Group Title: Lake Alfred AREC Research report
Title: Packinghouse newsletter
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Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00095555/00017
 Material Information
Title: Packinghouse newsletter
Series Title: Lake Alfred AREC Research report
Alternate Title: Citrus packinghouse newsletters
Packing house newsletter
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Agricultural Research and Education Center (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Citrus Research and Education Center (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Indian River Research Education Center
Publisher: Citrus Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Lake Alfred Fla
Lake Alfred Fla
Publication Date: November 1969
Copyright Date: 1965
Frequency: irregular
completely irregular
 Subjects
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Harvesting -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruits -- Packing -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Additional Physical Form: Also issued on the World Wide Web.
Dates or Sequential Designation: No.1 (Sept. 1, 1965)-
Issuing Body: Issued by the Citrus Experiment Station (no. 1-38); Lake Alfred (Fla.) Agricultural Research and Education Center (no. 39-136); Lake Alfred (Fla.) Citrus Research and Education Center (no. 137-189); and the Ft. Pierce (Fla.) Indian River Research and Education Center (no. 190- ).
General Note: Title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: No. 202 (Aug. 1, 2005)
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00095555
Volume ID: VID00017
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 02430250
lccn - 2006229390

Full Text


;er No. 26 Citrus Station Mimeo Report CES 70-13
November 18, 1969
750-WFW-Lake Alfred, Florida 33850






Editor: W. F. Wardowski
Harvesting and Handling Section*
University of Florida
Citrus Experiment Station
P. 0. Box 1088
Lake Alfred, Florida 33850

















UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES

and

STATE OF FLORIDA, DEPARTMENT OF CITRUS


*Complimentary to members of the
Florida Fresh Citrus Shippers Association.
Others wishing to receive this newsletter
may send a dozen stamped, preaddressed
envelopes to the above address.






Newsletter No. 26 (**)
Citrus Station Mimeo Report CES 70-13
November 18, 1969
750-WFW-Lake Alfred, Florida 33850


Harvesting and Handling Section

PACKINGHOUSE NEWSLETTER


STEM-END RIND BREAKDOWN

Stem-end rind breakdown is a common peel injury of oranges at this season of
the year. Drying conditions--in the grove, during degreening, or after degreening
and before packing--cause stem-end rind breakdown. Avoid unnecessary delay from
the time of picking to delivery to the packinghouse. Humidity in the degreening
rooms should be maintained with no more than a 2 to 3 degree spread between the
dry-and wet-bulb thermometers After degreening,oranges should be packed as soon
as possible. Proper handling will also reduce decay.

Stem-end rind breakdown is more likely to appear on small sizes and thin-skinned
oranges. Stem-end rind breakdown can be reduced or eliminated by keeping the har-
vesting-waxing interval to a minimum and not allowing the fruit to stand under con-
ditions of low humidity. More information may be obtained from Circular 286,
"Practical Measures for Control of Rind Breakdown of Oranges," which is available
at the Citrus Experiment Staticn
A. McCornack
Department of Citrus
Citrus Experiment Station

THIS IS A BAD YEAR FOR STEM-END ROT

In Newsletter No. 25, we mentioned that all symptoms indicated that this would
be a bad degreening season; and any delays or errors in degreening would greatly
stimulate stem-end rot. We were remiss in burying this important item well down on
page 3. It has turned out to be all too true and has definitely had an effect on
the market.

Fall stem-end rot is caused by Diplodia natalensis which is also one of the
organisms causing foot-rot, twig die-back, and similar problems in the grove. It
thrives in wet weather as the spores are water-born. In a season such as this, we
can expect the buttons of virtually every fruit to be infected with this fungus. If
it enters the fruit, the result is stem-end rot.

Fall stem-end rot has the unfortunate characteristic that its growth and devel-
opment is very much accelerated by degreening temperatures and high ethylene con-
centrations.

Until we get clearance for preharvest fungicides, our only effective recommen-
dations are to get the fruit through the degreening room as fast as possible and
to keep degreening conditions as nearly optimum as possible. Anything that slows
up degreening will greatly stimulate stem-end rot. High ethylene concentrations and
also dry degreening room conditions (which cause minute cracks under the button,
allowing fungus to enter) cause increases in stem-end rot.

When crops are very green, we advise test picking a few boxes of inside fruit
to see if they will degree before picking the whole crop. In the degreening room,
keep ethylene concentrations low Every packinghouse should have an ethylene






Newsletter No. 26 -2- November 18, 1969



analyzer which is very cheap insurance against decay claims. Ethylene at 1 to 5 ppm
will do a good degreening job without too much stimulation of stem-end rot. There
should be definite air movement in all parts of the room, slight continuous ventila-
tion; temperatures should not exceed 850 F, and humidity should be over 90% R.H., but
not up to precipitation point.

Above all, do everything you can to shorten the time between the tree and the
fungicide applicator.
W. Grierson, Professor
Horticulturist
Citrus Experiment Station

NEW PACKINGHOUSE IN ARIZONA

Attention is drawn to the article in the California Citrograph, Vol. 54, No. 12,
page 492, October, 1969, entitled: "DVR: Colossus at Tacna." We who advise on new
developments always wish that sometime we could start with a completely blank sheet
of paper. This has been done by a very large investment corporation, Train, Cabot
Associates, in their enormous Desert Valencia Ranch planting on Yuma Mesa in
Arizona. This is a huge investment by hard-headed financiers who planned it with
the best advice they could get; and the result is a "people-oriented" set-up designed,
as a first item of priority, to give year around employment to their workers. The
packinghouse will work on the "inventory-to-inventory system." That is to say an
inventory of harvested fruit and an inventory of packed fruit with a packing process
running at maximum efficiency regardless of individual orders.

We were among the many people consulted in the planning of this huge venture;
but these decisions were probably not due to our advice, but because they made sense
to a group of hard-headed financiers.

For those who do not have access to the California Citrograph, we would be
happy to send them a Xerox copy. The article is well worth reading for many reasons,
if only to see what our competition is doing.

W. Grierson, Professor
Horticulturist
Citrus Experiment Station

DR. GRIERSON RECEIVES AWARD

The Florida State Horticultural Society's Presidential Gold Medal Award has
been presented to Dr. Bill Grierson, Head, Harvesting and Handling Section, Citrus
Experiment Station. This award is presented each year at the FSHS annual meeting
in Miami Beach to the Society member contributing most to the State's horticultural
industry through papers presented during the past 5 years.


Congratulations Bill!





I. SUMMARY OF SIZE OF DISPLAY STUDY

The size of the fresh orange display has a greater affect on orange sales
than whether the display is refrigerated. The FCC's Economic Research Department
recently tested four displays of varying sizes and levels of refrigeration.
The sales results are summarized in the figure below. A summary of the results
is.as follows:

1. There was not a significant difference in sales between the two six-foot
displays even though one was 100 percent refrigerated and the other had
only 33 percent refrigeration.
2. There was a significant decrease in sales when the three-foot display
of 100 percent refrigeration was substituted for the six-foot display
of 33 percent refrigeration.
3. There was a significant increase in sales when the ten-foot display of
20 percent refrigeration was substituted for the six-foot display of
33 percent refrigeration.
The above results suggest that, unless the supermarket chain will substitute
an equal amount of refrigerated display area for the non-refrigerated space, the
industry should not go to all-refrigerated displays. Refrigerated produce counter
space is limited in the typical supermarket; whereas,non-refrigerated aisle table
display space is not as limited. Consequently, the industry would likely have
greater success in obtaining additional non-refrigerated space. As indicated by
this study, such an increase in display area would increase sales.

For a copy of the complete study, please contact the Economic Research
Department, Florida Citrus Commission, University of Florida, Gainesville,
Florida, 32601.

WEEKLY
SALES
PER 100
CUSTOMERS
(LBS.) SALES OF ORANGES
6


5-


4- ,PROPORTION REFRIG.

S-PROPORTION NON-REFRIG.

3 6' 1081
BAGGED 1.5' 4 8
LOOSE 1.5' 2' 2'

LINEAR FEET OF DISPLAY AREA

Dr. W. Bernard Lester, Director
Economic Research Department
University of Florida


Newsletter No. 26


November 18, 1969






Newsletter No. 26 -4- November 18, 1969



AVAILABLE PUBLICATIONS

Available from the Harvesting and Handling Section, Citrus Experiment Station.

"Practical Measures for Control of Rind Breakdown of Oranges," May, 1965.
Circular 286. A. A. McCornack and W. Grierson.

Xerox copy of "DVR: Colossus at Tacna," California Citrograph, Vol. 54, No. 12,
p. 492. October, 1969.


Available from Economic Research Department, State of Florida, Department of
Citrus, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601.

"Size of Display Study," Dr. W. Bernard Lester.




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