Group Title: Historic St. Augustine: Bridge of Lions
Title: National Register of Historic Places, Inventory--Nomination Form
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00095512/00009
 Material Information
Title: National Register of Historic Places, Inventory--Nomination Form Bridge of Lions
Series Title: Historic St. Augustine: Bridge of Lions
Physical Description: Application/form
Language: English
Publication Date: 1981
Physical Location:
Box: 8
Divider: Bridge of Lions
Folder: Bridge of Lions
 Subjects
Subject: Saint Augustine (Fla.)
Bridge of Lions (Saint Augustine, Fla.)
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida -- Saint Johns -- Saint Augustine
Coordinates: 29.892796 x -81.310269
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00095512
Volume ID: VID00009
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Full Text




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE IN>TERIO
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE.

TIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PL
INVENTORY -- NOMINATION FORP

SEE INSTRUCTIONS IN HOW TO COh
TYPE ALL ENTRIES -- COMPI

NAME
HISTORIC


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SSEE SITE FILE STAFF FOR
ORIGINAL PH)4 TnrcI- n ,.l


Bridge of Lions VL)/ JVa. JVA/ r(U)
AND/OR COMMON
DOT Structure No. 7800714 ORlGi..L- ^T MV

LOCATION
STREET& NUMBER
Foot of King Street N/, -NOT FOR PUBUCATION
CITY. TOWN CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT
St. Augustine N/A.._ VICINITY OF
STATE CODE. COUNTY CODE
Florida 12 St. Johns 10n

gCLASSIFI CATION

CATEGORY OWNERSHIP STATUS PRESENT USE
_DISTRICT _PUBLIC OCCUPIED _AGRICULTURE -_MUSEUM
BUILDINGS() _PRIVATE -UNOCCUPIED _COMMERCIAL _PARK
STRUCTURE _BOTH _WORK IN PROGRESS -EDUCATIONAL -PRIVATE RESIDENCE
-SITE PUBLIC ACQUISITION ACCESSIBLE _ENTERTAINMENT _RELIGIOUS
-OBJECT _IN PROCESS -YES: RESTRICTED _GOVERNMENT _SCIENTIFIC
_BEING CONSIDERED _XYES: UNRESTRICTED _INDUSTRIAL X-TRANSPORTATION
N/A _NO _MILITARY -OTHER:

OWNER OF PROPERTY
NAME
Florida State Department of Transportation
STREET & NUMBER
605 Suwannee Street, Haydon Burns Building
CITY. TOWN STATE
St. Augustine N/A VICINITY OF Florida

*LOCATION OF LEGAL DESCRIPTION
COURTHOUSE.
REGISTRY OF DEEDS.ETC.
REGISTRYOFDEEDS.ETC. St. Johns County Courthouse
STREET& NUMBER
95 Cordova Street
CITY. TOWN STATE
St, Augustine Florida
REPRESENTATION IN EXISTING SURVEYS This property has not been
TITLE determined eligible.
St. Augustine Historic Sites & Buildings Survey
DATE
November 1981 -FEDERAL _STATE -COUNTY .-LOCAL
DEPOSITORY FOR
SURVEY RECORDS Cgtin Peervation Board
striITY. T OSt;N STATEPre tio B
CITY. TOWN STATE


St. Augustine


Florida


- _1


I



















DESCRIPTION

CONDITION CHECK ONE CHECK ONE
_EXCELLENT _DETERIORATED _UNALTERED )_ORIGINAL SITE
_GOOD _RUINS X-ALTERED _MOVED DATE
.FAIR _UNEXPOSED

DESCRIBE THE PRESENT AND ORIGINAL (IF KNOWN) PHYSICAL APPEARANCE

The Bridge of Lions is a 1,538 foot bridge designed in the 1920s to complement
the Mediterranean Revival style architecture of downtown St. Augustine. Four towers
with clay tile roofs flank the drawnspan of the bridge. The piers and walls of the
towers are painted white. Additional features of significance include the aluminum
handrail, the light standards which line the Bridge, and the two marble lions which
flank the St. Augustine side of the Bridge.
The Bridge of Lions was constructed in 1926 and opened to traffic in 1927.
It has two traffic lanes with sidewalks on both sides. The bridge is 1,538 feet
long with 23 approach spans supported by piers constructed of steel arch girders,
floor beams, and stringers. 'The steel reinforced concrete deck has in asphalt
overlay." The main span is a-rolling double leaf bascule supported by cast in place
reinforced concrete piers on untreated timber piles. Four Mediterranean Revival
towers with clay tile roofs flank the draw.
Distinctive lamp posts line both sides of the bridge. A wrought iron handrail
which matched the lamp posts was replaced in 1971 with a standard aluminum one.
The steel approach spans and the steel bascule spans have been rehabilitated,
painted and protected with an inorganic zinc paint system. There is heavy pitting
and loss of section on some components of"the structural steel in approach and
main spans. Concrete pier and superstructure restoration was accomplished with
pneumatic concrete in 1971. The obsolete electrical and machinery systems were
replaced in 1978. Racks, tracks and segmental girders were rehabilitated in 19.71
and 1978. Steel grid decking and support stringers are in very poor condition and
will have to be replaced in their entirety in order to maintain unrestricted legal
loads on the bridge. Steel sidewalk decking on the bascule and steel handrail throughout
the bridge was replaced with aluminum in 1971. Existing bridge light poles were
restored at the same time. A crutch bent wag-constructed at abutment #1, required
due to salt water corrosion. A crutch bent was constructed at pier 4, repaired
due to channel scour which exposed untreated timber piling.
Two large marble lions on concrete bases guard the west end of the span, prQyiding
the name for the structure.










SIGNIFICANCE


PERIOD AREAS OF SIGNIFICANCE -- CHECK AND JUSTIFY BELOW
_PREHISTORIC ARCHEOLOGY-PREHISTORIC _COMMUNITY PLANNING _LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE -REUGION
_1400-1499 ARCHEOLOGY-HISTORIC _CONSERVATION _LAW _SCIENCE
-1500-1599 .AGRICULTURE _ECONOMICS _LITERATURE -SCULPTURE
_1600-1699 ARCHITECTURE _EDUCATION _MILITARY -SOCIAL/HUMANITARIAN
_1700-1799 ART ENGINEERING _MUSIC _THEATER
_18001899 _COMMERCE _EXPLORATION/SETTLEMENT _PHILOSOPHY TRANSPORTATION
- 900- _COMMUNICATIONS _INDUSTRY _POLITICS/GOVERNMENT _OTHER SPECIFY )
_INVENTION

A: J.E. GreinerCo. (Baltimore)
SPECIFIC DATES' BUILDER/ARCHITECT A Greiner-Qo. (Balti
SPECIFIC 1926 R/A ITECT B: P.T. Cox (New York)
STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE
A landmark in the City of St. Augustine,. the Bridge of Lions,. reflects.the Spanisl
heritage of the city as well as. the optimism engendered by. the economic. boom of the
1920s. The Bridge' of Lions was designed 'in the '1920s to be a bridge of high .quality
which would make a lasting impression on visitors while also-encouraging the developers
of St. Augustine and Anastasia Island.. Known as St. Augustine's "million dollar
bridge", it is recognized as one of the two most significant bridges built in Florida
in the 1920s.
Its graceful arches and tile-roofed towers reflect the town's Spanish.heritage
as seen in the Castillo de San Marcos and.-the Catholic Cathedral, as well as its more
recent Mediterranean architecture, in the Flagler hotels and the First National Bank
Building (now the Atlantic Bank). With.the two large lion statues flanking its
approach, the Bridge of Lions forms a grand entrance to Anastasia Island. Since the
time it "as built, it has been highlighted in promotional brochures as a point of
interes- for tourists.1
By far the largest undertaking attempted in modern times by the local government,
the "million dollar bridge" is the result of liberal and enlightened thinking during
the height of the 1920s Florida land boom. 'Community leaders planned for St. Augustine
to become a seaside resort such as Daytona Beach or Miami. This structure would
enhance the beauty of the' bayfront and at the same time bring the city its .share
of boomtime prosperity by opening Anastasia Island for development. Although their
grand hopes collapsed with the crash of the land boom, followed by the Great
Depression, the bridge remains--as its builders intended--a monument to the "good
taste, daring optimism and faith of the people of this progressive community."'-
As early as the 1820s tourists were chartering small boats for excursions to
Anastasia Island. The first regular transportation to the island came around 1885
when the St. Augustine and South Beach Railway began running a ferry from a dock
at the end of King Street across the bay to a landing from which a small railroad
with horse-drawn cars ran across the mud flats to the lighthouse and South Beach.3
In 1895 the railway company built a flat wooden bridge with a swing span from
King Street to a point on the island just south of the present bridge. This was a
toll bridge, with carriages to take passengers between Anastasia Island and the train
depot. After major renovation in 1904 to permit automobile traffic, the bridge passed
into the hands of the St. Johns Light and Po er Company, which ran an electric trolley
line across it and part way down the island.


(See Continuation Sheet)







MAJOR BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES




(See Continuation Sheet)


GEOGRAPHICAL DATA
ACREAGE OF NOMINATED PROPERTY Less than 1 P '-"
UTM REFERENCES

All l 1 17, 013 0,0| 13, 310,617, 6,o 0 I I 11 I I I I
ZONE EATING NOTHING ZONE EATING NOTHING
cLJ 1 1, I,, I J I I! I IL !!i D ,_ W 1 W' 1, 1, !i
VERBAL BOUNDARY DESCRIPTION
From the vest shore of the St. Augustine peninsula at the foot of King Street to
the east shore of Davis Shores. (Anastasia Island) at the commencement. o.f-Anastasia
Boulevard.


LIST ALL STATES AND COUNTIES FOR PROPERTIES OVERLAPPING STATE OR COUNTY BOUNDARIES

STATE CODE COUNTY CODE
N/A N/A n/A N/A
STATE CODE COUNTY CODE
N/A N/A N/A N/A

FORM PREPARED BY
NAME/TITLE "-
Robert H. Steinbach/Larry S. Paarlberg, Histnori t Site Speri~ ~ct.
ORGANIZATION DATE
Florida Division of Arehive.r History Pnr RPr-r Mp-r; anagpent Aiic-nt 19 1
STREET & NUMBER TELEPHONE
The Capitol (90o) 487-2313
CITY OR TOWN STATE
T.1 1 'h ee Pi ovri o in
ESTATE HISTORIC PRESERVATION OFFICER CERTIFICATION
THE EVALUATED SIGNIFICANCE OF THIS PROPERTY WITHIN THE STATE IS:
NATIONAL- STATE_ LOCAL X

As the designated State Historic Preservation Officer for the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (Public Law 89-665). I
hereby nominate this property for inclusion in the National Register and certify that it has been evaluated according to the
criteria and procedures set forth by the National Park Service. -

STATE HISTORIC PRESERVATION OFFICER SIGNATURE
TITLE DATE
L. Ross Morrell. State Historic Preservp..ion Offi rr September 29, 1982
FOR NPS USE ONLY ..
I HEREBY CERTIFY THAT THIS PROPERTY IS INCLUDED.IN THE NATIONAL REGISTER.

DATE


DIRECTOR. OFFICE OF ARCHEOLOGY AND HISTORIC PRESERVATION
ATTEST: .
KEEPER OFTHE NATIONAL REGISTER .


GPO W 2- 5" -


. 1


''


DATE


L1









-R-8-300A
11/78)
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
HERITAGE CONSERVATION AND RECREATION SERVICE

NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES
INVENTORY -- NOMINATION FORM


FOR HCPS USE ONLY
RECE IVED

DATE ENTERED.


(See Continuation Sheet)


CONTINUATION SHEET One ITEM NUMBER 8 PAGE 1

By 1917 the wooden bridge was again outmoded and had become an eyesore on the
bayfront. The county commissioned specifications for a new, toll-free bridge from
South Street to the island, but tax revenues were found inadequate to build it.5
The campaign for civic improvements was renewed in 1923. Among those advocating
a modern bridge were city manager Eugene Masters, the St. Augustine Record,
Dr. Andrew Anderson, and the Kiwanis Club. A study committee was formed under the
leadership of H.N. Rodenbaugh, Vice President and General Manager of the Florida
East Coast Railroad.6
That winter a radically different concept emerged. Instead of an inexpensive
bridge not much different from the existing one, it was proposed to build a permanent
bridge of high quality, one which would compliment the city's attractiveness by
harmonizing with its historic and architectural ambience.7 Dr. Anderson, who
was a wealthy resident and an associate of Henry Flagler, donated two statues to
beautify the approach. They were matching lions, modeled in Carrara marble by
F. Romanelli after those at the Loggia dei Lanzi in Florence.8
The prestigious J.E. Greiner Company of Baltimore was awarded the engineering
contract. Their design called for a structure with concrete piers and steel arches,
with its western terminus at t,_e plaza.9 The proposed bridge had its critics. Some
still wanted it to be located at Bridge or South Street away from the center of town
and the scenic bayfront. Others questioned the novel concrete-and-steel construction.10
The city commissioners, however, accepted the Greiner proposal and the public
voted overwhelmingly, nine to one, to finance it with a bond issue.1l William Willoughby,
formerly of the Florida East Coast Railroad, was named Greiner's supervising engineer.
P.T. Cox Company of New York City was chosen contractor.12
Work began on July 20, 1925, only to be slowed down for half a year by shortages
of sand, gravel and cement. The Florida East Coast Railroad overburdened with traffic
from the Florida land boom, had declared a freight embargo.1 In 1926 the cost of
the bridge rose from $611,000 to $911,000 when developer D.P. Davis received permission
to dredge fill from the bay bottom, making it necessary to alter the plans and deepen
the foundations.1l Despite these setbacks, the bridge was opened for traffic Februa-r
26, 1927, and officially dedicated during the Ponce de Leon Celebration on April 7.1-
Its official name of Matanzas River Bridge soon gave way to the more popular Bridge
of Lions.
Davis, a Tampa millionaire, used the fill dredged from the bay to create Davis
Shores, the first major development on Anastasia Island. He laid out a grand resort
and residential community, with five major boulevards radiating from the foot of
the bridge. Promotional material emphasized the easy access to town by foot or by
auto.16 The mundane trolleycar service across the bridge to the beaches, which would
continue until the mid-30s, went without mention.17







-R-8-300A
11/78)
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
HERITAGE CONSERVATION AND RECREATION SERVICE

NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES
INVENTORY -- NOMINATION FORM


FCR HCRS USE 4ONLY
kECE 1'.ED

D,.TE ENTERED'.


(See Continuation Sheet)


CONTINUATION SHEET rT0 ITEM NUMBER 8 PAGE 2

St. Augustine's "million dollar bridge," with the trolleycar tracks still embedded
in its pavement, stands today as the most prominent structure from the 1920s. Davis
Shores at the one end id the Atlantic Bank building and Vaill business block at the
other, are other reminders of the boom decade. Yet the bridge's historical importance
extends beyond St. Augustine. The Florida Section of the American Society of Civil
Engineers'in 1976 recognized the Bridge of Lions as one of the two most significant
bridges built in the 1920s in the State of Florida.18

FOOTNOTES

Bridge of Lions File, Attractions and Guidebooks Collection, St. Augustine
Historical Society.

St. Augustine Record, 27 February 1927.

3"Six Visions of St. Augustine," Atlantic Magazine (August 1886), 187-96.

Tatler (St. Augustine), 28 March 1903, 27 February 1904; St. Augustine Record,
6 February 1903, 8 May 1903, 10 March 1904, 17 March 1904, 21 April 1904, 15 September
1904, 15 December 1904, 10 January 1908.

5St. Augustine Record, 14 July 1917, 17 July 1917, 9 July 1919, 15 July 1919,
16 July 1919.

Ibid., 27 February 1927, 6 April 1927; Minutes of the City Council of St. Augustin
1913-1925, s.v. "1 January 1924."

7St. Augustine Record, 30 April 1924.

City Manager to J.E. Greiner, 1 August 1924, and J.E. Greiner to Eugene Masters,
4 August 1924, in Matanzas Bridge Papers, St. Augustine Historical Society; Thomas
Graham, The Awakening of St. Augustine: The Anderson Family and the Oldest City,
1821-1924 (St. Augustine Historical Society, 1978), pp. 230-32.

9St. Augustine Record, 29 April 1924, 23 July 1924; copy of telegram from
Eugene Masters to J.E. Greiner, 22 October 1924, in Matanzas Bridge Papers.
10
St. Augustine Record, 23 July 1924; in Matanzas Bridge Papers: City Manager
to U.S. District Engineer, Jacksonville, 15 December 1924; City Manager to J.E. Greiner,
6 December 1924; J.E. Greiner, Report to Lt. Col. Gilbert A. Youngberg, U.S. District
Engineer, 13 December 1924; J.E. Greiner to Eugene Masters, 5 January 1925; Robert
Ranson to Eugene Masters, 9 June 1925.






FHR-8-300A
(11/78)
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
FO' HCRS USE ONqLY
HERITAGE CONSERVATION AND RECREATION SERVICE
RECEIVED
NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES TE E
DA"TE ENTERED
INVENTORY -- NOMINATION FORM



CONTINUATION SHEET Three ITEM NUMBER 8 PAGE 3

l"An Ordinance Providing for the Issue of Bonds of th-, City of St. Augustine
in Matanzas Bridge Papers; St. Augustine Record, 13 March 1925.
12
J.E. Greiner to City Commission, 28 March 1925, in Matanzas Bridge Papers:
Who's Who in Engineering, 1931, s.v. "Willoughby, William"; St. Augustine Record,
30 March 1925, 6 April 1927.

13In Matanzas Bridge Papers: City Manager to P.T. Cox, 2 December 1925; Weekly
Reports of William Willoughby, 22 August 1925, and 29 August 1925.
1i
St. Augustine Record, 2 October 1925, 21 OctoLer 1925, and 27 February 1927;
in Matanzas Bridge Papers: Greiner to Cox, 24 October 1925; Weekly Reports of
William Willoughby for October 1925; "Location Plan of Proposed Matanzas River Bridge,
October 30, 1921."

1St. Augustine Record, 27 February 1927, 7 April 1927, and 8 April 1927.
16
Ibid., 27 February; Weekly Report of William Willoughby, (date obscured,
July 1925), in Matanzas Bridge Papers; "Pictorial Record of Davis Shores," brochure
dated 15 January 1927 in Davis Shores File, Attractions and Guidebooks Collection,
St. Augustine Historical Society.

17(Jean Parker Waterbury), "Clang, Cla!.g, Clang, Went the Trolley ,
The East Florida Gazette, October 1980.

J. Paul Hartman, Civil Engineering Landmarks, State of Florida (Orlando:
Florida Section of American Society of Civil Engineers, 1976), pp. 18-19. For an
over-all history and evaluation see Robert M. McDaniel, "The Bridge of Lions,"
typescript (St. Augustine Historical Society, 1981).

















'7







:HR-8-300A
11/78)
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
HERITAGE CONSERVATION AND RECREATION SERVICE

NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES
INVENTOR Y -- NOMINATTION FORM


FCa: HCRF: USE CONLY
RECE iED

.TE ETER-C.D


CONTINUATION SHEET Four ITEM NUMBER 9 PAGE 1


"Bridge of Lions File." Attractions and Guidebooks Collection. St. Augustine
Historical Society.

Graham, Thomas. The Awakening of St. Augustine: The Anderson Family and the Oldest
City, 1821-192h (St. Augustine Historical Society, 1978).

Hartman, J. Paul. Civil Engineering Landmarks. State of Florida. Orlando. Florida
Sections of American Society of Civil Engineers.

Marcotte, Anna M., ed. The Tattler of Society in Florida. St. Augustine, Florida.

"Matanzas Bridge Papers." St. Augustine Historical Society.

Minutes of the City Council of St. Augustine, 1913-1925.

St. Augustine Evening Record.

"Six Visions of St. Augustine." Atlantic Magazine (August 1886).

(Waterbury, Jean Parker). "Clang, Clang, Clang, Went the Trolley ." The East
Florida Gazette. (October 1980).








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