• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Front Cover
 Administration
 Agriculture in British Hondura...
 External and internal communications...
 Company formation
 Cost of living
 Currency and banking
 Development incentives
 Education in British Honduras
 Immigration policy
 Labour
 Population and power
 Water supply
 Taxation
 Land






Title: Portfolio of information on British Honduras
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00095458/00001
 Material Information
Title: Portfolio of information on British Honduras
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Publisher: Government Information Service
Place of Publication: Belize City, British Honduras
Publication Date: 1961
Copyright Date: 1961
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00095458
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Belize National Library Service and Information System
Holding Location: Belize National Library Service and Information System
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Administration
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Agriculture in British Honduras
        Page 3
    External and internal communications in British Honduras
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Company formation
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Cost of living
        Page 8
    Currency and banking
        Page 9
    Development incentives
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Education in British Honduras
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Immigration policy
        Page 14
    Labour
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Population and power
        Page 20
    Water supply
        Page 21
    Taxation
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Land
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
Full Text


PORTFOLIO of INFORMATION

ON

BRITISH HONDURAS


Felling a Pine Tree in B. H.


ttom by The Government Information Service.
Belize City. British Honduras. 1961.




BRITISH HONDURAS


ADMINISTRATION

Constitution
Following a Constitutional Conference in London in February, 1960 British Hon-
duras was granted a new Constitution which introduced the Ministerial System, and places
the country nearer to internal self-Government. The new Constitution provides for an
enlarged and reconstituted Legislative Assembly made up as follows:
2 Ex officio Members (The Chief Secretary, and the Attorney General)
18 Elected Members
5 Nominated Members.


'1"
4fa., -~t


At the Polls to elect a new Government.


The 18 Elected Members each represent a single member constituency, six of which
are for the City of Belize. the Capital, two for the rural areas of the District of Belize, and
the remaining ten being divided in lots of two for each of the five other Districts.
The five seats for nominated members are filled by the Governor after consultation
with the First Minister in respect of two seats; with the leader of the minority party in
respect of one seat; and with the leaders of both the majority and minority parties in res-
pect of the remaining two seats
The Speaker of the Legislative Assembly is elected by the Assembly from among
persons who are not members of the Assembly. The Deputy Speaker may be a member
of the House.

Executive Council
The chief instrument of policy is the Executive Council. It comprises the
Governor as Chairman without a vote, the two Ex-Officio members of the Assembly, and




six unofficial Members, at least one of whom must be a Nominated Member of the
Assembly. These six members are Ministers with Portfolios distributed by the Governor
on the advice of the First Minister, who may also hold a portfolio. The leader of the
Majority Party in the Legislature is appointed First Minister by the Governor, and the
remaining five unofficial Members of Executive Council are elected by the Unofficial
Members of the Legislative Assembly from amongst their own number.

Franchise

The Franchise is based on universal adult suffrage for all British subjects, subject to
residential qualification of one year, and who are not less than 21 years of age.

District Administration

For Administrative purposes, British Honduras is divided into six districts, i.e., Belize,
Corozal, Orange Walk, Stann Creek and Toledo, with administrative headquarters situated
in the main town of each district and in charge of a District Commissioner (or District
Officer in the case of Belize City.)

Local Government

Each of the main towns in the country has a Town Board (or City Council in the case
of Belize City) which is entrusted with a number of municipal matters, such as the estab-
lishment and maintenance of markets, streets and street lighting, drains, baths and wash.
houses.

The City of Belize has a wholly elected City Council of nine members and the Dis-
trict Town Boards comprise four elected members and two ex-officio members-the Dis-
trict Commissioner, Chairman, and the District Medical Officer

There are plans to make the District Town Board a wholly~ lated.hbdy
The New Government

On March 1st, a General Election was held under the New Constitution and the
People's United Party won all 18 elected seats. The leader of the Party, the Hon. George
Cadle Price, was appointed First Minister of British Honduras by the Governor.
The Composition of the new Executive Council is as follows:

The Hon. George Price-First Minister and Minister of Finance and Development.
The Hon. Albert Cattouse-Minister of Public Works, Power and Communications.
The Hon. J. W. Macmillan-Minister of Education, Health and Housing.
The Hon. A. A. Hunter-Minister of Natural Resources, Commerce and Industry
The Hon.. L. S. Sylvestre-Minister of Local Government, Social Welfare & Cooperatives.
The Hon. C. L. B. Rogers-Minister of Labour.

Under the present Constitution the Chief Secretary, is responsible for External
Affairs and Internal Security, Information and the Public Service.

The Attorney General is in charge of all Legal Matters of the Government.
2





AGRICULTURE IN BRITISH HONDURAS.

THE DFPARIMENT OF AGRICULTURE
The Administrative Headquarters is in the City of Belize and comes under the Port-
folio of the Minister for Natural Resources, Commerce and Industry. The Research Centre
is situated at Central Farm, at mile 67 on the Belize-Cayo road, where a research Lab-
oratory is maintained offering limited facilities for soil and leaf analyses. There is also an
Agricultural Training centre at Central Farm providing short courses on general agricul-
ture. A cane research station is maintained at San Roman in the Corozal District.
Research into livestock breeding, and pasture is also carried out at the Centre.
Services include supply of planting materials and limited stud services for cattle and pigs.
There are district agricultural stations at Orange Walk, Stann Creek and Punta Gorda.
Extension Services are maintained in all Districts and Farm Demonstrators, 32 of them
at present, are available to give advice on crops, drainage and veterinary treatment of
livestock.

GENERAL INFORMATION ON CROPS
Most tropical crops thrive in the territory, depending upon rainfall and soil con-
oitions. Average rainfall varies from 50"-55" in the North, 60"-70" in the centre and
120"-140" in the South of the country. There is considerable variation in soil types, the
best land being found in the vicinity of the major rivers. Good land is available, sometimes
in pockets, in all districts.
In addition to rainfall and soil requirements, the choice of crops will be influenced by
available and potential markets and costs of production. Proven economic crops are
oranges, grapefruit, cane, cocoa and coconuts.
Other crops which will grow, in different localities include:- Plantains, bananas,
Maize, Rice, various types of Beans, Yams, Cassava, Coco-yams, Sweet Potatoes, Ground-
nuts (peanuts), Pineapples, Sorghum, Tobacco, Cotton, Oil Palms, Coffee, Breadfruit,
Avocado Pear, Cashew, Soursop, Guava, Mango, Limes, Tangerine, Custard Apple, Papa-
ya, Akee, Barbados Cherry, Nutmeg, Pimento. Watermelon and various Spices.

LIVESTOCK
Beef cattle for export to the Caribbean seems a likely venture. There is, at present,
only a limited internal market for diary produce. Brahmin blood is a necessity and
Brangus, Charbray, Santa Gertrudis and Jamaica sires have given promising results.
Excellent results have been obtained by crossing local cows with pedigree Brahmin hulls.
Santa Gertrudis and Jamaica Red Poll have also given promising results.
Grass: The most adaptable grass for pastures appears to be Jaragua (Hyperrhenium
rufa); other grasses which show promise in selected areas, are Guinea Grass (Panicum
maximum), Pangola Grass (Digitaria decumbens), and Elephant or Napier Grass
(Pennisetum purpureum)-the last for fodder.
Pigs: The Berkshire, large Black and Hampshire breeds of pigs have done well under
local conditions. The main economic factor is the lack of locally produced protein
for feed.
Poultry: Poultry thrive but the local market can be readily flooded. As in the case of
pigs, feed can be an expensive item.
Sheep: The local breed of sheep does well, especially in the drier districts of Orange
Walk and Corozal.





EXTERNAL & INTERNAL

COMMUNICATIONS IN BRITISH HONDURAS

1. SHIPPING


The main port of British Honduras is Belize City which is served
shipping lines:-


Route


frequency


by the following



Ser' et


United Fruit Company

Harrison Line


Royal Netherlands Steam-
ship Company
Caribbean Line
Buccaneer Line
Flota Centro-Americana
S.A. (2 ships)


New Orleans
New York
London
Liverpool

Amsterdam

New York
Florida and Gull Ports
Central American Ports.
New York & Montreal


Weekly
Monthly
Monthly
iwoice n.onth y :n
sugar season)
Monthly

Fortnightly
Monthly
Six Weeks


Loading Lumber for Export.

Coastal service between towns and villages south of Belize City twice weekly with
extension to Puerto Barrios (Guatemala) once a week by the M. V. "HERON" and
"MAYA PRINCE".

FREIGHT RATES ON APPLICATION TO THE COMPANIES CONCERNED.

4


Cargc
Cargo
Cargo
Cartc

Cargo

Cargo
Cargo
Cargo




2. AIR SERVICES
British Honduras has an international airport at Stanley Field which is served by the
following air lines:-

Line Route Type Schedule Services

British West Indian Kingston Viscount Weekly Passenger & freight
Airways
TAN Airlines Miami C-46 5 times per week Passenger & freight
TACA International New Orleans DC-4 Visccunt Twice weekly Passenger & freight
-Airlines
SAHSA San P dro Sula & DC-3 Twice weekly Passenger & freight
Guatemala City C-46 Weekly
ASA St. Petersburg C-46 Non-scheduled Freight
(Florida)


AIR FREIGHT RATES ON APPLICATION TO THE AIRLINES CONCERNED
AIR PARCEL POST RATES FROM G. P, O., BELIZE.
There is an internal airline, British Honduras Airways, (owned by British West Indian
Airways) which operates single engine, 3-passenger aircraft on flights to the district towns
and on charter At present there are sixteen Government-owned and private air strips
throughout the territory suitable for light aircraft. Charter rates are $50.00 (12. 10. 0)
per hour.

3. ROADS

There are over 400 miles of all-weather roads connecting the main towns (except Punta
Gorda, but a road to this town has now been started and should be finished in 1963),
with the Capital and 150 miles of secondary roads including forestry roads which
are not open to public use but which are used by timber contractors and others. A system
of feeder roads is now in use in the sugar growing areas of the north. British Honduras is
connected by road with Mexico through the town of Chetumal in Quintana Roo, Yucatan
and by road to Melchor de Mencos (formerly Fallabon) in the Guatemalan province
of Peten. During the dry, season it is possible to proceed from there to Flores, capital of
the province.
Passenger buses run several times a week from Belize City north to Orange Walk and
Corozal (thence to Chetumal) and west to El Cayo and south-west to Stann Creek.
In addition there are trucking services to many points in the hinterland, and the coastal
towns daily.
A Bus service in Belize City is to be introduced shortly.
On October 1st, 1961, British Honduras changed over from Left to Right Hand Drive

4 TELECOMMUNICATIONS (External)

British Honduras is connected with Kingston (Jamaica) and Miami by radio-telegraph
and telephone, These services are at present operated by the Government but will shortly
be handled by an overseas company,
Rates to London and New York are 20 cts, (US) arid 23 cts. (US) FULL RATE respec-
tively and 10 cts. (US)' and 11 cts. (US) per word night letter (deferred) rate for a mini-
mum of 22 words respectively.




The radio telephone rates to Kingston (Jamaica) is 1. 10. 0 per 3 minutes call and to
Miami US $9.00 per three minutes call, with proportional increases for other parts of the
U. S. A. There is also a service to Honduras and to Guatemala for which the charge is
US $3.00 per 3-minute call. There is also a service to the U.K. and most of Europe, Central
and South America. Rates to Europe and South America is $21.00 for 3 minutes.

5. TELECOMMUNICATIONS (Internal)
Belize City is served by a magneto-ringing manually operated telephones system which is
shortly to be replaced by a fully automatic exchange. The Capital is connected with the
district towns by a telephone network as well' as by a radio telegraph system operated by
the Government, There is also a Police wireless telephone network covering most of the
inland and coastal stations which can be used as an alternative method of communica-
tion with the districts.
The cost of a telegram is 40 cts. regardless of the number of words.
Inland telephone calls are charged at the rate of 40 cts. per 5 minutes period.

6. BROADCASTING
There is a government owned and operated broadcasting station in Belize City which
transmits programmes in both English and Spanish for some 70 hours per week. The
service is radiated on medium and short-wave and covers most areas of the territory.
News bulletins are broadcast 4 times a day in both languages.


COMPANY FORMATION

The Companies Ordinance, Chapter 206, Consolidated Laws 1958 Volume 5 which
largely follows the English Companies Act of 1908, provides for the formation, registra-
tion and winding up of Companies. For practical purposes Companies may be classified
as (a) private or (b) public.

2. A private company is one which by its Articles of Association-
(a) limits the number of its members to fifty exclusive of present employees and
of past employees who during their employment were and have continued to be
members;
(b) restricts the right to transfer its shares;
(c) prohibits any invitation to the public to subscribe for its shares nr debentures.

3. All other companies limited by shares are public companies.

4. Any seven or more persons (or where the company to be formed is a 'private com-
pany', any two or more persons) may, by subscribing their names to a Memorandum of
Association and otherwise complying with the requirements for registration, form an in-
corporated company.

5. The Memorandum of Association is the charter of the company and a stamp duty of
$4.00 is payable on it before it is lodged with the Registrar of Companies. The Memoran-
dum should contain the following:-
(a) The name of the Company, with "Limited" as the last word in its name.
(b) The address in this country at which the registered office of the company is
to be situated.




(c) The objects of the company.
(d) That the liability of the members is limited.
(e) The amount of share capital with which the company proposes to be regis-
tered and the division thereof into shares of a fixed amount.
6 Articles of Association signed by the subscribers to the memorandum prescribing the
internal regulations of the company may be lodged with the Memorandum. These also
bear a stamn duty of $4.00.






















Orange Juice Canning Factory, Stann Creek.

17. After the Memorandum and articles (if any) have been certified by the Attorney
General as being in compliance with the requirements of the Companies Ordinance a fee
of $25.00 is payable. The following further fees are payable to the Registrar:-
For registration of a company whose nominal share capital does not exceed
$10,000 ................. ........... $10.00
For registration of a company whose nominal share capital exceeds 10,000 the
following fees. regulated according to the amount of nominal share capital:-
For every $5.000 of nominal share capital, or part of $5,000 up to $25,000
................ .................... $5.00
For every $5,000 of nominal share capital, or part of $5,000 up to $500,000
...................................... $1.25
For every $5,000 of nominal share capital, or part of $5,000 after the first
$500,000 ............................. 0.25

Companies established outside British Honduras
8. Foreign companies which establish a place of business here are required, within one
month of the establishment of the place of business, to deliver for registration:-
(a) a certified copy of the charter, statutes or memorandum and articles of the
company or other instrument constituting or definingthe constitution of the com-
pany.




(b) a list of the directors and secretary of the company containing certain par-
ticulars.
(c) the names and addresses of some one or more persons resident in British
Honduras authorised to accept on behalf of the company service of process and any
notices required to be served on the company.
9. Where a foreign company has complied with the above requirements it has the same
power to hold lands in this country as if it were a company incorporated here.
10. Foreign companies are required to file every year a statement in the form of a bal-
ance sheet similar to the filed by locally incorporated companies.
11. A fee of $1.25 is payable for the registration of any document required to be filed
with the Registrar.
12. The Registrar General, Belize City, is the Registrar of Companies.


COST OF LIVING

1. A Rental Price Index is maintained for the City of Belize. This Index was com-
piled as a result of a Family Expenditure Survey carried out in 1958 amona families whose
chief earner was earning under $200 per month.
2. The base date of the Index is June, 1958. Since then the Index has moved as
follows:-
June, 1958 : 100
December, 1958 : 98.4
June, 1959 : 99.7
December, 1959 : 99.8
June, 1960 : 99.6

3. The average retail prices of the principal items of food, fuel. and other items for
the month of August, 1960 were as follows:-

Article Unit Price

Bread 13 oza. .15
Flour lb. .09
Rice (polished) lb. .15
Rolled Oats 14 ozs. pkt .47
Beef (sirlion) lb. .50
Pork (chops) lb. .35
Pig Tails (salted) lb. .50
Fresh fish (snapper) lb. .25
Chicken (dressed) lb. .85
Margarine lb. .40
Lard (chicharron) lb. .30
Coconut Oil pint .35
Milk (condensed 14 ozs. tin .23
Milk (evaporated) 141 ozs. tin .23
Butter lb 1.00
Cheese lb. .80
Eggs (fresh) dozen .78
Beans (Red Kidney) lb. .23
Irish Potatoes Ib. .15
8





Article Unit Price

Plantains dozen .42
Onions lb. .15
Coconut each .07
Oranges dozen .30
Sugar (white) lb. .10
Coffee (nescafe) 2 ozs. tin .65
Tea 1 oz. pkt. .12
Cocoa 4 ozs. tin .33
Beer (cold) pine .45
Lemonade (cold) p:nt .10
Electricity Kwh .15
Kerosene Oil qrt. .09
Soap (Laundry) 9 ors. bar .22
Cigarrettes (local) pkt. of 20 .32
Cigarettes (imported) pkt. of 20 .40
(The B. H. dollar-5 shillings sterling or 70 cents U. S.)

4. Items of clothing, household supplies and hardware are imported mainly through
European and American markets and are easily obtainable in the stores.

5. Housing in Belize City is not easily obtainable. However, persons are able to ob-
tain rented accommodation from time to time. Such accommodation varies considerably
but it has generally been found that, fbr single-flat unfurnished accommodation-of the
two-bedroomed type with water and toilet facilities, the average rental is in the vicinity
of $40 per month.

6. Medical attention can be obtained at the Belize Hospital and hospitals in the dis-
trict towns. These hospitals are operated by the Government and there are also two pri-
vately run hospitals in Belize City. There are also several private medical and dental
practioners in Belize City.


CURRENCY AND BANKING

CURRENCY

The currency unit of British Honduras is the Dollar. The currency is linked at a fixed
rate with Sterling and the official rates of exchange are:-
$4.00 B.H. = 1 sterling
$1.43 B.H. = $1 U.S.A.

2. The currency is stable and is part of the sterling area system. A foreign exchange con.
trol is in operation on the same basis as other sterling are countries.

3. New enterprises financed by outside capital may be granted APPROVED STATUS
under which convertibility is guaranteed for the following:-
(a) Remittance of profits.
(b) Return of capital investment and any gains thereon.




BANKING


4. Two commercial banks operate in the country: the Royal Bank of Canada which was
established in 1912, and Barclays Bank, D. C. O., which was established in 1949. Both have
their headquarters in Belize City. Barclays Bank has a branch in Stann Creek and pro-
vides certain banking services in Corozal cne day a week

5. The Government Savings Bank has its headquarters in the Treasury Department in
Belize City and operates branches in the administrative centre of each District.


Barclay's Bunk overlooking Central Park in Belize Cilv.


DEVELOPMENT INCENTIVES

Tax concessions are awarded under the authority of the Development Incentives
Ordinance 1960, and are available to persons, and companies formed and registered under
the Companies Ordinance for the purpose of conducting a 'development enterprise'.

2. A 'development enterprise' is one which-
(a) will be conducted to the benefit of the economy of British Honduras;
(b) is either a new enterprise, or the expansion of an existing enterprise; and
(c) is in the public interest.

3. The concessions consist of holiday from-
(a) Company income tax
(b) Income Tax on dividends arising from the enterprise




(c) import taxes on capital goods*
(d) import taxes on approved raw materials for manufacture
*Note Items of a 'revenue' nature required in the day-to-day operation of the enterprise
(e g. fuel and spare, parts), are not included in the concession.

4A The concessions run from the.date of the award to 10 years after the 'date of produc-
tion'. The following schedule gives the 'date of production' of various types of develop-
ment enterprises:-


Development Enterprise


(1) Citrus

(2) Cocoa
(3) Coconuts
(4) Cashew nuts
(5) Livestock
(6) Pountry
(7) Sugar
(8) Rice
(9) Beans
(10) Factory of any description
(11) Hotel-
(i) Having one or more of the following
facilities:-
(a) swimming pool;
(b) yachting and water sport facilities;
(c) ample grounds developed for golfing,
horseback riding and other outdoor
sports
(ii) Having none of the facilities in (i)
(12) Fisheries


Date of Production


5 years from the date of the develop.
ment order
5 years development order
5 years development order
5 years development order
5 years development order
1 year development order
2 years development order
2 years development order
2 years development order
1 year development order






3 years from date of development
order
1 year development order
2 years development order


Example:
in the case of a coconut enterprise the concessions would run for 15 years.

5. The concessions are awarded by the Executive Council.
Applications for concessions are addressed to the Minister of Finance and should consist
of a memorandum describing the enterprise in general terms and containing the following
information:-
(a) particulars as to the nature of such enterprise, the locality in which it will be
situated, and the contribution which it is expected to make to the economy;
(b) the estimated amount and purpose of the capital to be expended annually
thereon during the period of the Development Order;
(c) where applicable, the conditions under which workers will be employed, in-
cluding provisions for the housing of workers, and the number of workers to be
employed;




(d) the date on or before which-
(i) work on the enterprise will commence;
(ii) (where the enterprise relates to the production of a commodity), the
enterprise will produce in marketable quantities the commodity intended to be
manufactured, grown or otherwise produced, and
(iii) (where the enterprise relates to the provision of residential or recrea-
tional facilities for travellers or tourists), such facilities will be available;
(e) to satisfy the Governor in Council that the enterprise is adequately financed
and is provided with effective and competent management;
(f) such other information as the Minister of Finance may require.


EDUCATION IN BRITISH HONDURAS

A.-General
The Territory's educational policy aims at literacy of the entire population, and the
development of secondary, technical and agricultural education and teacher training. The
literacy at present is over 90%.
2. Education is compulsory for children between the ages of six and fourteen years. The
school year is from June to April, and is divided into three terms with a seven-week holi-
day from late April to mid-June, one week in August and three weeks in December.
B.-Primary Education
Types:
There are three main types of primary schools:-
(a) Primary Schools which are aided financially by Government.
(b) Private Schools, both denominational and independent.
(c) Preparatory Schools (which are primary classes attached to secondary
schools).
There are in all some 180 primary schools of widely varying sizes throughout the country.
With very few exceptions, they are all-age schools. The majority are denominational, the
direct management being conducted by the church authorities, and the following denomi.
nations are represented:-
Roman Catholic, Anglican, Methodist, Salvation Army, Church of the Nazarene, Baptist,
Seventh Day Adventist, and Grace Chapel.
Curriculum
The curriculum of the primary schools is as follows:-
English, Spanish, Arithmetic, Social Studies, Art and Craft; Literature and Music;
General Science, Physical Education, History, Geography and Religion.
Fees and Text Books
At the aided primary schools, a small fee of 5 cents (equivalent to 3d.) may be charged
for each pupil for each week during the term. Schools will not, however, refuse pupils
whose parents are unable to pay the fees. Some stationery and text books are supplied but
pupils are required to purchase additional stationery and text books.
Fees at the private schools (which, if suitably qualified, may be placed on a list of
Private Schools officially recognized by the Board of Education) are in the region of 25
to 75 cents a week and parents are, expected to provide all text books and stationery.




C.-Secondary Lducation
Types:-
There are seven secondary schools in Belize City (3 for girls, two for boys and 2 co-
educational), two in Stann Creek Town, (one for boys and one for girls), and one each in
Orange Walk, Cayo, Corozal and Punta Gorda (all co-educational).
There is also a Technical College in Belize City and one agricultural secondary school
(Lynam College) in Stann Creek in which special attention is given to agriculture and its
related sciences. Together, these schools cater for approximately 7% of the total primary
school population.
(i) High Schools (Colleges)
Secondary academic education is entirely in the hands of the denominations-Roman
Catholic, Methodist and Anglican. Assistance is given by Government to a few secondary
schools by the payment of salary grants to graduates on the staff, and financial assistance
in the form of loans for buildings. Government also provides 100 scholarships for pupils
who satisfy regulation conditions from primary schools between the ages of 11 and 14
years. The scholarships are tenable for four to five years. In addition 10 scholarships are
provided for successful students at the Cambridge School Certificate examination to read
for the Higher School Certificate.
The pupils are prepared in these schools for the Cambridge School Certificate exami.
nations. The basic syllabus is covered in four years.
Science subjects are taught on a central basis at laboratories provided and staffed by
Government. The classes are conducted at the Belize Technical College and offer courses
in Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Botany, Zoology, and Mathematics. The Belize Technical
College also provides courses in Manual Training and Home Economics for pupils from
the denominational grammar schools.
Only St. John's College, the Roman Catholic boys secondary school in Belize City,
accepts boarders at present. The Alumni Association of S. J. C. also gives annual Scholar-
Ships to deserving boys.


















St. John's College, Landivar, Belize City.

Fees and Textbooks
At present fees range from $65.00 per year in the Anglican and Metholists schools to
$100.00 in the Roman Catholic schools. Students are required to purchase their own text-
books.




(ii) Technical Education (Belize Technical College)
The Belize Technical College offers a four-year course with free places for approxi-
mately 25% of the enrolment and maintenance allowances for some pupils from the
districts. The College has facilities for training in woodwork, metal work, plumbing, light
engineering, electricity, auto-engineering, radio installation, building construction, science
and Home Economics. The training is made available through both full time day classes
and evening classes.
(iii) Lynam College (Agriculture)
Lynam College, which is under the management of the Roman Catholic Mission, is
designed as a rural secondary school in which special emphasis is given to agricultural and
its related sciences. Students read up to the Cambridge School Certificate.
(iv) Commercial Courses
St. Catherine Academy, the girls' Roman Catholic high school in Belize City offers
courses in Bookkeeping, Shorthand and Typing leading, to the Royal Society of Arts
Examinations.
D.-Adult Education
Adult education is undertaken by a number of organizations. These include the Extra-
Mural Department of the U. C. W. I., an Extension Department of St. John's College, The
Belize Technical College, the Social Development and Co-operative Departments, the
British Honduras Federation of Women and the Y. W. C. A.
Some of these organizations provide courses leading -up to examinations for the
General Certificate of Education, the Royal Society of Arts; the City and Guilds of
London, and other certificates. Others provide classes bf a more general and cultural
nature.
E.-Voluntary Teachers
Since 1960 the High Schools Faculties have been.strenghtened by young teachers frcm
Great Britain and the United States. The young Volunteers teach for one year without
salary. They are given board and lodge and pocket money.


IMMIGRATION POLICY
It has been agreed in principle that the central feature of economic policy in British
Honduras should be planned immigration aimed at the creation, as quickly as financial,
sociological and other considerations allow, of an agricultural economy based upon a
combination of large scale enterprises and individual small holdings. The arrangements
for the implementation of this policy are still under consideration and no organised im-
migration programme has yet been introduced nor are funds available to finance settlers.
2. Meanwhile British Honduras welcomes immigrants who are in a position to come
here and establish themselves without Governmental assistance for any of the following
main purposes:-
(a) agricultural settlement, either on a small holding or plantation basis;
(b) industrial development;
(c) sponsored employment by established commercial organizations.
3. The conditions under which immigrations permits are issued to such persons are as
follows:-
(1) that they make an immigration deposit. sufficient to cover the cost of their
maintenance and return to their country of origin, should this become necessary
14




for any reason. This deposit would not exceed S1,200 B.H. (300), and would be
retained by the Immigration Department. It would however, be returned after a
period of three years or earlier if the depositor decided to leave British Honduras
before the end of that period. As an alternative the deposit of a security in the form
of a bond by some third person would in certain circumstances be accepted.
(2) in the case of persons coming here for agricultural settlement or industrial
development, that they are in possession of sufficient capital to establish the farm
or business and to maintain themselves until their undertaking is properly estab-
lished;
(3) that they can produce satisfactory evidence of good character.

4. It is normal for persons (other than British subjects) wishing to take up permanent
residence in British Honduras to be granted an entry permit for a period of six months in
the first instance, after which the immigrant is permitted to remain on a more or less in-
definite basis, provided the necessary conditions have been fulfilled.



LABOUR

,Part I-Labour Legislation

The Government of British Honduras follows practices and policies which are em-
bodied in certain International Labour Conventions which have been accepted for appli-
cation in this territory. The employment of labour and labour relations are governed by
the following laws:-
I be Labour Ordinance, 1959 which regulates conditions of employment
The Trade Unions Ordinance, 1941 which governs the formation and conduct
of trade unions and employers' Association.
The Wages Council Ordinance, 1958 under which councils representative of
management, labour, and the general public can be set up to deal with questions
of wages arising between employers and workers in industries where there is no
effective machinery for collective bargaining.
The Trades Disputes (Arbitration and.Inquiry) Ordinance, 1939 which provides
for the appointment by the Government of Boards of Arbitration when disputes
between employers and workers cannot be resolved by negotiation or conciliation.
It also provides for the conduct of inquiries into trade disputes.
The Workmen's Compensation Ordinance, 1959 which prescribes benefits in
cases of inquiry and death arising out of and in the course of employment.
The Factories Ordinance. 1942 which provides for the registration of factories
and for the safety of employees.
2. A Department of Labour which comes under the Portfolio of the Minister of
Labour is established within the Government with responsibility for the administration
of these laws, for the fostering of good labour relations, to receive representation from
and to give advice to employers and workers and to advise the Government on labour
matters generally.
3. The Labour Ordinance, 1959 regulates conditions of employment. Its main pro-
visions relate to hours of work, overtime and holidays; protection of wages; employment
of young persons, women and children; safety, health and housing; contracts of workers;
recruiting and similar matters.




4. Under this Ordinance a Labour Advisory Board is established. The Board con-
sists of representatives of workers, employers, and the general public, and its duty is to
study and make recommendations to the Ministry of Labour on all matters affecting-
workers.

5. Hours of work, overtime and public holidays-The following are the standard.
provisions'-
(a) A 9-hour day
(b) A 48-hour week of 6 days
(c) Overtime at li times ordinary rates of pay for work in excess of the times
at (a) and (b)
(d) Christmas Day, Good Friday and Easter Monday: twice ordinary rates of
pay
(e) Other public holidays: 1I times ordinary rates of pay
There are 8 of these other public holidays.

6. Protection of Wages-Wages must be paid in full in legal tender at minimum
stipulated intervals. Deduction from wages are permitted to meet advances; supplies; and
provident fund, sickness benefit and trade union contributions but such deductions may
not exceed one third of the wages earned during the pay period.

7. The minimum stipulated intervals for payment of wages are:-
(a) weekly for hourly and daily paid workers;
(b) fortnightly for piece-workers;
(c) monthly for salaried workers.

8. Young persons, women and children-There is a general prohibition on the
employment of these classes of workers at night. "Night" is defined as follows:-
(a) For women: Between 10 p.m. and 5 a.m.
(b) For young persons (14-18) years: Between 10 p.m. and 6 a.m.

9. Children under 12 years of age may not be employed in any undertaking except
for limited purposes and within certain time limits. Children under 14 years of age may
not be employed in public or private industrial undertakings or branches thereof.

10. Where a woman, who works in a public or private industrial or commercial
undertaking or in any agricultural undertaking, has been in the employment of the same
employer for a period of not less than 150 days during the previous twelve months the
Ordinance prescribes the following maternity benefits:
(a) Leave of absence on medical evidence at one-third pay for six weeks before
and six weeks after confinement.
(b) Leave of absence on medical evidence for 30 days without pay following
the periods allowed at (a).

11. Safety, health and housing-Resident workers must be provided with sufficient
and hygienic housing, wholesome water, and adequate sanitary arrangements.

12. Recruiting-The recruitment of workers (obtaining the labour of persons who
do not spontaneously offer their services at the place of employment) may only be done
by licensed persons. Workers recruited at a distance exceeding 10 miles from the place
of employment are entitled to the cost of transport from the place of recruitment to take
ap the employment and return on termination of the employment.




13. Contracts of Service-Special provisions govern the period of notice of term.
nation of employment under oral contracts of service for an indefinite time. The period
of continuous employment determines the amount of notice to be given as follows:-


Continuous Service Period of Notice


2 weeks to 6 months 3 days
6 months to 1 year 1 week
1 year to 2 years 2 weeks
over 2 years 4 weeks



14. The Trade Unions Ordinance, 1941-The policy of the Government is to en-
courage and support collective bargaining. This Ordinance protects freedom of associa-
tion and the right to organise. It regulates the establishment of workers' and employers'
organizations which are free to formulate their own constitutions and manage their affairs
to attain the objects of the organisation. Negotiations by trade unions are conducted on
a voluntary basis.

15. An employers' organisation has recently been formed.

16. Four workers' unions are in existence comprising a membership estimated in
mid 1960 at about 11% of the wage-earning population. Two of the unions are repre-
sentative of specialised groups while the other two comprise workers in general employ-
ment. The general state of Labour relations is good,

17. The Wages Council Ordinance, 1958-This Ordinance enables the Government
to establish wages councils in relation to specified workers when the need arises in cases
where there is no adequate machinery for regulating wages. The Government may make
orders, on the report of a wages council, fixing wages and holidays for the workers in
respect of whom the council is established. No wages councils have so far been appointed
(mid 1960).

18. The Trade Disputes (Arbitration and Inquiry) Ordinance, 1939-Under this
Ordinance the Government is empowered to appoint Arbitration Tribunals and Boards
of Inquiry when disputes between workers and employers or between workers and work-
ers exist or are apprehended.

19. Arbitration Tribunals may be appointed after the normal machinery for con-
ciliation has proved ineffective and the consent of both parties is given. Boards of Inquiry
may be appointed at the discretion of the Government to inquire into and report on the
causes and circumstances of disputes.

20. The Workmen's Compensation Ordinance, 1959-This Ordinance came into
force in September 1960 and replaces a previous Ordinance passed in 1942. It provides
for the payment of compensation for personal injury and death by accident arising out
of and in the course of employment, and for scheduled occupational diseases contracted
due to the nature of the employment. The Ordinance also requires compulsory insurance




by employers in certain specified employment to cover this liability. The following rates
of compensation are prescribed for injury and death:-


Incapacity


Benefits


Limits


1. Death


42 months pay


2. Permanent Total .. 54 months pay

3. Permanent Partial .. Proportion of Benefit at 2
depending on injury.
Varies between 2% and
100%.
4. Temporary .. .. Periodic payment based
on wages:-
(a) 100% at $55 a month
or less
(b) 75% at $56-$70 a
month
(c) 66 2/3% at $76-$85
a month
(d) 50% at more than $85
a month


(Min.) $2,750
(Max.) $5,500
(Min.) $3,650
(Max.) $7,300
Proportion of limits at 2
depending on injury.
Varies between 2% and
100%.




(a) -
(b) Min. $55

(c) Min. $70

(d) Min. $80


21. Compensation is payable for scheduled occupational diseases, causing disable-
ment or death, that result from the nature of the employment and are contracted within
24 months of the disablement or death.
22. Thirteen occupational diseases are scheduled. Each disease is related to a par-
ticular occupation in the schedule. Rates of compensation set out in the above table
apply, the degree of disablement being the subject of a doctor's certificate.

Factories Ordinance, 1942-

23. The responsibility for the administration of this Ordinance is vested in the
Chief Factory Inspector, who is normally the Labour Commissioner. He carries out the
duty of registering factories and ensuring that the requirements of the Ordinance are met.
Certificates of registration are valid for twelve months from the date of issue and are
renewable subject to the same conditions.
24. The Ordinance provides for the appointment by the Government of a Factories
IAppeal Board to hear and determine appeals from the decisions of the Chief Factory
Inspector.
Part II-The Labour Force and Wages
25. The population of British Honduras as shown in the provisional census figures
(April, 1960) is as follows:-


Males
Females


44.600
45.800


90,400

It is estimated that there is an annual rate of increase of 3.7%.
18




26. The population is spread geographically by Districts as follows:-
Corozal .. ... 9,800
Orange Walk .. .. 10,350
Cayo .. .. .. 11,700
Belize .. .. .. 40,200
Staian Creek 10,650
Toledo. .. .. .. 7,700

90,400

32,824 live in the City of Belize.

27. Statistics of the effective labour force, the numbers employed, and the nature
of their employment are not available. There are considerable fluctuations in the numbers
employed because of the seasonal nature of most industries. A recent survey showed that
15% of the labour force was unemployed, with a further 7% under-employed.

28. Wages-There is no legal minimum wage. Rates of wages vary considerably.
The Government and a few industrial undertakings pay a basic rate of 36 cts. an hour to
male workers. Other employers pay varying rates with a minimum of 25 cts. an hour to
males and 17 cts. 20 cts. an hour to females.

29. In manufacturing tne rates vary according to the nature of industry and trade.
The following are examples:-
Sugar Industry
Skilled .. .. .. .. 50 cts.--61 cts. per hour
Semi-skilled .. .. .. 38 cts.-49 cts. per hour
Unskilled .. .. .. 36 cts.

Citrus Industry
Piece work is the general rule. Male skilled workers average 70 cts. an hour and
female workers average 17 cts.-22 cts an hour.

30. The general rates for office workers in industrial and commercial undertakings
are:-
Clerk .. .. .. .. $14--$28 per week
Shorthand-typists .. .. $14-$19 per week
Secretaries .. .. .. $25-per week, upwards.

31. Holidays-The Labour Ordinance, 1959 prescribes a minimum of six days paid
holiday annually for workers in specified industries. No industries have yet (mid 1960)
ben specified but action is proceeding in this matter.

32. The Government practice is to base paid holidays on the worker's length of
service. Holidays vary from 6 days to 14 days a year.





POPULATION

1960 CENSUS
The 1960 census has now produced the following provisional population figures for
British Honduras:


DISjTRICT


Corozal
Orange Walk
Stann Creek
Toledo
Cayo
Belize City
Belize Rural and Cayes


TOTAL


9,791
10,332
10,635
7,686
11,689
32,824
7,386


MALES


FEMALES


5,098
5,433
5,144
3,752
6,156
15,159
3,844


4,693
4,899
5,491
3,934
5,533
17,665
3,542


90,343 44,586 45,757


Up to the 30th September 1960, 27,446 persons had registered throughout the country
as voters under the new constitution. This figure represents 69.8% of the total number of
potential voters which numbers 39,294.




POWER


Electrical power is available at the headquarters of each of the districts of British
Honduras, but only in Belize City is a 24-hour service available. The source of power is
diesel engine. The table below sets out the position in the towns where customers are
supplied with electricity:


Population
1959


Town


Type


Capacity
installed
k.w.


Belize
Corozal
Orange Walk

El Cayo and Santa Elena
Stann Creek
Punta Gorda


32,000
2,800
2,300

5,000
4,700
1,400


I1OV/220 60 cycles A.C.
220 D.C.
120-208
A.C. (60 cycles)
200/400 A.C.
220 A.C.
110 D.C.


3290


__


______




BELIZE CITY
Type:
Basic service voltage 110/220 V single phase and 220V three phase at 60 c/s.
Rates:
The rates for the supply of electrical energy are as follows:

DOMESTIC CONSUMERS

(0-250) Sq. Ft. of floor area 15 units at 14 cents/unit
(251-500) Sq. Ft. of floor area 20 units at 14 cents/unit
(501-1000) Sq. Ft. of floor area 25 units at 14 cents/unit
(Over-1000) Sq. Ft. of floor area 30 units at 14 cents/unit
A Second block of .. .. 50 units at 10 cents/unit
A Third block of ,. .. .. 250 units at 6 cents/unit
All over .. .. .. .. .. at 4 c:nts!unit

COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL CONSUMERS

A First block of 30 units at 12 cents/unit (Kilowatt Hour)
A Second block of 50 units at 10 cents/unit
A Third b'ock of 250 units at 6 cents/unit
A Fourth block of 7000 units at 5 cents/unit
All Over .. .. .. at 4 cents/unit

Minimum Bill for all consumers-S1.80/Month.
The Electricity Board is authorised under its Ordinance, to give a special rate to any
industrial heavy consumer of electricity.

Hydro Electric Power:
A fair potential exist for the development of this form of power, but it would be ex-
tremely uneconomical to attempt to utilise this source at present.
Districts of British Honduras:
Outside of Bel ze C ty, electric supply is not reliable. There is no standardisation and
many citizens have their own private supply. Steps are being taken at the moment to correct
this position, and in the near future a Central Authority will be set up as the responsible
body for the whole of British Honduras. This will lead to standardisation and a uniformity
in the rates for electrical energy.


WATER SUPPLY

Water for domestic and commercial consumption in British Honduras is obtained
from private ram water vats, from wells, and in some cases from public reservoirs with
rain water catchment.
In Belize City, Corozal and Punta Gorda there is a standpipe supply for citizens. There
is not, in general, any house to house supply; but in Belize City the Fort George Hotel, the
hospitals, the three bottling works and some schools have a private connection from the
general supply which is stored in large iron tanks.
Water is not treated before supply. It is therefore advisable that persons not used to
untreated water supply should boil all drinking water.





TAXATION
PRINCIPAL TAXATION IN BRITISH HONDURAS
TAXES ON INCOME
1. INCOME TAX is levied on Companies and individuals.
2. COMPANY TAX is set at a fixed rate of 40% of chargeable income.
3. TAX ON INDIVIDUALS is payable on a graduated scale at the following rates:-

Chargeable Income Annual Rate %

First $500 .. .. 5
Next $500 .. .. 6
$500 .. .. 8
$500 .. 10
$500 .. .. 121
$500 .. .. 15
$500 .. .. 171
$1,000 .. .. 20
$4,500 .. .. 25
$10,000 .. .. 30
$16,000 .. .. 40
Remainder 45
4. In addition to the above basic rates on individual incomes, surtax at the following rates
is payable on all income in excess of $8,000 a year as follows:-

Excess over $8.000 Rate %

First $2,000 .. .. 10
Next $5,000 .. .. 15
Next $5,000 .. .. 20
Remainder 25


5. The incidence of personal tax on four categories of taxpayers
below:-


is setout in the table


TAX PAYABLE


Married Person
Single Married with
Person Person one child

$ $ $
6.00 Nil Nil
24.00 9.00 Nil
45.40 27.40 17.00
71.00 49.00 37.00
101.00 75.80 59.80
137.00 107.00 88.60
180.00 143.00 123.00
228.50 187.50 162.50
282.50 237.50 207.50
670.00 595.00 550.00
1,170.00 1,095.00 1,045.00
2,600.00 2,465.00 2,375.00
6,395.00 6,245.00 6,145.00
13,025.00 12,815.00 12675.00
20,025.00 19,815.00 1 ,675.00


Married Person
with
two children


Nil
Nil
7.00
25.00
46.60
72.60
103.00
139.00
182.50
510.00
995.00
2,285.00
6,045.00
12,535.00
19,535.00


Gross
Income

$
800
1,200
1,600
2,000
2,400
2,800
3,200
3,600
4,000
6,000
8,000
12,000
20,000
30,000
40,000




6. Interest on loans by non residents. A flat tax at the rate of 25% is payable on interest
on loans made from sources abroad for use in enterprises in British Honduras.
7. Relief from Double Taxation. The Government has arrangements with the U. K.,
U. S. A., Canada and many other countries for the relief of double taxation.

CUSTOMS AND EXCISE DUTIES
8. Import Duties. There are two tariffs, viz Preferential and General. The Preferential
Tariff applies to goods of British Commonwealth origin. The General Tariff applies to
all other goods. Duties are largely ad valorem and most of these are at the following
rates:-
General .................... 27 %
Preferential .................. 15%
On most mining, constructional, and industrial machinery the General rate is 15% and
the Preferential rate 10%. On some items, principally vehicles and rubber products, the
general rate is 30% and the preferential rate is 15%.
Specific duties are limited on most items of food, drink and tobacco, on petroleum
products and on many items of clothing. Duty on fuel is:-

General Preferential
c. per gal. c. per gal.
Motor Spirits 22 17
Kerosene: lamp oil 150' 4 3
Kerosene: vapourising oil 110' 6 3
Diesel Oil 14 11
Fuel Oil 14 11
10. Entry Tax. A general entry tax is payable at the rate of 3% ad valorem on all im-
ports except food for human consumption on most of which 1% is paid. Rice, lard, milk,
butter, and beans are exempt from tax.
11. Export Duties are levied on chicle, coconuts, mahogany, cedar, pine, logwood and
fish.
12. Excise Duties are levied on rum, tobacco and methylated and denatured alcohol
The excise duty on rum for local consumption is $6.00 per proof gallon.

TAX ON LAND
13. Land Tax is payable to the central government on all land outside town limits. The
tax is graduated according to type of land and proximity to motorable public roads. The
classification of land rates of tax are set out in the table below:-

Classification Rate per acre c.

Savannah: wet dray and scrub and swamp .......... 3
Savannah: pasture land subject to inundation ........ 4
Pine Ridge 1st Class ................ ............. 6
2nd Class ............................. 5
3rd Class .............................. 3
Low Forest ...................................... 4
M edium Forest .................................. 6
H igh Forest ...................................... 9
In addition to the above rates, a tax of 5c. an acre is payable on land lying within one mile
of a road maintained from public funds and suitable for wheeled traffic.
23




ESTATE AND STAMP DUTIES
14. Estate Duties are chargeable on estates over $100 on a scale starting at $1 per cent
on estates up to $500 rising to $25 per cent on estates over $50,000.
15 Stamp Duties are payable as follows:-
(a) Receipt for $10 or over ................... . 3c. per receipt
(b) Cheques and Bills of Exchange .................. 3c. each
(c) Im port entries ................................ 3c. each
(d) Promissory notes .............................. 10c. per $100
(e) Transfers of property .......................... 25c. per $50
(f) Mortgages ................................... 10.c. per $50

GENERAL
16. The above paragraphs set out the principal taxes in British Honduras. It is not ex-
haustive, there being other levies (various licences, local authority rates, etc.) that are also
payable.
17. Tax Concessions in respect of company income tax, dividends tax, import duties and
entry tax are made to approved enterprises. The concessions are authorised by the De-
velopment Incentives Ordinance, 1960 and are described separately.


LAND
British Honduras is situated on the mainland of Central America. It is bounded on
on the East by the Caribbean Sea, on the North by the Republic of Mexico, and on the
West and South by the Republic of Guatemala.


~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ h '-: 'y ^ '",
7-

1-4-2 =, 1.


Harrowing in a B. H. Rice Field.


The coastal waters are sheltered by a line of reefs extending almost the entire
length of the territory. The reefs are dotted with numerous large and small sandy islets,
known locally as cayes.





3. The Northern half of the country is relatively flat and comparatively dry, the
rainfall varying from 50 to 75 inches a year. The greater part of this area is in private
ownership. The Southern half is mainly rugged and heavily forested, parts of it exceed-
ing a height of 3,000 feet above sea level. The rainfall in this area varies from 75 inches
in the north to 175 inches in the south. The rainy season extends from June to January,
the dry season from February to May.
4. The climate and vegetation are sub-tropical. The average temperatures vary from
50 degrees to 95 degrees, the overall average being about 75 degrees. The heat is often
tempered by the trade winds from the south-east.
5. The population is approximately 90,000 of whom some 35,000 live in or near
Belize City, the capital. The other principal towns are Corozal, Orange Walk and Cayo in
the north, and Stann Creek and Punta Gorda in the south.
6. A good map will be found of much greater value than any verbal description in
indicating the principal natural features and communications of the country. A map of
the country in three sheets, on a scale of 1:250,000 (4 miles to the inch) may be purchased
from the Director of Surveys, Belize City, for $1.50 B.H. More details maps, on a scale of
1:50,000, are also available.
7. The ownership, use and transfer of land in British Honduras are governed by the
following laws:-
The Law of Property Ordinance, Chapter 193 Consolidated Laws 1958 Vol. IV
The General Registry Ordinance, Chapter 218 Consolidated Laws 1958 Vol. V
The Crown Lands Ordinance, Chapter 110 Consolidated Laws 1958 Vol. III
The Land Tax Ordinance, Chapter 44 Consolidated Laws 1958 Vol. II
The Landlord and Tenant Ordinance, Chapter 201 Consolidated Laws 1958 Vol. IV
and the Regulations made thereunder.
8. The devolution of interests in land on the death of the holder is governed by
the provisions ot the following laws:-
The Wills Ordinance, Chapter 195 Consolidated Laws 1958 Vol. IV
The Administration of Estates Ordinance, Chapter 196 Consolidated Laws 1958
Vol. IV
and the Regulations thereunder.

9. In non-technical terms, the Law of Property Ordinance provides that-
(1) the only estates in land which are capable of subsisting or of being created
or transferred at law are
(a) a freehold title;
(b) a lease for a fixed period.
(2) the only interests in land which are capable of subsisting or of being created
or transferred at law are
(a) an easement, right or privilege over land, either in perpetuity or for a
fixed period;
(b) rights of entry in or over land, either in perpetuity or for a fixed period.
(3) the only charges on land which are capable of subsisting or of being created
or transferred at law are-
(a) a legal mortgage;
(b) a rent charge, either in perpetuity or for a fixed period;
(c) a charge on crops;
(d) land tax and any other similar charge on land created by law




(4) all other estates, charges and interests on land take effect as equitable in-
te ests.

All rights and interests in land may be disposed of subject, where appropriate, to the con-
sent of the Crown.

'10. Certain limited rights and interests in land may be created by oral contract,
but, in general, rights and interests in land may be created only by instrument in writing.

11. The General Registry Ordinance provides that a legal title to, or interest in, land
may be created only by a common law conveyance or deed recorded under the Ordinance,
cr by a Certificate of Title registered under the Ordinance.


An aerial view of a citrus grove in the Stann Creek Valley where the
land is vcrv fertile.


12. A First Certificate of Title may be obtained by
(a) any person in whose favour the Court may make a declaration of title to
land based on long possession:
(b) any person entitled to a mahogany or logwood work, whether by location
or purchase, who by himself or by his predecessors in title, has been in undisturbed
possession thereof for thirty years, and the title or transfer thereof remained un-
recorded;
(c) any person who makes out by deed and other documents a good title to the
land at common law for thirty years:
(d) any grantee from the Crown of freehold land equivalent to a fee simple
absolute in possession.

13. A legal title to any land held under a Certificate of Title can only be transferred
or assigned by way of a Transfer Certificate. A Certificate of Title registered under the
Ordinance creates an absolute and indefeasible title, which cannot be challenged by any
other person except on the grounds of fraud or long possession.


. .. il __


smF~ --;- -
r
E~i
r; ...-. .




14. The Crown Lands Ordinance provides for the administration of all land vested
in the Crown. Grants by the Crown may take the following forms:-
(1) A freehold equivalent to a fee simple absolute in possession;
(2) A conditional freehold, subject to certain statutory conditions;
(3) A Location Ticket, which is a form of hire purchase, providing for payment
of the purchase price over a period of five years, subject to certain conditions of
development, and the grant of a freehold thereafter;
(4) A leasehold for a term of years absolute, with or without an option to pur-
chase subject to development;
(5) An annual permit to farm;
(6) A licence to take sand or other building materials.
15. The Government is not willing to sell Crown land outright, save in very excep-
tional circumstances. In general, every Crown grant contains conditions for development,
and provides fur its cancellation or termination if such developments are not carried out
or not maintained.
16. Subject to statute law, there are no restrictions on the sale or lease of private
land. No Crown grant, however, except an absolute freehold, may be sold, leased or
assigned except with the consent of the Government.
17. The Land Tax Ordinance provides for the payment of an annual tax on all rural
land. The tax at present is low, and varies from 3 cents to 9 cents per acre, according to
the quality of the land, with an additional 5 cents per acre for all land within one mile of
a public road. At present. Crown leaseholds are not liable to land tax. Urban land is sub-
ject to a property tax, which is levied by the Town Board concerned.
18. British Honduras contains approximately 8,870 square miles of land, including
the cayes. Of this area, some 3,630 square miles have been disposed of in the past, and are
now privately owned, and some 5,240 square miles are Government (Crown) land.
19. The Crown land is at present subdivided as follows:-
Square Miles
Forest Reserves 1,976
Agricultural Reserves 576
Long-term Leases 83
Location Tickets 112
Short-term Leases 41
Uncommitted 2,450

5,240

20. A considerable proportion of the uncommitted Crown land is inaccessible by
road. But there are 2 million acres of agricultural lands yet undeveloped, half of which
are Crown lands. Small parcels of rural Crown land can at present be taken on Location
Ticket at from $3.50 to $15.00 B.H. per acre, or leased at from 30 cents to $1.00 per acre,
according to the quality and situation of the land, under the provisions of the Crown
Lands Ordinance. Applications for larger parcels, exceeding 100 acres, are given special
consideration.
21. Rights in minerals, precious stones and metals, petroleum and ancient relics
are, with certain exceptions, reserved to the Government. Rights in timber on Crown
land are, in general, reserved to the Government, bud a Crown grantee can, if he wishes,
obtain a timber licence from the Forestry Department.
27






22. There are no restrictions on the purchase of privately owned land, and it is be
lived that a number of land-owners are willing to sell land at reasonable prices. There
are several professional real estate agents established in Belize City, and considerable areas
of private land are on offer by them. Their names can be supplied to interested persons.

23. The Government welcomes the introduction of foreign capital, and is prepared
in certain circumstances, to grant concessions in income tax and customs duties to per-
sons who contribute towards the agricultural or other development of the country. The
Government does not look kindly on land speculation, that is, the purchase of land for
re-sale at a profit later, without contributing anything towards its development. It would
not object, however, to the purchase of land for subdivision and re-sale, provided that
such subdivision would lead, to the use and development of the land.

24. Rural land in this country varies very much in its suitability for agriculture.
There are considerable areas of broken, hilly country, and of swamp savannah, subject
to permanent or seasonal flooding. There are, however, also large areas of good land, capa-
ble of producing good pasture, bananas, cocoa, citrus, coconuts, sugar cane, pineapples,
yams, maize, rice, beans ,vegetables and other tropical and semi-tropical food crops. Im-
proved methods of agriculture, however, are still in their infancy, and much has still to
be learned about maintaining and improving soil fertility under tropical conditions.

25. Prospective purchasers of land in British Honduras are strongly advised to visit
the country and see conditions for themselves, since it is impossible in the space of a short
article to give an accurate and detailed description of the country and its opportunities.

26. Between 1952 and 1954, a Land Use Survey Team made an exhaustive inquiry
into the land of British Honduras Its report, published under the title "Land in British
Honduras", with accompanying maps, may be purchased from the Government Printer,
Belize, for $11.00 B.H.




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