FLORIDA MASTER SITE FILE
HISTORIC ST. AUGUSTINE PRESERVATION BOARD
HISTORIC PROPERTIES INVENTORY FORM
I. LOCATION & LEGAL DESCRIPTION
FDAHRM 802== Site No. _S c2 F 1009==
Site Name: Joaneda House 830== Survey Date: 8006 820==
Address: 57 Treasury St., St. Augustine, FL 32084 905==
Instructions for Locating:
813== County: st. Johns 808==
Location: City of St. Augustine 15 7 868==
(subdivision) (block) (lot)
Owner of Site: Name: Trustees of Internal Improvement Fund, Inc.
Address: Elliot Building
Tallahassee, FL 32304 902==
Occupant or Manager: Elizabeth Towers 904==
Type of Ownership: State 848== Zoning: HP-2
NR Classification Category: Building 916== Recording Date: 832==
UTM: 17 469720 3306815 890== Location: T07S R30E S18 812==
(zone) easingn) nothingn) (T) (R) (S)
Map Reference: USGS St. Augustine 7.5 MIN 1956 (PR 1970) 809==
Recorder: Name & Title: Scardaville, Michael C. (Historian)
Address: H.S.A.P.B. 818==
II. SITE DESCRIPTION
Condition of Site: Threats to Site:
(x) Excellent 863== ( ) Zoning 878==
( ) Good 863== ( ) Development 878==
( ) Fair 863== ( ) Deterioration 878==
( ) Deteriorated 863== ( ) Borrowing 878==
( ) Transportation 878==
Integrity of Site: ( ) Fill 878==
(x) Altered 858== ( ) Dredge 878==
( ) Unaltered 858== ( ) Other 878==
X) Original Site 858==
() Restored Date: 1976 858==
( ) Moved Date: 858==
II. SITE DESCRIPTION, continued.
Original Use: Priv. Res. 838== Present Use: Priv. Res 850==
Date: +1806 844== Period:19th cent. 845== Culture: Spanish 840==
Style: Spanish Colonial 964==
Plan Type: Rectangular 966==
Exterior Fabrics: Stucco; wood weatherboard, with cornerboards
Structural Systems: Masonry, stone (coquina) 856==
Features of Structure: (942)
Window Type: SHS 6/6, shutters 942==
Foundation: Stone (coquina) wall 942==
Roof Type: Gable 942==
Secondary Roof Structures: Dormer, shed; porch, shed 942==
Porches & Balconies: Rear one-story open porch
Chimney Location: End, interior, ridge 942==
Chimney: Stucco, stone (coquina) 882==
Roof Surfacing: Composition shingles; wood shakes 882==
Ornament Exterior: Red band (zocalo) at base of north elevation; chamfered
wood posts. 882==
Quantitative Data: (950-954)
Chimneys: 1 952== Dormers: 3 954== Stories: 1 950==
Other: Reconstructed board fence on north and east side. 956==
Surroundings: Mixed Residential/Commercial 864==
Relationship to Surroundings: On street line adjacent to commercial buildings
and parking lots.
Photographic Records Numbers: 860==
Areas of Significance: Architecture, Commerce, Archaeology: Historic.
Statement of Significance: (911==)
This one and one-half story Spanish Colonial style residence, at 57
Treasury known as th Joaneda House, was built about 1806 and is one of
surviving colonial structures in St. Augustine. The coquina building,
typical of vernacular architecture of the colonial period, was restored in
1976 by the Historic St. Augustine Preservation Board to its original, early
19th century appearance.
As is common in colonial architecture, the house abuts the street line
and the main entrance was through the rear yard and not directly off the
street. Moreover, the property is enclosed by a wall and fence. The wood
frame fence on the north and east property lines was reconstructed in 1976
according to fence designs of the late colonial period. The basic plan of
the house remains unchanged from the time it was constructed and represents
one of the few surviving examples of the St. Augustine plan as defined by Manucy
in The Houses of St. Augustine. The Joaneda House plan, designed to meet
local climatic needs, is essentially a simple rectangle of three rooms with
an open porch to the rear or south. The building is oriented with its open
spaces to the south so that prevailing southeast winds could provide ade-
quate ventilation during the hot summer months. The porch was shaded at this
time of the year while during the winter it offered a warm sunny spot, sheltered
from the cold north winds by the house's mass.
Distinguishing features on the stuccoed building include SHS 6/6 windows
(three on the street facade and two each on the east and south elevations),
frame shutters, six-paneled doors, and four dormers covered with wood weather-
board. Another element common to Spanish and Spanish American architecture
is the decorative red band (zocalo) painted across the base of the street fa-
cade to protect the white stucco from street soil. An interesting detail can
be seen in the small openings in the west facade on both sides of the chimney.
It has been speculated that those openings perhaps served as gunports over-
looking the then deteriorated Rosario defense line along present-day Cordova
Architectural and Archaeological research have indicated that the original
interior floor was constructed of wood, although tabby was used in the porch.
The loft or attic was floored, thus creating a secondary but habitable area.
All first floor ceiling joists were exposed to view and perhaps whiten ashed,
--- ------ - - --- -- ----------------- --------- ----------------- (- L -)-i--
1. Juan Jose Elixio de la Puente, "Plano . de la Plaza de San Agus-
tin," January 22, 1764; Mariano de la Rocque, "Plano Particular de la Ciudad
de San Agustin," April 25, 1788; East Florida Papers, Escrituras, 1784-1821;
John Bostwick, et. al, "A Sub-Surface Archaeological Survey of the Northern
Colonial City," (St. Augustine: HSAPB, 1978); Albert Manucy, The Houses of
St. Augustine, 1565-1821 (St. Augustine, 1962), pp. 22-25 and 41-47.
2. Anon., "Copy of a Plan of the City of St. Augustine," 1833; 1885 and
1894 Birds-Eye Views; St. Augustine Record, April 7, 1914; July 4, 1937;
and the highly-pitched gable roof was covered with cypress shingles laid
The building has undergone a number of changes since colonial times, most
particularly in the window and door openings and in the additions constructed
to the rear. Sometime by 1894, and perhaps as early as 1888 when the building
was used as a tailor shop, the main entrance was relocated in the street facade
by changing the north wall center window into the principal entrance and convert-
ing the entrance from the porch into a window. New access to the porch was pro-
vided by converting the south window in the east room into a doorway. Other late
19th century changes included the opening on a window in the east gable end, the
repair and replacement of window sash, sills and frams, the probable reroofing
of the structure, and the possible rebuilding of the north dormer.
The building underwent another change in the mid-1920's when it was converted
into a gift shop by the Montgomery sisters. The porch was enclosed and parti-
tioned, and the roof even the porch and south room was replaced. The Sisters also
built a four or six room wood frame stuccoed addition to the south, thereby doubling
the size of the building. The original wood floor was replaced with concrete tile,
and the attic was refloored, partitioned and plastered. The north dormer was re-
built, and a shed dormer was added to the east slope of the rear addition. And
as was so common in the renovation of colonial building, decorative, metal window
grilles were installed.
The St. Augustine Restoration Foundation, Inc. demolished the 1920's addition
when it purchased the property in 1971, and restoration by the Preservation Board
in 1976 returned the building to its original appearance.
The section of the colonial city of St. Augustine bounded on the north
by Hypolita Street and on the south by Cathedral Place is today an area that
combines a commercial business district, tourist attractions, and some res-
idential units. The buildings date from colonial times to the present, with
a sprinkling from each period, with no one style having a visual dominance
in the area. The neighborhood has been touched by restoration efforts over
the years. Some older buildings have been remodeled and some new ones have
been constructed in the St. Augustine Colonial Revival style. The ambiance
of the area is different than that found in the restored area just to the
north. This area has narrow colonial street patterns and six colonial
buildings which are scattered along five streets. But as a business dis-
trict it is faced with modern problems of traffic and parking--the result
being that large areas have been leveled and blacktopped for parking lots.
The streetscape has been damaged by the destruction of landscaping, and the
putting of backs of buildings on public display. A once-famous colonial
stretch on the east side of Charlotte Street, for instance, is now mainly
taken up with the backs of motels. The eastern section of this area was
burned over by major fires in 1887 and 1914, leaving developments in later
architectural styles in an area earlier known for its colonial ambiance.
The area is bordered on the west by the Ponce de Leon Hotel (now Flagler
College) and on the east by the seawall and bayfront, long a famous scenic
attraction. It is part of the National Landmark District, and listed on
the National Register of Historic Places.
This section of the walled colonial city traditionally has been one of
the main commercial and hotel districts in St. Augustine since the mid-19th
century. The area was first developed in the late 17th century as the col-
onial community expanded northward towards the newly-completed Castillo de
San Marcos. The entire city was destroyed in 1702 by the invading South
Carolinians, but by mid-century, the Rosario defense line had been erected
along present-day Cordova Street and numerous residences had been rebuilt
on all streets, particularly between Charlotte Street and the bay. By the
end of the colonial period (1821), this area was one of the most densely
populated in the city, and a number of buildings from the Spanish era have
survived: Fornell, Sanchez, Burt, Joaneda, and Perez-Snow Houses.(1) In
the Territorial period, the huge Florida House was constructed along Treas-
ury Street between Charlotte and St. George Streets, and the Methodist
Church was located immediately to the north on Charlotte Street. The post-
Civil War years brought intense commercialization to St. George, Charlotte,
and part of Hypolita Streets. The Magnolia Hotel on St. George Street and
the County Courthouse on Charlotte Street were also constructed in the late
19th century. By this time Spanish Street had become one of several exclu-
sive Black residential neighborhoods outside Lincolnville with its school
on the Dragoon Barracks lot and its own church south of the Magnolia Hotel.
The bayfront was a residential area with several boarding houses, and a bath-
house and yacht club projected into the bay from the seawall. This section
of the colonial city, particularly the blocks between the bay and St. George
Street, was ravaged by major fires in 1887 and 1914, and consequently it has
the lowest percentage of 19th century buildings within the old city. The
older structures lie along Spanish Street and the west side of St. George
Street south of Treasury Street, two areas untouched by the devastating
The Colonial structure at 57 Treasury Street is best known for its associa-
tion with the Sanchez family, a local clan with roots in St. Augustine since
the colonial period. The building is also known for its continued use in
the 20th century as the Montgomery sisters gift shop.
The western section of this site in 1764 formed the southern part of
Spanish Street which until the British period extended to the Government
House lot (now Cathedral Place). The eastern section of the property was
the location of at least one masonry, either coquina or tabby, house which was
owned by the heirs of Don Jose Izquierdo, a miltia lieutenant from San Luis
de Apalache who had died in 1761. The Izquierdo family owned two houses on
the large lot, but it appears from the 1765 Moncriet map that only the larger,
westernmost house was on the current site.(3) The property was transferred
to Jesse Fish when England gained possession of Florida in 1763-64, and on
January 6, 1777, Fish sold the lot and tabby house to John Clark and the
stone from the coquina structure to unknown parties.(4) Sometime between 1777
and 1788, Bartolome Yufriu claimed this then vacant lot behind his St. George
Street residence, although the crown still hold legal title to the property.(6)
By 1790, however, Juan Joaneda had occupied the lot and had constructed a frame
dwelling.(7) Joaneda, a Minorcan, came to Florida in 1767 to work and live at
Turnbull's New Smyrna settlemtn, but after a decade of abuse and misrule, the
colony migrated to St. Augustine where Governor Tonyn allowed many of them to
settle on undeveloped lands in the northern end of the colonial city. Joaneda
worked in a number of occupations, including carpentry, fishing, and farming.
In addition to his modest house in town, he also owned several acres of land
west of present-day Cordova Street between Bridge and King Streets.(8)
On January 23, 1807, Governor Enrique White finally issued title of the
lot to Joaneda, and four days later he sold a coquina house and lot to Juan
Gonzalez montes de Oca in order to satisfy creditors, "especially the man who
rebuilt the house for him in coquina." Although the exact construction date
of the masonry house is unknown, it is probable that it was built shortly be-
fore Joaneda sold it since the construction costs of the new house forced him
into financial difficulty.(9)
Montes de Oca only held the property several years. Sometime in 1809 or
1810, he sold it to Nicolas Sanchez, the husband of Juan Joaneda's daughter,
Maria Magdalena Joaneda.(10) Nicolas Sanchez, a farmer by trade, owned 685
acres of good land in the Diego Plans (Palm Valley) area, adjacent to the
large ranch of Francisco Xavier Sanchez, one of the wealthiest and most power-
ful Spaniards in East Florida in the late Colonial period.(ll) Nicolas was
closely aligred to Francisco's interests, perhaps explaining how he was able
to acquire such prime rance land. Not only was Francisco his uncle, but his
brother, Jose Sanchez de Ortigosa, married Christina Hill, the sister of
Maria del carmen Hill who was the wife of Francisco Xavier. His brother and
sister-in-law are also noted for being the parents of Venancio Sanchez, one
of St. Augustine's most prominent figures in the 19th century. As will be
seen, Venancio later plays a role in the disposition of the Treasury Street
Nicolas owned the coquina house in town until his death in 1826, and his
son, Joseph, sold the property to Margaret Pomar in that year.(13) When Margaret
Pomar died she left the property to Mary M. Andrews, who sold it in 1877 to
Del'Orme Knowlton of New York City for $1,600.00.(14) Members of the Knowlton
family had come to St. Augustine after the Civil War, and Daniel R. Knowlton .
operated a saw mill on the San Sebastian River. According to the 1884 Sanborn
Fire Insurance Map of St. Augustine, the Joaneda House at that time was being
used as a residence.
In 1885 Knowlton sold the property for $1,750 to Vernancio Sanchez, a
prominent merchant who served as Mayor of St. Augustine after the Civil War
and was later the Spanish Consul here.(15) According to the 1888 Sanborn
Map the building was then used a tailor shop. The 1899 map lists it again
as a residence.
After Venancio Sanchez' death, the property passed to his son, W.J. Sanchez,
a hotel owner and banker who developed the North City subdivision that bears his
name. He held it for the first quarter of the 20th century, using it as rental
property. In the 1920's it was used as the Old Treasury Street Inn advertising
"Table-Board-Day-Week-Meals-Lunch to Order." The manager was Mrs. Mamie Schryver.(16)
In 1925 it was reported:
"It is interesting to note that on the narrow and picturesque
Treasury street there is an old Coquina house, one of the oldest
in the city, which has been bought recently by the Montgomery Sisters
who plan to recondition and beautify it, preserving its quaintness
as a show place of the city. The deal which the Montgomery Sisters
made also include the adjoining frame building and this frame building
will also be made attractive following the principles of beauty laid
down by the early settlers in St. Augustine.
"The property which was purchased from W.J. Sanchez has a
frontage on Treasury Street of 75 feet and the consideration was
$8,000. The property is bordered on the east by the property of
Miss Anna Burt, and on the west by the new home of the Catholic
Daughters of America."(17)
This further report was given on the Montgomery Sisters Gift Shop in 1937:
"One of the quaint and picturesque old houses in the city is
the San Carlos House, located on narrow Treasury Street.
"This is owned by the Montgomery Sisters, who operated a
gift shop, and carry unusual things that appeal to the discrimi-
nating. The house is built of coquina, first discovered on
Anastasia Island, we are told, in 1580 by Gov. Domingo Martines
Avendano. The exact date of construction is not known, but this
is definitely one of the oldest structures of the city, and is
built directly on the street, as were the earlier houses.
"A delightful surprise is the garden of this old house.
Between two interesting old buildings is a walk with stretches
of greensward on either side leading to the garden in the rear.
An old spinning wheel and garden jars add a quaint note, while
through the iron gate one glimpses colorful vistas of lawn and
florer beds. The graceful banana trees give a note of the
tropics. A sandstone jar, made probably 300 years ago, and the
old coquina well are quaint features which link the past with
"For some years past the Montgomery Sisters have been inter-
ested in maintaining, preserving and restoring historic loca-
tions in this vicinity. Their fine work in connection with
the Treasury Street property is evidence of this. The Montgo-
mery Sisters are also the owners of Portenope, near Moultrie,
the famous old plantation at the time owned by Prince Achille
"It is delightful to note that Miss Gertrude Montgomery
has for her hobby, aside from that of the charming antique and
gift shop, the collection of dolls. She has a rare group of
these, representing different periods. All are charmingly
and appropriately gowned, for the periods represented, and the
effect is very lovely. Miss Montgomery has been most gracious
in showing this really rare collection. It was the outstanding
group at a doll show sponsored several years ago by the Girl
Scouts in the Garden of the Old Spanish Treasury. Another
time, Miss Montgomery showed her collection for the benefit of
the Rosalie James Circle of the King's Daughters. Her cooperation
is always appreciated by local groups."(18)
The estate of Gertrude Montgomery sold the property in 1971 to St. Augustine
Restoration, Inc., which traded it in 1973 for a piece of property on St. George
Street in the restoration area.(19) It was acquired in the trade by Trebil, Inc.,
a Jacksonville corporation headed by C.D. Towers, Jr. who, with his brother
planned to donate the colonial building as a memorial to their mother, Mrs.
Elizabeth M. Towers. Mrs. Towers is a former chairman of the Florida Board
of Parks and Historical Monuments and served by appointment of Governors
Haydon Burns and Reubin Askew as a trustee of the Historic St. Augustine
Preservation Board until her retirement in 1979. She helped to raise the
money for the Hispanic Garden on St. George Street. In 1975 the property
was transferred from Trebil, Inc. to Mrs. Towers, and from her to the Historic
St. Augustine Preservation Board. It was done with the Stipulation that the
house would be restored, that Mrs. Towers would have life tenancy, and that
her three surviving children would be able to use the building for up to 28
days a year for their life times.(20)
Archaeological, architectural, and historical research was conducted on
the Joaneda House in 1974 and 1975 with plans being drawn by Jacksonville
architect Herschel Shepard. Shepard later went on to supervise the Restoration
of Florida's old State capitol in Tallahassee.(21)
Restoration work was complete in 1976 with the assistance of a $41,238.
Matching grant from the National Parks Service, Department of the Interior.
The house currently serves as a part-time residence for Mrs. Towers and as
a reception area for Historic St. Augustine Preservation Board social functions.
February 5, 1950; May 14, 1950; Sanborn Fire Insurance Map, 1884-1958; St.
Augustine City Directory, 1885, 1899, 1904.
3. Puente, "Plano. . de San Agustin," no. 186; James Moncriet, "(Plan
of St. Augustine)," March 1, 1765; Homeowners File, HSAPB.
4. Archivo General de Indias, Papeles Procedentes de Cuba, Legajo 372
(February 10, 1772), no. 181; East Florida Papers, Accounts of Jesse Fish,
Bundle 319, no. 38.
5. Rocque, "Plano Particular. de San Agustin," no. 159.
6. Ibid., nos. 158 and 159.
7. EFP, Quesada Inventory, Bundle 320, no. 126; Escrituras, Bundle 376, fol.
8v. Joaneda is spelled a number of ways in the documents: Juaneda, Yaneda,
Yoaneda, Yuaneda. Some family later changed the surname to Floyd.
8. 1783, 1786, 1784 Census Accounts, SAHS: EFP, Alvarez Book, Bundle 409.
9. EFP, Escrituras, Bundle 376, fols. 8v. and 12; Quesada Inventory, Bundle
320, no. 126.
10. Bundle 377 of the colonial deed records is missing, although the transaction
is recorded in the Alvarez Book, Bundle 409; Biographical File, SAHS.
11. EFP, Escrituras, Bundle 380, fol. 307.
12. Biographical File, SAHS: Sanchez and Hill Family Files, SAHS.
13. St. Johns County Courthouse, Deed Records, Book 6, p. 66.
14. Ibid., Book W, p. 353.
15. Ibid., Book DD, p. 538. Thomas Graham, The Awakening of St. Augustine
(St. Augustine, 1978), p. 267. St. Augustine City Directory 1885.
16. St. Augustine City Directory, 1924-5.
17. St. Augustine Evening Record, April 17, 1925, p. 4.
18. St. Augustine Record, Sunday, July 4, 1937.
19. St. Johns County Courthouse, Official Records Book 189, p. 56; Book 243,
20. "Elizabeth M. Towers" file, HSAPB: Official Records Book 269, pp. 687-8.
21. Herchel Shepard (Fisher & Shapard), "Joaneda House Design Development Report
for the Historic St. Augustine Preservation Board," (Jacksonville, 1975); Cathleen
Ganzel, "Report on Excavations at the Joaneda House, B 15/L7," (St. Augustine, 1975);
Thomas G. Ledford, "Preliminary Report of Excavations at the Joaneda House, B15/L7,"
(St. Augustine, 1975).