Group Title: Lake Alfred AREC Research report
Title: Packinghouse newsletter
Full Citation
Permanent Link:
 Material Information
Title: Packinghouse newsletter
Series Title: Lake Alfred AREC Research report
Alternate Title: Citrus packinghouse newsletters
Packing house newsletter
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Agricultural Research and Education Center (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Citrus Research and Education Center (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Indian River Research Education Center
Publisher: Citrus Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Lake Alfred Fla
Lake Alfred Fla
Publication Date: December 1968
Copyright Date: 1965
Frequency: irregular
completely irregular
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Harvesting -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruits -- Packing -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Additional Physical Form: Also issued on the World Wide Web.
Dates or Sequential Designation: No.1 (Sept. 1, 1965)-
Issuing Body: Issued by the Citrus Experiment Station (no. 1-38); Lake Alfred (Fla.) Agricultural Research and Education Center (no. 39-136); Lake Alfred (Fla.) Citrus Research and Education Center (no. 137-189); and the Ft. Pierce (Fla.) Indian River Research and Education Center (no. 190- ).
General Note: Title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: No. 202 (Aug. 1, 2005)
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00095555
Volume ID: VID00011
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 02430250
lccn - 2006229390

Full Text

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Citrus Station Mimeo Repot CES 69-18 /
December 20, 1968
650-WG-Lake Alfred, Florida



New setter

Harvesting and Handling Section
University of Florida
Citrus Experiment Station
P.O. Box 1088
Lake Alfred, Florida, 33850
(Complimentary to members of the Florida Fresh Citrus Shippers association .
Others wishing to receive this newsletter, send a dozen stamped preaddressed
envelopes to the above address.)


^ & nl
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Citrus Station Mimeo Report CES 69-18
December 20, 1968
650-WG-Lake Alfred, Florida, 33850

Harvesting and Handling Section



The following is taken from "The Produce Packager" Vol. 12, No. 23,
December 6, 1968. In the absence of any mention to the contrary, it would
seem wise to presume that the same rulings could be invoked for color-added

"Citrus shippers planning to make shipments of oranges into the State of
California are reminded that they must meet the California Agricultural Code
regulations requiring the stamping of 'color added' to the oranges. California
regulations require that at least 85% of the oranges iu a shipment bear the
statement 'color added' in legible print. The printing may be 'light', or
'slightly smeared', but must be readable. Two letters missing at either end
of the statement is acceptable -- three missing letters at either end is un-

Within the state, county inspectors may re-inspect the fruit, and if the
shipment fails to meet the marking requirements, the inspector may prevent
the sale of the fruit in the state on the basis that the fruit does not meet
county regulations."


We are once again hearing the old wives' tale that frozen fruit are
poisonous and, in particular, that the white hesperidin crystals that form
between the segments are poisonous. This is simply not so.

Freezing damages the cell membranes to the extent that the moisture can
evaporate from the frozen area. Immature fruit that remain on the tree may
"heal' to a marked extent, the healthy segments compressing the dried out
area into a very small space. Fruit that is mature at time of freezing can-
not do this. It will be first mushy and later have hollow areas (but without
shrivelling, because the membranes allow the water to escape freely) but it
will not be unwholesome.


Installation of Separators

An installation in which a mechanical separator (or separators) delivers
fruit direct to the packing lines greatly decreases the out-put of the pack-
inghouse by limiting it to the volume of sound fruit being separated at any
given moment. This makes for a very expensive operation.

Newsletter No. 20

Packinghouses using fresh fruit bulk bins or pallet boxes should consider
running the separators independently of the packing lines. A small crew,
working long hours, can accumulate a pool of separated fruit. This "pre-
separated fruit" when run through the packinghouse will have a very high
pack-out, ensuring a high volume of packed fruit per man-hour of operating

Efficiency of Frozen Fruit Separators
(Reprinted, with modifications, from Newsletter No. 4, March 1966).

Three types of separators are in general use. These include two types
of water separators; one in which the fruit drops in and separation depends
upon both how deep the fruit sinks and how fast it rises; and a more common
type of water separator which delivers the fruit under water and separation
depends only on how fast it rises. The third type of separator is the chemi-
cal or oil emulsion separator which uses an emulsion of oil and water whose
specific gravity is adjusted to be between that of the good fruit and the
frozen fruit. In all these, of course, separation is based on the fact that
the specific gravity of the frozen fruit is typically less than that of the
non-frozen fruit.

No marked differences were found in the efficiency of these three types
of separators. Instead, the wide differences found were usually accounted
for by one or more of these three factors:

1. Convenience and ease of operation of equipment.

2. An intelligent operator giving his full attention to sampling of
fruit and adjustment of the machine.

3. A well-arranged sampling station convenient to both fresh and cannery
fruit lines, with the controls of the separator convenient to this
position for systematic and nearly continuous adjustment.

To make such adjustments effective, the controls should not only be
accessible from the sampling position, but should have some form of marking
(on mechanical controls) so that settings could be recorded and reused. A
great deal of bad fruit separation resulted while operators were trying to
readjust controls to a previously known positio.-. Also, a continuous written
record should be kept. This is not only useful for management, but also
enables the operator to do a much more efficient job. For water-type sep-
arators, the control on the selector vane can be on an arc with numbered
holes. For emulsion-type separators, the hydrometer reading substitutes for
a mechanical setting position on the controls.

No one can keep accurate records without some special set-up. Fig. 1
shows a simple sampling station that is very inexpensive to make and it will
pay for itself in a very short time. Note that it is at a position at which
both the cannery line and the packinghouse line can be sampled simultaneously.
Fruit should be taken alternately from one line or the other until a sample
(usually 10 fruit from each) has been taken. Then, when the fruit are cut
for sampling, the "cap" cut off the stem-end is set aside and when the grade
is known it is put in the appropriate tray. Once the samples have been all
cut, then the operator can dry his hands, count the caps and record on his
sheet. This device is very simple, but it is extremely helpful. We urge

December 20, 1968

Newsletter No. 20

everybody running a separator to make such a sampling station.

A great deal of unnecessary mess, waste and inefficiency has been observed
in the operation of emulsion separators. These can be most efficient, but
we advise the following measures. To eliminate excessive carry-over of emulsion
(which is expensive as well as messy and may be a serious fire hazard in a wood-
en house after the water has evaporated out of the oil):

1. Chutes should be made of spaced rods with trays underneath to drain
back and reclaim the emulsion.

2. Belts carrying fruit wet with emulsion should have wipers of neoprene
or similar material on the underside to wipe emulsion into a reclam-
ation system.

3. Water eliminator rolls can also be used for emulsion reclamation.

4. Reclaimed emulsion should be drained back through a strainer system,
usually the strainer at the side of the machine can be used.

5. Fruit should be thoroughly rinsed before going into the house.

6. A special warning is offered against allowing this oil emulsion to
get into any other solution, especially Dowicide A-hexamine or equiv-
alent. This could result in excessive residues of fungicides and
perhaps a fruit burn.

Specific Gravity Control for Emulsion Systems

Probably because of the lower initial cost, oil emulsion systems are in-
creasingly common, but can be a trial if not well organized. In particular,
the system of pumping out into barrels and then pumping in emulsion or water
is difficult to control, messy, wasteful and inefficient. A very simple con-
trol system was devised consisting of a centrifugal pump, separate from that
used for the circulation of the emulsion, and six valves. This is shown in
Fig 2. Note that two storage drums or two storage tanks are used, one of
which starts partially filled with the concentrated emulsion and the other
starts partially filled with water. Emulsion is pumped from Y to Z and then
from X to Y to raise specific gravity. It is pumped from Y to X, then Z to
Y to decrease specific gravity. This is done by the operator standing at the
sampling station. This "switchboard" need not be in close proximity to the
separator tank. We stress that it should be near the sampling station.

This type of set-up has been used very successfully to separate not
only frozen fruit but also granulated Valencias, sunburned Murcotts, etc.,
thus making it possible to run crops that would otherwise have been imposs-
ible to grade.

December 20, 1968

Newsletter No. 20


None of these are new, but neither are freezes. Please note that we do
not have supplies of these, but copies should be available from the sources
indicated. Most of the observations and advice given above are based on a
study published after the 1957 freeze.

"Evaluation of mechanical separators for cold-damaged oranges", Proceedings
of the American Society of Horticultural Science, Vol. 73, 1959, pgs. 278-
287, by W. Grierson and F.W. Hayward. This is long since out of print, but
we could run Xerox copies at 10 per page ($1.00) for anyone interested in
the original observations behind these recommendations.

"Specific Gravity as a Means of Estimating juice Yields of Freeze Damaged
Valencia Oranges" by Roy G. Stout, Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Circular S-150,
March 1944. Available from: Bulletin Room, Rolfs Hall, University of
Florida, Gainesville, Florida, 32601.

"Pooling by Florida Citrus Cooperatives Following the 1962 Freeze" by
Fred E. Hulse, J.R. Keitin and H.G. Hamilton, U.S.D.A. Marketing Research
Report No. 764, July 1966. Available from: Fruit and Vegetable Branch,
Farmer Cooperative Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington,
D.C. 20250.
Quote: "A personal interview with the manager or financial
officer of each of 37 Florida citrus cooperatives provided a complete picture
of the business activities of these organizations during the 1962-63 season.
The number of boxes handled, the on-tree value of members' fruit and the ser-
vices rendered by the associations were obtained, along with a record of each
pooling system and any changes made in the pooling operations as a result of
the freeze.

Although this study examines the pooling practices of Florida citrus
cooperatives as they were affected by the 1962 freeze, much of what was
learned could apply to other circumstances involving crop damage".

"Separators for Frost Damaged Oranges" by R.L. Perry and R.M. Perkins,
Calif. Citrograph, Vol. 53, No. 8, pp. 304 et. seq. June 1968. Available
from: Prof. Russell L. Perry, Department of Agricultural Engineering,
University of California, Riverside, California, 92502. (This is a highly
mathematical analysis of the theory of operation of water type separators).

Dr. Marion F. Oberbacher
Readers personally acquainted with the staff of the Harvesting and Hand-
ling Section will regret to hear of the death of Dr. M.F. Oberbacher. "Obie"
was one of the Florida Citrus Commission research scientists at Lake Alfred
from 1957 until last year when he went to Texas A&M to head a new post-harvest
physiology laboratory. Throughout a five months long battle with cancer Obie
showed a courage, gallantry and good humor that will forever remain an inspir-
ation to those who knew him. His widow, Betty, has asked that anyone who would
have sent flowers to please send an equivalent donation to the American Cance&

December 20, 1968

December 20, 1968'

Fig. 1. Design for an efficient sampling and regulating station. "A"
Packinghouse line. "B" Eliminations. "C" Remote control on selector
vane with numbered settings. "D" Trays for tops off fruit kept as tally.
"E" Cutting board for fruit from packinghouse line. "F" Cutting board
for fruit from elimination line and sharp knife. "G" Clipboard with record
sheets. "H" Towel for operator to wipe hands before recording data. "I"
Garbage can (or cull chute) for cut fruit. "J" cupboard for supplies
(record sheets, pencils, hone for knife, etc.).


x z


Fig. 2. An efficient apparatus for emulsion regulation.

To raise specific gravity:

1. Open only A, E, and F, pump emulsion from Y to Z.
2. Close A, E, and F, open only C, B, D, pump emulsion
from X to Y.
3. Close B and C, open A and D and separator is then on
To lower specific gravity:

1. Open only A, E, C, pump emulsion from Y to X.
2. Close A and C, open only F, B, D, pump emulsion from
Z to Y.
3. Close F and B, open A and D and separator is then on

Newsletter No. 20

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