Group Title: Lake Alfred AREC Research report
Title: Packinghouse newsletter
Full Citation
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 Material Information
Title: Packinghouse newsletter
Series Title: Lake Alfred AREC Research report
Alternate Title: Citrus packinghouse newsletters
Packing house newsletter
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Agricultural Research and Education Center (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Citrus Research and Education Center (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Indian River Research Education Center
Publisher: Citrus Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Lake Alfred Fla
Lake Alfred Fla
Publication Date: January 1974
Copyright Date: 1965
Frequency: irregular
completely irregular
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Harvesting -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruits -- Packing -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Additional Physical Form: Also issued on the World Wide Web.
Dates or Sequential Designation: No.1 (Sept. 1, 1965)-
Issuing Body: Issued by the Citrus Experiment Station (no. 1-38); Lake Alfred (Fla.) Agricultural Research and Education Center (no. 39-136); Lake Alfred (Fla.) Citrus Research and Education Center (no. 137-189); and the Ft. Pierce (Fla.) Indian River Research and Education Center (no. 190- ).
General Note: Title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: No. 202 (Aug. 1, 2005)
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00095555
Volume ID: VID00048
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 02430250
lccn - 2006229390

Full Text
Newsletter #60

Lake Alfred AREC Research Report-CS74-13
1000 Copies
January 29, 1974

Editor: W. F. Wardowski
Harvesting and Handling Section
University of Florida
Agricultural Research and Education Center
P. O. Box 1088
Lake Alfred, Florida 33850


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*Anyone wishing to receive this newsletter C-,s
may send a dozen stamped, preaddressed
envelopes to the above address.

ay Word Index
Benlate, Decay Control, Decay Fungi, Peel Injuries,
Picking, Sanitation, Thiabendazole (TBZ)

Newsletter #60 Lake Alfred AREC Research Report CS74-13
1000 copies
January 29th, 1974

Harvesting and Handling Section



There is little evidence that strains of green mold (Penicillium digitatum)
resistant to TBZ and Benlate exist to any extent in Florida citrus packinghouses.
However, resistance by this fungus to TBZ has become a problem in lemon storage
rooms in California, in the packing and storage facilities at the Agricultural
Research and Education Center at Lake Alfred, and at the USDA Horticultural Laboratory
in Orlando. Strains resistant to TBZ are also sufficiently resistant to Benlate to
render this fungicide ineffective for control of rots caused by these resistant
strains. We want you to be aware that a problem with resistance can occur, especially
where citrus fruit treated with these fungicides are held over an extended period of

In the usual packinghouse operation, treated fruit are either in transit, at
the market, or purchased by the consumer before mold sporulation occurs. During
extended holding of treated fruit, however, there is time for resistant strains of
molds to infect, sporulate, and reinfect other fruit. Resistant mold strains could
cause problems where successive treatments of TBZ and/or Benlate are used. To
improve decay control in degreened fruit, we have suggested the trial application of
Benlate in the grove or Benlate or TBZ in the packinghouse before degreening. Even-
tually, this may subject the packer to a buildup of resistant molds. Resistant strains
could also become prevalent in cold storage facilities where treated fruit are being
held for later shipment or stored for summer sale.

Some commercial packinghouses in Florida have been checked without finding resis-
tant molds, except in two instances. In one house, treated fruit were being held for
an extended length of time; and in the other, untreated fruit were held in pallet bins
and degreening rooms that were contaminated with resistant spores. Limited studies
at Orlando with 65 TBZ and Benlate resistant isolates of mold showed that these strains
were not resistant to sodium o-phenylphenate (SOPP or Dow A), diphenyl, or 2-aminobu-
tane. Applicationcf these materials with or in lieu of TBZ or Benlate may be necessary
if a problem with resistance is encountered.

Good sanitary practices in the packinghouse are recommended to maintain green
mold spore concentrations at a minimum. With the knowledge that fungicide resistant
molds can also occur, sanitation becomes even more important. All cull fruit, parti-
cularly those which are treated with TBZ or Benlate, should be removed daily from the
packinghouse. The area around the packinghouse should also be maintained in a clean
condition. All areas in the packinghouse which become wet as a result of the packing
operation should be cleaned daily by hosing with water. This is particularly important
in areas where juice from fruit may accumulate. At this time, we do not recommend
chemical treatments in the packinghouse for the control of TBZ and Benlate resistant
mold spores.

When more information is available on the handling of this problem, it will be
printed in a later edition of this Newsletter.
Eldon Brown, FDOC, Lake Alfred
Andy McCornack, FDOC, Lake Alfred
John Smoot, USDA, Orlando

Note: At this writing, State and Federal permits for use of Benlate on citrus have
expired. The manufacturer expects this situation to be rectified in the near
future and will keep us informed.

January 29, 1974
Newsletter #60 -2-


"Dear Dr. Grierson:

Just a note to introduce myself to you and your staff. I am replacing Al Biales as
agricultural economist at the USDA's Orlando U.S. Horticultural Research Laboratory,
due to his most untimely death.

I will be working with Mr. Tom Moffitt, completing projects which Al had on-going
and initiating new projects in the continuing search for less costly and improved
techniques in handling, loading, and transport which will result in improved quality
of fruits and vegetables reaching markets.

I fully intend to continue the cordial cooperative relationship between industry and
this station which has been demonstrated over the years. Do not hesitate to contact
Tom or myself on matters which you feel we can be of assistance, or potential project
areas which will benefit our fruit and vegetable industry. In this era of energy
shortages, unprecedented co-ts, and the great demand for high quality fruits and
vegetables, much can be accomplished through our cooperative efforts.

Please note that the former office location at 2607 North Orange Avenue is now U.S.
Horticultural Research Laboratory, 2120 Camden Road (corner of Princeton and Camden),
Orlando, Florida 32803; phone 305: 898-6791.

Bill Miller
Agr. Economist
USDA, Orlando ,


Citrus packinghouse managers asked if we recommend hot water to control sour
rot (Geotrichum candidum). Answer: NO!

Claims have recently been made that hot water will control sour rot, and further
that the "Experiment Station" endorses such a treatment. Tests at USDA, Orlando and
AREC, Lake Alfred indicate sour rot is not controlled by hot water.

Will Wardowski, Extension Service, Lake Alfred
John Smoot, USDA, Orlando
Eldon Brown, FDOC, Lake Alfred


Now that you all have your 1974 calendars, please reserve Wednesday, September 4,
1974, for the lucky 13th Annual Citrus Packinghouse Day, Agricultural Research
and Education Center, Lake Alfred.

This public document was promulgated at an annual cost
of $201.60, or two and one-half cents per copy to inform
county agricultural directors, ranchers, and growers of
research results in harvesting and fresh fruit handling
and marketing.

January 29,1974

Newsletter #60


Our recent wet foggy weather, combined with abnormally warm temperatures, has
caused considerable losses in both fresh and cannery fruits.

It is never advisable to pick citrus when wet. However, it may be unavoidable
and when that happens every precaution must be taken to avoid fruit damage that results
in rapid decay. Even after surface water has evaporated off the fruit surface, the
fruit may still be so turgid that oil cells rupture very easily. Broken oil cells
not only provide a particularly effective entry point for decay spores, the extruded
oil kills the surrounding cells making dark sunken areas (oleocellosis) that soon

An increasingly serious problem is decay due to Sour Rot which is caused by
a soil-borne fungus. Damp turgid fruit dropped to the ground, bangedagainst dirty
pallet boxes, picking bags, etc. readily become infected with Sour Rot which is not
controlled by any of our current fungicides.

Precautionary methods advised are:

1. Strict supervision of pickers to prevent dropping of fruit, overloading of
picking bags, pallet boxes, etc.

2. Prompt handling of fruit. If fruit cannot be run immediately it should not
be picked in such weather. Holding fruit picked under these conditions on trucks
or on te packinghouse floor over the weekend can result in expensive decay claims.

3. Refrigerate packed fruit if at all possible. Ideally, the fruit should be
cooled to transit temperature before loading. If only limited precooling facilities
are available give first preference to specialty fruits ('Temples', tangerines,
W. Grierson
AREC, Lake Alfred


Available from W. F. Wardowski, AREC, P. O. Box 1088, Lake Alfred, Florida 33850.

"Tangerine Handling" by W. Grierson, A. A. McCornack, F. W. Hayward. Circ. 285, 1965.

Available from Prof. R. L. Perry, Dept. of Agr. Engineering, University of California,
Davis, California 95616.

"Mechanization of harvest and related operations for subtropical and tropical fruits"
Proc. 18th Int. Hort. Congress Vol. IV, 395-403, 1970.

Available from 'upt. of Documents. -U,S,.Govt.Printing OfficeWashingtonD.,C. ,( 40 o
"The nature and extent of retail and consumer losses in apples, oranges, lettuce,
peaches, strawberries, and potatoes, marketed and graded in New York" MRR No. 996, 1973.

Available from Division of Fruits & Vegetable Storage, Agricultural Research Organization,
The Volcani Center, P. O. B. 6, Bet Dagan, Israel.
"Reduction of pitting of grapefruit by thiabendazole during long-term cold storage" by
Mina Schiffmann-Nadel, E. Chalutz, J. Waks, and F. S. Lattar, HortScience 7(4):394-395.
August, 1972.


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