P R E F A C E
During the past FOUR AND A IL A.F' YEARS the WORK PROJECTS
ADJ.INITSTTRATI ON, and its predecessor the Works Prot(ress Admin-
istration, have played a significant, -part in the Civic develop-
menftt of Florida while at the sax.um time acconrplishin, the purpose
for which the organization vas deignAed by Congross, viz: r'E
E.PLIO LZIIT OF NEEDY PERSONS.
This presentation of (M~UJILA' TI V ]IDPENDITMUTr S is based
upon the,o statistical reflections of data compiled' by the Work
Projects Administration 2or Florida since the inception of the
program in July' 1935- without any attonpt to theorize upon the
govorn.riontal lij:ita tions that have bloen imp osed from: time to
tioe and the influence which they havo hld upon bhc frenocral
The purpose of this compilation is to pl:co in the hands
of all Adclinistrative l ouda, District .Managors;, as well as. the
Stao Pross, a clear and concise outline of the part that haas
been, and is boing, token by the W'ork Projocts Adninistration
in Lhe ecounomric back.--rouid of ]Florida..
AiU. .ui- Je. i"n' or.
POi7UTTITON DISTRTJIBTION ;LIORICTD 1935
Under the type of proGran carried on by the Work Projects Administration---
PROVIDING WORK FOR UlnTfPLOYED---thore exists r definite relationship between pop-
ulation distribution and that of yWPA project x:.ondituros since where thore is the
greatest concentration, of people tho neod for WPA work increases and the program
of noeossity is more divorsified.
DIVISION OF POPULATION
URTVN RUIPL FAITAM
US Census basis--
towns loss than
2,500 counted as
siding on the
k, L 5 \
_- . I
0 I Ij
h t i t .. I .rd 1.',. 5th1
In order to show: this relationship a brief
summary of Florida population by Congressional
District showing urban, rural and farm dwellers,,
tocother with cnumnration of vocational pursuits
and a division of skilled and unskilled labor is
made a part. of the CU.IULTI\E EXPiENDITURES RE-
The 1935 Florida Census shows that the State
population v'as 1,606,842_ persons. Distributed to
the Five Concrossional Districts this population
reflected the following cn'.eoral characteristics
as to residence.*
First Dist. 416.u98
Second Dist. 347,117 2201,,43 70,961 74;673
Third Dist. 272,542 89,i27 77,486 105;229
Fourbh Dist. 301,590 25C, 548 21;245 21,797
Fifth Dist. 268,,,95 11,38 52,742 55,017
*Urban population is cormposed of persons living
within: i-ncrorporated cormiunitios; rural includes
persons living in villajos; and tons not incor-
paor.tcd; .rad farm roprosents farmiles actually re-
s dinrg on farrns._
This distribution shows that as of t!'o 1935
ccisus yoar the Flcrida population was divided
to the Five ConT'ressional Districts in tho fol-
Acccrdinc to the. 1935 Florida Consus there
were 1,030,761 persons onur.oratod as following
vocations, distributed to the Five CongrCesional
Di strict in the follovwin.; pro-,portion:
F'i r.jt, Di :!b,'i ct-- -------- -26. C(
Sircon Di ,it.)ri--------------21. (0
'L:-ird Distri t----------15 .0
Fourth Di stri ct------------- 21.0
FiftL Di strict-------------17.0"
]approxinctoly the saML distribution as the total
.population of tho Stacto. Th' proportionate divi-
sicn of individuali Conrrosri,,anal District popu-
lation onu.;:.ero.tod as bc.inC; vocational is as
fo Ilo s:
/ / 1
District Vocational i'ct.Total
First District--- ,260,253.0
Second District--- 217;096 62.0
Third Disrict---- 155,;94 5'.0
Fourth District--- 215,533 70.
Fifth District---- 174,392 65.0
STATE----- 1,030,761 62.0
VO CATI ONL CLIASSIFI CiATI OTT
In this compilation vocational activity has boonC
divided in SIX GENi A L GRCUPS--Couercial, Profos-
sional, Industrial, Agfricultural, Labor, anc Othor.
While tho emnumration is not considered as comilcte
cs it night be the classifications. used in the 1935
DISTRIBUTION STATE POIULATITCI
.CCORDl rOu TO
V0 0) CATI ON S
(In Thousandi Porsons);
l irszns 2--Othor:
I0Hous ewiv es
o....... o(urco :
.:. C L C Sui.
it. 1 3 4 5 6
c., KVy 01 vC n Abov-c
census Cive a rela-
tivo comparison that
is suitable for tnh
pur;.osc of shouin n,
thl; in i rncip:l ]i.'oporr-
tio.n of the vocation-
al distribution of
thut SfI'Lt population
at thio period rado.
The total 1,030,761
persons oiiumoratod as
follo;ini;i a vocation
at tho. 19.35 c(uj u5
period s:oowvjod thhe fol-
as to type of vocatio!
follo.,;od upon a stato-
DVI STON OF STATE POPULATION
C C N R E S I 0 N A L
od as vocation-
al 1935 Florida
,..i cIu Ltural--------------
Other-----------------. 3 0 .0
T! o v.ica.tional I'roup cl.ifications eibraco
tb; l':,.'l.;:vi'i. typ ,' of1 activity:
Cuoiciorc.:il:,iuto J.1.u 'or;, ma lu;uro, bo:r'jors
boollkoup,.irs, c] :rl:s, 1r.'.j.;ji ut s hotel a.nd restaurant
operator;:r, riorcl..laits, ]J:otor ;:r;.s, roaltors, sales-
nan, soe!trcssJs, trA".iaen (Rir),, tailors an; un-
Profofssiunal : Arc-itocts, auditorsr, aviators,,
ch]i.-;t, tlot)r:s rnd donists, civil engineors, au--
thors, school :nd music teachers, boauticians and
writers, lavyoers, ministers, naIviugators, nurses and
st eno graph ers.
Industrial: Dakers, bottlers, cigar manufactur-
inc, fishori:in, iuborm,.:lun, naval st.:ros, printers
and publisher s.
'-I"-'- '-- ~ -
'.j;-ri cultural G,- 3norn1 fThrriing Airy, ci trus
.1c:iry"h, LorLiculturo, joi-ultry, stcaclk tand
Lahb~r: Ski Iled--r-itchli.ni c S, csrpunturs,
j1cctricians and othor vweati(.is roquirinl
sild1lod trning;. Un ski lcCT---co- i nox3uao:c ch
rs urorvo hrund1s, t-urpentiine on'1l favinil:l wtkor~c' s;
Qltliar'IIU:Huswi Vcs, poLitica~l arfi. ca 1:ol art3;',
r,tirod r ca:s--physico7lly aisublado, Old3 "160,
punsionod or retired ivith jliomno-.
In tlu acc r nan yinu :rrah showvii.. tho di s-
tribution of, voC:t Lian].rwJ -I-:,iti *nl j by .r:xu-
i. ucl DiA sti.e bu'Oh )run i r: tiL; (ilc h.'
hcuuo u, utij ld 1 &;u) rd 'WiC)ho]durs,,
is ri Cuidrd shA, 1 in iit oo tftiC i'
bir riarkct. Thosc sln ri, clgssua 1orsz o Cdo
znt catcr into the ioton'titl c1 Cso; lldd of' tVie
E --whicl 0] 3. tV0S i1u 1"ICiJ' j( rouc t9h 1.,kC' Lii'A
if:tc)r ton t' 1Cii(3C 3 i ly',, of cl ipi. )y-
Ac~urloO; t thcu Crisua fii rl: lYr;i.i u
lY 3: pa-r cunt ,f' thc.3tt ','_'Uloti on (193ci)
-fttisu o oucrsitrs vu1ic'v.rc. n,*t of voc
.GcI L~, anf iv,1rsLc of 'U- yc,!'irs or unador.
'))Vr;'1'71 D' .. TON 01 19y35
DIVISI ON V CATI OiT.L IOPULATI ON
1 9 3 5
BY C :CGRELESSI ONAL DISTRI CT
(In T'-;usc.nd Porsons)
Hou. isowi'vos, Rotircd Por-
sons1, Offico holders.
SProf. ,Com., I(Ilus.,and A'-
ricultural Vo cations.
IABOU--Ski llcd andL Un-
L--bor-whichl cori~stiitutas 1-ir,,sti~i voc,-.11-1i on-:' j
;r I ficld is 'lividecd 11 -pa. r cont s'diliod 100n
.r cciut unskilled, 51as piu to t1'3 STYTh 1,3
~.cLici ~ ~r cJ'c 00~ k l lobur iii
arii: hns vcry _'ofini to influctncc. upon thu
1Pu'. i';cok ('rai't th-rou;'h.' ut tha- St"~tu. t t i Ls
hiic yo.up tlat C1C";aerrllyfolsth first o~f-
LtcI? Otiy (xvipuyj oi tomt -f1-ft, ur LbUmk i i mn-i-lt(
ffbLrct of nny link: Lt.;! cull L. U *
e~tructi .:m of et7:rl~y vtoi,-,ta bloc. ;~ in Sun;!itl..,.il-j
Lri c.by coldn; -ind the cmb&rkc i citrus 6lhip- Ord 4th 5th
.Orts r-ni cansequont. lay-off uf poicflcrs in tl3 T TC
Azuroc~ts, aa thoi C1 L uuL';i1cnllii. i zi I' i'a)e;t r of ulnzkillul
Lbcr fur'Jris tho r.tijcr 1;,orti,,]LL oi' -Ui ru.joct "activity.
rz1cid!iti.enzal roficetion t r'o:;V te total us:ultrticn is bl'utij.m of tho State
i1s5) OS to ros,;idcncc ,u:cnt o to the iAct .thc;t t1i VP pro' r: i has -to deal -)rinci-
fly ;,ith urbani nriJn-a;nvioy.ient iin tVic uns1:j;ll.,od ficJ.d mrure 1than taly et'her t.:roup.
The c cou-tra L e of lulier- in urlln c--tclrs is D)or'e roiLt by tho siL.nificant
ct that in FloridL crero icren bat iIt 11 ou't'f' t l] o 61'' t 7 colriti,'-i., -tt
-0 Y,'15 e", ccflsu s j'' u ilt l i ('I L C. ; 2t",,i tly ( i'C 1: lW) 2] .1 I- ali( 1. li -i.- )J1 1 1 lcd- 10 .* won.
-rrctc-s bciv M); 'i1\ 'PhO_.QTJt~H f i ur~thr i ;his c cn bo utttcxhc' to
S Vnct--4- 'PTSE ETEVTI C3-iif ,;j -C-)ra-cc 63 ?,er coo t of JILL LLThCf in the State.
t .~t~:tr~i a, ran3. 73. r)pe.r cent of btlc total sskillod ,lnoir. 111e counties off Duval,
i rOU1.1bihm, .1?iItI' ci;, Clulk itivihich tho 1ir-ot ,10tro-
lit'iri tarcues of the1 Statetc, icc t.rpcsl: Ii'1I1k.VtuIao i etri but iol
thhu bul .f ho Lbo
Labor divided to the in-lividural listricts (Con:,ro::sii.Lnl) :chows. the following
distribution. as to skiller.iand unakillc1:
Total Skillcc1. Urskillod
FlKST DI1ST)ICT-- ..------..--. ~ i------ 1I2,.1 1' T-;0)
SE(C]Ti DIS RICT'--------- --' l- 1203 .17 0 3.0o
ITir]D' DISTrICT .----....-- ------- 532 .,7 93.C0
F1URH DITo,13 Ic --------------;- 1 2v 1 7.07 7.'
Fii'TI DIITICT-------------------- u,473 11.G} 9.01 '1
DIVISION OF SKILLED PiND
11 SKILLED LA.O,
CONGIPISSI o1 LL )I 31 .RI CT
1 9 3 5
(In '.[houusnd. Porsotnn)
Solurc,:: Fla. Colnsus.
[7 -1 Unrtcill-
S' t 1 .Skilled
? I.I* :I
aiL _,t .oni rtd ,th? 5h
-'.;:i, n: o 1.n i o, Ia D. .i ., -- . .
i.j'il: Skilled includes trai ned
S.c'ti..ns suclI as eloetricians,
ntccl.mnics, cair O.nbers, utc'
.-:killod includes, saw uill,
tur;.ntihe, rvo .a.nd field
. rk.:rn ,
In the First ConGrossional District Hills-
b,,roU:g:h Cunty (Ta'p1fr) role' cts the largest n-
i..int of labo---/,'g,903 (al.proxir:at'ely 40 per- cont
of t(he Diistrict total), with f.'olk and Pinollas
rpro!l,.nting, 212 pr cent and : 16 poer cent rcispio-
tivuly. ThI i tlhrco ci..uitios. nanied onbracod (1935)
L':r;.xinatcly 70. peIr cont of the labor onurc:ra-
tion, with theo runnainii 22 )per cent bcin'c dis-
tributeJ. over 11 counties.
The Socond Ooncrossional District reflocts
its grcatoa.t density ;:of labor in Duval County
:..iclh roprcsc.tec Y5.: por ccnt. of the district to-
tel. A coi:co::trati:jn of sevon per cent in Ala-
ahlun C:)untyT :,'aa the aocen lar~;ot density. In
thi:; District 14, co:untics ( tloer tihain those t'o
nromd) oeimCbr e 35 per cent *.I' tLho. total labor
In the Third Cc:n,;rossiornl District labor
'!.LS" distributed principally to E.ioan.bia County
wiLi 2!/ per cent oci' the t total and' tio. romaininc-
76 9pc conit I,:iu: well distributed ovex.r 153 cuun-
In the Fourth District DoAde County with 65
p,,:r cent Ditric te i:i 't tal., '11d Pain ITleac-l
with 19 pfr cont,. "ropo'oiit thu lareist concon-
tratioQ ofi laborU. Tl'h rt, i, i': l16 pIo cent dis-
trilbnteai over' even counties.
In the Fifth District Oranco County with
.'1 p(ar cent ,'t the 5.district total reproeonts thc
Ir:ent concoItiL":ti, of L:"bnr ii tLe District,.
Tle ro.1aini.n 7.) 1;r c7 nt in c onprativoly well
distributed .,veror the other 11 counties: in the
District with Vo.)lusia and S:eminole reflcotinc, the
lrr, ant pr')p'Ct9;ions.
'.'T o r e- ; ..i.nr: Di..fct ',f.'].octi..n.s e:ipha].i;izo
[J!, 'p'evius :;ct. C ; I, .rc A .Ii Ao b i u dunlsity
.ofI. .l.:.,.r n '.. 'r l. : 1. l i.,.in; i v J. i in :. u'xawli at r -
sLtr.ictoed area---1 col:,ti.;. In[ Li,'( Sleond and
Third. Distrioba (oxclusiveC oi' J:-ckason.illc)
a ,',oo porti in of the unskillued labor reapro nts
buro'Iti.ino workerJ anrd JSaw.i.ill hull. IlL the First.
District and Fifth c.omnon la1bur is costly crovoe
handc,, while in lhe Fourth this class of labol is
madea up of hands working in the cano and vcoetable
fi ld s.
The Work Projects Acministration's relationship to
population is represented in the CTCETIFIED CAS'E LOAD that
establishes, the number of persons who are'eligible to ro-
coivc work relief through the W'PA program; and the WORK
QUOT\ that establishes the number of persons that may be
employed. at a civen period.
Florida entered the calendar year of 1939 with an om-
ployment load (in round figure) ofr'53,000 persona, cx-
clusive of administrative personnel. During the first six.
mcnmths of the calendar year the omploymont quota was re-
cluacd to 46,000 (Juna 30, 1939), Daring-.the period from
July to September (inclusive) 1939 the work quota waa re-
ducce. further to 37,000. From Soptembor throuCh December
1939 the work load remained. comparatively .the aeao.,
To show the relative picture of ViPA operation to pop-
ulation the. Certified Case Loa(T. reported as of Deconboir 28,
CAGSK LOAD AS OF
Doccon'bor 28, 1939
MIiLE and FEMALE
2 to 6.
'-..:B : '8
12 t 1 2 5 6
SSee Key Abovo
1939 has boon arbitrarily select-
ed, with the employment load ofl
the IPA at the same period.
Using tho vocational enumora-
tion of the 1935. Florida Census
to represent population the f61-
lowing picture is constructed.
Housewvives, retired persons,
and'public office holders totalinC
309,233, persons- boin: considered
as not. in the labor market have.
boon subtracted from the total
vocational enumeration of 1,030,,-
761---lcavinrg a potential employ-
mont group of, 721,52,, persons.
The ViPA Certified Case load
of 60,603 (Dec..2C; 1939) amounts
to approximately 8.4 per cent of
.the State's vocational population
at 1935., meaninC that slightly
moro than 8 per cent of Florida
population followinC a vocation
was carried orr the WPA cortifiOd
relief rolls as of Deccobcr 20,
DIVISION WPA CASELOAD
December 28, 1939
ASSI GED, WAITING,
60 (In Thous.)
45 I-Not A-
S Cong. Dist
15 R 5-:
nit 12 3 4 5 6
Sso Key Above
As of Dooomber 20, 1939 the employment load of WPA
rofl6atcdi 39,2.90 persons eoro assigned to the work pro-
Cram:, on' had boon sent assignmnont., Thi-s employment
load, in turn, shows that approximately 6; per cent. of'
the case load that was. certified to WPA as: eligible; for
relief work was boing care for under the oxistinG quota
of workers assigned to Florida for the period'.
Additional cnoeroncy work quotas have assisted. im
increasing the olamployricnt load since January 1, 1940.
Tho reoponing; of certification to VIPA by the Florida State
Welfare Board' will automatically raise the. Certified Case
Load to some eotent.. On the other hand the quarterly re-
view. of. Certified. Workers will have a tondancy to cause
some turn over in the, working personnel on projects,
In the foroGoing pages an effort has boon made to
show theo relative WPA operation to that of State popular
tion. Concrossional District fiGures shown in graphs.
.TOTAL WPA CUMULATIVE EXPTEDITURES 1935-1939
Expenditures under the Work Projects Administration:.program from July 1935
(the period?, of its inception) through the calendar year 1939 aggregated a total
of $101,593,177---including both Federal and Sponsor funds.
____ _____ This composite figure embraces money expended
CUMLATIVE EXPENDITURES in all phases of the general program---project and
0 -administrative personnel throughout the State, as
- VIPA PROGRAi well as special programs. known as "nation-wide" pro-
95 1935--1939 jects and "other" projects.
-. .. Distributed to the. several major divisions of'
(In Millionr the operating procedure of the Work Projects Adminis-
90 Dollars) tration the total cumulative oxpondituros reflect the
Total and following proportions:
; 5C Total and
-- Division CUMULATIVE EXPENDITURES DISTRIBUTED TO THE
Proportion TLTOR OPE.RTING DIVISIONS
D IT DIVISION Total Federal Sponsor
75 DERAL AND Operating $ 707,l11 ? 53;970;892 $ l6.671;2-19
i' SPONSOR FUNDS Prof.& Ser. 23,12;216, 206150;765 2,973.450
0 Federal #1 3,,131;997 2971; 6,3 160,31.
Administrative 4,154 ,G74
Supply Fundt 377,627
Ifation-wide 1 750
Other Projects '160;594
TOTAL $101,593,177 $
Looking at the Work'Projects Adninistration
program that has boon carried on in Florida as a
hole it will be noted' that of the $101, 593 ,177 ex-
pondod in the State the Federal Govornmentb has fur-
nished $8$,78C,193 (approximately ~'per cont) of All
the moncy spent in this typo of public relief work,"
while. State agencies (as represented by communities,
counties., state, and othor, qualified sponsors) have'
contributed $19,G04,983 (approximately lf per cent).
Since administration, supply fund'., nation-wide
projects and other projects do not require sponsor-
ship (being full Federal expenditures) it will be seam
that Florida received. about. FOUT AND AA HALF MILLION
DOLIARS under the general program without any obliga-
tion. In addition to this four and a half million
dollars there was spent in Florida under the Federal
Number'One Project, prior to July 1939 the~ sum of
$3,131,997 for which only a limited' sponsorship: was
made*---naking a total of almost EIIGT MILLION DOLLARS
utilized in the State aside from funds expanded upon
county and statewide work project' during the period
from July 193, through Docember 31, 1939.
This is a fact that is not gonorally realized: by
the citizens off Florida,
Thoie'Fedieal No. 1 Project was discontinued'as off
June 3?,1939. It embraced Art, Music, Writors-,
Theater, and Historical Records. All but the Theator
are now State sponsored.
I-~- -- - - --~L~I~-LII
The physical application of the Work Projects Administration, excluding admin-
istration, supply fund and special projects not requiring si-osorship, is carried
out undon TWO GENERAL CLASSIFICATIONS---county includingl, muVicipal work) and.
statewide (including Foderal Nimbor Ono prior to July 1939) projects. The cumula-
tive expenditures when distributed to COUTTY and STATE'.rTD[ project activity alone
show the following reflections as to Federal and
CUT.IATIVE ES Sponsor participation:
CU'.UJL-TIVE EXP%.tlirl RES
MUI]TY ;ND STATEJIDE, PROJECTS
(In Million Dollars)
=j_ Sponsor Expondi-
Insert shows di-
vi sion Fnd-Spron
S Funds as to pro-
I.L .......t. Du
COUNTY AND STATEWIDE PROJECT EXPENSE
Showing Federal and Sponsor Funds
Countyv 0 31.552.771
S-Wido 15345.5535 13;146,920 2,190;633
TO'L 5 ,324 377,093,331 19,0 04,993
The foreCIoiin tabulation of cumulative expon-
ditures upon county and statewide projects points
out the fact that project work using CERTIFIED
REL ,IEF I'COiK'iiiS constituted approximately 97 power
cent of all WPA epondituros in the State, andc
further' that of the $96,,890,32/+ spont on county-
and statewide work 80 per cent was furnished by
the Federal C(ovornrient and 20 per cent by the va-
In the Florian pro:;rai (as indicated. by ac-
conpunyinc figlrcs) projejects initiated by munici-
palitios and county sponsors constitute approxi-
mately 04 por cent of the Cgncral proranm, while
statewide project activity represents in round'
fi-uros 16 per cent (exclusive. of all non-spon-
uioraj projects operated' by the Coverru jont).
'Ilo Feodral-S :cnor Iroration undcr tho coun-
ty projoQat pro.;rram is apprc-xilnately 77 per cent
VFPA "fun.d: to 23 por cent spo.-:nsc;r. Under the statc-
widc project root ;orrarn the Federal-Sponsor partici-
.pation shoivs a proportion of about 8r7 por conti
:.'rA funds to bht, 13 per co'lt sp-noor.*
IIOIU TIE ffL CUIfLf'iTVl FLUP S ERE SPENT
L' Jionclly tho ron('or i,' nxoxt inteorotod in
how L.. ex>,. :n itur c of the 0101, 5,3,177 ]Las boon
carri1',d cut, an*d .ho it has assisted the cjonoral
oconor:ie situation ir Florida.
In this review tvo .najor cl.acos of expondi-
tures, arc consideredL viz: LABOR and NON^-LABOR.
Labor e:bracos 11l typos of personal service
certifiedd "and .nons-cortified workers, adniinistra-
tivo oriploycos, etl;c.) for which romunoration is
received from, th ho l'or:l :ovormi.ant and sponsors
under tho Work Projocts Ad;,.inistrrtion, Non-LI-
bor-, o.r:braces aall expenditures for materials, ma-
clinery and equipment. nado either from Fedoral or
sponsor funds, for the physical prosecution of tha
various projects initiated and approved for opor-
ation. under the cncaral ,pro.jram.
P&S sp'onsorshl-ip has nitorially increased.
Ov.r the cumulative period from July 1935 through December 31, 1939 tho total
expenditure of $101,593,177 reflected' a distribution of appr:oimately 74 per cent.
labor and about 26 per cent non-labor cost for Florida as a wholc---including the
administrative and special progCrans. Reduced to a dollars annd counts: basis the to-
tal expenditure represented (in round figures) 073,000,600 paid out to all typos of
workers in the form of wages., with an additional 208,000,000 (in round figures)
spctt for materials, machinery, nnd equipment,
SWhein divided to the several major operating se-
CUWJLATIVE EXPEN1ITURES tions the disbursement of the total cumulative. ex-
S WTP PRiOGR-.1S penditures show the following proportion of LAB-OR and
S---- NON-LABOR expense from 1935 through 19397
95 Ij -. y
Total and Divi-
5 sionm Proportion
II LABOR and
Co -_ ____ ___
3: : Division.
UStt. Op. P&S Adm Oth-
Dol.Total Division or
CGlrJ.IATIVE LABOR AND NON-LABOR EXPNDITURJIS
DISTRIBUTJT TO L JOR OP-sItTING DIVISIONS
4 107.017 696.
-rof.& Sor. 23";12.216, 19210 2 13;53
Foc 3;131.997 2765,260 0 36673,
Ad.iini station 4,154,874 3,311 067 it0
Supply Fund 377,627 25,457 352,169
Nation-widc 1,753 1i,739 5_"' 1
Other- Projocts '160594, '152jl 05 0,409
TOTAL 0Ol45.93,177 '1 7Z,4 ,O P'' 29,109,009
It is to be noted, from the foreCoinC tabulation
that every operating portion of the 7ork Projects Ad-
ministration has contributed to the well being of the
Florida cor:unities through the medium of labor, to
say nothing of tho business carried on by commercial
concerns in supplying necessary materials and equip-
Listing the V1PA Divisions in order- shown in the
tabulation, above it will be soon that in the Opera-
tions Division 04'7,7017,696 (67 per cent of total ox-
po'idituros.) went to labor; in theo Professional and Sor-
vice Division tho amount received by labor was
?19,210,602 ((pproximn.tly 03 y or cent); undor the.
Old Feicrrl One operation labor received $2,765,260
(about 06p per centof the total sentt; in tho'Adnin-
istrative Division labor payments wore $3',311,067
(appIroxinmrtcl. 00O per cont.); tho Supply Fund. paid out
025,45.7 (about 7 per cent) to labor; the Nation-wideo
projects operated were practic.illy 100 per cont lab6r
'aymonts:, while Othor Projects. contributed c(~l2,l1,
nen.rly 94 per cent, of their cost to labor.
The. most important reflection in this distribution
of labor and'non-labor paymovts is that the aggreoato
total of 0.72,404,000 in the forn of waGoa and sala-
ries has been put into business channels: of the Stdte
directly by exmployeos during the period of VTPA opora-
tion, while r. total of ',129,,109,009 has boon. spont,
through various channels for supplies and equipment
which purchase have boon a stimulating influence in
Florida business fields. Tliose diebursonents, made-
in very county-and section of Florida, cannot have
failed to be of some benefit to the economic: back-
ground of the S'-,"t(. as vw].l as indiividuals.
Tlio next question most likely to prOsont itself to the reader is---what kind
of work was represented in the oxpOnditure of l101,593,177 under the Work Projects
Ac'ninistration prorranl ?
The work program of the V'PA is carried on (exclusive of administration, supply
fund, and Federal projects) through two major divisionas known as the OP1RATIONS
DIVISION and the PROF'3SSIUNAL iAD SERVICE DIVISION.
Ovor theo period from 1935 through Doccmbor 31,, 1939 the OPI ATIONS DIVISION
reflcteod a total orpenditure of 070,642,111---including both Foderal and Sponsor
funds. Divided, as to type of work performed' the pro.ran of the Operations Division
furnishes the followvinc distribution of its funds:
5- i reports Di
CCtJATIVE EyXENDT ITUES
CPER!ATI ONS DIVISION
TYPE OF WORK
(In Million Dollars)
clusive of build-
6--Airports and Air-
S9--All other typos
S of work.
V PA' Form 150,
~f~~- 23 5 6 ~7 ~ 9
.30o Key Given Abovo.
.sitributionf of Operations Division
E:xlindituros As to Tylo of Work
1-- 34 417 ,92a 25" 04,322. 8,413:570
a-- 17943,190 11,114,434 3 .02 ,731
6 6313 5,43833 1,379,345
4-- "..139,977 3,01 ii,26. 1,12,,151
5-- 3,j'76,404 3,123,000 7527
2-,7-5 242.,412 26,353
,7-"- 2. 551,32 1.927,323 624,005
Ltho3r 1)31,2G 1 '271,307
"TOTAL 70.42,111 j? 53,970, )2 O 16,671,210.
It is interesting to note, in the light.
of previous mention of the skilled and un-
skilled labor division in Florida, that all of
the Operations Division classifications lend
themnslves to a high porcontLag of unskilled
labor dt all times, or during preliminary work
The following tabulation shows the relative
proportion of each classification to the total
Operations Division expenditures:
R.l.iivo lPro;ortionL (f "T'ypos of Work"
Dono by the Operations Division
Tye of Work Pct. of Total
HIighways, StrCots, Roads-- 49.0
Public BDuildin ..;a 20.0'
Publicly CvOnod Utilities 10.0
Rec3rotieon (Exclusivo of Bldgs. 6.0
Airports -and Airw-ys 5.0
All Other 2.0
Analyizod front the standpoint of SERVICE
to the ;oneral public the chronological so-
quence of the importance of the Cporations
Division program of work points out the fact
that the WPA requirement, that projects pro-
mulcated. must in the intorost of public sor-
vice has been well carried out in Florida over
the four and one half yosrs of operation.
....- I L_ i ~ I IT
,_l 2 3 4 5 6 7 9
To the Professional and Service Division has fallen the responsibility of
oeot'ng widespread social donands as woll as provi inc: useful occupational pursuits
for a varied group of professionaJ and technical persons and useful employment for
The program of the Professional and Service Division, therefore, differs wildly
Tfron that of the Operations Division, but in all respects its component operations
are of .s ruch public value as improved roads, public buildings and other' visible.
sets accruing to individual communities of the Stato.
The ultimate public value, of thoe Profosjional and Sorvico Division program is
refl.octci in PERSONS far more than in T~INGS---workors are not only gainfully em-
,loyed but because of standards of work (both in production and professional pro-
ijects)oftontime improve their personal skill, or find: a new perspective in their
professional field', with sone finding neo outlets for their talents and abilities
along technical lines.
SGneral acaonplishme-:ts under the Professional and'Service Division program
Zot bing easily soon, nor readily understood at times, have been looked upon in
'the light of intangibloa---an acceptance that to a large do:ree is erroneous. It
's statement of fact to say that valuable. work has been done by project workers
in this Division of the Work Projects Admrinistration that would never havo boon
1mdirtaken, or initiated, except for this phase of the work roliof proGram.
As of Doce:iber 31, 1939 the Profossional and Service Division showed a total
anlative oxpenditurn, (1935-1939) of 023,12/i,2l16---ircluding Foderal and Sponsor
__ funds, but not the ) 3,415,312 spent, by
the Division under: the Foidoral Numibor
CUTiTIE ZXPDITUES One pro':ran (which i included i the op-
posite Graph and shown in tl1o following
T rOSSIO-L' AiND SERVIjE DIVISION tabulation of exp:ndituros).
Dividloe' as to type of work perfo)rmnd
1935---1939 thc 1 Di Division showed the following
1. Distribution of P&S Division
TY PE 0 F WORK
(In Million Dollars)
IMIusic, writers His-
15 4--El1ucation Prog;rami.
5--Rosearch and Survey.
I S--Public Hjalth.
I ll--iRocra. ation,
I 12--All Othur T'yyprs of
Source: WPA From 150
I.. ... 12/31/39.
it i 2 3 5. 6 7 8 9 10 1112
Soo Key to "Jork Givo- i .ibove
-Exj.Jenh'_iturcLs by Typc 'IVf Work
1i- ?23l2 i
1, 150' Uc5
1, 275', 16
e'..9. 1551 7675,
4('9 ; 42
2 973; 450
19j 1 GG
2.6' 1 934
S.ue key on opposite f'raph. *1 Arts
pror.:ra.m includes- Fendoral #1 expenditure
prior' to July 19139, w].ich was iundor supor-
vision of the Pri'essional and Service
The distribution of Profossionnl and
Service Division ex;-ponditures. as shown in
tl:o foro:oinc tabula.tion and C;r!lph shown
o;ppoita indicate that the roantest part
of such funds wore ,pont. in carrying oIa
its sdivin'- racn p1rorai';r, ,loe principal channel for furnishin:ir: gainful omplo].ynont
to( c.rtif.i.ud wnoan workers. T'o LCtowid activity of the P'rofessional an?. Sor-
viec Divisi.. is carried or. through 27 proj acts which (a. of February 14, 1940)
cro giving, c ucrk to 9,520 1prsons.
Th-:u;.out t o procirari countyy and statewil.o) tho Profcosi:oal and Service
Di-vici -r. projects uso. u substantial pcrc.:t::A;:o .of' fenrlo 'LL.or'as indicnto&' by the
T7 F ',.ikK roCrcsontCd by its projects, i.e.: Education, .rxt, Production Irojocts
public Hc.lth, ,Hono Economnis, andi Sc1owini-;.
DISRIDUTION CCUNTY P20iJECTS CT.UIATTIVE ~X~IESE
iL previously notore theo c:c-eorl division of the total ~:IA cumulative oe:cncdi-
turc, exclusive of ad:inistrativo, 'sum ly funl, :.a.tionwidio .nd othor, uns CividocT
S: '0,5(52.,7"'7 (l'4 per cont) to county splonsorod pro-
__A CI"ULTIV2 _.''ENITZS jocts (wh.ic incluc.s munici. al work v;ithin any
I Civen county) -.ild 15,345,553 (1, per cont) to the
1935--1939 I projects of statowido natur;.
In this i:--trancc the tern SIiTAT'JIDE n-.ns that
CUTTlY Sr. "NSCRET) DPi.JECTS sucl-. ,:rotjocts h.avo authority to o:,crato in any in-
by dividual county of th:.o tatc if thorc is a nood for
such wor: aoon': the cortificd wo.rkors, This, moans
CCJrGIESSICNL DISTI CT that scorn projects o;por:.to in rall counties, otIhor
in a linitod nubr, and -at tines thcse pro jocts
(In I.Iillin r llars) c:;and or contract thoir operations. Since workers
)1. cr n statowi:Io -;rc jocts arc rc ,ortcd upon st".touidc
TIn ludcs Foorl. -:ayrolls wiil ont ruj'uard to county it is not :-ossi-
30 .run. bll t'o rcdily shvwJ th'o distribution of tho total
st :t'cwi o,':l.Mituro of ~.15,315,553 Cs i aplio
S-,uruo: \EA Fire; I to -.ny specific aroa.
157 12/31/39. Eonditu.:us upon County sponsored projects,
I.oweVOr, b1':.in.; rprtGd fror. the county in which
25 the project is locatoC. do l.ond thonsolvos to an
T' .c '.'ork -rojucta ti.r:iinistration is ooratod
S. onsor in Fride throu tl.o iucliu: of 10 Districts, but,
siLnco those cbaini.trativo divisions are not well
20 Fdcral :1kiowv tV t:.o :.ul lie th. FIVL C. NlG-.SSICMNL DIS-
TH Tc'IT ... 'o 8t:it, :'re uc sed. to show how 'Iv funds
., .nt u-,n cuety (al.;o nu:ici,.l) projects has-
: b.i:n listributoe (vr(r the 1935-1939 period.
DiviLod to thb FIVE CNG'.ESSIONAL DIST.rICTS
15 :. to "'.'1i c"nul::itive o.oendituros u'.;,n county pro-
jcts fror July 1935 thr. .,'- Dccor.nbor 1939 sh-:,w the
Sf.?.1i. ii pro, rti,.in .as to TC 'J,. FUN S, F Di., L and
\ ^!- S.,., 'M!SO, **.j..tici nation :
1. C.:unty rolj uets by Co r. rssic:nal District
S. .District Total Foior.1 Sp-.nsor
lAt DitricJt ,2,;"".,4474 ,,' 21,026,71 5657.757
i s. -' .r I* !tii
Unit D I S TR I C T
--n i" trict 1," l'1,3 14, 59,' 3;251,370
.3r, Di s trict 15,, '39,33 11 "' ; 3,43' 450
4th District 10,9',463 14,691 2,301772
5th! District 10,.51,144 0,044,1 2, 607,2.6
iJ.ilo it is nrt .p si'llo to slh:w St:itcwii
o,*crati on by C-.n-,rossi.Jnal District a .istribu-
ti:.n of th:. 9,520 :,'rsons r:-a l yc'l on tih 27 -ro-
jocts .Jf tho-c; S Division as of Fobruary 14, 1940
furnis! os t]o foll'vin" P ui .o as to hIowv the total
expenditures were divided at that period: 32 per
cent of the statewide workers were located in the
First Congrossional District; 25 por cent. in tl.o
Second District; 16 per cent in the Third District;
12. per cent in the Fourth District; and 15 per cent
in the Fifth District,
According to the foregoing tabulation coverinG.
the distribution of cumulative. ocpenditures upon
county projects the $80,552,771 sent.- was divided
32 per cent. to the First District; 23 per cent to
the Second; 1.9 per cent to the Third; 13 per cent,
to the Fourth and 13 per cent to the Fifth District
--which when compared to the number of counties
embraced' and population waa well equalized.
IABOR AND NON-L BOR EXPENSE COUNTY PROJECTS
Federal funds expended' on County sponsored pro-
jects over'the '1935-1939 period amounted to a total
oft63,946,411. This riimount roprooentod a total of
__54,2'/4, 604 (approx
.E imatoly `2 por cent
COULATIVE ^ lC 'E'tDITU
S in payments to Ia-
SPONSOR FUTNDS ON bor; and' $9,671,O07
in non-labor expen-
COUNTY PROJECTS ditures.
1935--199 Sonsor funds
spent on County pro-
(In I.illion Dollars) jets anount6d tO a
total of $17,606,36C
Do. Non-Labo and presented! the
6. nsun of $1,997,050
bor (nine per cent) paid
Labor to labor and a total
of $15,609,304 (91
5 per cent) fonr non-
_ labor ox'ronso.
The labor and'
in the statteido
project ,roup (for
Stata as'a whole)
was divided as fol1
CU IULTIVE IXPPENDITUlUES OF
FEDE RAL FUNDS ON
(In million Dollars)
Source: WPA Form
..... 157. 12/31/39.
let 2nd 3rd. 4th 5th
DI IS TR IC T
(approxinmtely `7 per cont) was spent for labor, and
02,198,633 (approximatoly 13 per cent) for other
County Project Labor and Non-Laborn Expense*
:Shown by Con'ressional District
First District $2664I 474
Second District 18001Q353 12935 364 5,2455;9CO
Third Dilstrict 15.;039333. 10;.l84 081 4;8552057
Fourth Di'trict 10;996;4.63 7; 675; 675 3;320;7C8
Fifth District 10 651;144 6;951;277 3695467
TOTAML 5552,771 $;56,271;660 !25,281,ll
*Includes both Federal and Sponsor Funds.
WPA ACCOA2LI SHErliNTS 1935- 1-39
In this compilation the question. of WEAT CumulaJ::tive Expondituros have boon
set forth as to HOW I1.IUCII, EOVI S1. ;IT, AND TY-E OF WORK DONS.
The Work Projects Administration has just cc:mploted an inventory of what
has boon accomplished undor theo program over the FOUlR /ND A ILULF YEARS of
The initial report off this inventory is to be rlindo public on SATURDAY
/EVENTNG, LIPMCH 16, 1940 whon' COLOIT0EL F. C. HARRINGTON, Comnissionor' of the:
Work Projects Admninistrati6n; will make an address. over the Columbia Boract-
casting Bystom at 10:15; p.m. Eastern Standard Time.
C6lon.el Harringtcn's subject will be "AFTER FOUR AND A HALF YEARS OF
In tha immredriatoe wooks to follow the results of tl.o .WPA inventory as
it has been carried out in Florida will be roloased in a series of' nows
stories covering all phases of the program from the standpoint of accomplish-
National figures reloasod'fron Washiinnton will be followed clcsoly
by figures for Flurida (the state),, counties and in r-anLy instancoso individual
The public is urged to watch for these. Press releases in their local
ci:ors, and invited to to follow' this comprehensive report on VPA activity
by listeninim to Conmrissionor IfHrriinton r.iak the initial prosontation of.
accomliirishnnts from Washincton, Saturday, Ilarch 16lth