
distributed also to the External Panel Members and the representatives
of the collaborating overseas institutes for study. The submission of such
proposals by the university grants AID and the Planning Agency the right
to distritube them as outlined in the previous sentence.
The proposals will be evaluated at the Third Panel Meeting scheduled
for September 13-16, 1980 in Washington, D.C. The External Panel Members
plus one representative of the collaborating institutes with primary site
work will constitute the selecting body. No representatives of North
Carolina State University will participate in the selection process. It
is suggested that a representative for AID and JRC be present during the
After the selection is made, the Planning Agency will notify all
interested parties, and convene a meeting of the selected universities.
It is suggested that the selected universities meet with the External
Panel to conclude the organizational phase of the planning process.
ACRONYMS: ABBREVIATIONS AND DEFINITIONS
AID = Agency for International Development (United States)
BIFAD = Board of International Food and Agricultural Development
CENDA = Centro de Desarrollo Agropecuario Zona Norte (Dominican Republic)
CESDA = Centro de Dessarrollo Agropecuario Zona Sur (Dominican Republic)
CIAT = Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (hdqtd. in Colombia)
CPAC = Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuaria dos Cerrados (Planaltina, Brazil)
CRIA = Central Research Institute of Agriculture (Indonesia)
EMBRAPA = Empresa Brasileria de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (Brazil)
FERQUIDO = Fertilizantes Quimico Dominicanos
IBSRAM = International Board for Soil Resource Management (proposed)
ICA = Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario (Colombia)
ICRISAT International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics
(hdqtd. in India)
IICA = Instituto Interamericano de CienciasAgricolas (Dominican Republic
IIIA = International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (hdqtd. in Nigeria)
INIA = Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agrarias (Peru)
INRAN = Institut Nationaledu Recherches Agricoles du Niger (Niger)
IPB = Bogor Agricultural University (Indonesia)
IRRI = International Rice Research Institute (hdqtd. in Philippines)
ISA = Instituto Superior de Agricultura (Dominican Republic)
JRC = Joint Research Committee of BIFAD
JS = Junior Scientist
ME = Management Entity
PI = Principal Investigator
SAFGRAD = Semi-Arid Food Grains Research and Development Program (Upper
SDS = Service du Sol d'Haute Volta (Upper Volta)
SEA = Secretaria de Agricultura (Dominican Republic)
SRI = Soils Research Institute (Indonesia)
SS = Senior Scientist
SAID AID Missions
Table 1. Soil Management CRSP: Proposed Program
Program Primary Research Collaborating CRSP Senior Staff
Components Site Institutions On site On Campus
1. Humid Tropics Yurimaguas, Peru INIA 3 1 4
W. Sumatra, Indonesia SRI, IPB, CRIA 3 J
2. Semiaird Ouagadougou, Upper ICRISAT-SDS 3 2
Tropics Volta: Niamey, Niger ICRISAT-INRAN J
3. Savannas Planaltina, Brazil EMBRAPA 1 1
Carimagua, Colombia ICA-CIAT 1 1
4. Steeplands Santiago, Dom. Rep. SEA 3 2
5. Management to be determined 0 1
Total 7 countries 11 institutions 14 11
Table 2. Suggested Staffing Pattern for Soil Management CRSP.
Program Loca- Senior Staff Junior Staff & Support.
Component tion 81 82 83 84 85 81 82 83 84 85
-------------- Scientist Years-----------
1. HUMID TROPICS:
1.1 Soil/Crop Mgmt. PE 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3
1.2 Soil Fertility PE 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
1.3 Farming Systems Econ. PE 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1.4 Soil Management IN 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1.5 Soil Fertility IN 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1.6 Farming System Agron. IN 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1
1.7 Campus Support 2 3 4 4 4 1 2 3 3 3
Total 5 9 10 10 10
2. SEMIARID TROPICS:
2.1 Soil Physics UNV 1 1 1 1
2.2 Soil Fertility UVN 1 1 1 1
2.3 Ground Cover Agron. UVN 1 1 1 1
2.4 Campus Support 1 2 2 2 2
2 5 5 5 5
6 11 12 12 12
3 8 9 9 9
3.1 Soil Fert-Water Mgmt. BR 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 3
3.2 Annual Crops Agron. CO 0 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 3
3.3 Campus Support 1 2 2 2 1 3 3 3 3
1 3 4 4 4
2 7 9 9 9
4.1 Soil Water Conserv. DR 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
4.2 Farming Systems Agron.DR 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
4.3 Farming Systems Econ. DR 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
4.4 Campus Support 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 3 3
5. MANAGEMENT ENTITY:
2 5 5 5 5
- 1 1 1 1 1
3 8 8 9 9
12 23 25 25 25
18 38 42 43 43
*PE = Peru; IN = Indonesia; UNV = Upper Volta/Niger; BR = Brazil;
CO = Colombia, DR = Dominican Republic.
Table 3. Suggested budget for Soil Management CRSP.
Program Component 81 82 83 84 85 Total
------------------ Million U.S.$ ------
Humid tropics 0.92 1.84 2.23 2.46 2.71 10.16
Semiarid tropics 0.46 1.03 1.30 1.43 1.57 5.79
Savannas 0.22 0.80 1.15 1.26 1.39 4.82
Steeplands 0.46 1.13 1.24 1.42 1.56 5.81
Management 0.37 0.40 0.44 0.48 0.52 2.21
Total 2.43 5.20 6.36 7.05 7.75 28.79
Request to AID 2.01 4.24 5.18 5.74 6.30 23.47
Univ. Contributions 0.42 0.96 1.18 1.31 1.45 5.32