Group Title: Farmers' bulletin United States Department of Agriculture
Title: Orchard barkbeetles and pinhole borers, and how to control them
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00095565/00001
 Material Information
Title: Orchard barkbeetles and pinhole borers, and how to control them
Physical Description: 16 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Brooks, Fred E.
Donor: unknown ( endowment )
Publisher: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Washington, D.C.
Publication Date: November 29, 1916
 Subjects
Subject: Bark beetles -- Control   ( lcsh )
Borers (Insects) -- Control   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "Contribution from the Bureau of Entomology."
General Note: United States Department of Agriculture Farmers' bulletin 763
Statement of Responsibility: by Fred E. Brooks.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00095565
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 15207364

Full Text



UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICUI


FARMERS'

BULLETIN


WASHINGTON, D. C.


763


NOVEMBER 29, 1916


Contribution from the Bureau of Entomology, L. 0. Howard, Chief.
ORCHARD BARKBEETLES AND PINHOLE BORERS, AND
HOW TO CONTROL THEM.
By FRED E. BROOKS,
Entomological Assistant, Deciduous Fruit Insect Investigations.

INTRODUCTION.
This bulletin gives a brief account of the principal barkbeetles
and related species that attack apple, peach, plum, and other orchard


FIG. 1.-Exit holes of the fruit-tree barkbeetle in sections of trunk of young apple
tree. About natural size. (Original.)
trees and describes the methods most effective in controlling them.
These troublesome insects are small beetles which belong to two
NOTE,-This bulletin is of interest to fruit growers generally, especially in the territory
east of the Rocky Mountains.
556510-Bull 763-16


/ a`


*28(




FARMERS' BULLETIN 763.


groups: First, and most commonly injurious, the shot-hole borers or
barkbeetles; second, the pinhole borers or ambrosia beetles. To the
first group belong the fruit-tree barkbeetle1 (fig. 2), which occurs
throughout the United States east of the Mississippi River, in many
localities farther west, and in Canada, and the peach-tree barkbeetle 2
(fig. 7), which has been found in the States of New Hampshire,
New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, the Virginias, North Carolina,
Ohio, and Michigan, and in Ontario, Canada; to the second group
belong the apple wood stainer (figs. 14, 16) and a related species4
(fig. 15), and the pear-blight beetle5 (fig. 17), of the Eastern United
States. The species which are the most generally distributed mem-
bers of the two groups in the United States and those of greatest
importance from the standpoint of injury to deciduous fruit trees 6
are discussed in the following pages. Each of them attacks several
kinds of fruit trees, although the peach-tree barkbeetle appears to
infest only the trees that bear stone fruits.

NATURE OF INJURY CAUSED BY SHOT-HOLE AND PINHOLE
BORERS.
The shot-hole borers or barkbeetles burrow into the bark and
slightly into the wood in .both the larval or grub stage and the adult
or beetle stage and, by extending their burrows in great numbers
between the bark and sapwood, destroy that vital part of the tree
known as the cambium. As a rule, sound, vigorous bark is not at-
tacked, injury being confined to such trees as have had their normal
health impaired by some other agency. Cases are not unknown, how-
ever, in which the beetles have multiplied greatly in diseased and
dying wood and have then extended their attacks to near-by healthy
trees, causing extensive loss. The female beetles, in entering the bark
to deposit their eggs, and, also, all the newly transformed beetles
in leaving their pupal quarters in the wood, make small but rather
conspicuous round holes in the bark. Numerous punctures of this
kind very frequently appear in trees within a short time after they
have been seriously weakened or vitally injured by some cause not
connected with these insects. On account of the fact that these
entrance and exit holes are apt to attract the attention of orchard
owners, it is probable that the loss of trees is sometimes attributed
directly to injury by barkbeetles, when, in reality, death is due pri-
imarily to some weakening of the trees caused by root or crown dis-
1 Scolytus rugulosus Ratz. sPhloeotribus liminaris Harris. 8Monarthrum mall
Fitch. Monarthrum fasciatum Say. 5 Anisandras pyri Peck.
6 Another species, Stenoscelis brevis Boh., of somewhat similar appearance but belonging
to another family of beetles (Calandridae), is frequently received from fruit growers who
suppose it to be injurious. This insect is common in dead wood of apple and some other
trees. The beetle is black and about one-eighth of an inch in length. The larva is white
and has a row of minute black spots on each side So far as is known at present this
species does not feed in living wood and therefore does not occur in orchards of perfectly
sound trees.





ORCHARD BARKBEETLES AND PINHOLE BORERS. 3

eases, overbearing, starvation, injury to roots or base of trunk by
other insects, mice, or rabbits, injury by the San Jose scale, or some
other cause more or less obscure.
The pinhole borers or ambrosia beetles, which are somewhat similar
to the foregoing in size, color, and form, penetrate farther into the
wood than do the barkbeetles, and, like them, prefer to attack dis-
eased or dying trees. Beetles of this group sometimes bore into the
twigs of live apple and pear trees, causing a dying back of the tips
as though from twig blight. They have also been recorded as injur-
ing nursery trees by boring into the trunk and causing that part
of the tree above the point of injury to die.

THE FRUIT-TREE BARKBEETLE.1
HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHIC RANGE.
The fruit-tree barkbeetle, or shot-hole borer (fig. 2), probably was
introduced accidentally into America from Europe some time pre-








a 0 c d
Fic. 2.-The fruit-tree barkbeetle (Scolytus rugulosus) : a, Adult, or beetle ; b, same In
profile; c, pupa; d, larva. All enlarged about 10 times. (Chittenden.)
vious to the year 1877. The insect is now known to occur through-
out practically all the United States east of the Mississippi River,
and has become established in many localities to the west and also in
Canada, although it does not appear at the present time to have
reached the Pacific Coast States.
TREES ATTACKED.
The fruit-tree barkbeetle attacks and breeds in most of our culti-
vated deciduous fruit trees and in several species of uncultivated
pome and stone fruits. The list of food plants is known to include
apple, pear, plum, peach, cherry, quince, apricot, nectarine, wild
cherry, chokecherry, wild plum, mountain ash, loquat, and service
berry. Under favorable conditions multitudes of the beetles may
develop in the wild trees mentioned and migrate in destructive num-
bers to near-by cultivated orchards.
LIFE HISTORY AND HABITS.
The adult, or beetle (fig. 2, a, b), is about one-tenth of an inch in
length and of a dark brown or black color with dull reddish mark-
1 Scolytus rugulosus Ratz. ; order Coleoptera, family Scolytidam.




FARMERS' BULLETIN 763.


ings on the legs, about the head, and on the tips of the wing covers.
In the spring, from April to June, according to latitude, the beetles
appear on suitable trees and begin to excavate
brood chambers between the bark and sap-
wood. In preparing the chamber the female
-_ beetle gnaws around hole, about one-twentieth
of an inch in diameter, through the bark
-a and then extends a slightly enlarged burrow
(fig. 3, a), 1 or 2 inches in length, nearly
or quite parallel with the grain of the
-o wood. This burrow or brood chamber is
made partly in the bark and partly in
the wood, and during the process of its
construction small niches are mined out
on both sides, in each of which a minute
-6 white egg is deposited. A single female
will produce, on an average, from 75 to
90 eggs.
The eggs hatch in 3 or 4 days. 'The small,
a b footless, grublike larvme are white with reddish
Fio. 3.-Galleries of the fruit- heads and attain, when full grown, a length of
der bark: a, a, Main ga- about one-tenth of an inch. The larve (fig.
leries; b, b, side or larval 2 d) burrow between the bark and sapwood,
galleries; c, c, pupal cells.
Natural size. (Ratzeburg.) first at right angles away from the brood
chamber, and form centipede-like figures in the wood which are dis-
closed by removing the bark. (Fig. 4.) The larval burrows when


















FIG. 4.-Galleries of the fruit-tree barkbeetle under apple bark, showing adult females
in brood chambers. Enlarged. (Original.)
completed average 3 or 4 inches in length and are filled with dust-
like frass of a reddish-brown color. After feeding from 30 to 36





ORCHARD BARKBEETLES AND PINHOLE BORERS.


days the larve attain full growth and pupate within specially con-
structed cells just beneath the surface of the sapwood.
The pupal period (see pupa, fig. 2, c) lasts from 7 to 10 days, and
at its termination the beetles that have developed gnaw out through
the bark, making their escape through small, round holes (fig. 1)
similar to the entrance holes made previously by the females.
Within a few days after emerging these young beetles begin to
deposit eggs, giving rise to a second brood of larvae which feed in
the trees during the latter part of the season. In approximately the
northern half of the territory over which this barkbeetle is found
the second-brood larvae winter in the trees, pupating early in the
spring following. In the southern part of the territory, however,
these larvae become adults before winter, escape from the trees, and
deposit eggs, providing thereby for a third brood of larvae. Thus,
in the Northern States there are two generations of the insect
annually, while in the South three and possibly four generations
may occur within the year.

FEEDING HABITS.
Except in cases where the barkbeetles are excessively abundant,
they do not normally attack and breed in healthy trees, neither do
they feed and deposit their eggs in wood that is entirely dead.
Trees that have been greatly weakened by unfavorable conditions,
or that are in the act of dying, afford the most acceptable food for
the beetles and their larvae. Where there is a great quantity of
dying wood, such as prunings and trees that have been injured by the
San Jose scale, the yellows, freezing, or root troubles, the beetles will
breed in great numbers, and after their supply of preferred food
has been exhausted they will sometimes attack vigorous trees that
may be growing in the vicinity. At first the attacks may not make
much impression on sound trees, but a continuation of the injuries
may eventually weaken the trees to such an extent that they become
acceptable food for the larva, which can then develop within the
bark, and after this the death of the tree is reasonably sure to
follow very soon.
When healthy peach, plum, cherry, and other stone fruit trees are
attacked, the flow of gum (fig. 5) will often check the entrance of
the beetles and will prevent the development of larva, in cases where
eggs are deposited. The formation of gum at the wounds will
diminish, however, as the tree is weakened, and after a period during
which slight but numerous injuries have been inflicted by the beetles
the condition of the tree may become exactly right for the deposition
of eggs and the growth of the larva. The trunk, branches, and
twigs of suitable trees are attacked and all the inner bark and the





FARMERS' BULLETIN 63.


surface of the sapwood converted to dust in a very short time by the
primary wounds of the beetles and the more extensive burrows of
the numerous larva. (See fig. 6.)
NATURAL ENEMIES.
Several kinds of four-winged insect parasites attack and destroy
the barkbeetle larve, probably the most abundant and effective being
a small species known technically as Chiropachys colon L. Minute
nematode worms of an undetermined
species have been found inhabiting
the bodies of the larvt, but to what
extent, if any, they reduce the num-
ber of insects, has not been deter-
mined. Among the birds, wood-
peckers remove many of the insects
from infested trees, especially during
the winter months.
THE PEACH-TREE BARKBEETLE.
HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHIC RANGE.
The peach-tree barkbeetle (fig. 7)
is a native of America and has been
recognized as an enemy of peach
trees since about
the year 1850.
It first came into
prominence as a
supposed cause
of the disease
of peach trees
known as "vel-
FIc. 5.-Gum exuding from wounds on lows," a supposi-
peach limb caused by the fruit-tree tion which was
barkbeetle. Reduced. (Original.) ot borne out by

subsequent investigations. The insect is very
similar in form and habits to the fruit-tree
barkbeetle, although it does not attack so great
a variety of trees. Peach, cherry, and wild
cherry are its principal food plants, although it FIG. 6.-Twig of apple
is known to work on plum when no other food k iled by the work of
is available, beetle. Natural size.
At the present time the species is known to occur (Chittenden.)
in the States of New Hampshire, New York, Pennsylvania, Mary-
land, Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, Ohio, and Michigan,
Phloeotribus liminaris Harris; order Coleoptera, family Ipidae.




ORCHARD BARKBEETLES AND PINHOLE BORERS.


and in the Province of Ontario, Canada. It is probable that it may
be found in States other than those mentioned.
As a rule, this beetle, like the one described previously, prefers
to attack diseased and dying wood, and the known cases of serious
injury by it to healthy orchards are not numerous. There are
records, however, of its doing great damage to peach orchards in
Ohio, New York, and Ontario, and the history of the species indi-
cates that where breeding conditions are favorable it may multiply


and become at any time a
menace to peach, and pos-
sibly cherry orchards.
LIFE HISTORY AND HABITS.
Unlike the fruit tree
barkbeetle, this insect
winters in the tree as an
adult. This adult, or
beetle (fig. 7, a, b), is a
little less than one-tenth
of an inch in length and
in color light brown to
nearly black. Some of
the beetles, which trans-
form to the adult stage
late in the fall, winter
within their pupal cells
in dead or dying trees;
others, which transform
earlier in the fall, leave
the host tree and bore
into healthy or unhealthy
trees, forming hibernation
cells just beneath the
outer layer of bark.


Fie. 7. The peach-tree barkbeetle (Phloeotribus
liminaris) : a, b, Adult, or beetle, dorsal and lateral
views ; c, egg; d, larva ; e, pupa. Greatly enlarged.
(IT. F. Wilson.)


These hibernation cells are made at the inner terminus of bur-
rows averaging about half an inch in length. Often great numbers
of such burrows are made in growing trees, and during the- fol-
lowing season there will be a copious exudation of gum from the
numerous wounds similar to that caused by the fruit-tree barkbeetle
(see fig. 5). The beetles, after leaving their hibernation quarters in
the spring, make short burrows in healthy trees, either to obtain food
or in an attempt to form brood chambers. The constant flow of sap
from such wounds eventually weakens the trees to such an extent
that brood chambers can be constructed without interference from




FARMERS' BULLETIN 763.


gum formation, after which the larvae make short work of the
trees.
The beetles leave their hibernation cells early' in the spring and
migrate to other trees, brush heaps of prunings, or any suitable wood
wherein eggs can be deposited. The
female bores into the bark, forming a
hole very similar to that made by th6
fruit-tree barkbeetle, but distinguished
from it by the particles of excrement,
held together by fine threads of silk,
which partly fill the mouth of the bur-
row or hang therefrom. The. brood
chamber (see figs. 8, 9) may be any-
where from 1 to 2 inches in length. It
may be told at a glance from that of
Sthe species described previously by the
Fact that almost invariably it is made to
Cross the grain of the wood transversely,
instead of extending parallel with it, and
ill f that there is a short side tunnel branch

















Fig. 8.-The peach-tree bark- FIG. 9.-The peach-tree barkbeetle: Brood chamber
beetle In wood of peach tree: with egg pockets and larval galleries In wood of
Brood chambers and larval peach tree. Lakeside, Ohio, May 18, 1908. En-
galleries. (H. F. Wilson.) large. (H. F. Wilson.)
ing from the main chamber near the inner end. This side branch
enables the female to turn around within the burrow and is occupied
by the male at the time of mating.
The small, white eggs (fig. 7, c) are deposited in little pockets
excavated from the walls of the brood chamber (see fig. 9), from





ORCHARD BARKBEETLES AND PINHOLE BORERS.


80 to 160 eggs being placed by a female in a single chamber. Eggs (fig.
7, c) from the first generation of beetles require from 17 to 20 days to
hatch. The larvae (fig. 7, d) bore at right angles away from the
brood chamber, forming burrows from 1- to nearly 3 inches in length.
They are white, often with a pinkish cast due to the contents of the
digestive tract, and have a yellowish head and darker mouth parts.
In from 25 to 30 days they attain full growth and then pupate
within the bark. From 4 to 6 days are passed in the pupal stage
(fig. 7, e), after which transformation to beetles takes place. The
adults of this generation
issue about midsummer
(see fig. 10) and provide
eggs for a second genera-
tion, the beetles of which
appear in the fall and
hibernate as has been de-
scribed. During the sum-
mer and fall the two gen-
erations overlap so that.
all stages of the insect
may be found in trees at
one time.
CONTROL OF THE FRUIT-
TREE AND PEACH-
TREE BARKBEETLES.
The first and most im-
portant point in connec-
tion with the control of
these two species of bark-
beetles is the elimination
of breedingplaces. Ashas FIG. 10.-Exit holes in peach limbs made by adults
been shown, both species of the peach-tree barkbeetle. Natural size.
breed only in unhealthy (Original.)
wood, and where there is an abundance of such wood they will
multiply in numbers limited only by the food supply. Trees and
branches affected as follows have been observed to be favorite breed-
ing places: Trees dying from neglect and starvation, from attacks
of the San Jose scale, infection of "yellows," injury to roots and
base of trunk by mice and rabbits, injury by blight and sun scald,
and other diseases of roots, trunk, and branches, and injury by round-
headed apple-tree borers; trees whose branches have been broken
down by storms or loads of fruit, or any agency or condition that
will cause unhealthy or dying wood. (See figs. 11 and 12.) Such
wood should always be eliminated, either by restoring it through





FARMERS' BULLETIN 763.


proper treatment to a normal and healthy condition or by burning.
Not only must such wood be guarded against within the orchard,
but a* lookout should be maintained of land adjacent to orchards,


FIG. 11.-Branches of apple tree broken by overbearing. The fruit-tree barkbettle was
breeding in great numbers in the broken branches, (Original.)

where sickly seedling apple, peach, wild cherry, wild plum, service-
berry, crab apple, or other trees susceptible to infestation may form
breeding centers for the beetles. Where all such breeding places can




ORCHARD BARKBEETLES AND PINHOLE BORERS.


be removed the danger of attacks by the beetles on healthy trees will
be reduced to the minimum.
Trees of stone fruits, like peach, plum, and cherry, which are
infested and from which the gum still exudes may often be saved


FIG. 12.-Branches left lying on the ground under a top-worked apple tree. Numbers of
the fruit-tree barkbeetle were breeding in these branches. (Original.)

by the prompt application of remedies. They should first be cut back
severely and then the soil about them cultivated and dressed liberally
with barnyard manure or commercial fertilizer. This will stimu-
late growth and assist the tree in overcoming the injury. A thick





PARtMERS'I BTJLLETIN1 762,


coat of whitewash (fig. 13) should then be applied. In cases of
serious infestation it may be necessary to apply as many as three

iB ^'O~is r n*' J T I


FI(. 13.-Peach trees treated with whitewash to combat the fruit-tree barkbeetle.
(Original.)

coats of the whitewash during the season-one early in the spring,
another about the middle of summer, and. -a third in the fall. If




ORCHARD BARKBEETLES AND PINHOLE BORERS. 13

the whitewash is mixed thin enough for application with a spray
pump, two sprayings made about the same time will be necessary to
supply a protective covering to the bark. If the mixture is made
thicker, a single coat applied with a broom or brush will be sufficient
for one time. The addition of a handful of table salt to each pail of
whitewash will render the application more adhesive. Good results
have been obtained by mixing a pint of crude cresylic acid with each
10 gallons of the whitewash.
The whitewash will not kill the insects already in the trees, but if
a solid coat is maintained on the bark it will prevent in a large
measure the laying of additional eggs and enable the trees, by the
help of cultivation and fertilizers, ,to recover
from the injury. .9
Many other washes, paints, and sprays have
been tested against these insects, but when the
cost of material, simplicity of preparation,
and effectiveness are considered, nothing has
been found that can be recommended as pref-
erable to whitewash when prepared and used .
as directed above.

THE APPLE WOOD-STAINER.'
The small wood-boring beetle known as the
FIG. 14.- The apple
apple wood-stainer (fig. 14) derives its name wood-stainer (Monar-
from the fact that it stains the walls of its bur- thrum mali): Adult,
or beetle. Much en-
rows black by propagating thereon a moldlike large natural size
fungus on which it and its larvae feed. This in small circle. (Orig-
inal.)
interesting habit is possessed by several re-
lated species, and the name ambrosia beetles" has been given to
the group on that account. Frequently the wood surrounding the
burrows is stained a dark color as a result of the fungous growth.
The adult apple wood-stainer (fig. 14) is about one-tenth of an
inch long and is reddish-brown to nearly black. In form it is
cylindrical and slender, and it does not differ greatly in appearance
from the barkbeetles described previously. A score or more of food
plants have been recorded. These include forest and orchard trees,
casks in which wine and other liquids are stored, and manufactured
mahogany lumber. Among fruit trees it is known to attack apple,
plum, cherry, and orange. About 50 years ago it attracted attention
as an enemy of apple trees in Massachusetts, where it is said to have
riddled the trunks of many young trees. Associated with this species
'Monarthrum mali Fitch; order Coleoptera, family Ipidae.




FARMERS' BULLETIN 763.


is found another, Monarthrum fasciatum Say (fig. 15) of similar
appearance and food habits.
The female beetle bores through the bark and
into the wood for a short distance and deposits
her eggs. Later the short larval galleries are
constructed outward from the main gallery
made by the parent beetle. (See fig. 16.)
Breeding takes place only in diseased, dying,
I girdled, and
( felled trees.
The insect is
not a common
orchard pest, ." -
but should it /
FIG. 15.-Monarthrum ', i i
fasciatum: Adult, or occur a t a ny i
beetle. Much en- time in injurious I I
large. (Original.) numb es the I ..
numbers the I .
remedies recommended herein for i
barkbeetles may be resorted to. /


J I I'. I F'"
FIG. 16.-Work of the apple wood-
stainer (Monarthrum mali) in apple
wood. Beetle, approximately nat-
ural size, at left. (Original.)

THE PEAR-BLIGHT BEETLE.1


S The pear-blight beetle (fig.
17) has been the cause of
occasional injury to fruit
trees for many years. It
bores into the twigs and
branches of apple, pear
peach, and plum trees and
FIG. 17.-The pear-blight beetle (Anisandrus
pyr) : Adults, or beetles, and enlarged causes a dying back of the
view of antenna of female beetle. All wood, the injury resembling
much enlarged. (Ilubbard.) that of the bacterial disease
common on apple and pear, known as pear blight or twig blight.
The insect also attacks the trunks of trees and is not confined to
orchards, but infests a number of hardwood forest trees, and at least
1 Anisandrus pyri Peck; order Coleoptera, family Ipidae.


r




ORCHARD BARKBEETLES AND PINHOLE BORERS.


one cone-bearing tree. Like the other species considered in this
paper, it prefers to work in diseased and dying wood, although,
as has been indicated, healthy trees are sometimes attacked. The
species is distributed widely in the eastern part of the United States.
The female beetle (fig. 17, upper and lower
right) is about one-eighth of an inch in length,
of a dark-brown color, and has the head hidden
from above by the projecting front of the thorax.
The male beetle (see fig. 17, lower left) is only
about half as large as the females. The adult
female, when attacking twigs, usually makes her
entrance at the base of a bud. The burrow (fig.
18) extends to and around the pith and has a
number of short side branches running with the
grain of the wood. Eggs are deposited loosely
in the burrow and the larvae feed on the am-
brosia fungus which is propagated on the walls. I
The larve transform to adults within the burrow '.
made by the parent beetle and issue from the tree
through the entrance hole. Small branches are
killed by these burrows, but when the beetles
enter large branches or the trunks of trees the
injury is not serious, and, as has been stated,
more often than otherwise only unhealthy wood
Fic. 18.--Gallery of
is entered. Injuries caused by twig blight and the pear-blight
by these beetles are sometimes similar in appear- beetle in poplar
twig: Upper figure,
ance, but there is no relationship between the transverse section ;
two troubles, and orchardists should be able to lower figure, longi-
distinguish the insect injury from the blight by (Ma sectionx)
a close examination of the twigs.
Where remedial measures are called for, the methods recommended
for use against the other species described herein should be adopted,
with the additional precaution of cutting out and burning the in-
fested twigs.




PUBLICATIONS OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
RELATING TO INSECTS INJURIOUS TO DECIDUOUS FRUITS.
AVAILABLE FOR FREE DISTRIBUTION.
Spraying Peaches for the Control of Brown Rot, Scab, and Curculio. (Farmers'
Bulletin 440.)
The More Important Insect and Fungous Enemies of the Fruit and Foliage of
the Apple. (Farmers' Bulletin 492.)
The Gipsy Moth and the Brown-tail Moth with Suggestions for Their Control.
(Farmers' Bulletin 564.)
The San Jose Scale and Its Control. (Farmers' Bulletin 650.)
The Apple-Tree Tent Caterpillar. (Farmers' Bulletin 662.)
The Round-headed Apple-tree Borer. (Farmers' Bulletin 675.)
Rose-chafer: A Destructive Garden and Vineyard Pest. (Farmers' Bulle-
tin 721.)
The Leaf Blister Mite of Pear and Apple. (Farmers' Bulletin 722.)
Oyster-Shell Scale and Scurfy Scale. (Farmers' Bulletin 733.)
The Cranberry Rootworm. (Department Bulletin 263.)
Buffalo Tree-hopper. (Entomology Circular 23.)
Apple Maggot or Railroad Worm. (Entomology Circular 101.)
How to Control Pear Thrips. (Entomology Circular 131.)
FOR SALE BY THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS.
Insect and Fungous Enemies of the Grape East of the Rocky Mountains.
(Farmers' Bulletin 284.) Price, 5 cents.
Grape Leafhopper in Lake Erie Valley. (Department Bulletin 19.) Price,
10 cents.
The Lesser Bud-moth. (Department Bulletin 113.) Price, 5 cents.
American Plum Borer. (Department Bulletin 261.) Price, 5 cents.
The Parandra Borer. (Department Bulletin 262.) Price, 5 cents.
The Terrapin Scale: An Important Insect Enemy of Peach Orchards. (De-
partment Bulletin 351.) Price, 15 cents.
The Cherry Leaf-beetle: A Periodically Important Enemy of Cherries. (De-
partment Bulletin 352.) Price, 5 cents.
Peach-tree Borer. (Entomology Circular 54.) Price, 5 cents.
Plum Curculio. (Entomology Circular 73.) Price, 5 cents.
Aphides Affecting Apple. (Entomology Circular 81.) Price, 5 cents.
Nut Weevils. (Entomology Circular 99.) Price, 5 cents.
Pecan Cigar Case-bearer. (Entomology Bulletin 64, pt. X.) Price, 5 cents.
Spring Canker-Worm. (Entomology Bulletin 68, pt. II.) Price, 5 cents.
'Trumpet Leaf-miner of Apple. (Entomology Bulletin 68, pt. III.) Price,
5 cents.
Lesser Peach Borer. (Entomology Bulletin 68, pt. IV.) Price, 5 cents.
Grape-leaf Skeletonizer. (Entomology Bulletin 68, pt. VIII.) Price, 5 cents.
Cigar Case-bearer. (Entomology Bulletin 80, pt. II.) Price, 10 cencs.
Grape Root-worm, With Especial Reference to Investigations in Erie Grape
Belt, 1907-1909. (Entomology Bulletin 89.) Price, 20 cents.
California Peach Borer. (Entomology Bulletin 97, pt. IV.) Price, 10 cents.
Notes on Peach and Plum Slug. (Entomology Bulletin 97, pt. V.) Price,
5 cents.
Notes on Peach Bud Mite, Enemy of Peach Nursery Stock. (Entomology Bul-
letin 97, pt. VI.) Price, 10 cents.
Grape Scale. (Entomology Bulletin 97, pt. VII.) Price, 5 cents.
Plum Curculio. (Entomology Bulletin 103.) Price, 50 cents.
Grape-berry Moth. (Entomology Bulletin 116, pt. II.) Price, 15 cents.
Cherry Fruit Sawfly. (Entomology Bulletin 116, pt. III.) Price, 5 cents.
Fruit-tree Leaf-roller. (Entomology Bulletin 116, pt. V.) Price, 10 cents.


WASHINGTON : GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1916




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