Group Title: Lake Alfred AREC Research report
Title: Packinghouse newsletter
Full Citation
Permanent Link:
 Material Information
Title: Packinghouse newsletter
Series Title: Lake Alfred AREC Research report
Alternate Title: Citrus packinghouse newsletters
Packing house newsletter
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Agricultural Research and Education Center (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Citrus Research and Education Center (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Indian River Research Education Center
Publisher: Citrus Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Lake Alfred Fla
Lake Alfred Fla
Publication Date: November 1967
Copyright Date: 1965
Frequency: irregular
completely irregular
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Harvesting -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruits -- Packing -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Additional Physical Form: Also issued on the World Wide Web.
Dates or Sequential Designation: No.1 (Sept. 1, 1965)-
Issuing Body: Issued by the Citrus Experiment Station (no. 1-38); Lake Alfred (Fla.) Agricultural Research and Education Center (no. 39-136); Lake Alfred (Fla.) Citrus Research and Education Center (no. 137-189); and the Ft. Pierce (Fla.) Indian River Research and Education Center (no. 190- ).
General Note: Title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: No. 202 (Aug. 1, 2005)
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00095555
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 02430250
lccn - 2006229390

Full Text

Citrus Station Mimeo Report CES 68-13
November 14, 1967




No. 11

November 14, 1967



Harvesting and Handling Section
University of Florida
Citrus Experiment Station
P. O. Box 1088
Lake Alfred, Florida, 33850

(Complimentary to members of the Florida Fresh Citrus Shippers Association.
Others wishing to receive this newsletter, send a dozen stamped preaddressed
envelopes to the above address).

No. 11 Citrus Station Mimeo Report CES 68-13
November 14, 1967

Harvesting and Handling Section



This year, Stem-End Rind Breakdown and other similar peel injuries
are the worst we have seen in many years. Rind injuries have been common
all over the state and have caused considerable losses. In almost every
case, it has been reported to us as being some form of chemical injury.
The problem usually starts in the grove, although it is not observed
there. Stem-End Rind Breakdown is particularly serious in dry, windy
weather. If you think you have a chemical burn, check the fruit. If
there is a clear ring of 1/8 of an inch or more of healthy tissue around
the stem and the trouble is very largely concentrated on the stem-ends
and in the small sizes, then you do not have a chemical injury, but some
form of physiological rind breakdown.

Instructions on how to deal with peel injuries to minimize losses
are given in the 4-page Agricultural Extension Service Circular No. 286,
dated May 1965, "Practical Measures for Control of Rind Breakdown of
Oranges by A. A. McCornack and W. Grierson. Extra copies are avail-
able from the Citrus Experiment Station or from the Mailing Room,
Agricultural Experiment Stations, University of Florida, Gainesville,

Recommendations can be summarized very briefly as follows: 1) avoid
drying conditions between picking and dumping; 2) keep the time between
picking and dumping as short as possible; 3) run degreening rooms at as
high a humidity as possible without getting the fruit wet (approximately
850F. dry bulb, 83F. wet bulb). If necessary, use live steam to raise
the wet bulb reading to within 20 of the dry bulb reading, even if the dry
bulb goes above 850F. Be sure to apply a good wax coat and ship or re-
frigerate the packed fruit promptly.


We have had a few reports of Zebra Skin injury of tangerines and
expect to hear many more if the current drought is broken by a heavy
rain. "Droughty" tangerines that receive either a heavy rain or an ir-
rigation are susceptible to 100% loss from Zebra Skin if picked 2 to 4
days after the rain or irrigation. The susceptibility thereafter
declines slowly. For further details see: Extension Circular 285,
dated May 1965, "Tangerine Handling" by W. Grierson, A. A. McCornack,
and F. W. Hayward. Copies are available from the Citrus Experiment
Station or from the Mailing Room in Gainesville.

Newsletter No. 11 -2- November 14, 1967


Grapefruit, particularly early grapefruit, are sensitive to chilling
injury at holding temperatures below 550 F. Late grapefruit may chill
at temperatures below 500 F. The symptom is an ugly and extensive pitting-
type, peel injury. Attention is drawn to a USDA publication, "Factors
Affecting the Quality of Grapefruit Exported from Florida," Market Re-
search Report No. 739, dated March 1966, available from the senior author,
Dr. W. G. Chace at the USDA Horticultural Station, 2120 Camden Road,
Orlando, 32803.


The attention of shippers interested in the export market is drawn
to the recent changes in the West German Food and Drug Regulations. The
West German rules are used very generally throughout Western Europe.
The best account that we have received to date has come to us via Dr.
R. F. Matthews in the Department of Food Science at Gainesville. A
portion of his letter is quoted below. In reading this letter, note
the following points: phenylphenates, orthophenylphenol and sodium
orthophenylphenol mean "Dowicide"; mg./kg. means parts per million;
EEC means European Economic Community;and FAO means Food and Agricultural
Organization of the United Nations.

The following is extracted from the letter from Dr. Matthews to
Dr. Grierson: "... Since I last wrote, I have received some information
from Mr. E. S. Abensour, Chief of the Legislation Branch, FAO, Rome.
He informed me that the EEC appears to have reached a compromise on
diphenyl and the phenylphenates under which "the legislation of a Member
State may totally prohibit the use of one of the preservative agents
listed in the Annex only if there is no technological necessity for the
use thereof in the foodstuffs produced and consumed on its own territory."
Under the conditions outlined, diphenyl tolerances are authorized at
70 mg./kg. of whole fruit; orthophenylphenol and sodium orthophenylphenol
at 12 mg./kg. of whole fruit. The chemical treatment must be indicated
at wholesale, on invoices and on the outside face of packages; at retail,
by a visible sign which will assure facts to the consumers in an unequivocal
manner. These regulations will come into effect June 30, 1968.

In a letter from J. W. Stewart, Director of Fruit and Vegetable
Division, Foreign Agricultural Service, United States Department of
Agriculture, he explained that the present temporary EEC authorization
for the use of diphenyl, orthophenylphenol, and sodium orthophenyl-
phenol on citrus fruits expires on June 30, 1968."

The 70 mg./kg. limit on diphenyl is lower than our U.S. tolerance
of 110 parts per million. We should have no difficulty keeping within
this tolerance providing that fruit packed with diphenyl pa6a iz -wt
allowed to get warm for considerable periods. Tangerines(which we do not
usually ship to Europe), are the only citrus fruit which normally exceed
the EEC limit of 70 mg./kg. The 12 mg./kg. limit for Dowicide is slightly
higher than the U.S. regulation and gives us no reason to worry.

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs