Front Cover
 Title Page
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 Symposium host
 AFSRE objectives
 AFSRE board members
 Program summary
 Panel abstracts
 Poster abstracts
 Name index
 Floor maps
 Back Cover

Group Title: Role of Farmers in FSR-E and Sustainable Agriculture
Title: The Role of Farmers in FSR-E and Sustainable Agriculture
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00095618/00001
 Material Information
Title: The Role of Farmers in FSR-E and Sustainable Agriculture 10th annual Symposium, October 14-17, 1990
Alternate Title: 10th Annual Symposium, October 14-17, 1990
Physical Description: iv, 128 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Association for Farming Systems Research/Extension
Conference: Farming Systems Symposium, 1990
Donor: unknown ( endowment )
Publisher: Michigan State University
Place of Publication: East Lansing, Mich.
Publication Date: 1990
Copyright Date: 1990
Subject: Agricultural systems -- Congresses   ( lcsh )
Agricultural extension work -- Congresses   ( lcsh )
Sustainable agriculture -- Congresses   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
conference publication   ( marcgt )
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: Includes index.
General Note: Includes program information, abstracts of oral presentations and abstracts of poster presentations.
Statement of Responsibility: Association for Farming Systems Research/Extension.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00095618
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 451130493

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
        Front Matter 3
        Front Matter 4
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
        Page i
        Page i-a
    Symposium host
        Page ii
        Page ii-a
    AFSRE objectives
        Page iii
        Page iii-a
    AFSRE board members
        Page iv
        Page iv-a
    Program summary
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
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        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 17a
    Panel abstracts
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        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
    Poster abstracts
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
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        Page 124
    Name index
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
    Floor maps
        Page 129
        Page 130
    Back Cover
        Page 131
        Page 132
Full Text

Y, 1:



10th Annual Symposium

October 14-17, 1990
Michigan State University
East Lansing, Michigan

Program Booklet Updates


Louise Sperling
Kathryn Mintz
Tjeppy Soedjana

Revised Titles:

"Farmers' Technology Criteria and Institutional Assumptions:
Exploring Mis-Anticipation for Points of Leverage"
Niels Roling

"Self-Supplied Farm Communities: Their Role in LWS/RDRS Extension Strategy"
Torben Petersen


Warren Schauer will join William Hamilton with the presentation of
"Extension Management Assistance Teams: A Farm Survival Plan for Michigan Farmers"
on the Special Panel: Supporting the Farmer as Manager


12. Investigation on the Tolerance of Transplanted Anam Rice Varieties Towards Flooding

N. A. Khondaker*, M. Mohabbat Ullah and M. Z. Abedin

Rice production in Bangladesh is made highly complex by the wide range and local complexity of agro-
ecological environments. Flood increases the complexity of rice culture. Rice varieties with more tolerance
adverse environmental stresses will give sustainable and increased yield. Devastating floods of 1987
surpassed all the previous records of flood in Bangladesh. After the flood, a field investigation was conducted
in 200 farmers' plots from three upazillas of Chittagong district in Bangladesh to ascertain the damage of
different t. aman rice varieties in relation to seedling age, transplanting days before flooding and submergence
period to identify the flood tolerant by flash flood, 30% by river water and the rest 50% were damaged by a
combination of flash flood and river water. Fifty percent of the selected plots were of medium high land, 30%
medium low land and remaining 20% were of high land.

The results suggested that the modern variety BR 11 and local variety Gobinadabhog are more tolerant to
flood water. Irrespective of variety, older seedlings and newly transplanted and maximum tillage stage
showed more tolerance compared to less aged seedlings and newly established plants, respectively, the
degree of crop damage for the modem varieties (BR 11 and Pajam) of t. aman tended to be more with the
increase of depth of flood water. Irrespective of variety of t. aman the extent of crop damage was found to
be increasing with increases in submergence period. The findings of the study lead to recommend that the
modern variety BR 11 and the local variety Gobinadabhog of t. aman tended to be more tolerant to flood water
compared to any other variety. More information on the relative tolerance characters of extension messages
to tackle adverse situation of flood which will enhance total productivity for sustainable agriculture by
diminishing crop damage caused by flood.


82. Gender Analysis In Rice Farming Systems Research

Thelma Paris*

Women in Asia play a major role in agriculture particularly in rice farming. Women's participation in rice farming
systems vary across and within countries due to differences in production, social and cultural environments.
Studies show that except for Bangladesh where women are involved in the homestead activities, Asian
women work as farmers and farm laborers in various activities like seed production and management,
transplanting, weeding and disposal of crops and livestock including the provision of fuel and fodder needs.
Despite the evidences that women are participants in a wide range of production and decision-making tasks
in farming systems, women have not been integrated in research and development process. The International
Rice Research Institute (IRRI) initiated Women in Rice Farming Systems (WIRFS) program under the
umbrella of the Asian Rice Farming Systems Network (ARFSN) to catalyze, facilitate, and coordinate action-
oriented research on the role and needs of women in rice-based farming systems research sites across rice
ecosystems in the Philippines, Thailand, Indonesia, Nepal, and Bangladesh were documented. In unfavorable
ecosystems, issues regarding conflict between environment and women's roles and needs were raised.
Based on women's needs, technology options to raise agricultural productivity and diversify women's income
opportunities were tested, evaluated and transferred. The WIRFS experience in incorporating gender
analysis in farming systems research has opened doors to relevant researchable problems and livelihood
opportunities for rural women; facilitated coordination between various disciplines (agricultural scientist,
engineers, social scientists) in addressing women's concerns and promoted awareness for the need to
integrate rural women into mainstream of research and development programs in national agricultural
research systems.


104. Glutinous Rice and Processing Equipment

Thelma Paris*

Rural women in Asia play significant roles not only in food production but more importantly in processing.
However, very few studies have taken into account the economic contributions that women provide in adding
value to raw products particularly rice. In a rainfed village in Pangasinan, Philippines, women process
glutinous rice into a delicacy which has a special demand during a national holiday. Although this activity is
an important source of income of resource-poor and landless households, processing is arduous and
inefficient. Thus, a rice dehuller was introduced, tested and modified by IRRI engineers based on the needs
and evaluation of men and women, in particular. The initial tests in September to November 1989 showed
promising results and a cooperative scheme was developed in purchasing and generating income to recover
initial investment of the machine. The machine was evaluated in terms of technical and economic efficiency.
With regards to social acceptability, men and women were asked to evaluate the machine in relation to the
newly introduced glutinous rice varieties. Questions were also asked with regards to the changes in women's
time after the introduction of the machinery. Initial results showed that the introduction of the rice dehuller led
to a reduction of women's time in hand-pounding and winnowing but enabled them to devote more time in
marketing rice delicacies as the volume increased.


170. Mutual Help Systems among Small Agricultural Producers in the Colonla Cad-GuazO

DIonislo Baranger

This paper deals with the characteristics of the means of labor/labor exchange networks among small
farmers in a region of Northeast Argentina lacking a peasant tradition. Its main purpose is to describe the
factors which determinate the development of this kind of networks as well as their relationships with
social differentiation processes. A variety of techniques for network analysis are applied to a sample of
55 domestic units.

Some preliminary conclusions are that: (1) mutual help systems play an outstanding role in insuring the
viability of the farms; (2) however, the degree in which the domestic units implicated themselves in those
networks is highly variable, leading to suspect the existence of alternative strategies of reproduction; and
(3) knowledge about the characteristics and operation of these exchange systems constitutes a critical
input for the design of development programs and for "Farmer First' research.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgem ents.............................................................................................................. i

Sym posium Host ................................................................................................................. ii

AFSRE Objectives .............................................................................................................. iii

AFSRE Board Members ..................................................................................................... iv

Program Summary

Sunday, October 14 ................................................................................................ 1

Monday, October 15 ................................................................................................ 2

Tuesday, October 16 ............................................................................................... 6

W wednesday, October 17 ......................................................................................... 12

Thursday, October 18 ............................................................................................. 17

Panel Abstracts

Monday, October 15 ................................................................................................ 19

Tuesday, October 16 ............................................................................................... 39

W wednesday, October 17 .......................................................................................... 73

Poster Abstracts ............................................................................................................... 97

Name Index ........................................................................................................................... 125

Floor Maps ............................................................................................................................. 129

Presenters of papers are indicated by an asterisk (*) on the abstract.

Copies of papers can be purchased from the AFSRE Copy Center. Please use the order form in your
registration packet.

We are interested in your suggestions to improve all aspects of the annual symposium. Please complete
and return a 1990 Symposium Evaluation Form (in registration packet) before you leave. Thank you.

Michigan State University and the Association for Farming
Systems Research-Extension would like to thank the following
organizations for their support of the 10th Annual Symposium:

The Ford Foundation
Inter-American Foundation
W. K. Kellogg Foundation
MSU Foundation
The Rockefeller Foundation

The Institute of International Agriculture, Michigan State University is
proud to sponsor the 10th Annual Symposium for the Association for
Farming Systems Research-Extension.

Donald R. Islelb
Associate Dean and Director
Institute of International Agriculture

Program Co-Chairs:

R. James Bingen
Michigan State University

Dale D. Harpstead
Michigan State University

Harold J. McArthur
University of Hawaii

Program Staff:

Betty J. Caldwell
Ardell M. Ward

Jennifer L. Kucharski
Mary A. Schulz
Cynthia E. Wolf

Association for Farming Systems Research-Extension

The Association for Farming Systems Research-Extension, AFSRE, is an interna-
tional society organized to promote the development and dissemination of methods
and results of participatory on-farm systems research and extension. Such re-
search, through the participation of both women and men farmers, encourages the
development and adoption of improved and appropriate technologies and manage-
ment strategies to meet the socioeconomic and nutritional needs of farm families,
fosters the efficient and sustainable use of natural resources and contributes to
meeting global requirements for food and fiber.

AFSRE activities include: the annual farming systems symposium, publication and
distribution of a farming systems journal and newsletter and fostering professional
dialogue and scientific exchange between farming systems-related networks and
programs throughout the world.

Founded in 1989, the charter membership of the association Is comprised of
agricultural researchers, extension agents, development practitioners, project ad-
ministrators, government planners and donor agency representatives from more
than fifty countries.

, r

Peter Hildebrand
University of Florida

President Elect
Harold McArthur
University of Hawaii

Timothy Finan
University of Arizona

Virgilio Carnagal

Hilary Feldstein
Gender & Agriculture Project of the
Population Council

Noel Young
Kansas State University

Fund Raising
Robert Hudgens
Winrock International

Newsletter Editor
Tim Frankenberger
University of Arizona


Jacques Faye
West Africa-Farming Systems
Research Network

Nimal Ranaweer
Sri Lanka
Division of Agricultural Economics
Department of Agriculture

Don Voth
University of Arkansas

David Gibbon
Department of Tropical Sciences
Wageningen Agricultural University

German Escobar
International Development
Research Center

Nancy Axinn
Ford Foundation

Program Sunday 1


Sunday, October 14

10:00 a.m. & 2:00 p.m.
For Panel Moderators
Holiday Inn Capitol Room

11:00 a.m. & 3:00 p.m.
For Improving Paper Presentation
Holiday Inn Great Lakes Room

2:00 p.m. 6:00 p.m.
Holiday Inn Terrace

4:00 p.m. 6:00 p.m.
Welcome Reception
Holiday Inn Ballroom

2 Program Monday

Monday, October 15

7:30 a.m. 8:30 a.m.
Holiday Inn Main Lobby

7:30 a.m. 8:30 a.m.
Continental Breakfast
Holiday Inn Terrace

8:30 a.m. 9:45 a.m.
Welcome to MSU
AFSRE Plenary Meeting
Holiday Inn Ballroom

9:45 a.m. 10:00 a.m.
Holiday Inn Terrace

10:00 a.m. 12:00 noon
Introduction by James H. Anderson, Dean and Vice Provost
College of Agriculture and Natural Resources

Keynote Speaker: Richard Harwood
Charles Stewart Mott Distinguished Professor of Sustainable Agriculture
"The Farming Systems Decoupling/Integration Cycle as a Determinant of Research Approach"

Discussant: Eduardo Zaffaroni
Federal University of Paraiba
Holiday Inn Ballroom

12:00 noon 1:00 p.m.

1:00 p.m. 3:00 p.m.
Five Concurrent Panels
Animal Systems I
Moderator: Tjaart Schillhom van Veen
Holiday Inn Capitol Room

Arsenio D. Calub Cowpea and Cassava in Pig Rations: Feed Production and Feeding Trial
University of Philippines

Romulo E. Furoc Intercropping Forage-Green Manures With Grain Legumes as Sources of
IRRI Food, Animal Feed and Organic N in Rice-Based Farming Systems

Ruijun Long A Bio-Economic Model of Farming Systems on the Southern Edge of
Gansu Agricultural University Maowusu Desert in North West China

Dulal Chandra Paul Women Participation in Poultry Husbandry
Bangladesh Agricultural Research

K.N. Vishwanatha Sastry Prospective Livestock Avocations for Risk Prone Rainfed Areas
University of Agricultural Sciences

Program Monday 3

Farmer Organizations In Agricultural Research
Moderator: Peter Rood
Holiday Inn Salon A

Julio A. Berdegue
Universidad Academia de Humanismo

Fields A. Caveness
University of Missouri

Hamadi S. Doucourd
IER (Mali)

Marie-Rose Mercoiret

Klaus Talvela

Grassroots Farmer Organizations in NGOs Rural Development Projects:
The Case of Chile

Agroforestry Adoption: The Role of Farmer Associations in Senegal

La Structure de Trois Types D'Associations Traditionnelles de Travail,
Leur Mode D'lntervention, et Leur Incidence sur le Revenu de Trois
Types de Paysans dans un Village de I'Axe Bougouni Sikasso, Mali
(The Structure, Activities and Economic Contribution of Three Types of
Village Work Associations in Mali)

Le Role des Organisations Paysannes dans la Mise au Point et la
Diffusion des Innovations
(Peasant Organizations and the Diffusion of Agricultural Innovations:
The Case of the CADEF in Senegal)

Farming Systems Research and Extension Approach to Working with
Cooperatives in Nicaragua

Issues In Cropping Systems Research
Moderator: Dean Haynes
Holiday Inn Salon B

Mohamed Kabay
University of Wisconsin

Nur A. Khondaker
Bangladesh Agricultural
Research Institute

Francois Meppe
IRA/NCRE (Cameroon)

Mohammad Nayyar
Ayub Agricultural Research Institute

Effect of Producer Price Changes on Crop Enterprise Selection of the
Inland Wolof and Extensive Upper River Farming Systems in Eastern

Investigation on the Tolerance of Transplanted Aman Rice Varieties
Toward Flooding

The Effect of Cropping Pattern, Fertilizer Rate and Time on Maize Grain
Yield, Rice Paddy and Total Revenue in Menchum Valley

Applying Farming Systems Research Methodology in Developing
Economically Viable Cropping Systems

4 Program Monday

Methodological Approaches to FSR&E
Moderator: Mary Andrews
Holiday Inn Salon C

Diane de Treville Transformations in Sahelian Farming Systems: How do We Define The
Winrock International 'System' and Count 'The Farmer'? Experiences from an Agroforestry

Kathryn L. Mintz Farm Management Information Systems: A Role for Literacy Training in
Michigan State University FSR-E Programs

Richard-G. Pasquis D. La Administraci6n Agropecuaria es Asunto de Productores
DSA/CIRAD (Agricultural Administration as a Function of the Producers)

Consuelo Quiroz Interpretive Research as a Tool to Understanding Farmers Indigenous
University of the Andes Knowledge Systems (IKS) in FSR/E

Steven Romanoff Promoting Local Organizations with Farmer Extensionists
The Rockefeller Foundation

Theoretical Considerations In FSR
Moderator: Stephen Biggs
Holiday Inn Salon D

Thomas L. Dobbs Sustainable Agriculture Policy Analyses Based Upon On-farm Case
South Dakota State University Studies in South Dakota

Anil K. Gupta Portfolio Approach to FSR and Extension: A Theoretical Perspective
Indian Institute of Management

Joshua L. Posner Sustainable Agriculture and FSR in West Africa: Keeping the Elephant
University of Wisconsin Out of the Rowboat

Niels Roling Utilizing Indigenous Knowledge in the Context of an Institutional
Wageningen Agricultural University Knowledge System

Frederick D. Worman Organizational Considerations in Implementing FPR in a Harsh
Kansas State University Environment: Some Experiences in Botswana

3:00 p.m.- 3:30 p.m.
Holiday Inn Terrace

Program Monday 5

3:30 p.m. 5:30 p.m.

Poster Session and Exhibits
Holiday Inn Reatta Room

Special Panel: The Political and Institutional Context of FSR
Moderator: Larry Busch
Holiday Inn Salons C & D

Dirk Bergen
ISABU (Burundi)

Stephen Biggs
University of East Anglia

Anil K. Gupta
Indian Institute of Management

Anthony Ikpi
University of Ibadan

L6onard Sekayangd
ISAR (Rwanda)

Farming Systems Research: Not so Spectacular to Farmers as it is to

Farming Systems Research for the Rural Poor: The Historical, Political
and Institutional Context

Dynamics of Internationally Aided FSR Programs: Institutional
Experience in India and Bangladesh

Spreading Improved Cassava Technologies in Africa Using the UNICEF/
IITA Integrated Food Surveillance and IMO State ADP Corner-Plot

Optimisation de la Productivitd de la Pomme de Terre au Rwanda:
Verification et Problemes de Transfert de Technologies en Milieu R6el
(The Optimization of Potato Productivity in Rwanda: Verfication and
Problems of Technology Transfer)

7:30 p.m. 9:00 p.m.

Open Roundtable: The Future of FSR
Moderator: Cornelia Butler Flora
Holiday Inn Salons C & D

Discussants: Michael Collinson, CGIAR; Susan V. Poats, CIAT (Ecuador); Jacques Faye, WAFSRN;
Peter E. Hildebrand, University of Florida; Robert Tripp, CIMMYT; and others

6 Program Tuesday

Tuesday, October 16

7:30 a.m. 8:00 a.m.
Continental Breakfast
Holiday Inn Terrace

8:00 a.m. 10:00 a.m.
Five Concurrent Panels

Farmer-Based Methods
Moderator: Larry Smith
Holiday Inn Salon A

Jit Pradhan Bhuktan

Daniel Lee Gait
NCARTT (Jordan)

Joaquin Francisco Larios

Clive Lightfoot

Farmer Participation I
Moderator: Russ Freed
Holiday Inn Salon B

Jacqueline Ashby

Bernard L. Delaine
SFSR Project (Burundi)

Ibrahima Diallo
Virginia State University

Ann Waters-Bayer
ILEIA (The Netherlands)

Agricultural Experimentation in the Small Farmer Household Farming

The Role of Farmers in the Jordanian Combined Sondeo Process

Interactions in Maize and Sorghum Cattle Farming Systems in Central
America and Sustainability

Farmer-Based Methods: Farmers' Diagrams for Improving Methods of
Experimental Design in Integrated Farming Systems

Farmer Participation in the Evaluation of Technologies

Farmer Integration in the Research Process: A New Experience in

Gambian Farmers in Partnership with Research and Development
Agencies for Testing and Adopting Agricultural Innovations

Supporting Farmers' Research and Extension: The Role of the Outsiders

Program Tuesday 7

New Approaches In Extension
Moderator: Marion Ray McKinnie
Holiday Inn Salon C

James Beebe
Oregon State University

Jonathon Landeck
Michigan State University

B. Rajasekaran
Iowa State University

N. Sriskandarajah
University of Western Sydney

The Concept of the Average Farmer and Putting the Farmer First:
The Implications of Variability for a Farming Systems Approach to
Research and Extension

New Age Extension in Farming Systems Research: End of the Technical
Message Era

Evaluating the Role of Farmers in Training and Visit Extension System in

Systemic Action Research: Towards a New Methodology in Extension

Risk Assessment
Moderator: Eric W. Crawford
Holiday Inn Capitol Room

Mohamed A. Ahmed
Purdue University

Jit Pradhan Bhuktan

Werner Doppler
University of Hohenheim

Robin Marsh
Stanford University

J. Ndjeunga
IRA/NCRE (Cameroon)

Economic Evaluations of New Sorghum Production Technologies and
Policy Implications for Northern Gedaref Region of Eastern Sudan

Risk Adjustment Strategies in the Resource Organization of the Small
Farmer Household Farming System

Risk Analysis in Farm and Household Systems Research and Extension

The Importance of Risk in Technology and Diffusion: Small-scale
Producers in Mexico

Risk Assessment Methods for Technology Screening

8 Program Tuesday

Sustainable Agriculture I
Moderator: Craig Harris
Holiday Inn Salon D

Ji Qing Chen Farming System Research in the Yellow River Valley, China
Henan University

Thomas Edens Research Methods in Sustainable Agriculture: System Design as a Management
Michigan State University Variable

Charles A. Francis Cropping Systems Program Design in Liberia: Constraints, Assumptions and
University of Nebraska Research Priorities

John M. Obst Village Farmers and Farming systems on the Loess Plateau of China
Gansu Grasslands
Ecological Research Institute

William R. Schmehl Characteristics of a Conceptual Model Used to Attach Problems of Sustainable
Colorado State University Agriculture

10:00 a.m. 10:30 a.m.
Holiday Inn Terrace

10:30 a.m. 5:30 p.m.
Poster Session and Exhibits
Holiday Inn Reatta Room

10:30 a.m. 12:00 noon

Special Panel: Supporting the Farmer as Manager
Moderator: Mary Andrews
MSU Union Parlors A & B

Duane E. Erickson
University of Illinois

William Hamilton
Michigan State University

Whole Farm Planning and Record Keeping in the Caribbean

Extension Management Assistance Teams: A Farm Survival Plan for Michigan

Carlisle A. Pemberton Creating an Environment of Improved Farm and Home Management:
University of West Indies An Example of Extension From the Caribbean

Torbin Petersen
Rangpur Dinajpur
Rural Service

Self-Supplied Farming Communities

12:15 p.m. 1:45 p.m.
AFSRE Luncheon

Keynote Speaker: Klaus Talvela (FINNIDA)
Agricultural Extension Project
Ministry of Agriculture, Nicaragua
"Agricultural Transition in Nicaragua"
Holiday Inn Ballroom

Program Tuesday

2:00 p.m. 4:00 p.m.
Five Concurrent Panels

Animal Systems II
Moderator: Bob Deans
Holiday Inn Great Lakes Room

Akin A. Adesina

Vishnubhotla L. Prasad
Makoholi Experiment Station

S. P. Singal
Haryana Agricultural University

Tjeppy D. Soedjanna
Small Ruminants CRSP (Indonesia)

On the Profitability of Animal Traction for Peasant Farmers in West
Africa: Evidence from Mali

Farmers Innovations for Sustainable Agriculture: The Use of Cow and
Donkey as Traction Animals in Communal Sector of Zimbabwe, A Case

Sustainable Buffalo Production in Haryana, India

Rate of Technology Adoption for Smallholder Sheep and Goat Farmers:
The Utility of Learning Curves to Explain Technology of Adoption Rates

Farmer Evaluation Approaches
Moderator: Susan Smalley
Holiday Inn Capitol Room

S. P. Chand
Pakhribas Agricultural Center

Charles A. Francis
University of Nebraska

Marc Samatana
IRA/NCRE (Cameroon)

Lionabo Simba
SENARA V (Zaire)

Louise Sperling

Informal Research With Farmers: The Practice and Prospects in the Hills
of Nepal

Farmer Participation in Research and Extension: Nitrogen Response by
Cereals in Crop Rotations

Seeking for a Cost Effective Way of Getting Feedback from Farmers:
Minikits Experience in Cameroon

Evaluation of Cassava Varieties for Sustainable Agriculture in the
Kasangulu Zone of Bas-Zaire

The Integration of Farmer-Based and Researcher-Based Methods for
Selection of Beans in Rwanda

10 Program Tuesday

Farmer Participation II
Moderator: George Bird
MSU Union Parlor A

Martin T. Fobasso
IRA/NCRE (Cameroon)

Geoffrey M. Heinrich
ATIP (Botswana)

Joshua L. Posner
University of Wisconsin

Cheng Xu
Beijing Agricultural University

Gender Issues in FSR/E
Moderator: Rita Gallin
MSU Union Parlor C

Shanti Chakravorty
Ramakrishna Mission Lokasiksha

M. A. Jabbar

Manjari Mehta

Sunder Ramaswamy
Purdue University

Dibya Timsina
IAAS (Nepal)

Pradeep M. Tulachan
Kuk Agricultural Research Station

Sustainable Agriculture II
Moderator: Thomas Edens
MSU Union Parlor B

Sekou Doumbia
IDESSA DCV (Cote divoire)

Vern Pierce
Iowa State University

Roy Voss
University of Florida

Mark Zweifler
Michigan State University

The Role of Farmers in the Evaluation of an Improved Variety: The Case
of S35 Sorghum in Northern Cameroon

Integrating FPR With Conventional On-farm Research Programs

Farmer Participation in On-farm Trials: The Case of Lowland Rice in
Southern Senegal

Biological Recycle Farming in the People's Republic of China: The
Doudian Village Experiment
KLL" 4 ,"05si 4.t ,ft A?.,,. .xq pyct=
.0,9. O86-A '&&CLdU Qd.:a tt

Labor Allocation Pattern in Farm Families in Respect of Resource Poor
Farmers in Coastal West Bengal

Methodology for Incorporating Gender Concerns Into On-farm Research:
A Nigerian Experience

India Transformation of Himalayan Subsistence Agriculture and
Women's Work: A Village Study from Tehri Garhwal, Uttar
Pradesh, India

Role of Women, Intra-Household Behavior and Introduction of New
Agricultural Technologies in Burkina Faso

Rural Women in Irrigated and Rainfed Rice Farming in the Philippines:
Decision Making Involvement and Accessibility to Productive Resources

Role of Women in the Farming Systems of the Highlands in Papua
New Guinea

Labor and Sustainable Agriculture

Economic Analysis of Commercial Fertilizer Application Compared to
Livestock Manure Utilization: A Sustainable Agriculture Approach

Farmer Participation in Developing Sustainable Agricultural Systems in
the Proposed Macaya Biosphere Reserve in Haiti

Land Use Evolution Along the Dominican Republic's Agricultural Frontier:
A Comparative Analysis of Two Hill Land Regions

Program Tuesday 11

4:00 p.m. 4:30 p.m.
Holiday Inn Terrace

4:30 p.m. 6:30 p.m.

Special Panel: Institutionalization of Gender Issues
Moderator: Janice Jiggins
Holiday Inn Salons A & B

Nancy W. Axinn Involving Women Farmers in FSR/E Separate Projects vs.lntegrating
The Ford Foundation (India) Gender: The South Asia Experience

Charles Kapekele Chileya Female Headed Households: The Forgotten Target Group in Farming
ARPT- Mongu (Zambia) Systems Research Lessons from Kaoma District Western Province,

Anita L. Frio Gender Analysis: The FSR-E Training Experience

Thelma Paris Gender Analysis in Rice Farming Systems Research

Jagadish Timsina Gender Issues in Farming Systems Research and Extension: An Appraisal
IAAS (Nepal) of Current Research Work in Nepal

7:30 p.m. 9:30 p.m.

Open Roundtable: Does It Make a Difference? Gender Analysis and FSRE
Organizers: Hilary Sims Feldstein (Gender & Agriculture Project of the Population Council) and Susan V.
Poats (CIAT, Equador)
Holiday Inn Salons A & B

Open Discussion

12 Program Wednesday

Wednesday, October 17

7:30 a.m. 8:00 a.m.
Continental Breakfast
MSU Union Second Floor Concourse

8:00 a.m. 10:00 a.m.
Six Concurrent Panels

Farmer Participation III
Moderator: Larry Lev
MSU Union Parlor C

Doyle Baker
IRAINCRE (Cameroon)

Pamela C. Edo-Sullano
CVRP (Philippines)

Daniel Lee Gait
NCARTT (Jordan)

John Lesotlho
Ministry of Agriculture (Botswana)

Tung Ly
VISCA (Philippines)

Reorientation, Not Reversal: African Farmer-based Experimentation

Farmers as Researchers: The Devolution of a Process to Institutionalize

The Bottom Up and the Top Down: Development Area Farmers Meet
Regional Directors

A Conceptual Framework for Farmer-Based Research Methods

Linkage Between On-farm Research and On-station Research: An
Institutional Impact of the Farming Systems Development Project-
Eastem Visayas, Philippines

Sustainable Agriculture III
Moderator: Pat Barnes-McConnell
MSU Union Gold Room B

Susan W. Almy Farming Systems Research and the Extension Service: Working Across
IRA/NCRE (Cameroon) Ministries

Ou Li The Study of Rural Extension and Development Models at an Agricultural
Beijing Agricultural University University in China

William R. Schmehl Farming Systems Research Beyond the Diagnostic and Experimental
Colorado State University Stages

Eduardo Zaffaroni Small Farmers Participation in Sustainable Agricultural Systems
Federal University of Paraiba Development in Northeastern Brazil

Program Wednesday 13

Farmers' Roles In Horticultural Research
Moderator: Jack Kelly
MSU Union Parlor A

Melanda M. Hoque
University of Philippines

Nur A. Khondaker
Bangladesh Agricultural Research

N. M. Mollel
Sokoine University of Agriculture

R. N. Mallick
Bangladesh Agricultural
Research Council

Wajed A. Shah
Bangladesh Agricultural
Research Institute

Moderator: Mike Gold
MSU Union Gold Room A

Camilo Camacho
Plan Sierra

Aloysius Igboanugo
Savannah Forestry Research Station

Avtar Kaul
Winrock International

Astad R. Pastakia
St. Xavier's College

B. Rajasekaran
Iowa State University

Integrating Gender Issues in a Farmer-Participated Research cum
Extension: The Case in Vegetable IPM Technology Generation in the

Growing of Chili, Onion, Garlic and Mungbean Mixed Cropping: A
Farmer's Innovated Practice for Sustainable Agriculture in Bangladesh

The Role of Professional Organizations in Farmers' Oriented Research:
The Case of Upper Mgeta Vegetables Producers With Sokoine
University of Agriculture

Generation and Dissemination of Homestead Vegetable Production
Farming Systems Technology in Bangladesh

Participation of Women in the Homestead Vegetables Farming Systems
in Rural Bangladesh

Agri-forestry System (Plantation-Coffee) Model Developed by Plan Sierra
in the Central Mountain Range of the Dominican Republic

Management of Agroforestry Trees for Sustainability: Lessons From the
Indigenous Farmers in the Nigerian Savannas

Farming Systems of Transmigrant Farmers in Highly Fragile Podzols of
Central Sumatra

Interaction Between Technology and Institutional Variables in Evolving
Management Systems for Community Plantations of a Scheduled
Caste in a Backward Area of Gujarat

Planning and Implementation of Agro-forestry Projects-Myths and
Realities: Case Studies from India

14 Program Wednesday

Post-Harvest Processes: Gender Issues, Farmer Participation and Evaluation
Moderator: Hilary Sims Feldstein
MSU Union Parlor B

Patricia Ladipo
University of Ife

Thelma Paris

Susan V. Poats
CIAT (Ecuador)

Felisa Yoc

Looking Beyond the Farm for Gender Issues in FSRE

Glutinous Rice and Processing Equipment

Cassava Processing in Manabi Province, Ecuador: Unintentional
Gender Issues

Evaluation and Transfer of New Food Crops Varieties by Home
Economic Groups in Guatemala

Soil Fertility and Land Management
Moderator: Dan Clay
MSU Union Green Room

Malik M. Ashraf
University of Florida

Manfred Besong
IRA/NCRE (Cameroon)

Duncan Boughton
Michigan State University

Braj K. Singh
University of Florida

Marie Jeanne Uwera
ISAR (Rwanda)

Alley Cropping Technology for Small Farmer-based Sustainable
Agriculture in Humid West Africa

Farmers' Land Preparation Methods and Weeding Practices in South
West Cameroon: Their Effect on Farm Labor Input

A Study of Farmers' Soil Fertility Management Strategies to Inform
Agronomic Research in the Gambia: An Evaluation of the Methods and
Interdisciplinary Approach Employed

Improving Phosphorus Nutrition of Plants in Highly Leached Oxisol of the
Amazon Basin in Brazil

Active Participation of Farmers in the Development of Soil Management
Technologies-Concept and Experiences from Rwanda

10:00 a.m. 10:30 a.m.
MSU Union Second Floor Concourse

Program Wednesday 15

10:30 a.m. 12:00 noon

Special Panel: Designing for Farmer Participation In Technology Transfer
Moderator: Gail McClure
MSU Union Parlor C

Orlando H. Alcerro
Academy for Educational

Gordon Appleby
Academy for Educational

Constance M. Mc Corkle
University of Missouri

Milton Munoz Marin
Academy for Educational

Jose Ignacio Mata
Academy for Educational

Gail D. McClure
Academy for Educational

impact Evaluation of a Technology Transfer Project: Experiences of the
CTTA Project in Honduras

Language and Agricultural Communication in East Java

Farmer FSR&E and Sustainability: Lessons from Niger

Farmer Participation in Rural Radio and Extension: Experiences from

Adjusting and Transferring Agricultural Technologies: Three Examples
from Peru

Agriculture, Marketing and Communication: The Evolution of a New
Technology Transfer

Special Panel: A Strategy for Developing and Implementing Sustainable Agriculture In
Developing Countries
Moderator: Clive A. Edwards
MSU Union Gold Room B

Clive A. Edwards
Ohio State University

Thurman Grove

Robert D. Hart
Rodale Research Center

Bruno Henry De Frahan
IGIA (France)

John Ragland

The Concept of Sustainable Agriculture

Ways in Which USAID Can Develop a Sustainable Agriculture Program

A Macro-systems Approach to the Development of Sustainable
Agricultural Systems

Potential Effects of Institutional and Policy Reform on the Expected Rate
of Return to Farming System Research in the Semi-arid Northeast of

Needs for Development of a Sustainable Agriculture Party

16 Program Wednesday

12:00 noon 1:00 p.m.

1:00 p.m. 3:00 p.m.
Open Sessions and Roundtables
Regional Meetings
Informal Reception for those working in or interested
in Agricultural Extension
Hosted by Michigan Cooperative Extension Staff
11 Agriculture Hall

3:00 p.m. 3:30 p.m.
MSU Union Second Floor Concourse

3:30 p.m. 5:00 p.m.
AFSRE Plenary Meeting
MSU Union Parlors A C

8:00 p.m. Midnight
Social Gathering
Kellogg Center Big 10 Room A

Program Thursday 17

Thursday, October 18

8:00 a.m. 12:00 noon
AFSRE Board Meeting
MSU Union Gold Room B

8:00 a.m. 5:00 p.m.
Africulture Workshop
MSU Union Gold Room A

Traveling Seminars

Apple Harvest in Action

Dairy Extraordinaire

Farm Management Information Systems

Field Crop Harvesting Cooperative and Innovative

Food Distribution From High Tech to High Touch

Kellogg Biological Station

New Direction in Dairy Intensive Grazing, Housing Innovations

Tillers International

Vegetable Marketing in Action


Abstracts Monday 19

Monday, October 15
1:00 p.m. 3:00 p.m.

Moderator: Tjaart Schillhorn van Veen

1. Intercropping Forage-Green Manures With Grain Legumes as Sources of Food, Animal Feed
and Organic N In Rice-Based Farming System

Romulo E. Furoc'

This paper will present and discuss the philosophy and rationale of integrating a crop-animal production
system using forage-green manure and grain legumes. Methods involved intercropping of forage-green
manures like sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea), pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) and lablab (Lablab purpureus cv.
rongai) with mungbean [ Vigna radiata (L.) Wilzeck]. Results showed that all forage green manures depressed
mungbean yield by about 75 percent. Mungbean and intercropped crotalaria, lablab and pigeonpea yielded
32, 2340, 197 and 156 kg N/ha from the residual regrowths after three clippings, respectively. Incorporation
of the biomass gave corresponding rice yields of 2.40,3.47,3.09 and 3.67 t/ha, which were significantly higher
than yields obtained from fallow plots at 1.90 t/ha. Total herbage yield after three clippings from crotalaria,
lablab, pigeonpea plus rice straw can support 4, 2 and 2, 250-kg steers, respectively, in a 365-day fattening
period. In another experiment, Sesbania rostrata was intercropped with cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (Walp)]
at different row proportions. Depending on row ratio, the biomass obtained per hectare from sesbania first
clipping and rice straw can support 1 to 3, 250-kg steers for one-year fattening. Nitrogen accumulation from
sesbania regrowths and cowpea residue ranged from 44 to 231 kg N/ha with rice yields from 2.91 to 3.58 V
ha following biomass incorporation into the soil. Using single degree of freedom to compare treatment mean
main effects, the inorganic N mean yield of 3.29 t/ha was statistically comparable to rice yield from green
manure treatments at 3.28 t/ha. These field trials showed the potential of integrating forage-green manures,
grain legumes and animal production systems to stabilize crop yields and increase farmers' income.
Additional benefits can be derived from using green manures and farmyard manures in improving soil physical
and chemical soil properties for a sustainable rice-based farming system. On-farm survey on farmers'
responses on the use of Sesbania rostrata as biofertilizer and ruminant feed were conducted in support of
these agronomic field trials. Initial farmers' reaction indicated that they recognized some physical changes
in their rice field such as soil friability and darker color which is an apparent indication of soil organic matter
buildup. Sesbania planted in bunds togetherwith weed and grasses comprised the bulk of roughages offered
to draft animal and cattle fatteners when practically no open field pasture is available during the rice growing

2. Cowpea and Cassava In Pig Rations: Feed Production and Feeding Trials

Amelia L. Gerpaclo, Catherine C. de Luna, Leonarda A. Ebron and Arsenio D. Calub*

Purpose. This study was conducted to determine the suitability of incorporating cowpea and cassava in pig
mixed feeds. It was further aimed to demonstrate feedgrain and livestock production integration for improved
profitability in smallhold farms.

Materials and Methods. Twelve farmer cooperaitors were selected in two research sites, namely Cavite
(upland) and Pangasinan (lowland). Three intervention farmers in each site were assisted in producing
cowpea plus cassava in Cavite or sweet potato in Pangasinan. The other three cooperators in each site served
as controls. Based on expected yields of 10 t/ha and 1 t/ha of cassava and sweet potato and cowpea,
respectively, each crop required 0.1 ha area. Cassava was planted in August 1987 and the rest from
November to December. Expected crop yields were estimated to provide 30% cowpea grain and 40% root
crop meal for one growing-fattening pig for5 months. Harvesting was done in the dry season to facilitate sun-
drying of cowpea grain and root crop chips before storage.

20 Abstracts Monday

Starting in June 1988, the 12 cooperator housewives were provided with one weanling pig each, which were
purchased from one farm in each location. The six intervention raisers were provided with ready mixed rations
containing cowpea and root crop meals. The control raisers were to use the usual feed, chiefly kitchen
leftovers, edible farm by-products and small amounts of commercial mixed feed.

Results and Discussion. On-farm production cost of cowpea was US$0.25/kg vs $0.31/kg for SBOM in May
1988. Cassava and sweet potato chips cost $0.10/kg to produce and dry compared to $0.20/kg for ground
yellow corn.

Average daily gain of pigs for 121 days was 0.468 kg for Pangasinan and 0.558 kg for Cavite for the cowpea
+ root crops rations vs 0.313 and 0.300 kg for the Cavite and Pangasinan controls, respectively. Intervention
rations cost $0.25/kg vs $0.29 for commercial feeds. Intervention raisers also sold pigs 30 days earlier.

Conclusions. The results validate the suitability of cowpea grain and root crop meals as pig feed ingredients.
On-farm production could improve profitability of smallhold pig and poultry. Low production cost of cowpea
can further alleviate dependence on imported protein feedstuffs.

3. A Blo-EconomIc Model of Farming Systems on the Southern Edge of the
Maowusu Desert In North West China

RuIjun Long'

This study undertakes to examine the economic potential of farms within Yanchi area (E 370 44'-47', N 1070
22'-27) by developing a linear program model to identify an optimal solution for crop and livestock enterprises.
Input data forthe model was collected from 150 farm households in 6 villages of the southern edge of Maowusu
Desert. The model identified improved farming systems based on increased livestock production and reduced
grain crop area. Net annual income attained was 965 yuan per household member or 3,680 yuan per farm,
and represented a 75.3% increase above a traditional farm income. This was achieved by reducing current
grain crop area by 37%. Forage crop area was 31% of cropland and natural grassland area was increased
to 80.9% of total farm and grassland area. The proportion of female Tan-sheep was increased to 64% by
adjusting the structure of Tan-sheep flock. The rate of markable Tan-sheep was increased to 38%. Increased
livestock manure production negated the need for purchased N fertilizer, but 76 Kg of purchased phosphorus
was required. Family labor supply remained in excess, such that 44% of available time could be employed
in a new enterprise. Additional results are discussed in the text.

4. Women's Participation In Poultry Husbandry

Dulal Chandra Paul', Md. F. Haque and M. S. Aktar

The present study was undertaken to determine the role of women in poultry rearing within the existing
homestead. Poultry rearing, which is predominantly done by women, has a potential for improvement and is
increasing in rural Bangladesh. This monitoring revealed that feeding, housing, marketing and disease control
and prevention measures were almost all undertaken by women. Most of women of landless and marginal
farm categories are found to be actively involved in poultry rearing for their existence and in generating cash
for their family.

5. Prospective Livestock Avocations for Risk Prone Ralnfed Areas

K. N. Vlswanatha Sastry'

The potentials of land based crop activities are restricted by the amount and pattern of rainfall in risk prone
rainfed areas. On farm activities which can support farmers and which will not depend too much on rainfall
have the advantages of providing sustenance to resource deprived farmers. The author has made in-depth
analyses of various enterprises and suggested poultry, swine and rabbit rearing enterprises to such areas.

Abstracts Mon 21

The three enterprises suggested above have minimal dependence upon rainfall, which only decides the
degree of risk in rainfed regions. These enterprises, if taken up in appropriate scales and with suitable graded
technologies, the farmers will be able to invest, manage within the limitations in which they usually operate.

The author has suggested various strategies to be adopted by farmers venturing to take up these enterprises
and achieve success. The author also has suggested some minimum supports which are within the reach
of the existing infrastructures and organizations. The opportunity cost of these facilities have been found to
be very high in these enterprises.

Moderator: Peter Rood

6. Grassroots Farmer Organizations In NGOs Rural Development Projects: The Case of Chile

Julio A. Berdegue'

Non-govemmental organizations (NGOs) have increased tremendously in number, experience and number
of beneficiaries in the last 20 years in Latin America. Chile is no exception, with a total of over 60 NGOs (1989)
doing rural development work and providing many different services to 37% of the peasant families that
receive some sort of development assistance.

A basic characteristic of the work of most of these NGOs is the strong relationship that they build with the local
population. In contrast with the official research or extension services, which work with individual families,
NGOs function in connection with and through peasant Agricultural Committees, which many times the NGO
itself helped to organize.

Projects involving on-farm research, technical assistance, revolving credit funds, marketing programs and
small rural industries are articulated at the Committee, village and microregional levels. In many cases, the
strengthening of the local organizations is seen as the main objective of the program, and the technical
projects are utilized as means or tools towards that goal.

However, some NGOs are lacking in technical expertise and thus their efforts are less effective and are easily
dispersed because of the non-existence of clear-cut objectives, goals and methodologies.

This paper will present detailed descriptive information on Chilean rural NGO and the type of work they do.
Also, the most common characteristics of their methodologies will be discussed, emphasizing the ways in
which the local peasant communities are involved and participate in rural development projects. The specific
cases of some NGOs which have adopted the FSR/E approach will be highlighted. This information will be
discussed in terms of potential areas of collaboration and complimentation between NGOs and the official
research and extension agencies.

7. Agroforestry Adoption: The Role of Farmer Associations In Senegal

Fields A. Caveness' and William B. Kurtz

Senegal is a country which is experiencing environmental stress due to increasing demands for forest and
agricultural products. The eastward expansion of the "peanut basin" into Region de Tambacounda is resulting
in deforestation and soil degradation. Adoption of agroforestry practices holds potential for providing needed
forestry products (fuel, fodder, fruits, construction wood, etc.) while helping to conserve and restore soil

Researchwas conducted during a 10-month period (August 89 May 90) in Arrondissement de Koumpentoum,
Region de Tambacounda, Senegal, to evaluate factors influencing agroforestry adoption. Adopters and non-
adopters of agroforestry were interviewed.

22 Abstracts Monday

Effective agroforestry practices and species used in the system must meet the agronomic, economic and
social needs of the implementation area. Implementation of agroforestry practices requires that farmers be
aware of the need for and potential of adoption. Tree planting and system management techniques must be
taught and reinforced. Local nurseries must be established and nurserymen trained. Reasonable seedling
prices and a credit system for obtaining seedlings should be established. An organizational structure to
provide the needed flow of information, training and resources is needed for agroforestry system implemen-

The formation of the grass-roots farmer association Entente des Groupements Associe in Arrondissement de
Koumpentoum (EGA/K), Departement de Tambacounda, provides an organizational structure for farmers to
benefit from and contribute to the design and implementation of agroforestry. Comprised of 14 Action
Committees (ACs) in different parts of the arrondissement and numerous sub-committees within each AC
zone, the entente structure provides farmers the opportunity to discuss problems and possible solutions
specific to their needs. Through this association of local ACs and sub-committees, information and resources
can be gathered and disseminated. The Entente acts as a conduit for two-way flow of information and
resources among farmers and between farmers, researchers and donor organizations.

8. La Structure de Trols Types d'Associatlons Tradltlonnelles de Travail, Leur Mode
d'lntervention, et Leur Incidence sue le Revenu de Trols Types de Paysans dans un Village de
L'Axe Bougouni-Sikasso, Mall

Hamadi S. Doucour6"

A partir des observations faites depuis 1979 au village de Gladi6 au Mali sud, trois types d'associations
traditionnelles de travail ont dtd identifies par I'6quipe de recherche-systime de I'Axe Bougouni Sikasso,
Division de Recherche sur les Syst6mes de Production Rurale: le n'daman, le santciet le tontci. Tous ces
trois types d'association ont la structure d'une cooperative, don't elles forment chaque individu A I'execution
des travaux coop6ratifs. Le tontcisemble 6tre la forme la plus organis6e et la mieux structuree, procurant A
ses socidtaires des revenues les plus dlev6s et permettant la rdalisation des infrastructures sociales (forage
de deux puits; construction d'une matemit6, d'un magasin de stockage pour le village).

Le mode d'intervention de cestrois types d'association est similaire. Elles constitutent des reservoirs de main
d'oeuvre don't I'intervention rapide pendant les periodes de pointe permet au paysan de mieux maTtriser ses
superficies et de r6soudre le problem de main d'oeuvre. Les associations traditionnelles de travail
interviennent notamment pendant le premier sarclage et la recolte essentiellement sur le coton, le maTs/mil
et le sorgho. Les santciet les tontcifoumissent plus de main d'oeuvre que les n'daman, dO au fait que leur
effectif moyen est plus dlev6.

L'incidence sur le revenue agricole diffbre entire trois types de paysans appelds unites de production (UP):
Paysans bien dquip6s (type A), moyennement 6quip6s (type B), et manuels (type C). Toutes les speculations
oO les associations foumissent de main d'oeuvre suppl6mentaire supportent dconomiquement leur coOt et
d6gagent des marges bendficiaires substantielles. Les UP de type A constituent les plus grands utilisateurs
(67% de toutes les parcelles entretenues) de ces associations, dO au fait qu'il y a une inaddquation entire la
capacity de travail de I'UP et les superficies emblavdes. Elles sont suivies par les UP de type B. Les UP du
type C ne peut faire appel A un santciou un tontci sauf cas exceptionnel, parce que ces associations coOtent
cher. La part du revenue agricole due aux associations traditionnelles productivityd du travail) est de 79% pour
les UP A et 77% pour les UP B.

II y a une concurrence pendant les p6riodes de pointe pour les associations par les diff6rents types d'UP. Les
facteurs terre et capital ne constituent pas une contrainte; il apparaft donc que le facteur travail semable 6tre
A I'origine du processus de diffdrenciation des UP en types A, B, et C en ce sens que les actifs agricoles des
petites UP (type C) travaillent pour les UP plus grandes (types A et B) augmentant leurcapacit6 de production
d'oO ce processus.

Abstracts Monday 23

(English Summary)
The Structure, Activities and Economic Contribution of Three Types of Village Work Associations
In Mall

This paper describes three types of village associations in southern Mali. Their role in agricultural produc-
tion is discussed. The presentation examines how different types of peasant production units benefit
differentially from association membership.

9. Le R61e des Organisations Paysannes dans la MIse au Point et la Diffusion des Innovations:
Le CAS du CADEF (Senegal)

Marie-Rose Mercoiret', Fadel Ndlame, Bara Goudiaby and Jacques Berthome

Depuis prbs de trois ans, une organisation paysanne (le CADEF), deux institutions de recherche (L'ISRA et
le DSA/CIRAD), une ONG (le CIEPAC) et une cole de formation (I'ENEA), sont lies par un contract pour
rdaliser un programme de travail qui pursuit:

des objectifs op6rationnels, notamment (1) I'adoption des syst6mes de production locaux
A I'6volution du context dcologique et (2) une meilleur maTtrise par les producteurs
organisms de leur environnement 6conomique;

des objectifs de recherche: a travers les objectifs opdrationnels et les rdalisations concretes
auxquelles ils donnent lieu, le programme vise la mise au point (1) de solutions extrapolables
a la Basse-Casamance (innovations techniques et organisationnelles pour
I'approvisionnement, le credit, la commercialization) et (2) des methodes d'interventions
reproductibles (en matibre d'appui aux producteurs, de gestion des terroirs, etc.).

Bien qu'il soit pr6matur6 de pr6tendre tirer des enseignements d6finitifs du programme en course, la
communication envisagee se propose:

de presenter I'approache utilisde dans le cadre du programme et les methodes mises en
oeuvre tant en ce qui conceme le diagnostic concerto, la mise au point dialogue
d'innovations techniques et organisationnelles que la diffusion, sur une plus grande
6chelle, de ces innovations;

de faire 6tat des premiers r6sultats obtenus, aux niveaux op:rationnel et m6thodologique;

de soulever quelques questions relatives A I'utilisation de cette approche dans le cas du
CADEF (conditions necessaires a I'instauration d'un dialogue r6el avec des paysans
organisms et difficultds recontrdes) et quelques questions relatives & I'extension de cette
approche A d'autres organizations paysannes (prdalables en terms de connaissance,
conditions de reproductibilitd, etc.).

Quelques supports visuals (diapositives, transparents, etc.) accompagnent la communication.

(English Summary)
Peasant Organizations and the Diffusion of Agricultural Innovations:
The Case of the CADEF In Senegal

This paper examines the operational and research objectives of a three year collaborative program
between a peasant organization (CADEF), two research organizations (ISRA and DSA/CIRAD), a PVO
(CIEPAC) and a training institution (ENEA).

24 Abstracts Monday

The presentation specifically discusses three subjects:

the collaborative diagnostic approach;

the preliminary operational and methodological results; and

an evaluation of the approach used with CADEF and conditions for extending its use to
work with other peasant organizations.

10. A Farming Systems Research and Extension Approach to Working with
Cooperatives In Nicaragua

L. Van Crowder, E. C. French, C. Parera and Klaus Tavela'

The purpose of this paper is to discuss implications of working with cooperative farms using a FSR/E
approach. The information was gathered in Nicaragua from March 10-31 as part of a FSR/E shortcourse
conducted forthe FINNIDA/MIDINRA Agricultural Extension Project. A sondeo was done in the Masaya and
Rivas areas of Region IV with both cooperative and freeholder small farmers. Information was also obtained
from 30 MIDINRA (Ministerio de Desarrollo Agropecuario y Reforma Agraria) technicians who participated in
the shortcourse.

The cornerstone of the Sandinista agrarian reform has been cooperative farms, especially Cooperativas
Agricolas Sandinistas (CAS). These are production cooperatives in which land, labor and capital are
collectivized. Also important are Cooperativas de Credito y Servicio (CCS), which are groups of farmers
organized to facilitate provision of credit and technical assistance, but who farm individually. In Region IV,
cooperatives have been the focus of MIDINRA efforts while freeholder small farmers have been largely

MIDINRA technicians working with coops in Region IV employ primarily a commodity or single crop approach.
Emphasis is on agronomic experimentation with little attention to socio-economic issues. Technician
managed trials on cooperative lands are the main research tool, with farmers providing labor and participating
primarily as observers. Very little diagnosis is done to discover problems faced by cooperatives. Instead,
research topics are determined by technicians and often there is no comparison of farmers' practices with
proposed improvements. Research results are presented to coops by a "carta tecnologica", or technology
"sheet", which is essentially a package of "recommendations" for a particular crop technology.

As a result of the sondeo and development of an on-farm research "action plan", it was evident that FSR/E
methodology is beneficial when working with cooperatives. For example, the sondeo demonstrated the
heterogeneity among and within cooperatives, as well as common problems shared by them. Modeling
cooperatives as systems showed their internal and external complexity and the need to consider both
agronomic and socioeconomic components in technology development. It became evident that within a
cooperative there can be more than one research and/or recommendation domain and that different coops
can share domains. This applies to communal farming as well as individual subsistence plots within CAS
coops that may form homogenous groups for specific Van Crowder recommendations. For service coops
(CCS), FSR/E can be effectively used to group farmers into homogenous domains for targeted technology
development and dissemination efforts.

Abstracts Monday 25

Moderator: Dean Haynes

11. The Effect of Producer Price Changes on Crop Enterprise Selection of the Inland Wolof and
Extensive Upper River Farming Systems In Eastern Gambia

Mohamed B. Kabay' and Lydia Zepeda

With a land area of 4,000 square miles, The Gambia is one of the smallest countries in West Africa. According
to a 1973 census, the country's population was 493,555, of which 90% lived in rural areas. The 1983 census
showed a 41% increase in total population. This imposes considerable pressure on available resources for
agriculture and other sectors of the economy. In addition to the population pressures, the country has a
Sahelian climate with annual rainfall ranging from 800 mm in the north to 1,000 mm in the south. Farms in
this area are diversified and emphasize cereal self-sufficiency. The Gambia Produce Marketing Board
influences crop selection by setting cash crop prices.

The purpose of the study is to determine optimum crop combinations under different producer price scenarios
given resource, technological and socioeconomic constraints. The problem is one of constrained optimization;
selecting among alternative crop combinations to maximize net farm returns subject to farm level constraints.
This is analyzed using linear programming techniques.

This study will identify crop enterprise combinations which maximize net farm returns from various production,
consumption, sales and buying activities. Surplus and binding resources will be identified from amongst the
several land, labor, cash, technological and socioeconomic constraints. Sensitivity analysis and shadow price
(value of resources) determination will be used to measure the stability of pricing policies.

The results of the study will have implications for research recommendations for efficient use of farm resources
and increasing food production. Analysis of pricing policies and their effect on production will provide
information to assist in policy decisions. The model is also expected to identify limitations to economic growth
in the agricultural sector, by determining bottlenecks in resources. These resource limitations may be
addressed by researchers, farmers and policy makers to assist in alleviating constraints to agricultural

12. Growing of Chilli, Onion, Garlic and Mungbean Mixed Cropping:
A Farmer's Innovated Practice for Sustainable Agriculture In Bangladesh

Nur A. Khondaker, S. M. NabIl, M. Z. Abedin and M. Ullah

Growing of four cropped, multiple cropping systems, that is growing of four crops simultaneously, is a
successful new innovation in crop production by the farmers of Bangladesh. Farmers of Raipur Upazilla under
Luxmipur District in Bangladesh faced many problems of crop failure. To combat such crop failure they
innovated this four cropped, mixed cropping system and ensured some yield. If one ortwo crops fail, they may
harvest the remaining crops. If each crop escapes failure, four crops are harvested and farmers become
benefitted. The crop combination of the mixed cropping system appears to be compatible. Because tap rooted
crop (chilli), fibrous rooted crop (onion and garlic) and a pulse crop (mungbean) take nutrients from each soil
layer and increase or maintain soil N.

About 20 farmers following the practice were invited to the DANIDA training center, Noakhali, Bangladesh.
Invited farmers, research scientists and the extension personnel jointly had threadbare discussions to know
and document the technology. Prior discussions between extension personnel and research scientists also
visited the area where the mixed cropping system was developed. Farmers use 750 gm to 1 kg onion seed,
1 kg chilli seed, 50 kg garlic bulbs and 2 kg mungbean seed for 1 acre of land. Twenty-five to 35 day old chilli
seedlings, prepared in separate seed beds, are planted with the spacing 30 x 25 cm between mid-December
to January. Onion seedlings are planted with the spacing 30 x 15 cm and garlic bulbs with 30 x 15 cm in
between chilli rows. Mungbean seeds are broadcast in the irrigation and/or drainage channels.

26 Abstracts Monday

Farmers generally harvest 375 kg dry chilli/acre, 375 kg onion/acre, 490 kg garlic/acre and 40 kg mungbean/
acre. Price of the output is chilli Tk. 7,219, onion Tk. 3,225, garlic Tk. 8453 and mu ngbean Tk. 800 = Tk. 19,697
(1 $=33). Production cost per acre as farmers mentioned under major heads are only Tk. 7070. So the net
profit in the chilli, onion, garlic and mungbean (in 1 acre) is Tk. 19,697 Tk. 7,070 = Tk. 12,627. Net profit in
sole chilli cultivation is only Tk. 3,663/acre.

The mixed cropping system has so many opportunities; maximum utilization of time and space is possible,
diversification of crops and more benefit over the sole chilli cultivation can be attained, more than one crop
can serve as insurance of any crop failure etc. The practice may be of very helpful to meet the pulse and spices
deficiency of Bangladesh if the technology is disseminated throughout the country after proper refinement.

13. The Effect of Cropping Pattern, Fertilizer Rate and Time on Maize Grain Yield, Rice Paddy and
Total Revenue In Menchum Valley

Francois Meppe" and Dermot McHugh

The adoption of improved rice varieties since 1982 has increased the yield potential of farmers in the Menchum
Valley, North Western Cameroon. There are potentially two growing seasons for rice: March-July and August-
December (the main season). However, for the majority of farmers, there is insufficient water for irrigation
during the first rice season. Farmers usually leave their paddies in fallow until late July or August, when land
preparation takes place for rice. Thus, 4.5 months of rainy season are left unexploited, enough time to plant
and harvest a maize crop before planting the rice. The objectives of this study were: (1) to estimate the effect
on rice yields of replacing the grass fallow with a maize crop under various fertilizer regimes, (2) to measure
the productivity of the preceding maize crop, (3) to evaluate the economic benefits of the proposed
modification of the cropping system.

High yielding maize varieties (CMS8507, Ekona White, CMS8501) were planted in March followed in August
by an improved rice variety (ITA 222) on the same four farms for three consecutive years (1987-89). The trial
consisted of five treatments in a dispersed block design, varying from the growing of maize followed by rice
under two rates of fertilizer, split between the two growing seasons, to the normal farmers' practice (grass
fallow followed by rice plus 200 kg/ha of fertilizer).

Over a three year period, there were no significant differences in grain yields between fertilizer treatments for
rice. Furthermore, rice yields were unaffected by substituting a preceding maize crop for the grass fallow.
Adding maize to the cropping pattern boosted the net revenue of the system by an average 526,142 FCFA/
ha, a 53% increase over the traditional single-crop system. Maize averaged 3.8 tons/ha and Rice 5.1 tons/
ha in the maize/rice system compared to a mean of 4.8 tons/ha for rice in the grass/rice system, which means
that there is no apparent constraint to farmers adopting the intensified system. The different fertilizer regimes
had no significant effect on rice yields. Nevertheless, applying 100 kg/ha on both maize and rice gave the
highest net revenue (1,559,460 FCFA/ha) over three years of cropping.

14. Applying Farming Systems Research Methodology In Developing Economically
Viable Cropping Systems

Muhammad Nayyar' and Muhammad Arshad

A farming systems research team of the Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad, has been using
FSR methodology to develop economically viable cropping systems that are well adapted to the socioeco-
nomic and physio-biological conditions of the target groups of farmers.

This paper reports on the development of one such technology, i.e., fitting mungbeans in wheat-rice system,
under irrigated conditions in Pakistan. Wheat-rice systems carry greater significance to the farmers of the
target area, as 80 percent of rice is sown after wheat crop. Conventionally, the land after harvesting wheat
remains idle from the end of April till transplanting of rice in the 2nd week of July.

Abstracts Monday 27

To maintain soil fertility and break the wheat-rice cycle, a leguminous crop, mungbean 20-21 (a 60-65 day
crop) was tested and adapted under farmers' conditions in 1988 and 1989. Being of short duration, mungbean
does not delay rice transplanting.

The yield data indicated that the farmers obtained 3,746 kgs of rice paddy per hectare from the new system
while under the conventional system it was 3,700 kgs/ha.

Not only does this cropping system offer an additional source of income, higher by about 17 percent, it can
also improve soil productivity and supplement green fodder during the scarcity period, through careful

Moderator: Mary Andrews

15. Transformations In Sahellan Farming Systems:
How do we Define 'The System' and Count 'The Farmer'?
Experiences from an Agroforestry Project

Diane de Treville*, B. El Tahir, T. Elamin and M. Mukhtar

Over the past several decades a number of events have forced cultivators in western Sudan to alter at times
radically- both the content of their farming activities as well as their overall strategies for making a living. These
alterations vary according to strata, ethnicity, location, and gender. For example, wealthier farmers are more
frequently renting in and farming plots owned by poorer villagers who do not have the labor to cultivate their
own land, while these poorer villagers increasingly seek off-farm employment or work in small enterprises and
petty trading to make ends meet. As part of this move off the land, for the first time women farmers are joining
the migrant labor force and are also seeking small enterprise and petty trading activities in growing numbers.

In the face of these and other complex and quickly changing conditions, how can a traditionally designed,
environmentally-focused project with a large applied research component develop a farmer-centered
approach that can encompass both the quickly changing conditions as well as the 'non-farm' economic
activities of local farmers'? The challenge is increased by the steadfastness of local inhabitants (and some
writers) to portray lifestyle and farming activities of the area according to idealized models of how things 'used
to' operate.

This paper will discuss techniques that were developed in the project to respond to these issues. Throughout
the first year, relatively more attention was given to defining and detailing 'processes' from a farmer-centered
perspective, and less to paradigm-building of a 'system'. This proved to be one useful strategy for
encompassing both change and complexity in the same analysis. Indeed, the rapid move to off-farm activities,
as well as changes in land use and cropping patterns, brings to question whether any one farming system'
paradigm can be developed that satisfactorily represents these complex and changing phenomena in ways
useful for applied research and related extension and implementation activities in the project, or even whether
the term farmer' is entirely accurate or useful.

Based on work in other areas of Africa, it will be argued that the farmer-centered, process-oriented research,
extension and implementation strategies employed in this project can be useful in other areas where farming
systems are undergoing profound changes in the context of a rapidly diminishing natural resource base.

28 Abstracts Monday

16. Farm Management Information Systems: A Role for Literacy Training In FSR-E Programs

Kathryn L. Mintz*

In many FSR-E programs information is extracted from farmers for analysis by researchers. Innovations to
farming systems are designed by scientists and then given to extension to deliver back to the targeted
population. In a farmer based research model, farmers, farm families and farmer organizations would be more
involved in the collection and analysis of information. To compensate for this additional effort, there must be
a perceived potential return such as the improvement of farm management.

Functional literacy programs could help the farm family fill an expanded role in the research model. The
literacy curriculum can be designed to dovetail with the information needs of the farming systems research.
Village and field histories, demographic surveys, and market studies could all be incorporated into lesson
plans. Literacy programs would have multiple objectives of organizing farmers into focused study groups, of
preparing farmers for the essential task of on-farm record keeping, and of generating community enthusiasm
for FSR-E programs.

It can be argued that data may become more reliable and less expensive to collect as more of it is produced
at the farm level. When information generated by FSR-E becomes valued by agricultural communities as a
resource leading to improved farm management and locally controlled community development, programs of
FSR-E will become more sustainable. Functional literacy training will be presented as an integral component
of a farmer first research model, both as a means for increasing participation in all aspects of FSR-E and as
a method for institutionalizing FSR-E in a community.

17. La Admlnlstracl6n Agropecuarla es Asunto de Productores

Richard-Georges Pasquis D.'

Este texto present como se estableci6 un sistema integral de administration tecnico-ec6nomica a nivel de
explotaciones agropecuarias individuals en el marco de organizaciones de pequenos cafeticultores del
centro del estado de Veracruz (M6xico).

En la primera parte se presentan las condiciones political y econ6micas en las cuales se encuentra el pais
y sus repercusiones a nivel del sector rural. La renegociaci6n de la deuda y las condiciones impuestas por
las organizaciones financieras intema-cionales Ilevan a los clAsicos reajustes estructurales de privatization
y/o reestructuraci6n del sector paraestatal y de liberalizacion del mercado.

En el caso del caf6, las condiciones nacionales, se agreg6 la desaparaci6n de los acuerdos de la organization
intemacional del caf6 (OIC). Ademds el ano 1989 se caracteriz6 por condiciones climAticas adversas de
sequfa y de heladas en diciembre.

En un mercado intemacional libre, con un institute national de comercializaci6n en via de desaparici6n y con
recursos cada vez mas escasos (cr6dito, insumos, asistecia tecnica etc.), los pequenos productores de caf6
no tienen otra soluci6n que de modemizar su aparato productive y organizarse mejor.

En la segunda parte se present como en cooperaci6n estrecha con grupos organizados, se elabor6 una
metodologia de administraci6n adaptada a las condici6nes de los pequenos ejidatarios.

La modemizaci6n de la empresa cafetalera pasa por el aumento de la productividad de los medios de
producci6n. Ello se puede lograr sea intensificando cafetales o sea, diversificando actividades agropecuarias
o no. Pero para tomar las mejores decisions y en el mejor plazo, es preciso Ilevar un registro de las
actividades y de los movimientos econ6micos de la unidad de producci6n. Es lo que present en detalle esta
ultima parte. Todo el sistema se apoya sobre el Ilenado diario de un cuademito Ilamado el "Diaro de mi

Abstracts Monday 29

Se exponen a continuaci6n las diferentes etapas del sistema; con su vaciado computarizados, sus fases de
sfntesis y de restituci6n a los agricultores y al final del ciclo la elaboraci6n del expediente individual del
agricultor. El trabajo actual I'leg6 a 6sta fase de andlisis, diagn6stico y planeaci6n. Los planes de producci6n
escogidos y las inovaci6nes o cambios elegidos van a dar lugar a un nuevo seguimiento en "Tiempo Real",
de tal manera que de forma permanent el agricultor pueda tomar nuevas decisions o efectuar reajustes sin
esperar el final del nuevo ciclo.

Este trabajo realizado principalemente por los mismos productores podra dar lugar a simulaci6nes y a la
elaboracion de un "sistema a expert" manejable directamente porlos agricultores a nivel de sus organizaciones
para el bien de sus socios.

(English Translation)
Agricultural Administration as a Function of the Producers

This paper seeks to establish the basis for an integrated system of technical/economic administration at the
level of individual farm enterprises within the framework of organizations of small coffee producers from the
central part of the state of Veracruz (Mexico).

Presented in the first part will be the political and economic conditions as they are found in the country and
their repercussions at the level of the rural sector. Debt renegotiation and conditions imposed by international
financial organizations brought on classical structural readjustments of privatization and/or the restructuring
of the parastatal sector and market liberalization.

In the case of coffee, added to national conditions was the disappearance of agreements with the International
Organization of Coffee (OIC). In addition, 1989 was characterized by adverse climatic conditions of drought
and frosts in December.

In an international free market, with a national marketing institute on its way to disappearing and with resources
increasingly scarce (credit, production inputs, technical assistance, etc.), the small producers of coffee had
no choice but to modernize their production apparatus and to organize themselves more effectively.

Presented in the second part will be the close cooperation with organized groups in which was developed a
methodology of administration adapted to the conditions of the small land owners.

The modernization among coffee producers resulted from the increased effectiveness of production methods.
These can either be identified with the intensification of coffee growing or with the diversification of agricultural
activities. But to make better decisions in the best time, it is necessary for farmers to record the actual activities
and cash flow of a production unit. This is what will be presented in detail in the last part. The entire system
is helped through daily entries (of these data) in a small note book called the "Diary of my Farm."

Next, the different steps of the system will be presented: its computerized form, the phases of integration, the
return to individual farmers and finally the cycle of the generation of data base records for the individual
farmers. The current work has reached this phase of analysis, diagnosis, and planning. The production plans
chosen and the innovations or changes selected will lead to a new follow-up in "real time" in such a permanent
way that the established farmer can make new decisions or effect adjustments without waiting for the end of
the new cycle.

This work was principally done by the same producers who brought forth the simulations and who developed
an "expert system" managed directly by the farmers at the level of their (own) organizations for the good of
their membership.

30 Abstracts Monday

18. Interpretive Research as a Tool to Understanding Farmers'
Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS) In FSR/E

Consuelo Quiroz*

Indigenous knowledge systems (IKS) are learned ways of knowing and looking at the world. They represent
all that we do, think, and believe. They have evolved from years of experience and trial-and-error problem
solving by groups of people working to meet the challenges they face in their local environments, drawing upon
the resources they have at hand.

There is currently a growing awareness among scientists, scholars and development practitioners about the
great importance of understanding, respecting and utilizing indigenous knowledge systems, especially when
working in developing countries. The relevance of understanding the dynamics of the indigenous systems
before recommending changes that may or may nor have a positive effect of the local conditions is being

The FSR/E programs, by their nature, provide a potentially excellent way for the incorporation of indigenous,
farmer-derived knowledge into the analysis of farm problems and farm potential and the design and testing
of possible solutions to these problems of ways of building that potential.

While it may make eminently "good" sense to understand and utilize indigenous knowledge, agricultural
scientists- and even social scientists, rarely have gathered and utilized it. There are several reasons that may
help to explain this situation, one of them is the fact that insufficient attention has been paid to strategies and
methods for collecting, assessing, and utilizing such indigenous knowledge.

The aim of this paper is to explore the potential of the interpretive perspective to research for studying the
indigenous knowledge systems under the FSR/E approach. In order to do this, current steps and techniques
commonly used for gathering information from farmers in the FSR/E approach are reviewed: then the main
characteristics of interpretive perspective, its methodology and assumptions, as well as its implications for the
study of the indigenous knowledge systems under the FSR/E approach are noted.

19. Promoting Local Organizations with Farmer Extenslonists

Steven Romanoff

The formation of cooperative-style farmers' organizations requires substantial technical assistance from
extensionists. In a Colombian integrated rural development project, this cost was a limiting factor in the spread
of a successful post-harvest processing technology. A follow-on project in Ecuador found that the barrier was
overcome when a second-order organization assumed many organizational and administrative tasks.
Moreover, farmer-promoters were successful in teaching skills that state extensionists did not have. This
paper documents the savings in time and costs resulting from active participation of the farmers' organization,
drawing more general lessons on the social relation between extensionists and farmers.

Moderator: Stephen Biggs

20. Sustainable Agriculture Policy Analyses Based upon On-Farm Case Studies In South Dakota

Thomas L. Dobbs', David L. Becker and Donald C. Taylor

Agricultural scientists and policy makers are increasingly focusing on issues of "sustainability", both in
industrialized and in developing countries. In the U.S., the Food Security Act of 1985 officially incorporated
sustainability concerns in policy--through various conservation compliance provisions and through new

Abstracts Monday 31

research and extension initiatives. These concerns have intensified over the past 5 years, and the 1990
Federal farm bill is likely to have expanded requirements and/or incentives for agricultural sustainability. A
heightened awareness of water quality problems has provided added stimulus for a greater reliance on
rotations, tillage and other "management-intensive" practices, relative to chemical fertilizers and pesticides,
for controlling pests and enhancing soil fertility.

South Dakota State University (SDSU) initiated--with substantial supportfromthe Northwest Area Foundation
- a major, farmer-based research effort in 1988 to ascertain: (1) the nature and economic viability of low-input/
sustainable agricultural (LISA) practices being used in South Dakota, and (2) how public policy might be
shaped to encourage adoption of more environmentally and economically sustainable practices. Mail and on-
farm interview surveys have provided detailed rotation and cropping practice information, yield estimates and
related economic data for 22 LISA farmers. Crop enterprise and rotation budgets and whole-farm models
representing five farms--in the south-central, east-central, northeast, northwest and southwest regions of the
State--were constructed for policy analysis purposes. Profitability of these farms is being analyzed--both
under existing Federal farm programs and under several alternative policy scenarios.

Under "normal" weather and selling products in "conventional" markets, whole-farm economic analyses
showed three of the five case farms to have positive net returns to management. Taking into account "organic
price premiums," net returns increased by 37 and 105 percent, respectively, for two of the farms; for the other
two farms, net returns to management continued to be negative, but the magnitudes of those negative net
returns (losses) decreased by 20 and 54 percent, respectively.

We are in the midst of undertaking several policy analyses. Among the options being examined are reductions
in Federal farm program "target prices". Reductions of 10 and 25 percent from 1988 baseline levels caused
net returns to decline, but not to negative levels for any of the three profitable baseline farms. A mandatory
supply control option to raise market prices (patterned somewhat after the so-called "Harkin" plan) increased
profits (ordecreased losses) on four of the five case farms by an average of 54 percent. Net returns decreased
by 7 percent on the fifth farm. Additional policy analyses will be conducted, in time for inclusion in the
conference paper, including examination of certain planting "flexibility" options. The combined results of these
farmer-based policy analyses will provide insight on how various policies might be expected to impact the
economic viability of LISA practices in the Northern Great Plains

21. Portfolio Approach to FSR and Extension: A Theoretical Perspective

Anil K. Gupta'

Much of the research on Farming Systems Research Perspective has been guided by very weak theoretical
basis, whether at the level of household adjustments with risks, or with the institutional or organizational
adjustments with climatic, economic, policy and inter-organizational risks.

Building upon the socioecological perspective, theoretical propositions are listed which can be taken up for
empirical validation across different cultures. Support for the propositions has been drawn from ecological,
organizational, political, socioeconomic and finance and accounting streams of the literature. The contention
is that if FSR&E approach has to grow into a sustainable framework of scientists-people interaction for
development and diffusion of technologies, then need for sound theoretic framework/s can't be disputed.

Implications have been drawn for evolution of multi-enterprise portfolios in variously endowed ecological

The trade-off between risk and returns from portfolios evolved by different groups of households have been
contrasted with the portfolios evolved by the supply side agricultural research organization. How policy
environment influences the trade for demand and supply side has been discussed next. Finally, the
dimensions of intra- and inter-organizational networking influencing evolution of research programs have
been discussed.

32 Abstracts Monday

22. Sustainable Agriculture and FSR In West Africa: Keeping the Elephant Out of the Rowboat

Joshua L. Posner' and Elon Gilbert

Funding for agricultural research in Africa appears to be entering a third phase. The initial approach was to
increase production by the application of industrial principles to food crops. The "Green Revolution"
technologies met with little success in sub-Saharan Africa and a "Farming Systems" approach began to gain
favor in the mid 1970's. This approach shifted the emphasis from high input commodity research to
understanding the family farm how it works, what its constraints are, and what biological or economic
"leverage points" exist that could be used to increase food production. Our understanding of farming systems
increased significantly in the process, but agricultural production did not improve. More recently, attention has
turned to sustainable agriculture (SA) in face of a continuing deterioration of the resource base in the region.
Agricultural researchers are applying ecological principles to the family farm, village and regional develop-
ment to identify technologies which can sustain and increase production without further environmental

Research in SA seeks to improve productivity and incomes through a renewed emphasis on multiple cropping,
integrated pest management, genetic diversity, and natural maintenance of soil fertility (nutrient cycling,
organic matter management, pH maintenance, soil structure improvement). SA focuses on concerns that
countries in the region must address if this depletion of natural resources is to be halted. Care must be
exercised however, in selecting the mix of private, national, regional, and international organizations that are
best suited to undertake these tasks so as to compliment rather than undermine efforts to strengthen the
institutions involved. In this regard, the desirability of inclusion of the SA agenda in national agricultural
research systems (NARS), and specifically in fledging FSR/E teams, must be approached cautiously.

Farming systems research with its emphasis on farmer participation, location specificity and multidisciplinarity
would be a seemingly logical home for SA concerns. Nevertheless, the lack of proven technologies for the
semi-arid tropics, the scientific complexity of SA research, and the frequently long lead times before results
can be seen may jeopardize the legitimacy/creditability of the teams at a time when many of them are in crisis
or only minimally functional. Whereas developing the SA agenda would employ the FSR/E approach of
constraint assessments/diagnosis, the actual development of technologies requires a scientific infrastructure
not available to most FSR/E teams. In addition, the field testing of new technologies often requires a
manpower and financial commitment to a specific location that is difficult for national programs to shoulder.
Therefore, in order for the SA agenda to be properly addressed, the solution is not to add these concerns to
the myriad tasks that FSR/E teams undertake. Rather, creative, cooperative agreements between national
and international research centers for technology development, on the one hand and national and non-
governmental organizations for technology testing, on the other, are necessary to develop viable SA
components within national research programs.

23. Utilizing Indigenous Knowledge In the Context of an Institutional Knowledge System

Niels Roling'

If farmers' knowledge and experimental capacity are to become part of the mainstream technology
development effort, they must find a place in the knowledge systems of formal research and extension
institutions. A group of researchers based in the Department of Extension Science, Agricultural University,
Wageningen, have developed a conceptual framework for analyzing existing agricultural knowledge systems
from a management point of view, and for designing interventions to improve knowledge management within
existing and expanded knowledge systems.

The approach has been refined in the course of a recently completed ISNAR study and through interaction
with the Institute for Low External Resource Agriculture, Leusden. It is being tried out in a number of field
settings, including Costa Rica and Queensland, by research and extension managers. The paper reports on
the results and highlights the possibilities and difficulties managers experience in incorporating farmers'
knowledge into existing formal knowledge systems.

Abstracts Monday 33

24. Organizational Considerations In Implementing FPR In a Harsh Environment:
Some Experiences In Botswana

Frederick D. Womnnan', Geoffrey M. Heinrich and David W. Norman

The purpose of this paper is to present a case for including farmer participatory research within the formal
agricultural research structure, and to discuss some of the organizational changes in the conventional
research approach that are required to achieve this. The paper is based on a review of the ATIP experience.

There are numerous reasons why farmers should be included in the research structure, including equity
questions and the need to maximize the impact of limited research and extension resources. The ATIP
approach to FPR has been to work with farmer groups to develop methods for including continuous farmer
input into the agricultural research system. Researcher-oriented farmer groups provide a forum for joint on-
farm design, testing and evaluation of technologies. Farmers choose the technologies they will test from an
a la carte menu and thus are in a position to design their own system by combining technologies in response
to their resource constraints. Real empowerment of farmers occurs when the system is responding to their
needs, rather than the other way around.

FPR can take place within the formal agricultural research structure, or it can take place independently of that
structure. In Botswana there are several advantages to having FPR located within the research structure.
Among other considerations, agricultural improvements in a harsh environment generally require breaking
resource constraints, i.e. undertaking basic changes in the farming system, because there are few flexibilities
to be exploited. Research in breaking constraints is facilitated by having the research resources of a formal
institution. These resources can be used to conduct basic research or to search for possible solutions from
elsewhere. On-farm implementation of basic change also tends to require support system modifications, to
provide necessary training, supportive policies, and often inputs. This can be facilitated by a formal structure
and is particularly true when the private agricultural input and marketing system is poor.

Agricultural research organizations tend to have a very traditional view of their role which includes strong
reliance on the reductionist approach to research and a firm belief that the agricultural researcher has a special
role to play. In order to effectively integrate farmers into the research structure there must be some
organizational changes. Basic changes which are necessary include an increased willingness on the part of
researchers to listen to farmers and respond to their needs. Formal channels for the flow of information must
be organized to provide a bottom-up flow as well as a top-down flow. Researchers often find empowering
farmers to be inconvenient as it means they must surrender some control over the research process to the
farmers. Flexibility in the research process becomes a key element. Including farmers in the system can
increase program efficiency in terms of information and data produced per unit of research resource (because
of increased farmer work).

ATIP has tried both independent FPR and FPR within the system. The major thesis of this paper is that farmer
interests in the type of environment found in Botswana can best be served by integrating FPR into the
established research and extension structure. This has been ATIP's approach for several years and the
indications are that the organizational changes required are relatively simple to incorporate. Perhaps the most
difficult aspects for researchers are learning how to relinquish control of part of their research program, and
allowing themselves to be directed by farmer needs and interests.

34 Abstracts Monday

Moderator: Larry Busch

25. Farming Systems Research: Not So Spectacular to Farmers as It Is to Researchers?

Dirk Bergen'

During the past decade, farming systems research has contributed in a considerable way to achieve a better
understanding of the farmers' living and working conditions and to propose improvements to existing
situations by investigating the farm as an entity, linked to other systems, and in a multi-disciplinary context.

However, it is important to stress that these successes should not make researchers in the field lose their touch
with reality.

First of all, it needs to be pointed out that a lot of what we call farming systems research now, existed already
in different forms before even the "magic word" was invented. In that way, it is arrogant to think that we can
invent something new just by using new names or new definitions, a classical example is the so called informal
survey, quoted by some as a new revolutionary approach, whilst it existed already as a preliminary step in
every seriously conducted formal survey.

Secondly, most of what we call farming systems research is often the result of a work method based on
common sense and farmers' logic. One should not forget that good agricultural research has always been
based on these simple principles, before or afterfarming systems research as an acknowledged science field.

Third, farming systems research was facilitated a lot by the development of personal computers, allowing to
deal with many data at the time. This "outside element" has had an important impact on activities in all research
fields and was not "particular" to farming systems research.

Fourth, it is important to realize at all times that farming systems research is a research tool, not a research
goal. Researchers tend to forget this quite often, by losing themselves in academical and intellectual
language, irrelevant questions and unnecessary details. This, of course, does not help the farmer whose
"system"was studied. It could be very interesting to collect all these definitions and to analyze their evolution
over the years. And what about "sustainability"?

Fifth, besides the successes quoted above, personal experience in the field has shown a lot of weaknesses,
partly due to incompetent researchers, partly to the methods themselves. People sometimes do farming
systems research, because it is a kind of fashion to do so, and, of course, because funding is relatively easy.
As a result, farming systems research is often too descriptive and too superficial, whereas a normal scientific
approach supposes an analytical component as well. Regularly, farming systems research is used as an
excuse for not using relevant existing information, collected in a non-farming systems research environment.
It is clear that such situations need to be avoided since they give bad publicity to farming systems research.
As in any other science field, high quality researchers are also needed in farming systems research in order
to produce results which are useful to farmers.

26. Farming Systems Research for the Rural Poor:
The Historical, Political and Institutional Context

Stephen D. Biggs' and John Farrlngton

In the past few years there has been a large number of projects and programs concerned with on-farm and
farming systems research. Many of these have been designed to direct research at the needs of resource
poor farmers and other specified groups of people in rural areas of low income countries.

Abstracts Monday 35

Much of the international literature in this area has been concerned with describing the work of researchers
on projects funded by aid donors, and many of these activities have been influenced by the on-farm, farming
systems and cropping systems workof the International Agricultural Research Institutes, and other institutions
with an international standing.

The paper argues that the international literature has often been set in the central source of innovation
framework whereby emphasis is given to looking at the process of research as a transfer of technology, new
institutions and methods from "centers" to less developed "peripheries." The central source of innovation
model has been so dominant that generally the interpretations of past research practices, as well as the
evaluations and assessments of research projects have been conducted within this paradigm. Because the
"success and failure" of past research activities have generally been interpreted in terms of the central source
of innovation model, this has helped give rise to a set of myths, biases and misconceptions which have helped
reinforce the dominant position of the central model.

The article suggests that there is a long political economy tradition of "alternative science" which sets all
science and technology promotion practices in a historical, political, natural resource and institutional context.
In this tradition, it is suggested that a multiple source of innovation model of agricultural research practice is
a more useful framework for understanding past behavior of agricultural research and extension systems, and
for helping to direct future research and technology promotion practices.

A number of case studies are reviewed to illustrate the argument. The article concludes by looking at the
implications of a political economy approach to farming systems research forthe philosophy of science, social
and economic development, agricultural research policy, research methods and techniques for farming
systems and common property research, and for the ethical and social responsibility of researchers involved
in research to reduce rural poverty in low income countries.

27. Dynamics of Internationally Aided FSR Programs: Institutional Experience In India
and Bangladesh

Anil K. Gupta*

Several international aid agencies including the Ford Foundation, Winrock (earlier, IADS), IRDC, JCIE and
international agricultural research centers like IRRI, CIMMYT, ICRAF, CIF, etc., have separately or in tandem
supported FSR programs in India and Bangladesh. Majority of the support agreements have been with the
India and Bangladesh. Majority of the support agreements have been with the national agricultural research
system, but in some cases, NGOs have also been involved directly or indirectly for interacting with the local

The collaboration in many cases began through cropping system research project and later was transformed
into the FSR program. There were some common experiences in both the contexts which need critical

1. For a long time the programs had checkered history, small gains here and there but major
impediments to large scale interest in response until western consultants were imposed or
brought into the countries

2. There was a significant tu m-around when a South Asian consultant was brought into the picture
on request from the government of Bangladesh and also an institution in India

3. The aid agency concerned followed a very consistent policy of bringing in expatriate
consultants to harvest the momentum built by South-Asian consultant through: (a) impatient
urge to replicate fast, (b) generate false hops in the mind of some of the counterparts, (c) not
sustaining the institutional support built by the Asian consultant, and (d) by reinforcing me-
diocrity rather than the excellence.

36 Abstracts Monday

The paradox was that while genuine efforts were made by some of the agencies to help build local inter-
institutional efforts. The growth of these links was tolerated until these did not reflect on the performance of
western consultant. another way of looking at might imply that local consultants may have been used to only
gaining legitimacy in the system. Once that purpose is served, the efforts towards genuine institution building
were abandoned.

There are many other aspects of aided FSR programs discussed in the paper casting doubt about the viability
of such strategies in the future. Lessons for research managers in developing countries are also drawn.

28. Spreading Improved Cassava Technologies In Africa Using the UNICEF/IITA Integrated Food
Surveillance and IMO State ADP Corner-Plot Strategies

Anthony Ikpl and Emelike Okoro

Between 1960 and 1985, the identified food problem in Africa was tackled principally through increased
importation and consumption of grains (mostly maize, rice and wheat) by many African countries. However,
with the pressure of the debt burden on these nations mounting to unbearable points and forcing such nations
to implement generally painful and "faceless" structural adjustment programs, it became necessary for new
"painless" solutions and food adjustment programs to be developed and introduced into the farming landscape
of these countries. In Nigeria, two such food adjustment strategies, designed along farmer-based research
methods "with a human face", have been successfully implemented independently by UNICEF (Nigeria
Office) and Imo State Agricultural Development program (ISADP), both collaborating with the International
Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria.

This paper presents these "success stories" and highlights the key elements in the two pragmatic models that
were used to transfer proven improved agricultural technologies to the rural poor of Nigeria in an effort to
increase their food availability, expand their income-generation capacities, and improve their nutritional
status. Both models adopted a practical operational strategy in which emphasis was on how and by whom.
Improved crop technologies were disseminated beyond the "Golden Gates" of agricultural technology
research stations to intended beneficiaries, ratherthan through the traditional rhetoric of mere factualanalysis
followed by no-action, talk-only (NATO) recommendations. The strategy is working to the great benefit and
delight of over one million farmers in Kwara, Oyo, Ondo and Imo States of Nigeria; it could work in other
countries of Africa that consume cassava, in whatever form.

29. Optimisatlon de la Productivlt6 de la Pomme de Terrre au Rwanda: Verification et Problemes
de Transfer de Technologies en Milieu R6el

Leonard Sekayang6'

Une game de technologies d6velopp6es en station par le Programme National pour I'Am6lioration de la
Pomme de Terre (PNAP) ont dtd v6rifi6es en milieu reel. Les r6sultats issues de ces tests indiquent que ces
technologies sont plus productive et prof tables que les syst6mes actuellement exploits par les agriculteurs.

Cependant, quand bien mdme certaines technologies (nouvelles varidt6s, application de fongicides) ont 6td
adoptees par les agriculteurs, les rendements de la pomme de terre en milieu reel stagnent car la semence
utilisee reste de mediocre quality malgrd la bonne performance de vari6dts diffuses et les normes
d'application des fongicides centre le mildiou n'ont pas 6t6 respect6es.

Par ailleurs, certaines autres technologies n'ont pas du tout 6td accept6es c'est le cas de lafumure mindrale
- malgrd I'avantage agronomique et 6conomique qu'elles pr6sentent, parce que la disponbilit6 des intrants
n4cessaires sur le march local est trbs limit6e et que leur utilisation requiert des investissements
suppl6mentaires qui ne sont pas toujours a la portde des petits agriculteurs.

Abstracts Monday 37

II en r6sulte que la culture de la pomme de terre ne peut connaltre un veritable essorque si les vulgarisateurs
ou les autoritds locales redoublent d'efforts pour organiser le credit agricole et les circuits de commercialization
des intrants et des extrants. A ce prix les agriculteurs seraient preneurs de technologies pour lesquelles ils
sont rests rdticents.

(English Summary)
The Optimization of Potato Productivity In Rwanda:
Verification and Problems of Technology Transfer

This paper discusses several technical and institutional reasons why the use of new potato production
technologies (new seeds, fungicides, inorganic fertilizer) that have been developed on-station does not
yield comparable results under farmers' conditions.

The author argues that improved potato production will depend heavily on marketing and on the availabil-
ity of agricultural credit and inputs.

Moderator: Cornelia Butler Flora

Discussants: Michael Collinson, Jacques Faye, Peter E. Hildebrand, Susan V. Poats, Robert Tripp and others

Abstracts Tuesday 39

8:00 a.m. 10:00 a.m.

Moderator: Larry Smith

30. Agricultural Experimentation In the Small Farmer Household Farming System

JIt Pradhan Bhuktan* and Glenn L. Denning

Viewed from the social system perspective, a farming household is a complex system, of which research is
one of the integral sub-systems. The descriptive data from the exploratory study conducted in Nepal show
that agricultural research is the dominant component in the household research system. The paper aims to
explore and describe systematically the agricultural research conducted by small farmer households.

The historical background of the way resources and technologies are fitted in the household farming system
reveals that long length and wide range of indigenous agricultural research and experimentation are regular
processual activities in the household farming systems. Based on the reasons and purposes of the household
research their topologies are developed, and through the processual information on the way research were
conducted; their indigenous research designs and methods are described with some real life cases. On the
whole, it appears that farmers are scientists of their own kind. The difference is that they do research for their
own use, whereas, the scientists do research for the use of others. An appropriate technological reorgani-
zation of the small farmer household farming system seems possible through vertically integrating the merits
of the household experimentation by the scientists in the entire process of FSR. Finally, some field techniques
are proposed for exploring into the household research in relation to farming systems.

31. The Role of Farmers In the Jordanian Combined Sondeo Process

Abdel Fattah Al-Kadl and Daniel Lee Gait

Purpose. To assist the National Center for Agricultural Research and Technology Transfer (NCARTT)
research and technology transfer staff to plan their trials and extension work incorporating farmers' priorities
and problems, a rapid rural appraisal technique called the "combined sondeo" is evolving in Jordan.

Methods. Central researchers from NCARTT join regional researchers and extension staff for a one-week
period of team farmer interviewing across The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. The method depends upon
individual farmer interviews and a group farmer meeting at the close of the week. Lists of farmer problems
and suggestions are noted after individual interviews. These lists, in turn, redirect research and technology
transfer plans for the following year. A final group farmer meeting is held, in which the summarized priorities
and problems are reviewed and research and technology transfer plans for the following year are presented
to the farmers. This format allows farmer input to assist in forming research and technology transfer activities.

Results. In 1989, as in 1987, Jordanian farmer opinion had an impact on some planned research and
technology transfer activities. Those farmers who attended the final group meeting acted as an ad hoc
advisory panel to staffs of each of the six regional centers. Kingdom-wide results were summarized, published
and distributed to Ministry of Agriculture decision-makers. Problems impacting different commodities were
summarized and distributed to NCARTT commodity sections through a series of research information

Conclusions. A rapid rural appraisal process like a combined sondeo can be an extremely cost-efficient
method of allowing systematic farmer opinions to complement regional research and technology transfer work
plans, and to lead to the implementation of more research and extension activities which have immediate
relevance to groups of farmers.

40 Abstracts Tuesday

32. Interactions In Maize and Sorghum: Cattle Farming Systems In
Central America and Sustainablilty

Joaquin Francisco Larlos'

In the semi-arid zones of Central America, the small- and medium-sized farms have developed a maize-
sorghum/animal production system in response to the predominant environmental characteristics. Management
of the system and the structure of its components are based primarily on environmental variations,
socioeconomic structure and level of technological adaptability. Available information on this system deals
mainly with each component independently. There have been few studies of the relationships among
components in this system, or in the analysis of inputs (income) and outputs (products)--although it is a very
well-known system within poor farms in areas of high demographic pressure (100 to 200 inhabitants/km2), such
as foothills near the Pacific coastal plains and valleys of the interior of Central America. Of all the area
cultivated with sorghum in Honduras and El Salvador, around 93% is inter-cropped with maize, and in
Guatemala, 80%.

The search for alternatives that will help these farmers requires a knowledge and understanding of the system,
to better analyze the alternatives within their own systems and to be able to suggest those that will have an
impact. So, the annual rainfall is distributed in a bimodal pattern, the dry season begins in November and ends
April-May. The rainy season is interrupted by a short dry (15-30 days) period (called "canicula") in July or
August. The number of months with a moisture deficit range is 6-10. According to Holdrige's life zones
classification, maize and sorghum based cropping systems are found mainly in the following ecological zones:
(1) dry tropical forest in transition to subtropical, with biotemperatures below 24 degrees Celsius, but with an
average annual air temperature above 24 degrees Celsius; (2) humid tropical forest with a biotemperature
above 24 degrees Celsius. Predominant soil types are vertisoils (deep clay soils or clay-loam with internal
drainage problems). Due to dryness severity, cattle and crop yields are very low. The "canicula" occurrence
increase this problem on the established crops (maize at flowering stage and sorghum at emergence stage).
It was estimated that for each day without rain during corn flowering yield is reduced 43 kg ha-', when the
"canicula" is moderated. Sorghum must be reseeded and bovines are affected because feed produced
dropped on the dry season. Technology developed with intimate farmer participation in their farms, enclosed
a new resistant maize variety, a new sorghum variety (double purpose), a new specie of legume: gandul
(Cajanus cajan) double purpose in monocrop or associated with maize to substitute sorghum partially and with
the end preparation of sorghum and C. cajan silage. Other options were developed but not validated: residue
of vegetation like mulch to reduce "canicula"effect, and Vigna unguiculatafor protein production (like C. cajan).
All options were destined to combat erosion and dry periods, to diversify the species component and
production, improve family and bovine nutrition and rotation effects, and finally increase milk yield with less
cost of production. The technology for this crop-animal system was validated in representative farms. The
results indicated an increase (77%) in milk yield, family income (+ 182% significance at 5%) in farms
"improved" with the innovations, principally legume based cropping systems, use of silage in dry season and
adapted varieties. The methodology used to design options with sustainability for these systems, the
interactions, negative and positive, between components and indicators are presented.

33. Farmer-Based Methods: Farmers' Diagrams for Improving Methods of Experimental Design In
Integrated Farming Systems

Clive Lightfoot*

Trends of environmental degradation, and diminished household nutrition and purchasing power challenge
FSRE practitioners to design more sustainable farming systems. Integrating livestock, agroforestry and
aquaculture can play an important role in reversing such trends through species diversification, nutrient
cycling and spreading incomes. The many interactions and trade-offs involved in farming systems of this
complexity necessitate farmer participation in their design. There is an urgent need for research methods in
which many farmers can quickly and easily participate for the generation of integrated farming systems.
Farmers posses extraordinary skills in visualizing complex farming systems. It is their skills in visualizing
technologies and material flows between enterprises that form the basis of this participatory method. Groups
of farmers draw conceptual models on the ground using sticks, seeds, ash, or whatever is to hand. The

Abstracts Tuesday 41

technique was used to set research priorities, improve experimental layouts and model integrated farming
systems. Groups of farmers in India were shown pictures of several technologies which they modified and
prioritized. Stocking fish in deep water rice 'chaurs', for example, was modified to confine the fish which would
otherwise escape. Researcher designed experiments in the integration of rice and fish were improved through
farmers' drawings. An irrigated paddy with two deep trenches for the fish to survive the dry season was re-
designed into a single shallow central sump to reduce irrigation costs and enable double cropping. Seasonal
activities were also changed. Rice and fish started in July with rice harvest in November and fish in March
was changed to a June start with rice and fish being harvested in October and a wheat crop from December
to March. Material flows between rice, wheat, fish and livestock were also drawn by the farmer. Material flow
models helped farmers see beneficial interactions between enterprises. Sump mud would improve wheat
yields, for instance. Farmers in Vietnam and Malawi drew out models of material flows in their tree-animal-
fish-crop systems with the same effects. They learned new ways to integrate enterprises. Trees and
vegetables growing on pond or paddy dikes provide fish feed in the form of leaf, bran and fruit, and protection
in the form of branches. Fish faeces fertilize the paddy or pond mud which is dredged on to the dikes. Pond
water irrigates the trees and vegetables. Animal manure fertilizes the pond and paddy. Pond water and crop
residues go to the animals. The participatory methods described can help many more farmers to integrate
agroforestry and aquaculture into their farming systems for better livelihoods and regenerated environments.

Moderator: Russ Freed

34. Farmer Participation In the Evaluation of Technologies

Jacqueline Ashby* and Carlos A. Quiros Torres

This paper addresses three questions: (1) What are the benefits of farmer participation in the evaluation of
technologies? Examples are given from the crop and livestock research. (2) When in the technology
development process, should farmers participate in evaluation? Farmer participation in exploratory vs.
validation types of trials is discussed. The integration of farmer participation into station research, commodity
program research and on-farm research is analyzed. Examples are given of results of farmer participation
in different stages and types of research. (3) How can farmers participate in technology evaluation?
Alternative methods are discussed with examples of results that these obtain. In conclusion, this paper argues
that farmer participation in evaluation has been given too little attention relative to diagnosis, and that
participatory evaluation is a powerful tool for understanding what type of technologies farmers want and can

35. Farmer Integration In the Research Process: A New Experience In Burundi

Bernard L. Delalne' and Ir. Anicet Tuyaga

The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss the new methodology used in Cibitoke by the FSR/E team
to directly involve the farmers into the research process, through a collaborative mode.

This collaborative mode consists of three basic steps which progressively involve, more and more deeply, the
farmers in the activities of the research team:

1. First, an informal diagnostic survey is conducted in the field to determine major problems
and constraints to agricultural production in the area.

2. Second, group meetings are held with farmers where the results of the diagnostic surveys
are presented and the problems and constraints identified during the diagnostic surveys
are discussed and rank ordered by the farmers.

Abstracts Tuesday

3. Third, a "Program Committee" is set up. It is formed by the researchers, the extension
agents of the area, and one or two elected farmers to represent them. This Program
Committee is in charge of evaluating the problems and constraints previously identified
as they were ranked by the farmers and to elaborate the work plan for the research team.

This method is a way to fill the gap between the diagnostic survey and on-farm trials, involving farmers in all
the steps of the research process, defining priorities up to arriving at a realistic work plan based on farmers'

A constructive, interactive relationship between farmers, extension agents and researchers is firmly
established. The participation of the farmers in the elaborations of the research program, along with the
researchers and the extension agents, makes them feel responsible for the outcome of the research and for
the dissemination of the new technologies in the local farming community.

36. Gambian Farmers In Partnership with Research and Development Agencies for Testing and
Adopting Agricultural Innovations

Ibrahima Diallo* and Tom Senghore

The Gambian agricultural research system is small and plagued with financial, as well as manpower
constraints. Public and donor pressure for quick and useful results is also mounting. In an effort to speed up
the process of technology generation and transfer, the Department of Agricultural Research (DAR) has
entered into a new partnership with farmers' groups assisted by the development agencies.

The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss the results of a full season experimentation by farmer
groups of technologies they had requested from the research service. The roles of the development agencies
(the extension service and the NGOs) are highlighted.

The methods included:
a. a pre-season workshop at the DAR and the development agencies identified; and
assessed technologies ready for testing by farmer groups.
b. selection by farmer groups of the technologies most relevant to their needs.
c. selection by farmers of the trial sites in their environment.
d. monitoring and evaluation of the trials by multi-disciplinary teams of researchers,
extensionists and NGOs.
e. village meetings with farmers' groups.

The results showed that a tripartite collaboration between researchers, farmers and development agencies
requires sufficient time for advance planning and clear demarcations in the division of labor. When a
technology has been selected and is being tested by farmers, they will automatically make the necessary
changes to that technology so that it becomes more relevant to their needs, therefore shortening the process
of feedback to research. It was also observed that communal fields for technology testing by farmer groups
were not suitable nor desirable to have as experimental plots.

The selection of a new variety or a new plant species by farmer groups, must be immediately followed by an
objective palatability test to ascertain its acceptability by the community at large. A sorghum variety, E35-1,
which has striga tolerance was creating dissension among farmers until its cooking qualities were demon-
strated to them.

A few of the technologies tested by farmers did not pass the acceptance mark because of interference by
domestic animals. Such was the case of a maize/cowpea-relay. This shows the importance of the holistic
approach researchers must adopt in developing research themes. Research efforts and time can be saved
by farmers' direct participation in the technology testing process.

Abstracts Tuesday 43

37. Supporting Farmers' Research and Extension: the Role of the Outsiders

Ann Waters-Bayer' and John Farrington

"Participatory Technology Development" (PTD) refers to collaboration between farmers and scientists,
extensionists and other development workers in generating improved farming techniques, particularly in
resource-poor areas. It refers to the participation of "outsiders" in an on-going process of farmers'
experimentation and communication. This implies that the outsiders must find out: how farmers perceive their
problems and opportunities; what they are trying to do to improve their situation; how they are organizing,
implementing and evaluating these activities; and how they are informing each other about them. In PTD,
external development services seek to strengthen the capacity of farmers to innovate, help them establish
(closer) links with agencies which can supply them with relevant information and material inputs, and help
them exert pressure on external agencies to conduct the type of research and provide the type of production
inputs which the farmers require.

To follow the conventional definition of farmer participation by examining what farmers can contribute to
researchers' experiments and agenda is only part of the issue. This paper, based on documented field
experiences in Africa, Asia and Latin America, therefore examines the role of external development agents
in farmers' research and extension and the ways in which interaction between the two groups has led to new
forms of shared experiments, of which neither the one nor the other is the owner. The focus is on ways in which
extensionists working in governmental and nongovernmental agencies have been involved in PTD, e.g.: (1)
in assuming the role of colleagues of experimenting farmers, being themselves involved in experimenting with
(rather than demonstrating) technical options which could meet the farmers' defined needs; (2) in providing
the farmers with ideas and small amounts of new inputs which they can try out on their farms; and (3) in
promoting comparison of results and spreading of new ideas within and between farming communities.

Field extensionists require scientific backstopping to be able to play this role. Examples are given of attempts
made by governmental and nongovernmental agencies to improve the links between applied research and
extension, so that extensionists can inform more conventional researchers about farmers' needs and
problems encountered during their experimentation, and can feed back potential solutions from the
researchers to the farmers for testing and adaptation. Attention is also given to organizational demands of
these activities and the difficulties and constraints that have been encountered thus far in supporting farmers'
technology development activities. In this context, the role of networking in facilitating the exchange of
experiences and ideas among and between farmers, extensionists and research scientists and, thus, in
strengthening the PTD process is discussed. This analysis is based on recent experiences in encouraging
and supporting networks which are emerging in various tropical regions, focused on the development of
farming systems with low levels of purchased inputs.

Moderator: Marion Ray McKInnle

38. The Concept of the Average Farmer and Putting the Farmer First:
The Implications of Variability for a Farming Systems Approach to Research and Extension

James Beebe*

This paper is based on a reanalysis of selected farmer surveys from farming systems projects in Africa and
Southeast Asia. The results show that only a very few farmers in each sample are characterized by the entire
set of factors used to define the target populations for these projects. The failure of farmers to possess even
one critical characteristic, such as minimum requirements for land and labor or access to credit and markets,
appear to make research and extension irrelevant to a majority of individuals. As the number of critical
characteristics increases, the percent of farmers sharing the entire set of characteristics declines. The limited
results of these projects appear related to their being premised on the concept of an average farmer.

44 Abstracts Tuesday

This type of analysis makes a strong case for an increased role for the individual farmer in the research-
extension process. It is only the individual farmer who knows which of the critical characteristics required for
a given change are actually present. The individual farmer is in a far better position than even the best
meaning, best promising solutions to address specific constraints and to evaluate these options based on
trials under local conditions. If the individual farmer is accepted as the appropriate decision maker for his or
her farm, new roles must be defined for researchers and extension personnel. The results of these studies
suggest those responsible for defining problems to be addressed by research should pay significantly more
attention to variability. Researchers will need to pay more attention to identifying all of the relevant conditions
necessary for the success of a given intervention.

The results of these studies indicate a need for a major change in the role of extension workers. Given how
few farmers share all the critical characteristics of the "average farmer," extension workers should be
presenting farmers with a range of options and helping them understand their relevance to local conditions;
instead of promoting packages of technology that farmers are expected to adopt. Farmers should be expected
to adapt interventions to their local conditions, and to evaluate them based on trials under their management.
Extension workers will require new skills and major changes in their attitudes towards farmers. A "Farmer
First" approach to research and extension needs to recognize variability and reject the concept of the average

39. New Age Extension In Farming Systems Research: End of the Technical Message Era

Jonathon Landeck*

Purpose. In the context of sustainable agriculture, most often defined by non-farming academics, the
"technical message" is but one facet of information exchange. We now recognize that social, economic,
political, religious, historic, and even aesthetic elements of information exchange are as equally vital to
sustainable farm-level production. These elements are farmer-specific in nature. This papertherefore iterates
the notion that, in agricultural development, farmers are the raison d'etre of extension field agents, who should
represent farmers' interests in the academic realm, and of researchers, who should serve farmers' interests
through appropriate research.

Methods. With reference to Sudano-Sahelian agricultural systems, this paper will elaborate a definition of
new age extension. A review of the issues related to the respective roles of farmers extension agents, and
researchers with regard to sustainable agricultural systems is presented. Some assumptions about the
traditional "technical message carrier" notion of extension in agricultural research, and alternatives to this
notion, are briefly discussed. Options for enhancing the respective roles of farmers, field agents, and
researchers, the principal actors in FSRE. In addition, the following argument is put forth. If we wish to reserve
a credible role for agricultural extension in farming systems research, then field agents in the transfer and
dissemination of technology and information should be pro-active in terms of farmer-based research. It is thus
suggested that agricultural extension workers might better represent farmers' interests in the academic world
of FSRE by leading public criticism, both positive and negative, of on-farm and off-farm research as it

Results and Conclusions. The notion that agricultural field agents are primarily technological message
carriers renders village-based extension workers vulnerable to failed or inappropriate research results and
furnishes researchers a shield against criticism from "below." This notion also relegates extension workers
to positions of relative passivity in the eyes of researchers with respect to the agronomic and sociocultural
practicality of research. We cannot expect most researchers to change chauvinistic attitudes regarding their
relationship with farmers and extension workers. Pressure on researchers to produce results in a short time,
and the significant education gap between researchers and extension workers, and researchers and farmers,
inhibit such a change. At the same time, the opinions of extension workers cannot compete with those of
researchers without two modifications in FSRE systems, one structural and the other functional. The
structural modification is that extension workers be formally linked with national university faculties in countries
where this is not the case. The functional modification is that extension workers defend farmers' interests as
a primary, explicit mandate, rather than the interests of researchers. This approach to FSRE is one for the
90's and into the 21st century.

Abstracts Tuesday 45

40. Evaluating the Role of Farmers in Training and Visit Extension System In India

B. Rajasekaran' and Robert A. Martin

The training and visit (T&V) extension system is being operated in more than forty developing and
underdeveloped countries. The T&V system has gained momentum due to its significant role in the
dissemination of location-specific and timely technological information to the farmers through fixed schedules
of visits by village extension workers (VEWs). However, it was found that the farmers used to play a passive
role in various T&V activities such as field visits, evening meetings, minikit trials and field demonstrations. The
factors which contributed to the passive role of farmers in the above programs were discussed in the paper.
Under estimation of the farmers' knowledge, their innovativeness and experimentation were found to be main
causes for the above problem.

A comparative study of the block extension system and T&V extension system in India was conducted.
Recently evolved extension models which emphasize the role of farmers in extension such as farmer-first-
and-last model, farmer-back-to-farmer model and farmer participatory research were studied to analyze the
role of farmers in these models. Certain field level methodologies were developed to improve participation
of farmers in the T&V extension system in India.

41. Systemic Action Research: Towards a New Methodology In Extension

F. M. Kelleher, R. A Woog, N. Sriskandarajah' and A. C. Andrews

In this paper, we call into question objectives and practices of traditional extension approaches based on
communication and diffusion theories. We assert that research-extension infrastructure based on high
technology is flawed by its continued isolation from the farmer. We argue for a change in paradigm from one
based on agriculture as a production system to that of one which sees agriculture as a human activity system.
This change implies a shift in emphasis from the development and application of knowledge to maximize
productivity to one where the objective is one of maximizing productivity while minimizing adverse impacts on
sustainability of the system. Sustainability or persistence is seen here as an intrinsic property of the system,
including human values, and not as an externally designed criterion. This shift in paradigm implies the need
for exploration of and experimentation with new theories and methodologies of extension to promote
awareness and adoption of criteria of sustainability, as well as productivity in commercial farming systems.
Systems theory and action research methodology, together with the extensive theoretical foundation
associated with both, offer promise in this area.

The traditional extension programs that service the wheat and dairy farming sectors in specific regions of New
South Wales are experiencing the emergence of sustainability as an issue, in ecological and human terms.
Action research was the guiding methodology in our approach to these situations, in place of existing
approaches to extension. We show that we were able to accommodate issues of sustainability of the system
as well as transcend the research-extension dichotomy through systemic action research, thus achieving the
dual goals of improving the system as well as learning about it.

Moderator: Eric W. Crawford

42. Economic Evaluation of New Sorghum Production Technologies and Policy Implications for
Northern Gedaref Region of Eastern Sudan

Mohamed A. Ahmed and Wahab M. Ahmed

The existing farming system in the mechanized rainfed schemes of northern Gedaref region is characterized
by lack of capital investment in land-substituting inputs such as chemical fertilizers and typical farming

46 Abstracts Tuesday

practices of continuous sorghum cropping. With this extensive type of agriculture, soil fertility and weed
problems may occur leading to low and declining average cereal production per unit of land and to a substantial
increase in variability of output over time. With the increased concern for the sustainability of agriculture in
the mechanized areas, the continued horizontal expansion of the mechanized, rainfed agriculture with the
current stagnant and low crop yields is a serious policy planning problem that may endanger the future of the
mechanized crop production schemes in central Sudan. This study investigates the economic feasibility of
alternative new technologies, namely, the MFC rotation with and without tied ridging and tied ridging of
continuous sorghum, to alleviate the dual production constraint of soil moisture and soil fertility. The potential
impacts of the present credit and land policies and the availability of new land were discussed. The analytical
method used was the MOTAD risk programming. Risk was considered with respect to variability of crop yields
and output prices.

The most important factor in the failure to adopt the M FC rotation is that it is a more extensive activity, reducing
per hectare returns and increasing the cultivated farm area. Farmers could substantially increase their income
by adopting tied ridging technology on both continuous sorghum and with the MFC rotation. With the
introduction of these technologies, farmers would be willing to adopt these technologies on a substantial part
of their farms.

The availability of land for horizontal expansion at relatively low cost and the institutional subsidized credit
were hypothesized to constrain the adoption of the new technologies. However, the impact of these policies
is smaller than was expected. Overtime and with the increase in land settlements, the land supply is expected
to become more inelastic. This is expected to lead farmers to adopt more intensive production technologies.

43. Risk Adjustment Strategies In the Resource Organization of the Small Farmer Household
Farming System

JIt Pradhan Bhuktan' and Glenn L. Denning

This paper views the farming household (FHH) as a system within which several functional components
including farming are organized as sub-systems. The household farming system (HFS) is organized through
harmonious integration among the goal-oriented organized actions, technologies, and resources both
productively and protectively. The paper aims to describe only the risk adjustment strategies in the resource
organization of the HFS.

Data from the exploratory study in Nepal show that while pursuing farming under the mutually antagonistic
forces of opportunity and risk imposing constraint, FHHs place high value on stable cum sustained farming
productivity. The value greatly shapes the overall household policy, thereby farming norms and technologies,
in turn, govern the way resources are organized. Results show that FHHs organize resources more
protectively than productively under different spatial, temporal and circumstantial environmental contexts.
The productive organizing maximizes the opportunity that facilitates goal attainment and the protective one
minimizes the constraint that impedes goal attainment. The protective resource organization in small farmer
HFS is characterized by series of risk adjustment strategies which are instrumental in stably sustaining the
current level of low agricultural productivity. Findings also show that FHHs are seeking technological aid for
raising their farm production viability that fits into their value system. Should the resource organization in the
HFS be fairly balanced through productive technological intervention without disrupting the functions served
by the existing risk adjustment strategies, the small farmers are likely to stabilize and sustain higher farm

Abstracts Tuesday 47

44. Risk Analysis In Farm and Household Systems Research and Extension

Werner Doppler'

Decision-making in family farms is influenced by expectations about risk in production and markets. Empirical
data on risk behavior are limited, however, quantitative methods suitable for incorporating risk in farm planning
are increasing. There is a need for an evaluation of the quantitative methods under conditions of given and
varying data availability. This is of special importance in developing countries. Here, the inclusion of the
household is of vital importance in understanding the decision-making process in different farming and
household systems. This paper focuses on these problems and specifies the methodology for the overall
strategy which was outlined in a paper presented at the Arkansas AFSRE Symposium in 1989.

The introduction of new technologies in farming systems is of central importance in many regions of the
Tropics and Subtropics. This will have an impact on the objectives of and decisions made by farm families.
A quantitative impact analysis therefore requires an analysis of the types of technologies as well as their
impact on subsistence, income, cash income, liquidity, wealth and risk involved in production and markets as
well as on dependencies on persons and institutions. At the same time, the real situation in a region requires
a differentiation of the specific impact on different farm and household systems and the quantification of the
probability of occurrence of the impact.

Various methodologies are known in different disciplines and need to be tested and applied under the
conditions of farming and household systems development in the context of monitoring systems, experimental
and on-farm research and the testing of new strategies. This methodology will be discussed here and will
concentrate on farming systems classification methods, farm and household analysis, normative and positive
planning tools including dynamic models and simulation (such as Monte Carlo Method) and their application
using personal computers. Examples will be given from various countries.

The finding and conclusions should show: (1) under what conditions which methodology would be most
suitable, (2) the integration of quantitative farm and household systems analyses and simulation into existing
farming systems research concepts and monitoring systems, (3) constraints and potential of the application
of user friendly methods to be applied in the field and extension services, and finally, (4) to evaluate the
potential of these tools for research planning and policy decision-making processes.

45. The Importance of Risk In Technology and Diffusion: Small-Scale Producers In Mexico

Robin R. Marsh'

Technologies that require purchased inputs often increase production and economic risk to small-scale
producers. The extent to which risky technology affects adoption decisions depends upon individual risk
preferences, determined, in large part, by socioeconomic and institutional factors that influence producers'
risk-bearing abilities. Production risk can be minimized if recommendations appropriately reflect on-farm
agronomic and climatic conditions and producers have access to effective extension.

In this paper, we explain observed low adoption rates and apparent allocative inefficiency in small-scale,
Mexican maize production as a consequence of the treatment of risk by alternative research and extension
programs. We examine the "gap" between profit-maximizing, risk-neutral input optima, and allocative
efficiency when production risk is incorporated. Producers' risk preferences, measured indirectly by
comparing observed use levels with the risk-neutral and risk-constrained solutions, are regressed against
socioeconomic variables associated with relative risk-bearing abilities. Finally, the net benefits from adoption
of alternative maize recommendations are calculated to assess effectiveness in generating and diffusing
appropriate technology.

Data for the crop year 1985 were collected from 155 randomly selected small farm households in Michoacan,
Mexico. From this sample, producers from a single agrosystem (andosol) were selected forthis study. Sample
producers are either associated with Consultores del Campo, a community-based rural development

48 Abstracts Tuesday

program, or with the government input-intensive technical assistance and credit program, PIPMA.
Results from the empirical analysis indicate that the divergence between observed input levels and
recommended levels is largely explained by production risk weighted by revealed risk preferences. Our
findings suggest that socioeconomic factors that diminish the producer's ability to bear risk, such as scarce
cultivable land and limited non-farm income, can be overcome, in part, when poorly-endowed rural
households are provided with access to appropriate technology, technical assistance and credit.

We found that programs, such as PIPMA, do not necessarily improve the net benefits for participants, and may
achieve the opposite effect. To be effective at both reducing risk aversion and improving small producer
welfare, programs must tailor recommendations to micro-specific environments, incorporate Marsh produc-
tion risk and risk preferences in the calculation of economic optima, afford access to credit and provide
effective on-farm, farmer participatory extension. The community-based rural development program,
Consultores del Campo, comes closest to meeting these criteria and to achieving allocative efficiency under

46. Risk Assessment Methods for Technology Screening

J. Ndjeunga and Doyle Baker

The farmer first paradigm stresses the importance of farmers' problems, perceptions and priorities. Dominant
factors affecting farmers' technology adoption decisions are uncertainty and the risk of loss. Yet risk
assessment methods have received minimal attention in the farmer first literature, orthe broader methodologi-
cal guidelines for FSR-E.

Simple safety first rules, implicit in basic tools for risk assessment such as minimum returns' analysis and
break-even budgeting, are a poor representation of the trade-offs farmers face when deciding whether to use
a risky technology. In recent years, modified stability (MS) analysis has become a popular tool for risk
assessment, but MS analysis has its own limitations.

Two little-used risk assessment methods, for situations in which farmers risk preferences are unknown, are
mean-variance (M-V) analysis and stochastic dominance (SD) analysis. Both take into account distributions
of outcomes, and both can be used to identify technologies which farmers are likely to preferwith few, plausible
assumptions required about farmers' risk preferences.

This paper discusses the importance of risk assessment in farmerfirst research, and illustrates the use of MS,
E-V and SD analysis for maize variety screening and fertilization research. The variety screening analyses
relate to yield responses across several locations and years, using data from the Institute of Agricultural
Research's lowland maize breeding program in Cameroon. The fertilization analyses are based on-farm trials
carried out in the sub-humid forest zone of Cameroon in 1987 and 1988.

Contributions and limitations of the various methods are assessed, and recommendations are given on the
use of various risk assessment methods in analyses of on-farm trials.

Abstracts Tuesday 49

Moderator: Craig Harris

47. Farming System Research In the Yellow River Valley, China

JI QIng Chen'

This paper views the sustainable agricultural production in Henan province, the most populous province in
mainland China. Its population is over one hundred million, and it is also an area with the history of agricultural
production for more than three thousand years. The Yellow Riverflows fromthe west to seas through the entire
province and it is the principal water recourse for both agricultural production and people's life. Owing to the
overabundant population and scarcity of cultivated land, there has existed a problem of how to substantially
increase the agricultural production to meet people's demand for food and of how to adopt sustainable
agricultural method and reduce the amount of fertilizers at the same time.

The paper suggests four approaches with the emphasis on FSR/E to deal with the burning issue in Henan
province. Comparative studies of different areas in that province are also carried out. All the experiments are
done in five counties along the Yellow River. Several practical, sustainable approaches of farming systems
are suggested in the paper.

Multiple Cropping: an important approach for China to maximize agricultural productivity from the limited land
resources and try to make the best use of organic elements of the soil, water and supplementary inputs.
Currently the cropping index for the province shows that 164% of 1988 as against 128% in 1949 is in inter-
cropping or relay cropping.

Green Manure Rotation: an experiment between the adoption of chemical fertilizer and the use of green
manure is done and the results of different places show that the latter is the more preferable way to raise the
produce and protect the environment at the same time.

Reduced Tillage: the data from one of experimental village indicates that it is an effective way to save energy,
water recourse and human labor.

The paper also makes some comparative studies of sustainable agricultural production between China and
Japan. It shows the similarities and differences between the countries of different social system in the adoption
of farming system research. The conclusion it reaches is that the government involvement and multi-discipline
approaches are crucial in the successful adoption of FSR/E in rural regions.

48. Research Methods In Sustainable Agriculture: System Design as a Management Variable

Thomas Edens*, Ignacio Villa, Maria Arnalz, Robert PIgg and Brent Simpson

There is increasing evidence that key to evaluating the sustainability of agricultural systems is the
understanding of the structuring of the farming system components to achieve complementary effects among
components. Traditionally, research methodologies have been developed around the classical reductionist
framework and have proved most useful for the analysis of highly specialized farming systems. This trend
has paralleled the entrenchment in academia of a reward structure that favors Cartesian analyses and
impedes holistic system research. This paper relies on a holistic approach to examine a farm system which
was designed and is managed to optimize unconventional system parameters such as the well-being of the
labor force and the stability of the community.

Research was carried out to support the development of a farm management plan for an agriculturally-based
community for the rehabilitation of the mentally ill. The availability of labor in these and other special
circumstances in this society, makes the question of how to best use this underemployed labor highly relevant.

50 Abstracts Tuesday

It is hypothesized that the strategic placement and utilization of labor in the system is a critical aspect of the
structuring of the system as it will even out seasonal labor requirements, making labor a feasible substitute
for otherwise costly nonrenewable natural resource inputs.

The management plan calls for a diversified mixed farm in which the non-agricultural components of the farm
landscape utilize a significant pool of labor. These components include perennial bee forages, tree farms,
aquacultural ponds, and woodlots. The non-agricultural management plan seeks to complement the existing
farm management plan by absorbing seasonal labor surpluses resulting from the structuring of the farming
system. Because it targets both spatial and chronological windows of opportunity within the system, the
implementation of the plan is expected to increase the profitability of the whole system. At the same time, the
heterogeneity of enterprises is expected to diminish the needs for chemical insect controls and chemical
fertilizers, and therefore, enhance the sustainability of the system (to be operationally defined with respect to
explicit criteria for marketability).

Trying to test these hypotheses in a whole farm system such as the one proposed raises a series of
methodological issues. Is it possible, for example, to use a whole farm system without replications to learn
about how the various components of the system interact? Given the richness of interactions in such a system,
is it likely that important and significant researchable questions arise that may not fit traditional research
methodologies? How does a researchergo about studying a highly structured and complex system in the most
productive manner? A resolution of some of these methodological issues will contribute to legitimizing on-
farm-whole-farm research, and the contribution of farmers to agricultural research.

49. Cropping Systems Program Design In Liberia:
Constraints, Assumptions and Research Priorities

Daniel J. Davidson, Roland C. Massaquol, Charles K. Mulbah, William K. Massaquol
and Charles A. Francis'

Design of an effective cropping systems research program requires assessment of current constraints to
production and thoughtful choice of assumptions about the future direction of agriculture. These steps
precede rational decisions on research priorities. Based on diagnostic surveys and technical workshops, a
number of broad constraints were identified and include: (1) increasing population pressure and need to
reduce or eliminate the bush/fallow cycle, (2) lack of fertilizers and agrichemicals available to farmers, (3)
natural climatic stress and relatively infertile soils, (4) limited land ownership and guarantees of long-term use
of land, and (5) limited effectiveness of extension.

With these constraints in mind, a number of projections and assumptions were made about the development
of agriculture over the next decade in Liberia. Some of these included: (1) technology must solve farmer's
problems and meet their goals, (2) need to change from traditional bush/fallow to continuous cropping or
controlled fallow, (3) improved systems need to be capital efficient but not capital intensive, (4) current major
food crops will prevail, (5) cropping systems program needs to be flexible and dynamic in design, and (6)
modifications in systems must be ecologically sustainable over the long term.

Within this framework of constraints and assumptions about food production, a program of research was
designed around four prototypes: (1) inland valley flooded rice-based systems, (2) upland rice/cassava-
based systems, (3) tree crops-based systems, and (4) compound of homestead farming systems. Specific
resources available for each system, principal crops and a team of research specialists were identified to plan
the program around a list of initial priorities. Extension/transfer of technology is an integral part of the program
using on-farm research on model farm demonstrations. Program evaluation is also an important part of the
model. Success of the program is dependent on the institute's ability to implement the plan, follow through
on priority projects and offer appropriate professional rewards to scientists for team activities.

The potential consequences of a successful cropping systems research/extension program are increased
food security and greater self sufficiency for Liberia. The potential cost of not implementing the program is
continued emphasis on component research that likely will have minimal impact on farmer's labor productivity
and Liberia's sustainability of food production.

Abstracts Tuesday 51

50. Village Farmers and Farming Systems on the Loess Plateau of China

John M. Obst'

Population pressures and farming techniques have caused massive soil erosion, leading to a dramatically
reduced potential wheat production and the poor socioeconomic status of the village farmers on the Loess
Plateau of China. It is man's challenge to work to restore these eroded areas to a sustainable state of
increased productivity.

It is hypothesized that the way to this sustainable state is through a farming systems approach, where
advantages of both ancient and modem production systems can be balanced to provide a new system,
integrating wheat crops with trees, pasture and livestock to enable long-term production of food, clothing and
housing for people of the Loess Plateau. This is both a biologically and economically efficient way consistent
with the social objectives of the Chinese people.

Surveys of farming systems in the village of Qinyang Prefecture of Gansu Province provided base data on the
socioeconomic status and productivity of village farmers. This data has been analyzed, interpreted and used
for planning research and extension products on research stations and on village farms.

Village farmers were selected to be demonstrators of the cut and carry system of harvesting slopeland tree,
shrub and pasture forage for rabbits or sheep housed under improved management guidelines. The "demo-
farms" are an essential step to convincing the target village farmers to change their ancient farming systems
and adopt the modified "demo-farm" system, which attains both increased farmer profit and reduced soil
erosion on the small area worked by the village farmer.

Government assistance and foreign aid is required to initiate the changes required to sustain the millions of
village farmers living on the large land areas of the Loess Plateau.

51. Characteristics of a Conceptual Model Used to Attach Problems of Sustainable Agriculture

William R. Schmehlr and Luis A. Galaz

The solution of problems of "sustainable agriculture" are often difficult to resolve because of the fuzziness with
which the problem is stated and/or because of the poor definition of the conceptual model proposed for use
in solving the problem. The purpose of this presentation is to briefly introduce general systems concepts, then
explain how these concepts are used to define the model proposed for problem solving.

The general approach followed when attempting to solve a perceived agricultural problem is to analyze the
situation to identify specific problems, then design potential solutions for testing within the boundary of the
problem situation. In this approach, the key to the success of finding an appropriate solution is a correct
statement of the problem situation and accurate conceptual model of the system proposed for use in solving
the problem before proceeding with the design and testing of proposed solutions.

When a problem situation is noted, the observer team states the goal or objective for the proposed output of
the problem solving activity. Then a system that will assist in solving the problem is defined. This includes:
(1) specifying those components of the system that affect output from the system, and that have potential for
adjustment; (2) identifying environmental components that affect output, but must be considered fixed, at least
over the short term; (3) define the boundary of the system; (4) give the input requirements to attain the
proposed output; (5) specify the beneficiaries, both primary and secondary; and (6) identify the controlling
mechanism for the system. The hierarchy level of the system is also relevant. The system, thusly defined,
provides the conceptual model or guide needed to proceed to the subsequent steps. The model may be
revised as new information is obtained.

52 Abstracts Tuesday

Tuesday, October 16
10:30 a.m. 12:00 noon

Moderator: Mary Andrews

52. Whole Farm Planning and Record Keeping In the Caribbean

Duane E. Erickson'

The purpose of this paper is to discuss experiences resulting from work with the Caribbean Agricultural
Extension Project in 1986, 1987 and 1988. Four windward and four leeward islands were involved in the
USAID/Midwest University Consortium of International Activities and the University of the West Indies, St.
Augustine, Trinidad project.

Procedures used in developing the extension staff capabilities to complete the whole farm planning were:

1. Sondeos, or needs assessment studies, were conducted in each of the demonstration
districts on the eight islands.

2. A sondeo report was completed pointing to the major problems encountered by farmers
and agricultural infrastructure.

3. The next step was to develop a plan of work to deal with major problems. Noted was the
need for improved decision making tools for farmers. The result was the expressed need
for a farming system or a farm management training program.

4. A first round of training in enterprise cost analysis was completed in 1986-1987 for the
extension leadership of all eight islands. Second, a whole farm planning and management
workshop was held for a similar group one year later.

5. A follow-up management workshop was held for each one of the participating island
demonstration district staffs in both the enterprise analysis and the whole farm planning
area. A farmexample exercise was completed for each one of the islands for use in the

6. The follow-up to these workshops was farmer contact with 230 farmers.Enterprise records
were completed in the first year. During the second year, the whole farm planning data
was obtained from participating farmers.

7. Extension staff were involved in evaluation on checking the results of data gathered by
farmers. This stage reflected the need for a good farm business record.

8. Field staff consultations were made to determine the reliability of data obtained. Also, help
was provided in using devices to cross check the information.

9. Final farmer meetings were used to report results to the individual participating farmers.
Group averages by farming systems were discussed and farmer questions were raised.

Farm records have been the focus of a number of groups in the windward islands. Efforts have been made
to improve records through the years. Dr. Carlisle Pemberton of the University of West Indies, St. Augustine,
member of the Caribbean Agricultural Extension Project staff, developed records during 1987, 1988, and
1989. The farm business record was needed to improve information used in enterprise budgets and the
development of income, cash flow and net worth statements.

Abstracts Tuesday 53

In general, the long run development and use of farm record information follows a number of steps:

1. A farm record book or recording process must be developed.

2. The proposed record must be field tested with a group of farmers. Field test results will
encourage the development of and changes in the initial instrument. Farmers need to be
encouraged to record physical production data and financial data. Both sets of data can
be used for enterprise and whole farm analysis.

3. Development of summary procedures is essential for farmer feedback with cooperating

4. Supervision of and follow-up on educational programs are essential for the long-run
maintenance of a viable farm record program. Microcomputer spreadsheets are essential
ingredients of island by island summary and analysis.

5. Maintaining the system over a period of years requires staff and allocation of funds over
a number of years. Farmer advisory committees are essential in long-term financial and
moral support.

53. Extension Management Assistance Teams: A Farm Survival Plan for Michigan Farmers

William Hamilton'

Extension Management Assistance Teams (EMAT) were developed in Michigan in 1986 after a disastrous
rainstorm swept the mid-section of Michigan. This storm caused wide-spread devastation to crop and
livestock farms.

At this same time, the Agricultural Economy was going into a severe downturn. Commodity prices were low,
asset values were declining and lenders were calling the loans on many farms.

Following these two events, Michigan experienced a dry growing season in 1987 and then a severe drought
in 1988. These events caused major problems for farm families.

Michigan State University Cooperative Extension Service responded by forming teams of Extension Agents
to assist farmers and farm families to cope with the disastrous situation which existed.

A sizeable grant from the Michigan Legislature enabled the EMAT teams to develop and implement plans to
assist farm families in farm financial analysis, family budgeting, and maximum utilization of the resources of
the farm. These program enable many farms to survive these crisis.

54. Creating an Environment of Improved Farm and Home Management: An Example of Extension
from the Caribbean

Carlisle A. Pemberton'

This paper will argue that a Farm and Home Management extension approach is the sustainable format for
Farming Systems Research and Extension, since it involves the continuous solution of farmer problems and
the eventual upliftment of the skills of farmers so that they will be in a position to make the correct decisions
that will lead to the maximization of welfare of their families.

Extension has a key role to play, however, to bring about the utilization of Farm and Home Management by
farmers in developing countries. For many good reasons, these farmers have developed traditional methods
of handling their problems. However, where new developments can be blended into the traditional way, to

54 Abstracts Tuesday

improve the livelihood of the people, they should be pursued. Farm and Home Management, since it is suited
to even the most traditional settings, has great potential to make a direct impact in the improvement of rural
households. Extension, with its emphasis on the human aspects of agriculture, is best suited to implement
such an approach.

What the paper will do is to detail the progress in some of the smaller islands of the Caribbean with a program
to implement a Farm and Home Management Extension approach in two projects funded by USAID, CAEP,
the Caribbean Agricultural Extension Project and its successor project, AREP, the Agricultural Research and
Extension Project. The emphasis will be on the ways in which an attempt is being made to create an
environment for the successful implementation of the approach.

55. Supporting the Farmer as Manager: The Role of Extension

Torbln Petersen"

This is an abstract to look briefly at the present situation of small-scale farmers in Bangladesh, understand
their constraints versus access and cost level of basic farm inputs, and the long felt need for new initiatives
and practices aiming at self-reliance under more diversified farming systems.

A brief introduction to LWS/RDRS work in Bangladesh will focus on three generations of agricultural
development strategies leading from refugee settlement assistance to current comprehensive development

Examples of group activities will be discussed to see how new ideas and group collaboration are helping
farmers in a down-to-earth way to ease out of elitist domination, come to grasp with and find strength in new
productions and technologies and, on the women's side, reach for a long-denied social and economic status.

More specifically, the presentation will center around:

Trends of agriculture and development in Bangladesh
Introduction to LWS/RDRS
Focus on agricultural extension
Three generations of development strategies
The art of farming and living on one acre
A farm family's budget
Managing under constraints
traditional elite dominance
women's deprivations
helping women gain status and respect
Empowering through new technologies
simplicity in diversity
federating the groups
basics becoming locally available
self-supplied communities
Self-reliance in the group context
stronger voice
better protected interests
new technology reaches
Family health and earning power in new practices
group credit
tree nursery farmers
fish nursery farmers
bee centers
animal health workers

Abstracts Tuesday 55

Tuesday, October 16
2:00 p.m. 4:00 p.m.

Moderator: Bob Deans

56. On the Profitability of Animal Traction for Peasant Farmers In West-Africa:
Evidences from Mall

Akin A. Adeslna' and Sanogo Diakalla

Animal traction introduction to farmers in West-Africa started in the twentieth century, with more significant
impacts in Francophone West-Africa. Adoption rates have been low and recent studies have focused on
explaining the reasons for the low adoption rates. Among the factors are: high initial investment costs,
inappropriately designed equipment, high mortality rates for traction animals, low utilization rates in
agricultural operations, long learning curves, high labor demands for using animal traction and labor
bottlenecks between ploughing and planting.

This study presents new evidence on the profitability of animal traction in West-Africa Semi-Arid Tropics using
data from three agro-ecological zones of Mali. The paper argues that animal traction is increasingly being
adopted only in the zones where a significant cash crop (cotton) base exists, and where development agencies
exist for the administration of credit, animal traction training and maintenance and marketing of output. The
paper shows that farmers in non-cotton production zones of Mali cannot afford the investment costs in animal
traction implements due to cash flow problems and low expected returns to adopting animal traction. The
study asserts that in the absence of cash based cropping systems, learning curves are longer, expected
returns to animal traction use are lower and risks of default on equipment credit are higher. The results
reinforce the argument that animal traction should be promoted mainly in regions where agro-ecological factors
(rainfall, length of growing season, and better soils) permit high utilization rates and profitability due to
presence of significant cash crop based cropping systems.

Using weekly farm-level data collected during 12 months of intensive village level study in Mali, yield and
production functions were estimated to determine the impacts of various factors on cereal output for manual
and oxen tillage households. The factors are household labor, hired labor, oxen hours, level of equipment,
and the use of organic manures. This work improves on earlier specifications in the literature, in that total labor
was decomposed into family and hired labor hours in order to determine their differential impacts on production
and the marginal rates of technical substitution between disaggregated labor components and oxen hours.

Based on crop budgets for manual and oxen traction households, linear programming models were
constructed to determine the impacts of animal traction on labor use (by sex and age groupings), cropping
patterns, household food security positions, labor productivities and household incomes. The model for the
manual tillage households was then calibrated to allow for the option to own (on credit) combinations of animal
traction equipment. Multi-year net cash flows were generated using LOTUS 1-2-3 and analysis performed
to determine financial viabilities of animal traction use. Sensitivity analysis are then performed on the rates
of interest on equipment investment, alternative rates of utilization of oxen traction, possibility of increasing
area in cotton to pay investment costs, and expansion in cultivated areas.

57. Farmers' Innovations for Sustainable Agriculture: The Use of Cow and Donkey as Traction
Animals In Communal (Peasant) Sector of Zimbabwe, A Case

Vishnubhotla L. Prasad', K. Marovanldze and P. Nyathl

Thanks to liberation war and recurrent droughts, the low population growth of cattle did not match the demand
for draft power in the communal sector of Zimbabwe. The prolonged dry season proceeding the agricultural
season further aggravated the problem by entailing a weak draft pool due to inadequate nutrition. The

56 Abstracts Tuesday

communal farmers responded to the challenge with ingenuity by putting cows and donkeys to work on their

The present study, a part of a multi-phased FSR/E project, addresses the issues pertaining to "animal draft"
and examines the implications of farmers' practices/decisions on the sustainability of crop and animal

The paper draws heavily on the data of a survey, and to a lesser extent on two on-station trials--a long term,
in-progress study on the effect of traction stress on the fertility of cattle, and another on the feeding of crop
residues for improved draft power.

An in-depth survey was conducted on 95 communal farming households with the help of pre-tested, pre-coded
and structured questionnaire schedules. The farmers were drawn from the three natural zones, III, IV and V-
-representing the arid tracts of the country.

Across natural zones, 34 percent of the households used "oxen only" while the remaining 66 percent used
a mix of oxen, donkeys and cows in one combination or the other. The proportion of oxen in draft teams
decreased and that of donkeys plus cows increased as one moved from region III to V (p < 0.01). Similarly
there is a difference in the composition of draft teams vis a vis the size of cultivated land. Also, there were
significant (p < 0.05) differences between the households using bovines (oxen, or oxen and cows) and those
of bovines and equines in terms of agronomic yields and number of hours ploughed.

The study has shown that by increasing the draft biomass through the addition of donkeys, the farmers in harsh
ecological zones could spread the risk and achieve agronomic yields.

The implications of using donkeys in promoting the offtake of meat cattle from communal sector, in protecting
the fertility of cows from traction stress, on the restructuring of herds and in meeting the power needs of a
traction-deficient economy, thereby sustaining the crop and animal agriculture in a low input system, are

58. Sustainable Buffalo Production In Haryana, India

S. P. Singal'r and K. L. Arora

Haryana is a small densely populated farming state located in the northern plains of India at the foothills of
the Himalayas. It is composed of diverse agro-climatic regions, cultures, and livestock husbandry practices.
About 80% of its population lives in villages as small farmers, who depend upon a small acreage of land and
a few heads of cattle fortheir subsistence. These farmers largely depend upon rain for agricultural production
and practice centuries-old mixed farming or integrated farming systems. One very important component of
sustainable animal farming system includes the utilization of crop residues, wastes and by-products for
feeding ruminants. Murrah buffalo, a milch animal, is the predominant species of cattle in the state and it
contributes 60-70% of the total milk production. In general, buffalo production is complimentary to crop
production in an integrated fashion; the farmers depend upon them heavily for their day-to-day lifestyle
because of the fact they provide food, fuel, fertilizer, animal power, and cash income. The buffalo milk and
milk products have long been the preferred traditional food in this state because of its predominantly
vegetarian population. Many people love buffalo milk because of its taste, higher fat content, and overall total
solid content. This state is blessed with the best nucleus of this breed and supplies animals throughout the
world. Buffalo raising has very positive effects on the health and socioeconomic status of the people and
consequently on rural development. The conservation of buffaloes, therefore, is of great importance to the
welfare of the farmers in this area.

Most of the tasks performed on the farms are manual and the use of modem farm machinery is very limited
and practically non-accessible to the small and limited-resource farmers. Therefore, the participation of family
members in performing various agricultural tasks is essential for their survival. By tradition, the buffaloes are
usually looked after by the womenfolk, the elderly, and the children. The family labor income from the buffaloes

Abstracts Tuesday 57

has been reported to be Rs. 1150 ($72) per annum per person. In view of high family labor absorption in dairy
enterprise on small farms, which is about 92% of the total labor in dairy enterprise, any effort to enhance buffalo
production would not only provide an opportunity for greater family labor absorption, but also generate
additional income for the mostly unemployed womenfolk who are mainly entrusted with the day-to-day chores
of livestock raising. It has been estimated that 85% of the routine livestock management tasks are performed
by the womenfolk. A typical day for them starts with the milking of animals, preparation of breakfast for the
family, cleaning sheds, processing cow-dung into cakes for fuel, processing milk to prepare yogurt, butter,
buttermilk, and in the evening, feeding animals, milking, and chaffing of green fodder. This may include selling
a portion of milk for cash income.

In spite of their economic importance, the buffaloes are known for low productivity through late maturity,
seasonal breeding, weak estrus and anestrus conditions, and long calving intervals. Poor nutrition, high
ambient temperature, poor management, and inadequate reproductive health control measures have been
incriminated as some of the contributing causes. The research scientists and extension specialists are making
concerted efforts to improve productivity of this species. The authors have observed during the past few years
that 70-75% of the breedable buffaloes in the villages had reproductive problems of one type or another, which
could be corrected by various simple managemental and therapeutic measures.

This study funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) focused on the small
and marginal farmers, who keep buffaloes for their subsistence, and, the womenfolk of this area who act as
invisible farmers and predominate agriculture and animal production. The constraints faced by the womenfolk
relating to the technological advance were fully evaluated because of their dual (domestic and farming)
responsibilities. Often, they are not in position to adopt labor intensive and time consuming agriculture and
animal innovations. From our extensive studies on the soil-plants-animals relationship under different agro-
climate zones of the Haryana State, the authors have recommended various strategies to the farmers on
nutrition and day-to-day care of the buffaloes for enhancing and sustaining their productivity, the training of
the farmers, particularly the womenfolk, in livestock management technologies is one of the most pressing
needs in the villages.

59. Rate of Technology Adoption for Smallholder Sheep and Goat Farmers:
The Utility of Learning Curves to Explain Technology of Adoption Rates

Patrick J. Ludgate and Tjeppy D. Soedjanna'

This paper proposed a model to explain the differential adoption rates and the comparative increased
productivity in small ruminant production associated with smallholderf armers adopting key animal management
strategies as presented by an on-farm research team. This model used field data collected from the Outreach
Pilot Project farmers, who recently completed theirfifth year of collaborative research and development of new
or improved production technologies.

A comparison was made between traditional animal management techniques and their associated produc-
tivity level with more complex animal management strategies that have been demonstrated to be more
effective and profitable. This paper compares the learning curves of the smallholder farmers who adopted
the new technologies, their rate of adoption with the other project farmers and provides an explanation of
several of the major constraints related to adopting the more complex technologies. The socioeconomic
context of how the smallholder farmer resource allocations are determined are discussed. The utility of the
on-farm (learn by doing) research model was also validated.

Purpose. This paper addresses researchers involved in on-farm research related to technology testing and
development for small scale, family farmers engaged in sheep and goat production. This research was
focused on improving the traditional methods of on-station animal production research by demonstrating the
value of village level farmer-researcher interaction and collaborative technology development.

Methods. This paper used data collected monthly over the past five years from 46 smallholder sheep and
goat farmers in West Java, Indonesia. The data includes biological data from over 400 animals, socioeco-
nomic data of the farm families and the adoption rates of the project farmers.

58 Abstracts Tuesday

Results. Over the course of the outreach project, the majority of the farmers (90%), initially characterized by
small flocks (2-5 animals) and traditional management practices, are now managing flocks of 5-10 animals
(50%) and more than 10 head (41%). Particularly important are the higher productivity levels in the medium
and larger flock sizes. Other productivity parameters, i.e. lambing intervals and lamb mortality rates indicate
clearly that smallholder farmers can manage larger, more productive herds.

Moderator: Susan Smalley

60. Informal Research With Farmers: The Practice and Prospects In the Hills of Nepal

S. P. Chand', B. D. Gurung and Peter G. Rood

There is much evidence that world food production has increased considerably over the years due to the use
of modem farming methods in response to agricultural research recommendations. However, most benefits
of agricultural research have been realized by farmers of the developed countries and resource-rich farmers'
of the developing countries.

Agricultural research programs concerned with small farmers in developing countries have well-established
criteria, such as yield increase or disease resistance, for breeding improved varieties. However, small farmers
do not adopt a recommended variety or technology if it fails to meet their economic or sociocultural
requirements; conversely farmers sometimes adopt what researchers may consider inferior technologies.
Small farmers develop and apply their own criteria in the context of their goals and strategies for achieving
family welfare through management of limited resources.

Considering the farmer as a researcher, Pakhribas, a multi-disciplinary Agricultural Center in the Eastern Hills
of Nepal, initiated an informal research program in the farmer's field. The main purposes of this informal
research are: (1) to involve farmers in evaluating varieties for themselves under whatever management
conditions they may consider appropriate. Therefore, all management decisions such as when and where
to plant, and acceptance and rejection of the crop/varieties is left up to the farmers; (2) to get feedback from
farmers to further improve/modify technology; and (3) to reach to more farmers with very low cost. The
program is carried out by providing small seed packs of various crops and varieties suitable for range of agro-
climatic conditions to a cross spectrum of farmers covering different castes and gender.

Informal research has been found effective in spreading proven and fairly new technology/variety to wider
areas and a larger population in the remote hills. More importantly it acts as a strong means of receiving
feedback from farmers who are often not reached through conventional research and or extension systems.

After harvest, the farmers' are asked informally about the performance of seed pack in terms of its adoptability,
disease/pests incidence, and the extent of farmers to farmers exchange of seed.

This paper will examine the role of informal research, in terms of its complementary relationship to formal
research, how it differs with conventional nationally adopted mini-kit programs, its potential for increasing
adoptability in the remote hills of Nepal and possibilities of its incorporation into the National Agriculture
Research Systems.

61. Farmer Participation In Research and Extension:
Nitrogen Response by Cereals In Crop Rotations

Charles A. Francis', Alan Franzluebbers, Doug DIttman, Don Sander, James W. King and Alex

Potential farmer participation in research and extension programs can go far beyond providing a field site or
sitting on a panel at the winter meetings. Maize, sorghum and wheat producers in Nebraska were full members

Abstracts Tuesday 59

of the research team that examined nitrogen response by cereals in crop rotations in 1988 and 1989. From
interpretation of deep profile soil test results to choice of nitrogen levels to conduct replicated field
comparisons, farmers shared ownership of the experiments in 45 locations in the eastern part of the state.
University technicians assisted in collection of samples, design of trials, collection of data during the season
and at harvest. The data were analyzed on campus, and results and response curves sent back to farmer
participants without interpretation or recommendations. At a series of eight extension meetings the results
were presented and farmers asked to design their own nitrogen recommendations from the response data.
Their conclusions were that continuous corn, sorghum and wheat would respond economically to 90 to 160
pounds N/acre, depending on conditions. In contrast, there was little or no economic response to nitrogen
when cereals followed alfalfa, sweet clover, clover or soybean--most farmers agreed that an insurance
application of 40 to 80 pounds N/acre would be advisable. This participatory approach was compared to more
conventional teaching methods used in current conventional extension meetings in Nebraska. The field
research and meetings were financed in part by the Nebraska Department of Energy with overcharge funds.

62. Seeking for a Cost Effective Way of Getting Feedback from Farmers:
Minikits Experience In Cameroon

Marc Samatana and Dermot McHugh

During the past few years, feedback of farmers' assessment of technologies being tested on-farm has been
recognized as being extremely important in the process of setting priorities and planning research. In this
respect, many approaches have been used. Many of them require heavy funding and highly trained staff. With
their restricted budgets, national institutions in third world countries cannot sustain such programs.

To address this constraint, The TLU (Testing and Laison Unit) Bambui initiated the minikit trials approach.
The minikit is a trial-in-a-bag, of simple design to facilitate its implementation by under-trained staff, and
inexpensive to operate. The primary objective is to obtain qualitative information such as farmers' preferences
more than quantitative data such as yields.

The TLU has been running minikit maize trials since 1983. Since then, several timely modifications have been
made in the design and implementation of minikit trials. But the system still needs some amendment, which
can be achieved by closer follow up and better training of the implementors. In this paper, the authors describe
the "TLU-Bambui maize minikit trial" approach, discuss its usefulness and suggest ways to improve it.

63. Evaluation of Cassava Varieties for Sustainable Agriculture In the
Kasangulu Zone of Bas-Zaire

Llanabo Simba*

The paper examines farmer-based evaluation of three cassava varieties developed by the cassava outreach
project (PRONAM): KIN UANI, FIOO, 40230/3 and the local variety and recommended forthe Kasangulu Zone
of Bas-Zaire.

A sample of thirty farmers of different sex, ethnic origins, religions, and various family sizes were selected as
partners of the PRONAM research team. Tools such as modified stability analysis, farmers' opinion on the
yield performance and quality of products, the index of acceptability, and economic value of products were
used for the analysis.

Varieties FIOO and KINUANI were recommended to poor and average environments, whereas the newly
selected variety 40230/3 was suitable only for very good environments.

Yield characteristics such as a minimum number and size of cassava tubers were pointed out by farmers to
be very important for adoption, especially for processing and marketing purposes.A graphic and econometric
model presenting the relationship between on-station research, farming systems research and economic
aspects is discussed.

60 Abstracts Tuesday

64. The Integration of Farmer-Based and Researcher-Based Methods for
Selection of Beans In Rwanda

Louise Sperling*

This paper discusses a program within the National Institute of Agronomic Sciences of Rwanda which
integrates researcher-based and farmer-based methods in bean varietal selection. Farmer seed experts are
brought onto the central research station to exchange knowledge directly with breeders and pathologists and
then to choose which varieties will be tested on their own farms. Four seasons of on-farm testing (in farmer-
designed trials) have shown that women farmers have a high success rate in selecting materials from on-
station plots which perform well under their more stressful conditions. Where varieties chosen by researchers
may outperform the local bean mixtures in some 25% of the cases, those selected by farmers did so in 60-
80% of the trials. While initially seed experts chose cultivars destined only for testing on their own plots, they
now select a range of seeds which they expect to be appropriate for the diverse conditions of their entire
community. The creation of such a program has demanded methodological advances, organizational
changes, but most of all philosophical reorientations in the perspectives of researchers, individual farmers and
communities as to their respective roles in agricultural research.

Moderator: George Bird

65. The Role of Farmers In the Evaluation of an Improved Variety: The Case of S35 Sorghum In
Northern Cameroon

Martin T. Fobasso*, John T. Russell and Mulumba Kamuanga

Efforts to develop high-yielding, stable, and early-maturing grain sorghum varieties in the Extreme North
Province of Cameroon produced an apparent resounding success with the first on-farm test of the variety S35
in 1984 and its release to farmers in 1986. During the extreme drought year 1984, S35 greatly out-yielded
traditional local varieties and proved more stable across environments than these varieties. These results
caused great excitement and led to S35 being rapidly recommended to the regional development agency for
extension. Following three subsequent years of on-farm testing under more favorable rainfall conditions, it
became apparent, by the fact that adoption of intensive production of S35 never exceeded 700 ha in any year
- that the variety, while indeed stable and high yielding, had serious agronomic problems, including
susceptibility to grain mold, bird damage and lodging, and required (according to farmers) unfamiliar cultural
practices. An acceptability survey conducted in 1987 indicated the extent of adoption among farmers who
had participated in on-farm tests from 1984 to 1986. Subsequent surveys in 1988 over the entire extreme north
province revealed not only socioeconomic constraints to adoption but also some farmer-initiated strategies
for incorporating S35 into theirtraditional mixed cropping systems. This feedback rom farmers to the sorghum
breeding program, through the national agronomic research institute's Testing and Liaison Unit and the
regional development agency, is now the basis for reorienting sorghum research activities in order better to
respond to farmers' needs.

66. Integrating FPR with Conventional On-Farm Research Programs:
One Example from Botswana

Geoffrey M. Helnrich', Frederick D. Worman and C. Koketso

Farmer participatory research (FPR) approaches are being developed because of the recognized need for
more direct farmer input in the agriculture development process. However, agricultural research and

Abstracts Tuesday 61

extension systems already exist in most countries, and have a vital role for both technology development and
policy implementation. Thus practical systems are required for integrating FPR approaches into more
conventional institutional settings. The purpose of this paper is to present an attempt to develop one such

The example presented was developed by an on-farm research (OFR) team, in the Francistown region of
Botswana. It was targeted for dryland crop production research and evolved overthe past six years. The OFR
system that developed was composed of the three sections described below:

1. Researcher-led farmer groups (RLFGs). The RLFGs were composed of farmers, re-
searchers and extension agents. Farmers were self-selected but represented most
sectors of the farming community. The structure and operational methods employed by
the RLFGs are outlined in the paper, but in brief, the group format provided an efficient
forum for the planning, implementation and evaluation of joint research activities. In
addition, the ease with which technologies could be moved into this testing format
allowed the OFR program to be very responsive to the needs of both farmers and on-
station commodity research programs. Farmer participation also greatly expanded the
research capacity of the OFR program (e.g., in 1988-89, 130 farmers in 3 RLFGs
implemented over 140 valid comparisons on a range of 9 different technology options).
The RLFG activities consumed approximately 40% of program resources.

2. Researcher managed trials program. This section of the program was used to examine
technologies that would require high levels of farmer inputs (or expensive machinery),
for studies involving complex systems comparisons, or where hard technical data
(economic or agronomic) was required. Trials were researcher designed and managed,
and either researcher or farmer implemented. They were typically implemented using
conventional trial designs. This section of the program focused primarily on overcoming
major production constraints within the region. Because of the managerial responsibilities,
this section of the program occupied roughly 50 percent of researcher time.

3. Extension-led farmer groups (ELFGs). The ELFGs were initiated as an attempt to
increase the efficiency of extension agents (through working with groups of farmers
instead of individuals), to increase farmer participation in the extension process, and to
provide a forum for researcher backup in regional extension activities. The groups were
again composed of farmers, extension agents and researchers. Farmers suggested
topics of interest, extension provided various recommended technology options, and
farmers selected options for testing that fit their individual resource constraints (e.g.,
where farmers were interested in row planting, several different equipment options would
be presented). Farmers then conducted tests of these options. The ELFGs met monthly
to discuss the trials and allow for back up from extension and research where problems
were encountered. Field days were held, where farmer participants presented their trial
work to farmers outside the ELFGs. This approach allowed individual farmers to test and
adopt technologies suited to their resources, and resulted in farmers teaching other

Summary and Conclusions. The three part system that developed allowed the OFR team to conduct both
conventional, technical research on breaking regional production constraints, and adaptive research on a
wide range of technology options with a high degree of farmer participation. It also increased the volume of
technologies that could be examined, enhanced the responsiveness of OFR teams to the needs of farmers
and on-station research teams, and increased the integration of research and extension in the technology
evolution process.

The implementation of this OFR system indicated that FPR approaches could be successfully employed in
conventional, institutional settings. It also suggested that increased participation by farmers could greatly
enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of research and extension systems.

62 Abstracts Tuesday

67. Farmer Participation In On-Farm Trials: The Case of Lowland Rice In Southern Senegal

Joshua L. Posner*, Eric W. Crawford and Mulumba Kamuanga

This paper describes how farmer participation contributed to the design and implementation of on-farm trials
conducted in southern Senegal from 1982-86. The trials were part of a larger research program conducted
by a multidisciplinary FSR/E team composed of Senegalese and expatriate scientists. The paper focuses
specifically on the role of farmer participation in implementing the on-farm trials and developing recom-
mendations. The paper analyzes several research themes for rainfed lowland rice: varietal evaluation, weed
control options, fertilizer application and sequential planting of sweet potatoes after rice harvest.

After a reconnaissance phase in early 1982, the FSR/E team in Lower Casamance established a 10-village
agroeconomic survey program and an on-farm technology testing program. Farmer responses obtained in
informal surveys were used to determine the chief production constraints addressed in the on-farm trials and
formal surveys, the crop varieties of interest to farmers and the on-farm trial sites. As usual, the primary
objective of the on-farm trials was to identify the conditions underwhich given technologies would work. Since
the technologies had already proven effective on-station, the emphasis was on adaptive research--fitting the
technology to local circumstances.

Compared to on-station trials, on-farm trials are subject to considerable variation in farmer management
practices and agroclimatic conditions (typical of the tropical environment). The formulation of valid
recommendations thus required the FSR/E team to work closely with farmers to identify and characterize
experimental sites, quantify farmers' management practices and evaluate trial results with farmers.

Experience gained in these trials confirms the importance of farmer participation in trials implementation.
Stratification by site characteristics was crucial in developing recommendations for all four technologies, while
quantifying management inputs proved to be the key in clarifying the weed control results. Farmers' evaluation
of the varietal trials, herbicide work, use of animal traction to row-seed rice and sequential seeding of sweet
potatoes resulted in more viable recommendations, and led to limited but immediate adoption of these

68. Biological Recycle Farming In the People's Republic of China:
The Doudlan Village Experiment

Cheng Xu* and James R. Simpson

An explanation is provided of why and how one group of researchers in a Chinese village came to focus on
what the authors call biological recycle farming. An explanation of applied agricultural research in China is
provided. One conclusion reached is that application of research at the village level was largely successful
because it was found on community development principles. Another conclusion is that food production in
very marginal Chinese villages can be increased significantly. While the alternative approach discussed
cannot be exported wholesale to many other countries of the world, the concepts are very useful for
international economic and agricultural development.

Abstracts Tuesday 63

Moderator: Rita Gallin

69. Labour Allocation Pattern In Farm Families In Respect of
Resource Poor Farmers In Coastal West Bengal

Shanti Chakravorty', Sri Debasish Panda and SarbanI Chakravorty

There are many field studies to show that women's participation in rainfed farming systems is quite significant.
In coastal West Bengal, they work in both rice and vegetable farming. Women's activities extend from the
preparation of seed beds to storage of grains/seeds, except ploughing. Participation varies in degrees in
different operations from place to place. But women's work is not properly reported due to many prevailing
socioeconomic factors. Many changes which are taking place silently in the nature of work participation by
both men and women due to soci-political and economic changes also go unnoticed. As a result, there is no
clear perception of the labour use pattern in the resource poor farm families between men, women and
children, as well as between the hired labour and unpaid family labour.

The paper will provide an overview of the labour allocation pattern in resource poor farm families in coastal
West Bengal and will analyze, particularly, the women's work participation in the farming systems. The paper
is based on the data collected over a year between September 1988 to December 1989.

Data were collected from 6 villages in 3 coastal districts of the state. This provided the scope to study the
socioeconomic variables in the same agro-climatic zone influencing the labour use pattern between men and
women. Methods used for the study were observation and interviews with the farm families. Data were
collected daily and recorded. On the basis of the analysis of these data, some general trends are noticed about
the labour allocation by sex and age, seasonal variations in labour allocation, relationship between the
introduction of a technology and labour participation, variations in labour use according to crops, etc. These
have implications for designing future agro-based socioeconomic research plans.

70. Methodology for Incorporating Gender Concerns Into On-Farm Research:
A Nigerian Experience

M. A. Jabbar"

An on-farm research project was started in 1982 in southwest Nigeria to test the adaptability and farmer
acceptance of alley farming. This technology involves interplanting legume trees and food crops in rows and
using part of the nitrogen rich foliage as mulch for soil conservation and fertility enhancement and part as
protein-rich feed for small ruminants. Very few women established alley farms in the initial years. A number
of hypotheses were postulated to explain the phenomena, the most important one stated that the research
scientists and the extension agent were all males, the initial contact in the villages were males, so a serious
lack of communication with the women might have kept them away from the project. This was remedied
through the employment of a woman in 1985 with research and extension responsibilities. Eventually the
number of women alley farmers dramatically increased and their level of management was comparable to that
of men. This success story has been widely reported and quoted.

A recent investigation revealed two things. First, although most women in the area participate in farming
activities, very few are independent farmers. So, establishment of independent alley farms by women was
an inappropriate criteria for judging the level of women's participation. Second, most of the women alley
farmers abandoned their alley farms after the researcher had left the villages after two years of work, while
few women who originally joined the project were still active. The reason is that the woman researcher pursued
most of her activities separately from the core research team and used quite different methods of contact,
information dissemination and farmer organization, most of which were not practicable and replicable.
Consequently, efforts by the research team to integrate those special women alley farmers into the main
project was unsuccessful.

64 Abstracts Tuesday

The lesson to be learnt is that greater participation of women in the technology diffusion-adoption process
should be sought because of their involvement in farming activities and that this should be done within the
framework of a team rather than as individual or special approach which may not have good replicability.

71. Transformation of Himalayan Subsistence Agriculture and Women's Work: A Village Study
from Tehrl Garhwal, Uttar Pradesh, India

Manjarl Mehta'

The research emerges out of a perceived neglect of traditional coarse grain and rain-fed mountain farming
systems in general and gender issues in particular. These lacunae beg reconsideration in light of new hill
policy directives encouraging commercial agriculture in resource-rich regions in the hill districts of Uttar
Pradesh. Fieldwork examined how women's agricultural labor, participation in decision making and status is
affected by the transition from subsistence to cash crop agriculture. A combination of quantitative and
qualitative methodologies were used to conduct preliminary inter-village surveys and an in-depth village
study. Key issues, with specific reference to women, included how new cropping patterns have affected the
traditional forest agriculture relationship, impact on animal husbandry strategies, and emergence of new
dependencies on the market. The objective was to identify the cultural, economic and political forces operating
at the household and community levels which are redefining (and, in some instances, reinforcing) gender
relations and women's access to the market economy. Processes of agricultural change and monetization
of village economies highlight important distinctions between hills and plains agro-ecological systems, on the
one hand, and women's positions in the agrarian economy, on the other. Unlike other areas, new cropping
patterns have not altered traditional sexual divisions of labor or encouraged the use of new technologies (other
than HYV seeds and chemical fertilizers) and men are not playing a more active role in agricultural production.
As the village economy becomes more dependent on cash to meet an overexpanding array of needs and
expectations, older patterns of male migration have been reinforced. As men withdraw from agricultural work
and become more involved in remunerated off-farm activities (both in local and external labor markets),
women bear the main burdens of increased workloads. However, their contributions in generating a sizable
portion of household incomes through agricultural work is devalued in relation to what men do and is rendered
"invisible." In addition, men's mediatory roles vis a vis institutions, services and personnel of the "outside"
world are further strengthened as the use of purchased agricultural inputs increases. These trends reinforce
women's dependence on men. Since longer term viability of commercial agriculture will continue to be based
on the exploitation of women's labor, efforts must be made to enable them to be effective de facto managers
of agricultural production. It is crucial that their work roles and the constraints they experience be identified
for training, support and access to resources. Key constraints include those on women's mobility (limiting
participation in the market economy), structure of domestic networks (circumscribing women's autonomy and
decision making), and migration patterns (enabling men to return frequently and to keep control of typically
"male" activities).

72. Role of Women, Intra-Household Behavior and Introduction of New Agricultural Technologies
In Burkina Faso

Sunder Ramaswamy'

The objective of the paper is to assess the impact of new agricultural technologies on the economic status
of women within a farming household in the Sahel.

In much of West Africa, a typical farm household is a group of 'conjugal units' with about 15 members there
is the household head, his wives, his sons and their wives and the children. There have been a number of
documented instances on various intra-household trades between household members thus leading us to
believe that a state of cooperation as a familial unit in conjunction with conflicts of interest between the genders
is quite natural and has to be modeled in order to understand the microeconomic behavior of these economic

Abstracts Tuesday

In the Solenzo region of Burkina Faso, one of the more interesting aspects of the farming system is the
demarcation between collective land and private plots. Crop production, except for grain legumes, is almost
entirely concentrated on collective fields. Members of the family household use the private plots to produce
a small amount of cereals (mainly red sorghum), some grain legumes and vegetables for dietary and cash
purposes. The household head dictates by fiat, the amount of labor required on the collective lands to meet
the farm's minimum consumption requirement and cash requirement from crop sales. Once the members
satisfy their labor obligation on the collective fields, they are free to cultivate their private plots and the incomes
accruing from the crop sales need not be shared with other family members. Women, in addition to cultivating
the collective fields and private plots, contribute heavily to the general livelihood of the farm household.

As new agricultural technologies are introduced, there is growing pressure on the farm household for
increased labor demands to perform various time intensive activities. Since hiring of labor is not a common
practice, the household head has to mobilize female (and male) labor of the household members by
compensating them adequately. He recognizes that the mobilization of female labor is essential and also, that
her input is conditional on the compensation paid out. The women realize that by working these extra hours
on the collective fields they could earn more than what they would by producing and selling cereals and
vegetables on their private plots. The demands on the woman's labor increases and she is forced to allocate
labor away from her private plots in favor of collective field cultivation. The imputed value of her household
work increases. As the farm income increases, the males become richer and able to get more wives a sign
of social prestige. This results in younger wives devoting more time to household chores and upbringing of
children while the older wives spend more time on producing food crops. These preliminary conclusions are
compared to field surveys, and over the last few years there is a definite trend of declining female participation
on private plots as a result of new technologies such as animal traction, use of micro-tractors, use of fertilizers
on maize, and sorghum and cotton being introduced in the region. Farm incomes have markedly increased
and the women have also benefitted in the process.

The paper utilizes a programming model to solve the decision problem of representative farm households in
the Solenzo region of Burkina Faso. Although the study is region specific, the methodology used can be easily
duplicated for other regions and the conclusions have an universal appeal for those interested in gender
issues, household behavior and farming systems.

73. Rural Women In Irrigated and Ralnfed Rice Farming In the Philippines:
Decision-Making Involvement and Accessibility to Productive Resources

Dibya TImsina', Artemia L. Ferrer, Bart Duff and Thelma Paris

Women are greatly involved in rice farming activities but are not reasonably accessible to productive
resources (credit, labor, and technologies) in South and South East Asian countries. This study was
conducted to compare the extent of rural women's involvement and their accessibility to these productive
resources in irrigated and rainfed rice growing villages of the Philippines. Women contributed significantly in
making important decisions in different activities of rice farming, with relatively more involvement in the
irrigated than in the rainfed areas. Their farming experience was significantly related to decision-making in
the irrigated area only. Results showed that they had good access to credit and mostly secured the loans from
private sources. Both family and non-family laborers were used in rice farming. Their labor participation was
slightly higher in the rainfed (39% of the total man-days) than in the irrigated (37.5% of the total man-days)
areas. Improved technologies such as improved seeds, chemical fertilizers, insecticides, and machineries
were not constraints in both villages.

The study suggests a need to incorporate women's concerns in farming system research, particularly in
introducing rice farming technologies to increase their productivity and reduce their drudgery. Likewise, it
suggests priorities for organizing, strengthening, and institutionalizing the informal village schemes for
facilitating credit transactions to them.


66 Abstracts Tuesday

74. Role of Women In the Highlands Farming Systems of Papua, New Guinea

Pradeep M. Tulachan*, R. D. Ghodake and Kua Guman

The purpose of this paper is to examine the contribution and relative importance of women in growing various
crops under the existing socio-cultural practices in the highlands of Papua New Guinea. The data presented
are based on information collected from forty households by using a multi-visit system during two year period
in 1986 to 1988. The study area is characterized by a high population density, scarce land resources, low soil
fertility and predominantly steep land.

The results show that main field activities of major crop production enterprises, such as planting, weeding and
harvesting are mostly carried out by females. Women contribute significantly higher labor in the production
of sweet potato, taro and traditional vegetables, which are culturally considered to be women's crops. Cost-
return analysis of seven major crop enterprises indicate that the sweet potato enterprise, which yields lower
monetary returns than other crop mixture enterprises, receive the maximum allocation of female labor and
land. This seems to relate to the cultural significance of sweet potato. First, sweet potato is women's crop,
and it is also the staple food for both humans and pigs. Second, women maintain social status by raising pigs
which are used extensively for various sociocultural functions, such as, payments of bride price and
compensation, feasts (pig killings), and exchange and gifts.

In conclusion, women are obliged to pay more attention to the sociocultural values in allocating their labor.
Therefore, to bring about economic improvement in the existing farm system, two points are crucial. First,
technological innovation to improve sweet potato productivity. This might encourage women to transfer their
resources to more productive enterprises in terms of monetary returns. Second, the extension training
programs of farming systems development should involve more females than males, in contrast to the current
practice of including predominantly males in the country.

Moderator: Thomas Edens

75. Labor and Sustainable Agriculture

Sekou Doumbla*

The results of a study conducted on sustainability in traditional agriculture are presented using the example
of labor assessment at farm level in the central region of the Cote d'lvoire.

The survey involves the retrospective interview technique to assess the participation of the different categories
of workers in the farm.

This study showed that labor represents, in traditional agriculture, the major limiting factor, far ahead of land
and capital. It also underlined the importance of labor in the farmer decision-making process, especially in
the choice of the different crops and varieties and the allocation of the corresponding area.

In general, the introduction of new technologies in such agricultural systems should take into account the
limitation represented by the weakness of labor potential at farm level.

Abstracts Tuesday 67

76. Economic Analysis of Commercial Fertilizer Application Compared to Livestock Manure
Utilization: A Sustainable Agriculture Approach

Vern Pierce', Mike Duffy and Jim Kllebenstein

Increased awareness and concern for environmental quality in recent years has increased pressure on
farmers to develop and utilize methods to minimize the environmental impact of their production activities. The
use of manure produced by livestock enterprises to meet crop nutrient needs is one method that has been
used to reach these sustainable environmental goals.

This study will include simulation of a typical Iowa crop/livestock farm using economic engineering analysis.
The crop enterprise will compare a corn-soybean rotation to continuous corn. The swine enterprise will be
constrained to 90 sows farrowing twice a year. Various alternatives for fertilizer application will be compared.
They include: commercial application, wagon spreading of liquid manure, spray gun application and Tie-Line
to Injector application of manure produced by the livestock. Estimation of costs, returns, and labor
requirements will be taken from existing research.

An important concern of farmers in a crop/livestock operation such as the one in this study is the lack of
sufficient time to apply the manure during labor intensive periods in the crop enterprises. Availability of
nutrients in the manure is highest when it is applied in the spring. This is the time when crops also require
labor for planting operations. This research will evaluate the farm system impacts of the sustainable
production alternatives. Linear programming can be used to effectively and efficiently evaluate alternative
case studies like those presented in this work.

Movement toward a sustainable agriculture can involve impacts across the farm operation. Research to
properly evaluate and gain insight into potential adjustments in the farming system is needed. Proposed
changes in current agricultural production practices must be carefully evaluated if they are to be adopted and
succeed. Results of the study will help provide recommendations for low-input sustainable agricultural
production systems for the 1990s.

77. Farmer Participation In Developing Sustainable Agricultural Systems In the Proposed Macaya
Biosphere Reserve In Haiti

Roy Voss, M. E. Swisher, P. E. Paryski, S. S. Parafina and C. E. Philoctete

The Makaya Biosphere Reserve Project (MBRP) is attempting to develop a biosphere reserve which will
protect one of Haiti's two national parks and an area of yet unspoiled natural ecosystem containing a
substantial portion of Haiti's endemic plant and wildlife. Traditionally, Haitian farmers have expanded their
agriculture into unexploited lands using slash and bum methods, and in recent times, have been relentlessly
encroaching upon the Macaya National Park in southern Haiti. Traditional crops of black beans, yams,
cassava, sweet potato, taro and some maize are grown in combination following a distinctive cropping
calendar. Emphasis is on the cash crop potential of beans and yams.

Haiti's population density is very high and the only viable opportunity for improved production lies not in
expansion into the few remaining ecologically important areas, but in the possibility of developing intensified,
sustainable systems of production on appropriate lands that have already been subjected to exploitation. In
order to accomplish this, strategies for the augmentation of the present cropping system as well as
development of alternative cropping systems that will fit into the peasant farmers social-economic-ecologic
situation have to be developed. Soil ameliorization and conservation and the development of improved animal
production systems also must be considered.

Following a rapid reconnaissance survey of the area, strategies for the improvement of bean production and
introduction of market vegetable crop production were developed and a plan for the reintroduction of a hardy
swine breed was established. A cooperator network was established by selecting over 30 primary project
cooperators (PPC) to test the proposed interventions. In turn, these PPCs passed on the results of their field

68 Abstracts Tuesday

efforts to 5-7 other individuals in a rapidly expanding pyramid of influence. Variety trials of beans, carrots,
onions, beets and cabbages were conducted on PPC farms using no agrochemical input. Soil amendments
were then tested on the varieties that tested best in the variety tests. Conservation techniques were also
established on PPC farms and an improved pig variety was distributed to the PPC farmers for multiplication
and further distribution. At the same time, a three hectare demonstration farm and nursery were developed
to attempt more exotic interventions. Local farmers were hired in rotation to assist on the demonstration farm
and were able to increase their understanding of the development strategy of the project.

Results to date indicate a keen desire on the part of the local farmers to follow the intervention strategies and
give up their interest in encroachment upon the ecologically sensitive lands of the park. Much work still
remains to refine the recommendations, but even after only one and a half years' work on site, it appears that
the farmers are benefitting both economically and ecologically by following the methods developed through
hands-on PPC farmer based trials.

78. Land Use Evolution Along the Dominican Republic's Agricultural Frontier:
A Comparative Analysis of Two Hill Land Regions

Mark Zwelfler"

The agricultural colonization of fragile lands is causing serious environmental problems throughout the
developing world. The Dominican Republic is a particularly fascinating and worrisome case due to the
extremely rapid rate of change in its steeply sloped areas. Up to the early 20th century, the country's
mountainous interior was practically devoid of human settlement. The last 70 years have seen the virtual
elimination of the virgin forest that once blanketed the uplands with replacement by ranching and small scale
farming. This study compares the land use evolution of two areas along this agricultural frontier. My working
hypothesis is that by understanding the history of land use we can better anticipate future problems and
recommend more sustainable, rural development strategies.

I worked within two mountainous agricultural regions that shared similar ecologies, but were at two different
stages in their developmental histories. The "Secciones" of Las Auyamas and El Jaimito flank the country's
most important agricultural valley, the Cibao. (A "seccion" is the smallest administrative unit in rural areas.)
Land hungry peasants from the Cibao valley first migrated to Las Auyamas in the 1920's. Colonization of El
Jaimito did not occur until the late 1950's.

My primary research tools were a questionnaire, to determine farmers' settlement histories and their rationale
for land use changes, and the interpretation of airphotos from 1959, 1968 and 1984 to map the rapidly shifting
patterns of agricultural activities.

My research indicates that the rapidly increasing social demands upon hill areas has exceeded the adaptive
capacity of hillside farmers to innovate and develop more intensive sustainable farming systems. As soil
fertility declines, personal and market preferences become less important and land use decisions are
increasingly driven by the ecological needs of a diminished soil resource. Nevertheless, neither the social
nor the agro-ecological system has collapsed. Small scale hillside farmers have made a series of "strategic
retreats" to accommodate the reduced fertility of their land base. For example, planting crops that are more
tolerant and conserving of degraded soils, expanding areas under cultivation and obtaining off-farm sources
of income.

Regional land use histories provide a long-term and integrated record of farm management decision making.
This record of change is an important tool in developing farming systems that are capable of adapting to future
change in a more sustainable manner.

Abstracts Tuesday

Tuesday, October 16
4:30 p.m. 6:30 p.m.

Moderator: Janice Jiggins

79. Involving Women Farmers In FSR/E Separate Projects vs Integrating Gender:
The South Asia Experience

Nancy W. Axinn*

The need for awareness of gender issues in FSR/E has been of concern as this research methodology has
developed over the last ten years. This paper will compare the experience in various South Asian Countries
of: (1) developing specific women in farming systems projects (USAID, IRRI, etc.) with (2) the effort to integrate
gender into existing FSR/E programs (FF/EIFSR, USAID/N, IRRI, etc.). Data were collected in Nepal, India,
and Bangladesh. Activities which attempt to increase awareness of an appreciation for farm women's
perspectives are the variables in FSR which are the focus of this paper. The data base includes both
observations of interaction between scientists and women farmers, and observations from workshops and
training activities designed to demonstrate the differences between male and female farmers in research
prioritization, criteria for priorities, issues involved in participating in research activities, and additional
research topics suggested by farmers.

Analysis of the experience reviews the benefits and constraints in each approach. Lessons learned which
may inform future research design are explored. The impact of each approach on the farm families involved,
as well as on the research institutions and the research scientists are also discussed. Experience in South
Asia suggests that while separate projects may be essential in the beginning, or for quick results to placate
donors; the integrating effort, while slower and more difficult, has a potential for more long-lasting impact,
especially on traditional agricultural scientists.

80. Female Headed Households: The Forgotten Target Group In Farming Systems Research
Lessons from Kaoma District Western Province, Zambia

Charles Kapekele Chileya'

For the last decade, agricultural research and extension efforts aimed at the Kaoma District of Zambia have
by and large focused on the male headed households. There has been an emphasis on the production of cash
crops such as maize, sunflower and cotton, which have been met with conspicuous lack of longterm success.
These sort of efforts have overlooked the position of the Female headed households.

This study by the Adaptive Research Planning Team looks at Female-Headed Households (FHH) as a target
that ought to be included into the On Farm Research work. First and most important, FHH constitute about
40% of the total population in the area. A clear understanding of the FHH resource accessibility is examined
and compared with the women within Male headed households.

The paper studies how FHH could identify and prioritize constraints. The issue of gender differentiation is
discussed in detail.

The paper uses this analysis to make recommendations for the Adaptive Research Planning Team as to how,
in general, FHH can be incorporated into agricultural research and extension.


70 Abstracts Tuesday

81. Gender Analysis: The FSR-E Training Experiences

Anita L. Frio'

The rationale for providing training in Farming Systems Research and Extension (FSR-E) lies in the increasing
demand from national rice research programs to improve their capabilities in the conduct of FSR-E as it relates
to research in rice production and the sustainability of rice ecosystems. Since FSR is environment specific,
teaching this course in-country is the best approach. Hence, one of the training programs of IRRI is to transfer
this course to the national research systems. The initial strategy for doing this is to train teams of trainers from
each country. This paper will discuss the experience of the FSR-E training course in IRRI, with international
participants. One of the issues in the curriculum is the incorporation of gender analysis in the different phases
of FSR. However, the conventional approach of teaching through lectures and discussions through case
studies cannot be used. A Majority of the participants had a difficulty in both verbal and written English. About
half of, them were from socialist countries, such that the idea of discussing women concerns and participation
was very "new"to them. Considering both the participants' problems and the sensitivenesss" of the topic, other
teaching approaches were used. "Concept mapping" is an individual participatory type of classroom exercise
which stimulated participants to convey ideas, linkages and abstract thoughts into understandable forms. This
is done through various approaches. One of these is to visually illustrate concepts, for example, the role of
women in farming systems. Another is the use of a modified "logframe approach" where participants write their
ideas on pieces of paper, the facilitator sorts them into meaningful groups and tacks them on the board. These
are used to generate discussions, stimulate interactions among participants and serve as a gauge of the level
of understanding of participants on the subject. Other approaches include a self-paced study approach, the
team approach and the synthesis hour. These approaches conform to the nature of the participants' learning
styles and encourage a relatively high percentage of participation from them. From the trainers' point of view,
these alternative approaches give one a wide range of teaching styles, thus avoiding the straight "hard sell"
idea connected to teaching gender analysis.

82. Gender Analysis In Rice Farming Systems Research

Thelma Paris'

Rural women in Asia play significant roles not only in food production, but more importantly, in processing.
However, very few studies have taken into account the economic contributions that women provide in adding
value to raw products, particularly rice. In a rainfed village in Pangasinan, Philippines, women process
glutinous rice into a delicacy which has a special demand during a national holiday. Although this activity is
an important source of income for resource poor and landless households, processing is arduous and
inefficient. Thus, a rice dehuller was introduced, tested and modified by IRRI engineers based on the needs
and evaluation of men and women, in particular. The initial tests in September to November 1989 showed
promising results, and a cooperative scheme was developed in purchasing and generating income to recover
initial investment of the machine. The machine was evaluated in terms of technical and economic efficiency.
With regards to social acceptability, men and women were asked to evaluate the machine in relation to the
newly introduced glutinous rice varieties. Questions were also asked with regards to the changes in women's
time after the introduction of the machinery. Initial results showed that the introduction of the rice dehuller led
to a reduction of women's time in handpounding and winnowing but enabled them to devote more time in
marketing rice delicacies as the volume increased.

Abstracts Tuesday 71

83. Gender Issues In Farming Systems Research and Extension:
An Appraisal of Current Research Work In Nepal

Jagadlsh TImslna* and DIbya Timsina

The substantial roles of women in Nepalese farming systems have been widely reported. The objectives of
this paper are twofold: first, to highlight women's roles in Nepalese farming systems, and second, to critically
appraise current research work on gender issues in Farming Systems Research and Extension (FSRE)
in Nepal. An extensive review of literature along with informal surveys in some selected pocket areas were
done to accomplish the above objectives.

The study showed that women make important decisions and contribute their labor significantly in household
and farm activities, including that in agroforestry and irrigation activities. The degree of their involvement,
however, varied among different socioeconomic groups and agroecological regions. Several governmental
and non-governmental agencies, institutes, organizations, and consultant firms have research agendas on
integrating women in their FSRE methodologies. The study indicated that although women's participation in
FSRE is considerably less, there is a general consciousness to institutionalize gender perspective in the
research and extension process.

The paper identifies obstacles and constraints in institutionalizing gender perspective in FSRE, and makes
suggestions for increasing women's involvement in all phases of the research process. It also identifies labor
saving technologies, suitable extension programs, and career and training opportunities for farm women.
Finally, the paper addresses future strategies for institutionalizing the gender perspective in FSRE while

Abstracts Wednesday 73

Wednesday, October 17
8:00 a.m. 10:00 a.m.

Moderator: Larry Lev

84. Reorientation, Not Reversal: African Farmer-Based Experimentation

Doyle Baker*

Chambers, Rhoades, Lightfoot and other leaders of the farmer first movement recommend a methodological
reversal in agricultural research. The reversal entails a shift away from a technology supply orientation and
the hypothesis-deduction model of most agronomic experimentation, in favor of an increased emphasis on
farmer participation, indigenous knowledge, innovative behavior and experimentation methods. Such a
methodological shift might not be acceptable in many national agricultural research systems, most of which
are dominated by traditionally-oriented agricultural scientists.

This paper proposes a second-best methodological approach which might be more readily accepted by
agricultural researchers. The proposed approach, referred to as "farmer-based experimentation", calls for a
farmer orientation in the design and implementation of on-farm experiments, but not necessarily some of other
"bottom-up" elements of the farmer first paradigm.

Five criteria are presented which distinguish farmer-based experimentation from otherwise typical on-farm
agronomic experimentation: (1) trial hypotheses and data analysis address actual farmer decisions--rather
than only biological response, (2) non-experimental variables minimally deviate from existing farmer
practices, (3) treatment definitions are flexible across sites, mimicking farmer intra-seasonal adjustments, (4)
the goal is to develop options for farmers rather than to determine a single optimal action, and (5) collateral
information is generated to facilitate farmer decision-making.

Several concrete examples of farmer-based experimentation are given from FSR programs in Cameroon and
Botswana. Ensuring an emphasis on farmer-based experimentation is identified as being an important role
for FSR social scientists.

85. Farmers as Researchers: The Evolution of a Process to Institutionalize FSR

Pamela C. Edo-Sullano*

Purpose. To expand the role of farmers in FSR by devolving the organizational and managerial functions of
on-farm research to farming communities as a means to institutionalize.

Methods. A multi-disciplinary research core group (RCG) was formed to spearhead FSR. Evolving its own
methodology for rapid rural appraisal (RRA), they assessed selected hilly land sites and together with the
"barangay" identified constraints to and potentials for development in specific areas. A "conglomeration" of
farmer-researchers, referred to as satellite stations were identified by their own communities to implement
action-oriented research interventions after a series of training, cross visits and other relevant exposures,
with guidance from the RCG to backstop the community-based resource management (CBRM) program with
appropriate and sustainable technologies.

Results. There are four hilly land and one forestal research "satellite stations" currently operational where
farmers tilling the lands are also acting as researchers facilitating studies on crop-livestock integration, legume
incorporation and stubble mulching, hedge row species alternatives and agroforestry. These farmers
coordinated together to become research FSR/E satellite stations conduct "in-house" meetings in their own
communities to discuss significant findings and related concerns as well as serve as presenters of their studies

74 Abstracts Wednesday

during regional workshops with "real" researchers, extensionists, communicators and entrepreneurs as their
audience. Their areas have been visited by local and foreign counterparts involved in FSR for actual

Conclusion. Farmers are vital conduits of researchers in FSR/E from the first to the last step of technology
generation, verification and adaptation. With appropriate skills enhancement and technical assistance,
farmers will commit to perform the role of a researcher aware of both risks and benefits typical of scientific trials.
A very potential manner to institutionalize FSR, therefore, is the making of a farmer into a researcher. Why

86. The Bottom Up and the Top Down

Abdel Fattah AI-Kadi and Daniel Lee Gait*

Purpose. The farmer representatives to Development Area Committees provide bottom-up farmer priorities
and problems in the annual work plans process of the Jordanian (1) Regional Agricultural Service Centers
(RASCs) and (2) the top-level decision makers of the centralized commodity and disciplinary sections of the
National Center for Agricultural Research and Technology Transfer (NCARTT).

Methods. Lists of farmer-identified problems from 1988 Development Area Committee (DAC) meetings and
from the NCARTT rapid rural appraisal combined sondeo during 1989 are used to foster a discussion of
priorities and problems in a joint farmer representative-RASC directorship meeting. This one-day meeting is
concluded after a current, prioritized list of farmers' preferences and problems is developed jointly. The
following day, this current list is used to develop draft regional research and technology transfer work plans.
This method insures that up-dated farmer input feeds directly in Jordanian research and extension programs.

Results. Joint DAC farmer representative-RASC directorship meetings were held in all six of Jordan's
agricultural regions in May. Each joint meeting was followed by the regional work plan meeting in which draft
plans were formed. These draft research and technology transfer plans in turn formed the focus of the
subsequent annual FSR/E planning workshop during the final week of May. Focus on these regional plans
reinforces the move toward decentralized planning at NCARTT.

Conclusions. Former top-down research and technology transfer (as represented by NCARTT commodity-
focused section work plan formation) is complemented by shifting focus to support of regional plans which are
based, in turn, on explicit and official farmer representative, or bottom-up, input.

87. A Conceptual Framework for Farmer-Based Research Methods

John Lesotlho'

Inherent in the Farming Systems Research philosophy is the realization that in order for on-farm generated
and developed technologies to be appropriate (suitable and applicable) to farmers' specific socioeconomic,
political and agro-climatic conditions, researcher-extension-farmer partnership in technology generation and
development spectrum is indispensable.

Ironically, the type and level of farmer involvement and partnership in the on-farm technology generation and
development scenario that often alluded to by FSR/E practitioners and proponents very often turns out to be
a passive one. Farmer participation in on-farm research is often relegated to that of providing legitimacy to
trials which do not stand a single chance of passing an "appropriate technology litmus test". In other words,
research scientists often turn to seek farmer input only when they want to draw promotional conclusions and
recommendations from unsuccessful experiments.

Abstracts Wednesday 75

Full farmer participation (active vs. passive) in the evaluation of interventions still undergoing experimentation
is a critical component of the on-farm research spectrum. It assists research scientists in determining which
technologies should be discontinued from experimentation as well as those which are promising and therefore
stand a better chance of being adopted on a large scale.

The primary objective of this paper is to highlight some of the most relevant and/or salient issues pertinent to
the appropriate design and/or development of a "pragmatic conceptual framework" for an effective re-
searcher-farmer partnership in the technology generation and development process. The motive forchoosing
this topicderives mainly from the realization that in the past, conventional research approaches failed to take
into account the most critical social relations of production.

This neglect has lead to the development of inappropriate technologies and/or interventions and hence a high
rate of non-adoption of these so-called "improved technologies". Active farmer participation in on-farm
research is indispensable in that it accords research scientists the opportunity to access the farmers' real world
situation--how they (farmers) perceive and interpret their agro-ecological zones with a view to ensuring a
proper and smoother interaction between the two.

A classic example of the import of the active involvement of farmers in on-farm research is the utility of the
Indigenous Technical Knowledge (ITK) in the design and implementation of research experiments. For
instance, in Botswana we were able to design and implement agronomic trials based on the traditional
technical terms used to classify different moisture levels by farmers. The import of this collaboration between
researchers and farmers lies in the fact that all agronomical axioms were tested under actual farmer agro-
climatic conditions and farmer managerial practices.

The findings of this study originate from collaborative effort between the Agricultural Technology Improvement
Project (ATIP) and the Rural Sociology Unit (RSU). The primary objective of this collaborative effort was to
accord farmers an opportunity to contribute toward the design, test and evaluation of on-farm generated and
developed tillage systems still undergoing experimentation with an overall view of ensuring that all sociological
aspects of arable production are taken into account.

Farmers were taken on a tour of the tillage systems under experimentation. The primary aim of this tourwas
to familiarize farmers with each tillage system under experimentation. The tour was followed by a review
session whereby farmers were given a chance to ask all relevant questions and salient issues pertaining to
each system undergoing experimentation. Subsequently, all the questions and issues raised during the
session were recorded and later translated into a questionnaire that was to be used as the main instrument
to be utilized in eliciting farmers' responses toward the systems.

In all, a group of 12 farmers were interviewed over a week's period. All questions asked focused on a number
of key factors affecting agro-pastoral systems: (1) the applicability of each system based on farmers resource
endowment level; (2) time-frame factor, the time that farmers perceive as convenient for them to be able to
properly implement each desired system; and (3) type of access farmers have to both intra-household and
hired labour resources as well as traction.

Responses toward these systems varied according to farmers' resource endowment levels and constraints.
Basically, access to traction as well as shortage of both intra-household and hired labor were singled out as
the major impediments to the adoption of improved technologies, provided interventions themselves do fit well
with each adoption unit's resource and management capacities.

The findings of this survey proved to be of greater value to the design, test and evaluation of the on-farm
research program in that they pinpointed critical social relations of production that are often times overlooked
by technical scientists in the design and development of agronomic on-station and on-farm research

76 Abstracts Wednesday

88. Linkage Between On-Farm Research and On-Station Research: An Institutional Impact of the
Farming Systems Development Project-Eastern Visayas, Philippines

Tung Ly'

The paper illustrates an institutional impact of a FSR/E-type project carried out in the Eastern Visayas region
of the Philippines, as follows:

Traditionally, in the Philippines more basic and applied research is done by agricultural colleges and
universities, and adaptive research and technology transfer by the Department of Agriculture (DA). The
linkage between colleges/universities and the DA is generally weak.

The Farming Systems Development Project-Eastern Visayas (FSDP-EV), a regionally focused FSR/E-type
project is intended to promote a closer working relationship between on-station research (a main function of
the Visayas State College of Agriculture or ViSCA) and on-farm adaptive research (a main function of the
Regional Department of Agriculture or RDA) to serve the limited-resource upland farmers farming under
complex, diverse, and risk-prone environments.

The project brings about several significant institutional impacts. For instance, the RDA has decided to adopt
the farming systems approach with the establishment of regular R and E teams at the village level. Such a
move of the RDA is matched by ViSCA with the creation of a separate unit called the Farm and Resource
Management Institute (FARMI). The Institute is staffed with a multi-disciplinary team whose members hold
regular positions, and it has its own stable funding.

FARMI can be thought of as an institutional innovation to perform the role of an intermediary to foster an
effective linkage between on-farm and on-station research.

As an intermediary, FARMI helps provide the specialists support to the R and E teams of the RDA in their
adaptive research activities. Likewise, the Institute serves as a spokesman in giving feedback on field
problems to the research community of ViSCA, which plays a major role in applied research.

Lastly, conditions for FARMI to remain effective as an intermediary after the project is phased out are

Moderator: Pat Barnes-McConnell

89. Farming Systems Research and the Extension Service: Working Across Ministries

Susan W. Almy*, C. Poubom N., T. Woldetatlos, M. Besong, C. Ateh and M. Mboussl

Many national governments, including that of Cameroon, have placed the responsibilities for extension of
agricultural research results and research generation into separate ministries. This presents a particular
problem for a research methodology which is based on the continuous, two-way feedback between research
users and producers. The agricultural extension service is the natural link between researcher and farmer,
but coordination across ministries is difficult. (ISNAR 1989)

The resolution of this problem in Cameroon's South-west Province has been informal but highly effective to
date. The farming systems team has included diagnosis of the extension system in all other diagnostic work,
and used this information in creating interaction and training mechanisms for extension agents, and in
identifying extension partners.

Abstracts Wednesday 77

The focus of this presentation is on the format and execution of the annual workshop, a key element in the
overall relationship for both training and planning research activities. Diagnosis of the bureaucratic structure
of extension and the actual interaction points with food-crop farmers determined the composition of the
participants, and diagnosis of farmers' principal problems and extension agents' gaps in technical knowledge
useful to these determine the content of each workshop. Identification of organizational problems specific to
women farmers and crossing three ministries generated special activities in the 1989 workshop, but three
ministries proved more than could be handled on an informal basis. As the research team has expanded its
geographic reach, the diagnostic and workshop activities have preceded on-farm interventions. As on-farm
interventions have expanded, extension partners have progressed from interested students to technical
assistants to analysts and evaluators of the research. The 1990 Workshop utilized full participatory
techniques and the extension workers provided vital input to developing IRA research policies on sustainability
and variety research.

In the near future the South West extension structure is to be revised along the lines of the Training and Visit
system. This will require modifications in the research-extension relationship which are considered in a final

90. The Study of Rural Extension and Development Models at an Agricultural University In China

Ou LI'

There are two gaps that should be bridged in the courses of technological transference. One is located
between the Universities (or research institutes) and extension agencies as a result from copying the model
of Soviet Union in 1950's and 60's the universities were mainly responsible for education, the institutes for
research and the government agencies for extension separately. Another is between the extension agencies
and farmers' households. The former extension network of four levels (provincial, prefectural, county, and
communal) was suitable for the commune systems and did not any longer suit the changes in rural areas since
1978 the farmers became the managers of their own enterprises and the farm households the basic units
of agricultural production but they could hardly get the technique service because the extension agents almost
did not exist in the village level.

The leaders and faculty of Beijing Agricultural University (BAU) have recognized the problems and made great
efforts to their solution. Besides the two aspects of education and research, BAU has established the third
pillar of its system the Center for Integrated Agricultural Development (CIAD), a special agency for rural
development, extension and training. In addition to the traditional model of BAU's participation in national
agricultural development indirectly "on-station research and extension", CIAD developed a new one "on-
farm research and extension". That is, the university's faculty integrate with the local officials, extensionists
and farmers to push forward the technological change during implementing projects of local resource
exploitation and agricultural development. CIAD of BAU has established the Cooperative Group of Rural
Technological Extension (CGRTE) togetherwith Hevei General Station of Agricultural Extension. The Group
has selected eight sub-areas in eight counties of Hevei Province with more than 800 farm households as its
research base. The faculty of ClAD worked with the local extension specialists to carry out on-farm
experiments, set up demonstration fields to show the effectiveness of "Package Technologies" supplied by
BAU and disseminate the acceptable technologies tested and adapted to the whole project region. A
preliminary result has already showed that the new model bridged effectively the two gaps and has a great

Another model has been developed by BAU's faculty, "transfer the new technology and make profit for both
sides". The fourth pillar of BAU's system "New Technological Development Company (NTDC)" transfers the
new biological and agro-chemical technologies to, or develops them with factories, to supply the new kinds
of agricultural inputs to the farmers. This model of participation accelerated the course of new technique
transference and also made great contribution to national agricultural development.

The models developed by BAU's faculty are only a part of efforts made by Chinese universities and research
institutes to develop the agriculture in China and perhaps have some significance to the developing countries.

78 Abstracts Wednesday

91. Farming Systems Research Beyond the Diagnostic and Experimental Stages

Richard L. Tinsley (William R. Schmehl')

As farming systems programmes advance beyond the initial diagnostic analysis of farmers' constraints, and
experimentation resulting from the constraints, there will frequently be other constraints that need to be
overcome prior to the farmers' acceptance of experimental results. These constraints are often associated
with the limited operational resources available to the farmer to implement research results or economic
conditions such as fluctuating market prices, etc. Overcoming these "operational" and "economic" constraints
will frequently require developing "supporting technologies", which will have to be made available and
promoted in order for farmers to adopt technical innovations. Similarly, it may be necessary for farming
systems researchers to serve as facilitators in the integration phase of the technology development and
diffusion process.

The Malawi Adaptive Research Programme has been active for nearly ten years. It has recently become
involved in identifying operational and economic constraints, and has proceeded to develop the supporting
technology needed to overcome these constraints. Examples are: 1. the late planting of maize resulting in
subsequent low yields and requiring the development of alternative crops, 2. the promoting of potato storage
structures to allow farmers to lift and hold potatoes for better prices while planting a sequential wheat crop,
and 3. developing wheat establishment techniques that will reduce the labour requirement and make wheat
production more economically viable. Other parts of the programme are involved in facilitating the marketing
of soybeans and sunflower by establishing better linkages between producers and users. Most of this has
been by-passing the large parastatal organization and working with private traders. Finally, the programme
is assisting farmers in organizing the indigenous bulking of seed potato for new varieties introduced into the
area and preferred by the farmers.

The involvement of farming systems researchers in identifying operational and economic constraints to
technology acceptance, developing the supporting technologies to overcome such constraints, and facilitating
the integration of technology into the target farming systems may offer expanded areas of activity with a high
potential of impacting on smallholder well being.

92. Small Farmers Participation In Sustainable Agriculture Systems Development In
Northeastern Brazil

Eduardo Zaffaronl

Farming Systems Research is a new way to develop participative technology in Northeastern Brazil. The
specific recommendation for farmers should know the human being as well as the biological elements of the
farm. Research planning should consider the goals of small farmers and the restrictions that they have to
reach their targets. The Federal University of Paraiba began in 1980, a research project with the objective
of developing improved farming systems for small farmers in Paraiba State, Northeastern Brazil. In addition
to the University, the project involves the cooperation with Agricultural Research and Extension Enterprises
of Paraiba (EMEPA and EMATER), Brazilian Agricultural Research Enterprise (EMBRAPA), and was
supported by the Finance Office of Studies and Projects (FINEP) of the Federal Government.

This paper describes the operation approach in participative technology development for small farmers in
Paraiba State, Northeast Brazil. Emphasis is given in the methodological approach. The program utilizes the
farming systems approach and involves four distinct phases: (1) the descriptive phase, (2) the design phase,
(3) the test phase, and (4) validation phase. The farmer is involved in all steps of the project. Target categories
are small farmers with less than 50 ha. The domains of each municipality were divided in 4 strata:
0-5,5-10,10-20, and 20-50 ha. All of the participants of the project (researchers, extensionists, and farmers)
have made a good contribution to reach the goals. The interaction farmer/extensionist/researcher has been
very productive. Farmers participated in the descriptive phase offering their insight, and tailoring new
technology in the design phase. They consider that the new technologies were adapted to their economic
and ecological conditions. Since most of the trials are on-farm experiments, farmers have a high participation

Abstracts Wednesday 79

in the evaluation of new technologies. Some duplication of research topics and lack of application of adoption
by small farmers was observed previous to the starting of the project. Thereafter, research, research/teaching
and extension organizations of the state were establishing links, which finally, under university coordination,
formed a network for technology development. Main constraints that showed up as bottlenecks for the farmers
were researched in the testing phase. Besides, the traditional cropping systems were tested on farms and
compared with others considered more advanced. Results of the experiments were "translated" (putting it in
very simple terms) by extensionists and showed and discussed with participative farmers. At this point, there
is a combination of experimental knowledge of farm community (in particular its technological history and
environmental insight) with biological and technological knowledge of the researchers. Training is an
important component of the project. Farmers' training is carried out through visits by extensionists, meetings
and field days. Once definitive results are reached, pamphlets and brochures are produced for extensionists
with cooperation of farmers. Farmers, researchers, and extension workers have increased their capacity to
play their role in participative technology development.

Moderator: Jack Kelly

93. Integrating Gender Issues In a Farmer-Participated Research cum Extension:
The Case In Vegetable IPM Technology Generation In the Philippines

Melanda M. Hoque* and Candida B. Adalla

A study on the development of an integrated pest management (IPM) strategy for insect pests affecting
vegetable crops was one of the components of a multi-disciplinary research cum extension project conducted
from 1987to 1990 in Calamba, Philippines. The objectives were: (1) to come upwith strategies that will reduce
the use of pesticides on vegetable crops, and (2) to demonstrate the IPM strategy to farmers in a participatory
research cum demonstration methodology.

Initially, the study was not focused on who the vegetable growers were, until the researchers found that women
were as active as the men farmers in growing vegetables. On the average, the wives contributed 15% in
production, 52% in post production and 45% in decision making, which includes the purchase of pesticides
and hiring of farm labor for spraying and weeding.

In 1988-90, twenty vegetable farming households were tapped as cooperators, among which 10 wives were
actively involved at various stages-from production to marketing; six regularly tended their vegetable fields.
The study was basically technical, but used the participatory approach, which made farmers active
participants in the process of generating and verifying the technology right on their farms. Data from a two-
year comparative trial between the need-based application of insecticides versus the farmers' practice clearly
shows the advantage of the former as far as profits and frequency of insecticide application is concerned,
spraying frequency being reduced by 50%.

One of the significant social impacts of the study was the increased awareness on the undesirable effects of
improper use and handling of pesticides through a deliberate effort of informing the women about the issue.
When the results of the pesticide residue analyses from vegetable samples were shown, the women realized
that the insecticides they were using were not safe. Capitalizing on this initial interest, those six women
received followed up through a series of farm visits where they were taught appropriate est identification and
monitoring skills to help them become better decision makers.

The study describes the process of working with women as participants in IPM generation, verification and
learning IPM skills.

80 Abstracts Wednesday

94. Growing of Chilli, Onion, Garlic and Mungbean Mixed Cropping:
A Farmer's Innovated Practice for Sustainable Agriculture In Bangladesh

Nur A. Khondaker, S. M. Nabl', M. Z. Abedin and M. M. Ullah

Growing of four cropped, multiple cropping systems, that is growing of four crops simultaneously, is a
successful new innovation in crop production by the farmers of Bangladesh. Farmers of Raipur Upazilla under
Luxmipur District in Bangladesh faced many problems of crop failure. To combat such crop failure they
innovated this four cropped, mixed cropping system and ensured some yield. If one or two crops fail, they may
harvest the remaining crops. If each crop escapes failure, four crops are harvested and farmers become
benefitted. The crop combination of the mixed cropping system appears to be compatible. Because tap rooted
crop (chilli), fibrous rooted crop (onion and garlic) and a pulse crop (mungbean) take nutrients from each soil
layer and increase or maintain soil N.

About 20 farmers following the practice were invited to the DANIDA training center, Noakhali, Bangladesh.
Invited farmers, research scientists and the extension personnel jointly had threadbare discussions to know
and document the technology. Prior discussions between extension personnel and research scientists also
visited the area where the mixed cropping system was developed. Farmers use 750 gm to 1 kg onion seed,
1 kg chilli seed, 50 kg garlic bulbs and 2 kg mungbean seed for 1 acre of land. Twenty-five to 35 day old chilli
seedlings, prepared in separate seed beds, are planted with the spacing 30 x 25 cm between mid-December
to January. Onion seedlings are planted with the spacing 30 x 15 cm and garlic bulbs with 30 x 15 cm in
between chilli rows. Mungbean seeds are broadcast in the irrigation and/or drainage channels.

Farmers generally harvest 375 kg dry chilli/acre, 375 kg onion/acre, 490 kg garlic/acre and 40 kg mungbean/
acre. Price of the output is chilli Tk. 7,219, onion Tk. 3,225, garlic Tk. 8453 and mungbean Tk. 800 = Tk. 19,697
(1 $=33). Production cost per acre as farmers mentioned under major heads are only Tk. 7070. So the net
profit in the chilli, onion, garlic and mungbean (in 1 acre) is Tk. 19,697 Tk. 7,070 = Tk. 12,627. Net profit in
sole chilli cultivation is only Tk. 3,663/acre.

The mixed cropping system has so many opportunities; maximum utilization of time and space is possible,
diversification of crops and more benefit over the sole chilli cultivation can be attained, more than one crop
can serve as insurance of any crop failure etc. The practice may be of very helpful to meet the pulse and spices
deficiency of Bangladesh if the technology is disseminated throughout the country after proper refinement.

95. The Role of Professional Organizations in Farmers' Oriented Research:
The Case of Upper Mgeta Vegetable Producers with Sokolne University of Agriculture

N. M. Mollel* and T. Lassalle

Sokoine University of Agriculture in Tanzania invites its researchers and students to conduct research in rural
areas. Outcomes of research are meant to benefit the small farmers. Farmers practical objectives and
researchers' scientific interests might be brought face to face within a professional organization of the
producers. At Upper Mgeta, close to Morogoro, such an organization is mushrooming. It aims at improving
the fruit and vegetable marketing channels towardsthe urban market centers. It is sustained by a development
program. At the same time, researchers and students meet, through this organization, farmers who are ready
to improve their production techniques. A partnership between researchers and farmers is born. Participatory
research programs are implemented in collaboration with the professional organization.

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