Group Title: Department of Computer and Information Science and Engineering Technical Reports
Title: Towards integrating wireless LANs with wireless WANs using Mobile-IP
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Title: Towards integrating wireless LANs with wireless WANs using Mobile-IP
Series Title: Department of Computer and Information Science and Engineering Technical Reports
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Language: English
Creator: Helal, Sumi
Lee, Choonhwa
Zhang, Yongguang
Affiliation: University of Florida -- Department of Computer and Information Science and Engineering
Publisher: Department of Computer and Information Science and Engineering, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Copyright Date: 1999
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Towards Integrating Wireless LANs with Wireless

WANs using Mobile-IP

Sumi Helal and Choonhwa Lee
Computer and Information Science and Engineering Department
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, {helal,chl } @cise.ufl.edu

Yongguang Zhang
HRL Laboratories, LLC
3011 Malibu Canyon Rd, Malibu, CA 90265
ygz(@hrl.com

Abstract

To allow a seamless integration between wireless LANs and Wireless
WANs, we developed a full stack adaptation model and a simple subnet
architecture that superimposes Mobile-IP on cellular-type wireless
LANs. The idea is to use Mobile IP as an integrative layer atop different
LAN/WAN networks. While Mobile-IP is widely used in wireless
WANs, it is not known how well it performs under a wireless LAN
environment, against native MAC-level handoff. Through
experimentation using 802.11 W-LAN, we found that under practical
values of handoff frequencies, the performance of Mobile IP based W-
LAN handoff is almost identical to the performance of W-LAN handoff
Further performance studies show the suitability of Mobile-IP as an
integrative layer in this architecture.


I. INTRODUCTION

Recent advances in portable computers and wireless LAN/WAN technologies have
engendered two new paradigms of computing known as nomadic and mobile computing.
Untethered users with wireless-capable portable computers are either nomadic (e.g.,
within an office, a building, or a pedestrian outdoor area), or mobile (e.g., in a taxicab, a
train, or even an airplane). Nomadic computing utilizes wireless LAN networking
technology such as the IEEE 802.11, which is a low mobility (typically, up to 5 M/h),
high bit rate (ranging from 2 to 25 Mbps) network. Mobile computing, on the other hand,
utilizes wireless switched or packet data networks such as GSM, CDPD, and iDEN,
which are high mobility (up to 60 M/h), low bit rate (ranging from 9.6Kbps to 40Kbps)
networks.

Despite recent advances in the achieved bandwidth of all types of wireless networking
technology, indoor networks continue to provide much higher bandwidth than outdoor
networks. This bandwidth gap is expected to either persist or widen in the near future.
What is needed for truly ubiquitous connectivity is an adaptability infrastructure that will
allow users to roam freely while transparently switching between wireless LAN/WAN









networks without disrupting the applications. Bridging wireless WAN and wireless LAN
will fuse in the economical advantages and the high bit rate of wireless LAN with the
ubiquity and ad-hoc mobility allowed by wireless WAN.

Integrating wireless LAN/WAN is in the mainstream of a desired and expected evolution
of future wireless networks. As the first tele-services evolved from voice services
delivered via wire-line terminals (handsets), to cordless phones, to cellular phones,
wireless data tele-services will similarly evolve with network deployment. We have
already witnessed voice services evolving to build into basic data services such as CDPD
(Cellular Digital Packet Data). When basic data services become ubiquitous, they will
ultimately be required to move toward higher rate data services, and then evolve to
bandwidth on demand. Another testimony on network evolution is the cordless phone,
which evolved into the Japanese PHS system offering higher data bit rate and greater
mobility. Guided by this history of network evolution, we highly anticipate the evolution
and convergence of wireless LANs and wireless WANs into an integrated networking
service.

To realize this vision, we have developed a Full Stack Adaptation (FSA) concept. It is
based on an architecture that integrates horizontal (base stations utilize the same wireless
networking technology) and vertical (base stations use different technologies) handoff,
while allowing applications to participate fully in the handoff process. In this article, we
focus on integrating Mobile IP into the FSA architecture. We first introduce the FSA
architecture and then present ideas and experimental validation on how to superimpose
Mobile IP on Wireless LANs, as a step towards a full integration of wireless LAN/WAN.
We implemented and experimentally evaluated a Subnet Architecture (SA) on top of
wireless LAN coverage cells, using the Mobile IP protocol. We describe the SA
architecture and present experimental results demonstrating its feasibility in an actual
implementation using IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs and Mobile IP.

II. THE FULL STACK ADAPTATION PROJECT

Since no single wireless network technology meets the ideal of high bandwidth, low
latency, universal availability, and low cost, it is inevitable that, for the foreseeable
future, multiple network interfaces will be required for ubiquitously connected mobile
hosts. The Full Stack Adaptation Project (FSA)1 is based on an architecture that
integrates horizontal (base stations utilize the same wireless networking technology) and
vertical (base stations use different technologies) handoff, while allowing applications to
participate fully in the handoff process.

The FSA architecture allows a two-way interplay between applications and network
connectivity on vertical handoffs. On the one hand, an application may provide modes
that allow a user to specify indirectly the relative importance of high bandwidth, low
latency, or low cost. An example is a teleconferencing application that has "inattentive"
and "attentive" modes. A user paying casual attention to a conference ("inattentive
mode") may not require the best possible transmission quality, or might have audio


1 Joint project between University of Florida and University of New Orleans.









squelched. But the user may suddenly begin to pay strict attention to the broadcast
("attentive mode"), which might require more bandwidth. The FSA architecture allows
applications to provide recommendations to the handoff mechanism that can result in
substantial savings. On the other hand, some vertical handoffs are required-to maintain
connectivity, an alternate interface must be chosen if a mobile host moves out of the
range of service for a particular network interface, or if the signal strength of one network
decreases. Allowing applications to register interest in imminent or completed vertical
handoffs allows the development of novel reactions to changes in quality of service. For
example, an application requiring high bandwidth might alert the mobile user that
additional movement may result in reduced service (a handoff is imminent, and the only
other available interfaces provide inferior service). Highly adaptive applications might
choose to hoard data if high bandwidth becomes available. They might choose to take a
checkpoint to ward against loss of data in the face of decreasing battery strength and/or
the likelihood of disconnection. Or the application might choose to rely more heavily on
cached data because of reduced bandwidth caused by a vertical handoff

A detailed schematic of the FSA architecture is depicted in Figure 1. Three network
interfaces are being supported including Fast Ethernet, 802.11 wireless LAN, and iDEN
wireless Packet data over PPP/SLIP. In order to integrate vertical and horizontal handoff,
and to provide a fixed IP solution under multiple networks, the Mobile-IP protocol is
fitted into the FSA architecture. This allows handoff to occur across cells of the same
network type, or across cells belonging to different networks, with the goal of disrupting
applications to a minimum degree. The Mobile-IP layer is largely unaware of vertical
handoffs, other than registration of a new "care of" address for the mobile host. This is
important in order to maintain compatibility with a variety of network interfaces that
support Mobile-IP.






































Figure 1. Adaptation Stack Architecture


The FSA architecture propagates information in both directions in the stack.
Applications make their quality of service requirements known, and these requirements
are used to guide vertical handoff decisions. In turn, information about the effects of
mandated vertical handoffs is trickled upward to the application adaptation layer. The
vertical LAN/WAN handoff layer monitors network characteristics, available power, and
application requirements in order to intelligently perform vertical handoffs between
available interfaces. Our application adaptation focus is on the use of thin clients as an
alternative to specialized proxies. The details of the vertical handoff layer and the
application adaptation layers under the FSA architecture are outside the scope of this
paper and are not discussed.

III. INTEGRATING MOBILE-IP WITH CELLULAR-TYPE WIRELESS LAN

Our goal is to integrate Mobile IP into the FSA architecture with support to three network
types: fast Ethernet, iDEN, and 802.11 Wireless LANs. The iDEN network is based on
Mobile IP and therefore imposes no problems to solve. Ethernet is straightforward as









well, leaving 802.11 Wireless LAN to be the network interface needy of integration with
Mobile IP.

III-A. Background on Mobile IP

The IETF Mobile IP Working Group has been working to specify a mechanism in IPv4,
called Mobile IP, which is to accommodate node mobility within the Internet [1]. Mobile
IP enables a mobile computer to move to a new network without changing its IP address
or disrupting communication connections. The IETF Mobile IP architecture introduces
new functional entities called home agent and foreign agent which are cooperate to allow
a mobile node to move without changing its IP address. Each mobile node is associated
with a home network on which a designated host acts as its home agent. When mobile
node is away from its home network, home agent is responsible for intercepting and
forwarding packets destined to it.

Whenever the mobile node is away from its home, it registers its location (care-of
address) with its home agent. Mobile IP can use two different types of care-of address: a
foreign agent care-of address (an address of a foreign agent with which the mobile node
is registered), and a co-located care-of address (an externally obtained local address
which the mobile node has associated with one of its own network interfaces). The co-
located care-of address can be dynamically acquired by the mobile node through
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) [8] on the local network. Depending on
the type of its care-of address, the mobile node will register either directly with its home
agent, or through a foreign agent, which forwards the registration to the home agent.

After a successful registration, the home agent intercepts packets arriving for the
mobile node on its home network. Then, the home agent encapsulates the packet and
sends it to the mobile node using the care-of address. In the case of foreign agent care-of
address, when a foreign agent receives the encapsulated packet, it decapsulates and
delivers the packet to the visiting mobile node. If a co-located care-of-address is used, the
home agent sends the encapsulated packet to the mobile node directly, and the mobile
node does the decapsulation itself.

I-A. 1 Triangle Routing

The basic IETF Mobile IP specification has a routing anomaly, known as triangle routing,
which is inherent due to its tunneling mechanism. In triangular routing, all packets sent to
a mobile node must be sent the mobile node's home network and then forwarded to the
node's current location. This two-step routing between correspondent host and mobile
node causes increased network load and delay. As an effort to avoid this inefficient
routing problem, there has been a research on route optimization [7] and extensions have
been made to the basic IETF Mobile IP protocol to remedy the non-optimal routes.

I-A. 2 DHCP

On wireless LANs, mobility support can be improved to a certain extent through the use
of dynamic IP address allocation provided by DHCP. When a mobile node visits a









foreign network running DHCP server, it requests the use of an address for some period
of time. The server returns an available IP address out of a pool of addresses, which is not
already allocated on the local network. If the IP address is configured successfully, the
mobile node is able to communicate by using network resources directly. The DHCP-
based wireless LAN technology enables a new mobile node to be connected to some
foreign network, while roaming around without any wire-line connection. DHCP-based
wireless LANs intended for public access, commercial services already began
deployment [12].

Real mobility support, however, can't be achieved through DHCP-based wireless
LANs in that the network connection can be maintained only within wireless LAN
boundary. A mobile node can't move to another LAN with its active network connection
maintained, because the allocated IP address is valid only within the local network. To
the contrary, in Mobile IP based wireless LAN (which is the approach taken in this
project), a mobile node can move to other networks while maintaining network
connections. It is Mobile IP that makes this mobility transparent to TCP and upper layers.

III-B. Mobile-IP based Wireless LAN

The simplest solution is to impose a one-to-one mapping between wireless cells and
subnetworks. We refer to this solution as the Subnet Architecture or SA. In this
architecture (depicted in Figure 2-a), each cell is assigned a unique subnet address. When
a mobile node crosses from one cell to the next, it moves into a different subnet, and the
Mobile IP network-level handoff is initiated, immediately following completion of the
MAC-level handoff The handoff results in a handshake between the new foreign agent
and the home agent of the mobile node. On completion of the handoff, messages destined
to the mobile node are forwarded by the home agent to the subnet where the mobile node
is visiting, and, eventually, to the mobile node at the foreign network. The
implementation of this architecture requires the detection of the MAC-level handoff
occurrence on the mobile node, and subsequently initiating a Mobile IP handoff between
the two networks.















Intra subnet


Figure 2. Mobile IP based Wireless LAN Subnet Architectures

A generalization of the SA architecture is a many-to-one mapping of cells to subnets
(Figure 2-b), in which only MAC-level handoff is initiated by the mobile node in
response to any intra-subnet (yet inter-cell) mobility. Access Points (APs) belonging to
different cells of the same subnet form a logical network with the same logical network
name (e.g., Service Set Identity (SSID) in IEEE 802.11 LAN terms). When a mobile
node moves across subnets, both MAC-level and Mobile IP level handoff protocols are
initiated by the mobile node. This generalized architecture allows for higher flexibility in
the design of the subnet based on administrative or work affinity instead of spatial
affinity. For example, a team of researchers may occupy non-contiguous offices or may
be separated by a concrete wall. In these circumstances, the many-to-one SA architecture
allows one subnet to be assigned to the same team, whereas a one-to-one mapping
architecture results in multiple subnets to be assigned to the research team.

One important advantage of the subnet architecture is increased security. Without
Mobile IP, the entire roaming domain of the W-LAN is a broadcast domain where any
mobile node can receive other nodes' packets (encrypted or not). In the subnet
architecture, packets destined to mobile nodes of one subnet are not routed to any other
mobile nodes outside the destination subnet. In a sense, this enables true multicast in the
roaming domain, leading to a naturally more secure wireless internetworking.

The testbed implementation and the experiments reported in this paper are based on
the one-to-one mapping SA architecture. Our work can be easily extended to the many-
to-one mapping subnet architecture.


Subnet 1
(a) One -to-one subnetting




h Access Point
L Portable Computer


(b) Many-to-one subnetting









IV. EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS


We have developed a testbed consisting of a home network and two foreign networks. To
experiment with the one-to-one subnet configuration, we used two wireless cells, each
mapped to a different IP subnet. While the mobile node continuously moves from one
cell to the other, we monitored TCP/IP performance in order to quantify the effects and
overheads caused by the composite MAC/Mobile IP handoff and to compare it with
MAC-only handoff performance. Furthermore, we analyzed the extent of disruption the
composite handoff can cause to active connections.

IV-A. The Testbed

As shown at Figure 3, our testbed consists of a home network-segment and two foreign
network-segments that are plugged into a PC router ports. While the home network is a
wired LAN, the foreign networks are IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs. As the HA, a
SparcStation 10 workstation is connected to the home network via wired Ethernet card.
The mobile node is an IBM ThinkPad 390 laptop equipped with BayStack 660 Wireless
LAN PC card. Both the HA and the mobile node run Linux RedHat 5.2. We used
SUNY's Mobile-IP implementation [3], which is one of a few Mobile-IP
implementations based on Linux. At each foreign network, an Access Point (Nortel
Networks BayStack 660) covers a cell and communicates with the mobile node in its
range. The BayStack W-LAN is a 2 Mbps Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS)
radio technology that is IEEE 802.11 compliant. It provides a wireless coverage range of
up to 300 feet in a standard office environment and up to 2,000 feet in an open
environment.

Since two cells are overlapped, the mobile node can hear from both of APs. Also,
notice that a subnet range covered by Mobile IP coincide with a range by the
corresponding wireless LAN cell, since our testbed provides a one-to-one mapping of
wireless LAN cells to Mobile IP cells. As shown in Figure 3, foreign agents are not
supported in our testbed, which means that the mobile node decapsulates the tunneled
packets by itself.










API


Foreign
Subnetl


Home Agent


1 .1AP



SA2

\


Figure 3. One-to-one mapping subnet architecture testbed

IV-B. Handoff Coercion and Propagation

In the one-to-one mapping Subnet Architecture, the handoff at the MAC layer means that
the Mobile IP handoff should be performed immediately. For our experiment to measure
the impact by both handoffs, we implement a user-level process, called handoff
controller, in the mobile node. The handoff controller performs two major functions:
handoff coercion by which we can trigger handoff each time handoff needs to be initiated
at both layers during our experiment, and handoff propagation by which the handoff at
MAC layer is propagated to Mobile IP layer.

We transferred a large file from the home agent, which is also acting as a
correspondent node, to the mobile node, and vice versa. While transferring, the mobile
node is switched between two APs, causing wireless LAN handoffs followed by Mobile
IP handoffs. The handoff controller performs this coercion periodically, and at a given
frequency. The handoff coercion at MAC layer is implemented via
ioctl(WLAN BSSJOIN, ...) system call supported by the Linux wireless LAN driver [11],
whereas the Mobile IP handoff coercion is implemented by modifying Mobile IP
implementation code [3]. This S/W controlled handoff coercion allows for precise control
over the instant when handoffs start. In addition, it enables us to conduct our experiments
without mobile node's physical movement.

As an 802.11 MAC handoff occurs, the mobile node, i.e., 802.11 LAN station,
associates itself with a desired AP by exchanging Authentication request/response frame
and Association request/response frame. In the course of the experiments, we observed


Home network









that under heavy traffic load, these handoff frames could get discarded when the
transmission buffer of the wireless PC card becomes full. We remedied this by retrying
the ioctl(WLAN BSSJOIN) call.

In a normal setting, handoffs are performed at the MAC layer as well as at Mobile
IP layer, based on the received beacon signals and the mobility behavior of the mobile
node. When handoff is determined to be needed at the MAC layer, the latter attempts to
handoff by itself (without intervention from our handoff controller). If the handoff
succeeds, our handoff controller gets notified, which in turn instructs the Mobile IP layer
to perform its handoff In this way, we propagate MAC layer handoff to Mobile IP layer,
which is always the case with one-to-one mapping. Our handoff propagation mechanism
is particularly suitable to the foreign network without foreign agent support in that it
enables Mobile IP to start the handoff process immediately if needed, without any polling
or additional delay at the IP layer. In our experiments -a laboratory setting, the MAC
layer handoff is initiated by an explicit request from the handoff controller, because the
two wireless LAN cells overlap significantly (both are located in the same laboratory
room). Then, the resultant handoff notification and, in turn, Mobile IP handoff initiation
are done the same way as in a normal setting, as described above.

V. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

For all experiments, we usedftp to transfer a large file from the correspondent node to the
mobile node, while handoff is being coerced at a certain frequency. During the transfer,
we tracked down TCP sequence number by using the "tcpdump" program. We measured
ftp throughput and repeated our measurements for increased reliability of the results. The
main two objectives of our experiments are:

to quantify the overhead of the composite MAC/Mobile-IP handoffs and to
compare it with MAC-only handoff, and
to determine the range of acceptable handoff frequencies, within which
degradation of TCP performance is acceptable.

V-A. Handoff Overhead

*IEEE 802.11 Handoff only Configuration.

In this experiment, two wireless cells form one IP network together and,
therefore, two APs are assigned IP addresses belonging to the same network. This
means only IEEE 802.11 handoff is needed. Mobile node movement is emulated by
the handoff coercion mechanism described above. IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN
handoff is initiated by the handoff controller, whenever mobile node switches into the
other AP. A large file is transferred via ftp between the correspondent node and
mobile node to monitor the transfer performance at TCP layer. The purpose of this
experiment is to measure the basic overhead associated with wireless LAN handoff
We would like to mention that the effect of mobility on transport protocol
behavior in wireless networks was first examined in [4], where TCP performance was










shown to degrade significantly due to the inappropriate reaction to the delays and
packet loss incurred by host movement.


x 10'


TCP Performance vs Wireless LAN Handoff (per 5 seconds)


10 15 20 25 30
Time


Figure 4. The Impact on TCP Performance due to Wireless LAN Handoff

Figure 4 shows the growth of TCP sequence number during a certain span of an
ftp transfer, in the case of IEEE 802.11 handoff only. The sequence number ceases to
increase for about .5 second near 7 second, 12 seconds, 17 seconds, and so on. These
pauses are caused by the handoff every 5 seconds and amount to about 10% of total
time. During these pauses, TCP transmits no new data and retransmits the
unacknowledged packets.

* Composite IEEE 802.11 and Mobile IP Handoff

In this experiment, each of the two cells has its own IP network, as shown in
Figure 3. First, wireless LAN handoff is coerced and on its completion, Mobile IP
handoff is initiated. Notice that these periodical handoff coercion and propagation are
handled by the handoff controller. In this setup, we ftp a large file from the
correspondent node to the mobile node.











TCP Performance vs Mobile IP Handoff (per 5 seconds)


E





4
2-

0



380 385 390 395 400 405
Time

Figure 5. The Impact on TCP Performance of Mobile IP Handoff


Figure 5 shows how TCP reacts to the composite handoffs. There are long pauses
in the growth of TCP sequence number around 387.5 second, 392.5 seconds, 397.5
seconds, and so on. These pauses are repeated every 5 seconds, which reflects exactly
the fact that our handoff interval is 5 second for this experiment. The pause period,
much longer than in the case of IEEE 802.11 handoff only, lasts up to about 40 % of
total time. This is because both handoffs take much longer time to go through the
following steps:

* Firstly, wireless LAN handoff is performed.
* Then, the mobile node gets a new IP address and reconfigures its network
interface with this new address.
* Then, Mobile IP handoff is performed.

The longer the time spent in composite handoff, the more packets get lost and, in
turn, more retransmissions are attempted at the TCP layer. In addition, by re-
configuring itself, the network interface exacerbates IP packet loss and delays.
It should be noted that these 3 steps cost more than in the case of wireless LAN
handoff only, although the registration process overhead of Mobile IP is relatively
small: Register Request and Register Reply messages are small UDP packets and the
round trip time is hundreds of milliseconds in our tested.










V-B. TCP Performance Evaluation

To experimentally evaluate the effect of composite handoff on TCP performance, we
measured the time taken to ftp a large file (12,498,737 bytes, to be exact) from the
correspondent node to the mobile node, while handoff is coerced at a certain frequency.
This experiment is repeated in a series of different handoff frequencies and ftp
throughput is measured for each experiment. We repeat these experiments in both cases
(IEEE 802.11 handoff only and composite IEEE 802.11 handoff and Mobile IP handoff).
We evaluate the impact of handoff by comparing the measured ftp throughput of the two
cases with the baseline throughput involving no handoffs.


Transfer Time vs Handoff Frequency


120


100


10 20 30
Handoff Frequency secss)


40 50 60


Figure 6. Relationship between Transfer Times and Handoff Frequencies

Figure 6 shows the measured ftp throughputs at several handoff frequencies. As
expected, transfer time in the case involving both handoffs is generally longer than in the
case of wireless LAN handoff only. In particular, the gap between the two cases is
magnified with frequent handoff, as is at the 5 seconds of handoff frequency. But the
transfer time dramatically decreases, as the handoff frequency increase. Figure 6 shows,
however, that there is no significant difference at handoff frequencies over 30 seconds.
This means that at such handoff frequencies, the composite handoff performance (in
Mobile IP based W-LAN) is almost equivalent in performance to handoff in wireless
LAN environments.

This result is of practical importance. To demonstrate, consider a typical Wireless
LAN with an outdoor transmission range of up to 2000 feet, and a maximum vehicular
speed of 5 miles/hour. If we assume that the mobile node moves straight across cells, the


- Wireless LAN Handoff
. Mobile IP Handoff


15.









needed minimal handoff frequency is 272 seconds (>> 30 seconds, resulting in a TCP
performance that is almost identical to W-LAN only handoff performance).

VI. CONCLUSION

We presented an architecture that aims at integrating wireless LANs and Wireless
WANs, and showed the role of the Mobile-IP protocol as an integrative layer in that
architecture. We also presented a simple subnet architecture that allows us to
superimpose Mobile-IP on Wireless LANs. We carried out experiments with the
objective of measuring and comparing 802.11 W-LAN handoff with the composite
802.11/Mobile-IP handoff in a real setting. The effect of the handoff on TCP
performance was measured. We found that under practical values of handoff frequencies,
the performance of Mobile IP based W-LAN handoff is almost identical to the
performance of W-LAN handoff The research ideas and measurements presented in this
paper are only one step towards a full integration of nomadic and mobile computing.

Several enhancements to the basic Mobile IP protocol have recently been proposed
and developed. One such enhancement is to reduce the handoff latency in order to
minimize disruption to application due to handoff In this paper, we focused our
experiment only on the handoff of the basic Mobile IP. Further experiments using the
enhanced Mobile IP are under investigation.

VII. REFERENCES

[1] Charles E. Perkins, editor. IP mobility support, IETF RFC 2002, Oct. 1996.
[2] IEEE Wireless Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical layer (PHY)
specifications. Draft Standard 802.11 D2.0, July 1995.
[3] Abhijit Dixit and Vipul Gupta, Mobile-IP for Linux (ver 1.00), May 1996, Available
at http://anchor.cs.binghamton.edu/-mobileip/MIPv 00/Doc/mip-doc.v OO.ps.
[4] Ramon Caceres and Liviu Iftode, Improving the Performance of Reliable Transport
Protocols in Mobile Computing Environments, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in
Communications, 13(5):850-857, June 1995.
[5] Mary G. Baker, Xinhua Zhao, Stuart Cheshire and Jonathan Stone, Supporting
Mobility in MosquitoNet, USENIX Winter 1996.
[6] D. Johnson and D. Maltz, Protocols for Adaptive Wireless and Mobile Networking,
IEEE Personal Communication, 3(1), Feb. 1996.
[7] C. Perkins and D. Johnson, Mobility Support in IPv6, Proceedings of the Second
Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom
'96), Nov. 1996.
[8] R. Droms, Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, IETF RFC 2131, Mar. 1997.
[9] H. Balakrishnan, S. Seshan and R. H. Katz, Improving Reliable Transport and
Handoff Performance in Cellular Wireless Networks, ACM Wireless Networks,
1(4): 469-482, Dec. 1995.
[10] W. Richard Stevens, TCP/IP Illustracted, Volume 1: The Protocols. Addison-
Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts, 1994.









[11] AbsoluteValue Software, Inc., Linux Wireless LAN driver,
http://ftp.absoval. com/pub/linux-wlan, 1999.
[12] The MobileStar Network Home Page. http://www.mobilestar.com, 1999.




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