• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Family papilionidae
 Family pieridae
 Family danaidae
 Family satyridae
 Family brassolidae
 Family morphidae
 Family nymphalidae
 Family erycinidae
 Family lycaenidae
 Family hesperidae






Notes on the butterflies of British Honduras
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 Material Information
Title: Notes on the butterflies of British Honduras
Physical Description: 100, 1 p. incl. col. front. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Davis, Frederick Lionel
Publisher: Old royalty Book publishers (H. Walker)
Place of Publication: London
Publication Date: 1928
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Insects -- Belize   ( lcsh )
Butterflies   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Belize
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by F.L. Davis ...
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Source Institution: Belize National Library Service and Information System
Holding Location: Belize National Library Service and Information System
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 09892565
lccn - agr30000083
Classification:
System ID: UF00095380:00001

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 3
    Front Matter
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Title Page
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Table of Contents
        Page 8
    Introduction
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Family papilionidae
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Family pieridae
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Family danaidae
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
    Family satyridae
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Family brassolidae
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Family morphidae
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Family nymphalidae
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
    Family erycinidae
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
    Family lycaenidae
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
    Family hesperidae
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
Full Text


THE
BUTTERFLIES
OF
BRITISH HONDURAS






THE BUTTERFLIES
OF BRITISH HONDURAS


































Pieris viardi (Bois) female
F, I ,; i




NOTES


THE BUTTERFLIES
OF BRITISH HONDURAS

BY
F. L. DAVIS, F.E.S., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. (Lond.)
(Late British Honduras Medical Service)


LONDON
OLD ROYALTY BOOK PUBLISHERS
(HENRY WALKER)
JOHN STREET ADELPHI


ON


















First Published r928


Made and Printed in Great Britain by
Toubridge Printers Peach Hall Works Tonbridge







CONTENTS

CHAPTER PAGE
INTRODUCTORY. 9

I. PAPILIONIDE .. 27

II. PIERIDE 39

III. DANAID. 49

IV. SATYRIDAE 58

V. BRASSOLIDfE 61

VI. MORPHIDE 65

VII. NYMPHALIDAE 67

VIII. ERYCINIDE 91

IX. LYCXENID, 94

X. IIESPERIDIE 97









INTRODUCTORY


THE collecting of butterflies in the tropics-I am
referring now especially to British Honduras-is
very different to collecting in temperate climates.
Many factors contribute in making it so.
Before I turned my attention to the butterflies
of British Honduras all my experience in Ento-
mology was gained in England, and I had no
knowledge of the conditions which prevail in other
countries, and which, had I not been ignorant of
them, would certainly have tended to modify and
at the same time widen and enlarge my views.
Thus at the start I was, to a certain extent,
handicapped.
I came out to British Honduras and found my-
self in another world, a world of wonders and
delights, an altogether charming world. Every-
thing was different, new, wonderful-the birds,
the plants and flowers, and even the grass-all
were different.
The natives of the country speaking a language
strange to me, and the glorious sun over it all.
Everything appealed to me. I gazed in wonder
at the coco-nut trees laden with their nuts swaying




NOTES ON THE BUTTERFLIES


gently in the breeze. I observed with joy and
admiration the beautiful and strange butterflies
that I had never seen before, and that I did not
even know the names of.
Here, indeed, was a new field open to me full
of great possibilities and pleasures, and I imme-
diately became all impatience to make a start
and learn something about these wonderful and
beautiful insects.
After a stay of a few weeks in Belize I went to
Punta Gorda in the south of the Colony. The
sloop I chartered for this voyage had the mis-
fortune to be caught in a hurricane and was cast
on an uninhabited island called Snake Cay,"
and we, the occupants of the boat, barely escaped
drowning. So here I was, a regular Robinson
Crusoe, with the captain of the boat, who was a
native, and a native boy, marooned on a desert
island with no chance of getting our heavy boat
launched again without assistance, for it had been
thrown up thirty feet on the beach and could not
be moved by our united efforts.
I suppose that this would have been a terrifying
experience to most people, and with very good
reason too, but strange to say, after I had got over
my immediate fright at the prospect of a watery
grave I thoroughly enjoyed the adventure. I had
come to the Colony in search of adventures and I
felt I was getting them.




OF BRITISH HONDURAS


The island was covered with big trees, and the
thing that most interested me was that the large
branches were occupied by snakes, which kept
their positions by coiling themselves around these
branches. There was scarcely a tree without two
or more of these occupants attached to it. I
ascertained by shooting one that they were quite
harmless and belonged to the Boa Constrictor
family, averaging about six feet in length and as
thick as a man's arm. Their position on the trees
was explained because I found that they lived on
the pigeons which came in large flocks to feed on
the island.
On my arrival at Punta Gorda I commenced
at once to collect the curious and wonderful
butterflies that this district provided. But I was
new to the country, had no experience of tropical
conditions, and went about my collecting just as
I would have done in England. I disregarded
the hot sun, and collected my treasures in its
blazing heat; heavy tropical showers of rain
soaked me and then the sun coming into action
again, dried me. I frequently strayed into
swamps, and my feet remained in wet boots
all day. Mosquitoes and ticks I found rather
troublesome, but that was all, and nothing to
make a fuss about, and when I reached home
tired and wet I did not take the trouble to change
to dry clothing until I had first rested and cooled




NOTES ON THE BUTTERFLIES
off. This was all a mistake, but I had to learn
from the great teacher-Experience.
Malaria got hold of me very quickly and held
me in its heavy grip. I was always down with
fever and could do no more collecting. I was
at death's door and expected to die when I was
sent to the Cayo in the Western District, which
is noted for its salubrity. Here I began to
recuperate, and was soon well enough to resume
my search after butterflies ; but now I began to
take precautions, having learned the need of
them.
In this district I made the bulk of my collection,
finding in it a great variety of insects, both moths
and butterflies, many of which I had never seen
in the south. I remained several years in this
district and then went to Orange Walk and later
to Corozal, both in the north of the Colony.
Although there are a few rare butterflies which
appear only to occur in these northern districts,
yet, as far as the study of the Lepidoptera is con-
cerned, I found these districts very disappointing.
There is not one quarter of the wealth of butterfly
life to be seen there as compared with the south
and the west, either as regards the varieties of
species or the number of insects.
It is quite true that the further south one goes
the more abundant and varied becomes the insect
fauna. For instance, as the north of the Colony




OF BRITISH HONDURAS
is poor as compared with the south, so is the south
as compared with Guatemala, which is indeed
a paradise for the entomologist.
I wish to relate here a few of my experiences
in collecting butterflies and moths, as they are,
I believe, not only interesting but may also be
of assistance to others who follow after me. I
will also offer a little advice which perhaps may
be of use to the novice.
There are many curious circumstances to be
noted as regards the behaviour of the moths.
In England, at the close of a summer's day, in
the twilight we expect to see, and do see, numbers
of moths, hundreds and thousands of them-
common things mostly-flying along the hedges
and in gardens visiting flowers, some flying swiftly
from plant to plant, and others, like the Geometers,
fluttering slowly along; and later on, in the dark,
when we come to a country village street lamp,
we find it besieged by a great number and variety
of species of moths.
None of these things happen in this Colony,
and if you did not know that Central America
abounded in moths of all kinds you would almost
infer the complete absence of them in the country.
When the sun goes down and the short twilight
sets in you will look in vain for a moth. You
see none at all, or at most perhaps, and that rarely,
a single gigantic Sphinx moth, which one instant




NOTES ON THE BUTTERFLIES
is hovering over a flower and the next has vanished.
Or you may come to a bush with blue flowers,
and here you may see a little crowd of Sphinx
moths almost identical in size and colour with
the English Humming Bird Hawk moth. These
are all the moths you will see. The hedgerows
will be absolutely free from any sign of them, and
the gardens will be no better. In towns and
villages along the coast the electric lamps in the
streets are similarly deserted. I cannot explain
it, but such are the facts.
But, instead of moths making their appearance
when the sun goes down, certain kinds of butter-
flies which are never seen in the daytime suddenly
and mysteriously appear from nowhere and begin
to fly up and down the country roads, not in
large numbers or companies, but singly here and
there. These are the families of Taygetes, Caligo,
Opsiphanes and Eryphanis, mostly butterflies of
large size-and they continue to fly until darkness
hides them from view.
You know what a common thing it is in England
when taking a walk anywhere by day to find
moths resting on walls, palings, tree trunks and
similar places. Quite a good collection may be
got in this way simply by using your eyes. But
in British Honduras you will look in vain for a
single specimen at rest in these situations. Not
one will be found.




OF BRITISH HONDURAS
If you beat bushes and hedges for moths,
which is so productive in England, you will rarely,
if ever, dislodge a single specimen. They simply
have vanished and apparently do not exist.
By far the best way to collect moths in this
country in my opinion is to attract them by
light, for although, as I have said, the street
lamps in villages and towns near the coast are
unproductive, yet I have found that away in the
interior in sheltered valleys, if a light is used in
the vicinity of the forest it is very successful,
and many good things may be obtained by its
use.
Digging for pupae under trees is not to be recom-
mended because, in the first place, it is not produc-
tive-the trees being too numerous and too
closely packed together, and, in the second, because
it is positively dangerous. Scorpions and centi-
pedes lurk here, and poisonous snakes are not
uncommonly at rest in the shelter of the root
buttresses.
Such are the rattlesnakes, which are very
abundant in the north of the Colony, the coral
snake, which I have seen the length of six feet
and as thick as a man's arm, and a snake called
locally the Tommy Goff," which grows to a
length of five or six feet with a stout body, and
which I believe is the dreaded Fer de lance of the
West Indies. All these snakes are fairly common





NOTES ON THE BUTTERFLIES


in the forest and I have seen many fatalities from
their bites.
Sugaring or treacling for moths, as it
is practised in Europe, I have never attempted,
partly from fear of snakes, but more because I
do not think it would prove successful. I feel
sure that the patch of sugar on the tree would
be scarcely applied before it would become a
seething mass of voracious ants, and what chance
would a moth or beetle have among them ?
The ants of this Colony are worthy of a special
study. They are everywhere, in your house and
in the forest, even on board boats and ships.
They attack your food, and at least one kind, the
" Marching Army as it is called, will attack
and probably kill you if you remain in the area
of its foraging parties.
I have observed that there are very many
different kinds of these creatures though I have
never made a study of them. Some are so minute
that they can scarcely be seen. Colonies of these
are found in houses, and being fond of sweet or
greasy food it is tolerably certain that large
numbers of them are regularly consumed by us
at meal times. Another kind lives in the hollow
poisonous thorns of an acacia-like shrub, and woe
to the person who accidentally touches this shrub,
for the dwellers in the prickles are over him like
lightning and they bite very hard. Then there




OF BRITISH HONDURAS


is the fierce Fire Ant or Red Ant ; the black
" Marching Army," which comes in countless
numbers to invade your house and goes right
through it, leaving it absolutely clean and free
from all vermin-centipedes, scorpions, cock-
roaches, spiders, and even snakes are all attacked
and carried off. The Parasol Ant," which is the
despair of the gardener, and which selects for its
ravages the best of his orange trees. Climbing
over the forest trees, too, there is a giant ant more
than one inch in length ; this species appears to
select especially those trees on which grow a
common white orchid. There are also many
others too numerous to mention.
I have dwelt on the subject of ants at some
length because the entomologist has great need
to beware of them, for they are his deadly
enemies.
If he is rearing larvae he must be very careful
to keep them where none of these pests can get
at them. If he neglects this precaution he will
one day find his larva cage swarming with ants
and his caterpillars dead, or bleeding from their
bites and as good as dead. If he has pupae he
must take similar precautions or he will find them
pierced through and through and ants crawling
in and out of the holes. Not only ants, but mice
and cockroaches, which usually swarm in houses
will also soon discover and feast on your pupae.





NOTES ON THE BUTTERFLIES
I kept my specimens securely in a large box
swinging by ropes clear of the ground and with
inverted hollow cones of metal over the ends of
the ropes attached to the ceiling.
The same with butterflies and moths as with
caterpillar and chrysalis, unless precautions are
taken they will surely and quickly be eaten up
by ants no matter where you place them for
safety.
If the insects are not set out, but simply placed
in paper envelopes, these envelopes should be
placed in a tin box having a tight-fitting cover
and containing a supply of camphor ball powder
in separate envelopes. The tin box and the tight-
fitting cover are to guard against mould which,
in the tropics, and in the rainy season especially,
is so destructive to one's specimens. The camphor
ball powder is to keep away ants and mites.
If the insects are set out they should be kept
in a dry place or they will surely go mouldy and
be ruined; the case or cabinet in which they
are displayed should also contain a supply of the
camphor ball powder, and a small pledget of
cotton wool in one corner of each drawer with a
few drops of carbolic acid on it will help to avoid
this danger.
In order to make a representative collection of
the butterflies and moths of the Colony it is
necessary to know something about their habits;
18




OF BRITISH HONDURAS


for instance, it took me many years before I
discovered, purely by accident, that the best time
for collecting many of the Syntomid family of
moths-that very interesting group which imitates
so closely bees and wasps-was in the early
morning before and soon after sunrise.
At this time of the day I found many different
species of them, and found them abundantly,
quietly resting on the white flowers of low-growing
shrubs at the edge of the forest, but by ten o'clock
when the sun shone too fiercely they vanished,
and not one was to be seen where only a short
time before they had been so plentiful. Among
these Syntomids I was fortunate enough to
discover one which was new to Science-a
Loxophlebia.
The sandy beaches of rivers and creeks are very
attractive to many butterflies in the dry season,
and especially to the Papilios and the Catopsilias.
The Hesperids, or "Skippers," and many of the
commoner species of butterflies prefer open country
exposed to the full blaze of the sun, but the
majority of butterflies are more at home in the
shade of the forest or where sun and shade mingle
as in forest roads.
The greatest obstacle in the way of my collecting
I always found to be the sun, which produced a
very curious effect on me. I would start out in
the early morning full of life and energy, but after





NOTES ON THE BUTTERFLIES


one or two hours continuous exposure to its direct
rays, and after it had gained heat and strength,
I became a very different person, weak and
languid and incapable of taking the slightest
interest in anything except to get as quickly as
possible out of the sun and into the shade. This
was not always an easy thing to do for, as a rule,
the country is cleared of bush and trees for several
miles around the towns. I attribute this curious
effect not so much to the sun's heat rays, but more
to its chemical rays. I never suffered in this way
except after direct exposure to the sun.
Whether this was a special peculiarity or idiosyn-
crasy so far as I alone was concerned I do not
know, nor have I been able to ascertain.
In any expeditions for collecting I would advise
very light and thin material for clothing, stout
boots and leggings, a machete-that is a long
knife like a sword which hangs in a scabbard at
your side-to hack away bushes and creeping
vines, a shot bag-that is a canvas bag or wallet
which is slung over your shoulder by means of a
strap-with two compartments, one of which
holds your empty papers and the other for your
captures, a net, a small lancet and some perman-
ganate of potash crystals in case you should be
so unlucky as to suffer snake bite, and a compass
for use should you find yourself lost in the bush.
That is quite sufficient for daily expeditions,
20





OF BRITISH HONDURAS


but if you intend leaving your house for longer
periods do not forget your mosquito net or you
will not get a single moment's rest or sleep on
account of the swarms of these voracious blood-
sucking pests. Remember your mosquito net
first before you think of your food or anything else.
After a day's outing change your clothing and
boots for dry ones at once without waiting to
cool off, and never bathe in cold water especially
after a hard day's work. Use tepid water. If
you use a hammock for sleeping in, have a properly
constructed hammock net for it, and see that this
last is well in contact with the floor all round and
that the sleeves are well secured so that you may
be free from mosquito bites. Do not expose
yourself unnecessarily to the direct rays of the
sun. Boil your water or drink tea if you have
reason to doubt the purity of your water supply.
Do not plunge into long grass and rubbish
without good reason as a deadly snake may
possibly be resting there. Look out for wasps'
and hornets' nests, for they are frequently to be
encountered hanging from the small trees and
bushes, and when you see them give them a wide
berth and never interfere with them or you will
regret it.
Keep your eyes wide open and notice everything,
and keep your hands off any objects which may
excite your curiosity unless you are quite sure




NOTES ON THE BUTTERFLIES


that it is harmless to you. This is a very wise
and useful rule to observe, for in the forest there
are many traps for the unwary.
So it will be seen that although the collecting
of butterflies in the forests of the tropics is a
delightful occupation, yet it is not free from danger,
and it behoves us to be careful and not to incur
unnecessary risks, but to observe the precautions
which have been found indispensable for safety
and health.
I will repeat the principal annoyances, discom-
forts and dangers, trusting that they will prove
to be, not a deterrent to the enthusiastic collector,
but rather that, being aware of them, he may take
the necessary steps to lessen and overcome them
as far as he is able to do so.
Heat.-Not only from the direct rays of the sun
but also in the shade of the forest, for here,
although there is no sun neither is there any
breeze, and the atmosphere is stifling. Runnels
of sweat course down the face and the clothing
becomes saturated with moisture of perspiration.
Yet it is exactly in such an environment that the
best insects are to be found.
Mosquitoes.-These very troublesome pests are
always with you. It is seldom that you are not
followed by a swarm of them that settle on the
exposed parts of the body and bite furiously.
They also have the habit of getting into your eyes,




OF BRITISH HONDURAS


nose and mouth, all of which tend greatly to upset
your equanimity and to spoil your enjoyment.
Snakes.-These are an ever-present danger and
should always be kept in mind. I once refused
to go after some Papilio zestos which were resting
on a shrub and which I could have easily captured
because to get at them I had to wade waist high
in thick grass, and I remembered that a man had
been bitten by a snake in this very locality a week
previous to my arrival and had died from the
effects. Strong boots and high leggings I think
will be found the best defence.
Ticks.-These are indeed a great, if not the
greatest, drawback to exploring the forest lands.
These horrible pests are much more abundant
in the dry season than in the wet. There are many
varieties of them. Some are as small as pin
points and they are the worst; others are as large
as a grain of maize. The large ones come singly,
but the little ones in thousands. Getting on your
clothing they immediately begin to run in every
direction until they reach your skin and there
they attach themselves in whatever part of your
anatomy they may have reached. Here they set
up an intolerable desire to scratch and when you
keep on scratching you develop after a time sores
and ulcers and an eczematous condition, but no
amount of scratching gets rid of the tick which
continues to hold on, sucking your blood and




NOTES ON THE BUTTERFLIES


increasing visibly in size from day to day. I
know no remedy by which these pests may be
restrained. The only thing to do after a day in
the bush is to search carefully and pick them off
one by one-a work that needs time and much
patience.
The following list does not claim to be a complete
record of all the butterflies which may be met with
in this Col6ny. It only deals with those which
the writer himself has personally encountered
during a residence of more than thirty years in
the various districts of the Colony.






Page
Missing
or
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CHAPTER I


FAMILY PAPILIONIDUE
Genus:
I. PAPILIO CAPYS (Hub).
This is one of the common Papilios of the
country. I have met with it everywhere in the
Colony. It is a very rapid flyer and fond of
settling on flowers in forest tracks. On many
occasions I have found the larvae on orange trees
in companies of a hundred or more closely packed
together side by side on the trunks of the trees.
When irritated the larva extrudes a pair of
orange-coloured processes, each process being
about three-quarters of an inch in length, from
receptacles situated immediately behind the head.
As soon as these processes are extruded a very
pungent odour is given off which resembles that
produced when a green orange rind is cut or bruised.
This is one of the methods provided for its defence
against enemies, for as soon as danger threatens
the processes are extruded, and immediately the
atmosphere is filled with a pungent and irritating
odour. When the danger appears to be over the





NOTES ON THE BUTTERFLIES


processes are retracted and no trace of them
remains visible.
2. PAPILIO POLYDAMAS (Linn).
This is a common butterfly and the most com-
mon of all the Papilios. It is frequently observed
in gardens and I have found the larvae in companies
of a dozen and upwards on a climbing plant in
my garden. This insect is exceedingly tenacious
of life, and an ordinary nip on the thorax that
would be sufficient to kill most butterflies does not
appear to inconvenience it in the least.
3. PAPILIO ZESTOS (Gray).
This beautiful insect, which is a sub-species of
Papilio sesostris (Cram), is generally distributed
throughout the Colony, but it is nowhere abun-
dant. Its flight is rapid and strong and it is fond
of coursing up and down forest roads settling at
times on the roadside bushes. I have met with
it in the northern districts but it is much more
frequently seen in the south of the Colony. It
is not attracted by wet sand or mud which is so
enticing to many others of the family, but it
prefers to visit flowering shrubs.
4. PAPILIO SALVINI (Bates).
I have only met with this insect in the Western
District at the Cayo and at Benque Viejo. I have
never found it anywhere except resting on moist




OF BRITISH HONDURAS


sand at the edges of rivers in the height of the dry
season, i.e., in March and April.
The butterfly is very scarce and I have only
encountered solitary examples from time to time.
On one memorable occasion I saw quite a number
of them in company on the sandy beach of the
river at Benque Viejo, a town about twelve miles
from the settlement of the Cayo. There on the
moist sand by the edge of the river where it flows
through the town were a company of twenty or
thirty of them all settled down to feast with wings
quivering in the manner characteristic of this
family. Most unfortunately I had forgotten to
bring my net, and so I lost the opportunity, which
was never repeated, of acquiring a nice series of
this rare and interesting butterfly.
5. PAPILIO POLYZELUS (Feld).
I have not observed this insect in either of the
northern districts, but it occurs rather commonly
in the forests in the Cayo and Punta Gorda Dis-
tricts, and also at San Pedro Sarstoon in the
extreme south of the Colony. At San Pedro I
took the butterfly in the month of August.
6. PAPILIO MYLOTES (Bates).
A few specimens are recorded by me as
having been taken in the Western District. It
does not appear to be a common species in the
Colony.




NOTES ON THE BUTTERFLIES


7. PAPILIO BRANCHES (Doub).
I have taken this butterfly only in the Western
District.
8. PAPILIO COPAN2E (Reak).
A rare insect, which I have only seen in the
Western District.
9. PAPILIO IPHIDAMAS (Fabr).
Only a few specimens taken in the month of
August at San Pedro in the south of the Colony.
10. PAPILIO PHARAX (G. and S.).
A variety of Papilio phaon (Bois). Only one
specimen taken on the Belize-Sibun Road close to
Belize.
II. PAPILIO PHAON (Bois).
Not uncommon in the Belize and the western
districts, but I have not observed it anywhere in
the north of the Colony.
12. PAPILIO CEDIPUS (Lucas).
A rare butterfly only found by me in the
Western District. It is a sub-species of Papilio
children (Gray).
13. PAPILIO LYCIMENES (Bois).
A rather scarce insect taken by me in the month
of August in the Western District and also at




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San Pedro on the Sarstoon River, but I have not
observed it in the northern districts.
14. PAPILIO ID)US (Fabr).
Found in the Western District and also at San
Pedro Sarstoon. It is fairly abundant in these
localities but does not seem to occur in the north.
15. PAPILIO BELESIS (Bates).
This butterfly I have only taken at Punta
Gorda in the south and also at San Pedro on the
Sarstoon River. It is an uncommon insect.
16. PAPILIO PHILOLAUS (Bois).
The dry season, which lasts from March to
June, is the time to look out for this species. I
have seen a few specimens at other times of the
year, but the dry season is the period for its
regular appearance.
In common with so many other varieties of
butterflies it is a lover of wet sand or mud-at
least the males are, and I may say that this last
statement applies equally to the other families,
and is not only a peculiarity of the Papilio family,
for the females are always conspicuous by their
absence in the crowds of butterflies so often seen
feeding together on patches of wet sand.
The insect was found abundantly wherever I
collected, and even in the streets of the towns
Sit may be seen settling on any damp patch of





NOTES ON THE BUTTERFLIES


ground. In the town of Corozal I have seen
many of them settling in the streets after the
water cart used for keeping down the dust had
passed along.
I have once observed what is known as a
" cloud of these insects ; large numbers of them
passed through the town of Corozal flying in the
direction of the prevailing wind from north-east
to south-west.
There is a dark variety of this butterfly which
is named Niger. I have never taken a typical
specimen of this form, but some of my captures
approached very closely to it.

17. PAPILIO AUTOCLES (R. and J.).
This, which is a sub-species of Papilio thoas
(Linn), is a common butterfly throughout the
Colony and is a constant visitor to garden flowers.
I have frequently found the larvae on orange trees,
but its favourite food plant is the rue (Ruta
graveolens). This plant is grown by many house-
holders in Belize, and though it is quite a small
shrub yet I have seen it swarming with the larvae
of this insect in all stages of growth.
The rue plant is much esteemed by housewives
for the magical effect it is supposed to have when
rubbed over the surface of the body in controlling
convulsions and especially the convulsions of
young children. But the plant is so attractive




OF BRITISH HONDURAS


to this Papilio that unless the good wife overhauls
it at frequent intervals it would very soon be
destroyed.
18. PAPILIO CRESPHONTES (Cram).
Only found in the south at Punta Gorda and at
San Pedro on the Sarstoon River.
19. PAPILIO THRASON (Feld).
This is a sub-species of Papilio pfaon (Bois),
and it occurs, but not very commonly, in the
Western District.
20. PAPILIO MARCHANDI (Bois).
The only locality that I have ever met with this
butterfly in the Colony is San Pedro on the
Sarstoon River in the extreme south. Here in
the month of August I was delighted to find it,
but not at all abundantly. It is very rapid on
the wing and the only way to capture it is to wait
until the insect settles to rest and feed. The
moist sand at the edge of the river and the muddy
edges of puddles of water in the roads were
favourite gathering places, and there I was able
to make my captures.
When thus employed in drinking, these insects-
like all the Papilios-keep their wings in a per-
petual quiver, and they take the greatest care
not to soil or wet them. They, as it were, stand
on tiptoe ready at the slightest alarm to take flight.




NOTES ON THE BUTTERFLIES


I resorted to a plan by means of which I was
able to secure several specimens of this rare
insect. I placed a dead Catopsilia-a yellow
butterfly which was very plentiful there on the
sand-and retired a short distance away. Very
quickly a variety of butterflies came in rapid
succession to investigate and to settle down by
the side of the dead specimen. These were for
the most part members of the Catopsilia family,
but I usually had not long to wait before one or
two Marchandi came to join the group.

21. PAPILIO EPIDAURAS (G. and S.).
A sub-species of Papilios androgeus (Cram)
which I have taken on the sandbanks of the
eastern and western branches of the Belize River
and also at San Pedro on the Sarstoon.
It is a magnificent butterfly and has a greater
expanse of wing than most of the Papilios. It
was always a charming sight to me to see this
beautiful insect settled on the sand with wings
all a-tremble and with a crowd of common insects
around it.
Although not rare it certainly cannot be said
to be common.
It appears to be double brooded, for I have
taken it in the Western District in April and May
and at San Pedro Sarstoon in August. The
butterfly has a superficial resemblance to Papilio




OF BRITISH HONDURAS


autocles (R. and J.), but is a much more handsome
insect.
The females are particularly rare, and I have
scarcely ever seen them.
22, PAPILIO MACROSILAUS (Gray).
Found usually at the edges of rivers and mud
pools or puddles of water in the dry season
congregating with other butterflies. It is a
very beautiful and at the same time delicate
insect, the tail-like appendages are unusually
long and slender and are very liable to be
broken off when the butterfly is captured in the
net.
I have taken it not uncommonly at the Cayo
and Benque Viejo in the west and at San Pedro
Sarstoon in the south.
23, PAPILIO AGESILAUS (Guer).
Taken in the Western District, always on sand-
banks by the riverside in the dry season.
24. PAPILIO EPIDAUS (Doub).
Taken at the same time and place as the pre-
ceding, but it is a more common insect. It greatly
resembles P. agesilaus.
All these three butterflies, Macrosilaus, Agesilaus
and Epidaus have a great resemblance to each
other but Macrosilaus is a much larger and finer
insect.




NOTES ON THE BUTTERFLIES


25. PAPILIO LYCOPHRON (Hub).
The only locality I have recorded for this
butterfly is Corozal in the Northern District.
On a lime tree growing in the dense forest a few
miles from the town of Corozal, in the month of
July, I found a number of larvae evidently belong-
ing to the Papilio family, but I was ignorant of
the species. The majority of them were of a
beautiful dark orange colour with a blackish-
brown saddle mark. Of these I found about
twenty. The others which were feeding with
them were throughout of a greyish or greenish-
brown colour and I was only able to find four or
five of these last. The orange-coloured larvae
developed into Papilio ornythion (Bates) while
the brown ones proved to be Papilio lycophron
(Hub).
I sent specimens of both these insects to the
Natural History Museum in London where they
were identified. This is the only occasion that I
have ever come across this butterfly.
26. PAPILIO ORNYTHION (Bates).
As mentioned in my notes regarding Papilio
lycophron I found a number of the larva of this
insect feeding on a lime tree in the Corozal District
and from them I was lucky to breed both males
and females. I visited the lime tree again the
following year in the hope of securing more




OF BRITISH HONDURAS


specimens but luck was against me for I found
no larvae of any sort on it.
The butterfly is quite rare and the female
particularly so. I know of no other record of its
capture anywhere in the Colony.

The members of the Papilio family that are
most frequently seen are Capys, Philolaus, Poly-
damas, Phaon and Autocles.
The red and black Papilios, of which there are
quite a number, are a difficult class and identifica-
tion of some of these is not always easy.
Some of the Papilios, as Autocles, have short
and broad tails to the underwings; some, as
Capys, have no tails at all; and some again have
these ,appendages unusually long and slender as
in the Macrosilaus group.
All the Papilio larvae that I have seen live on
plants which contain a volatile odorous oil such
as orange and rue, and from these food plants
they appear to secrete a material for defence
purposes. When danger threatens they extrude
from two receptacles situated at the back of the
neck a pair of orange-coloured processes, and at
the same time the atmosphere becomes filled with
a pungent odour resembling that of the oil found
in the food plant.
It will be observed that Papilio erostratus
(Westw) is not included in the above list. Dr.




NOTES ON THE BUTTERFLIES


Jordan, in the published work Macrolepidoptera
of the American Region," edited by Dr. Adalbert
Seitz, gives British Honduras as a locality, but
during the whole period of my residence in this
Colony I have never met with a single specimen
though I have received a few from Guatemala.
If the insect does occur in this Colony it is
extremely rare and probably confined to a small
area in the extreme south.
The females of all the Papilios are seldom seen,
and they appear never to leave the shade of the
forest.









CHAPTER II


FAMILY PIERIDAE
Genus :
I. PIERIS MONUSTE (Linn).
This common butterfly occurs throughout the
year in all parts of the Colony. I have found
the larve on cultivated cabbage and mustard
plants. It is almost always seen in the gardens
of towns and villages but not very frequently in
the woods. The white Pierid which is seen in
the forest is almost sure to be Pieris viardi (Bois).
2. PIERIS VIARDI (Bois).
This insect is only met with in the forest,
differing in this respect from the preceding
butterfly, which is comparatively rarely encoun-
tered there. The females are black and yellow
banded, totally unlike the white males, and when
flying resemble very closely the butterfly Heli-
conius charithonia (Linn).
The butterfly is rather local, but where it does
occur the males are fairly abundant but the
females are seldom seen. It is a very rapid flyer
and for that reason difficult to capture on the




NOTES ON THE BUTTERFLIES


wing. I have met with it in the Western and the
Northern Districts but nowhere so abundantly as
in the vicinity of Corozal.
3. PIERIS JOSEPHA (G. and S.).
A rare butterfly only recorded from Punta
Gorda in the south. One specimen only was
taken.
4. ITABALLIA KICAHA (Reak).
A small Pierid only found in the thick forests
flying over the undergrowth. It is decidedly
local and scarce. I have met with it in the
Western District and in the south at San Pedro
on the Sarstoon River and also at Punta Gorda.
5. PERRHYBRIS MALENKA (Hew).
Only a very few specimens taken in the Western
District in the upper reaches of the Belize
River. It is an insect that loves the shade of
the forest.
6. ARCHONIAS APPROXIMATE (Buti).
This pretty little butterfly does not extend for
any distance into the Colony. As far as I know
it only occurs in the Toledo District in the south,
but here it is fairly plentiful at certain periods of
the year. In appearance it rather resembles a
small specimen of one of the red and black species
of Papilio.




OF BRITISH HONDURAS


7. APPIAS POEYI (Butl).
This Pierid is a common butterfly and is fond
of settling on wet sandbanks and the margins of
mud pools and moist patches of ground.
As usual it is only the males that are found
here. The females are rarely seen and are met
with in forest tracks and glades altogether away
from the localities which attract the males.
Its time of appearance is the dry season, and
it is extremely rapid on the wing.
8. APPIAS DRUCILLA (Cram).
I have been struck by the absence of this insect
at the usual feeding places of Appias poeyi. It
does not appear to care about moist sand or mud,
but rather to fly up and down woodland roads. Its
flight is much weaker than that of Poeyi, and as
usual the females are but rarely seen. I have taken
it in the Western and in the Southern Districts.
9. DAPTONOURA ISANDRA (Bois).
I have notes of this insect from the Belize,
Corozal, and the western districts. It is extremely
local in its range but where it is found it is not
uncommon. The butterfly is fond of flying at a
considerable height from the ground and for that
reason one has often to wait until it comes down
within reach of the net.
It is essentially a forest insect.




NOTES ON THE BUTTERFLIES
10. DAPTONOURA FLORINDA (Buti).
One specimen only of this butterfly was secured
in the Western District on the Cayo-Belize
Road. It is of a much brighter yellow colour
than Isandra.
II. TERIAS ALBULA (Cram).
A common little woodland butterfly always seen
flying close to the herbage. It is found through-
out the Colony. It is a delicate insect and its
flight weak.
12. TERIAS NICIPPE (Cram).
This pretty little butterfly, rather larger than
the other species of the family, resembles very
much in its colour, and the way in which it flies
rapidly and close to the ground, the European
Colias edusa. When I first saw it I took it to be
a small Colias.
It is not at all common, but is generally distri-
buted from San Pedro in the south to Corozal
and Orange Walk in the north, but curiously
enough it appears to be absent from the Western
District.
I once saw the female depositing eggs on a small
leguminous shrub and I obtained the perfect
insect from these in less than one month.
The butterfly is found in open sunny grasslands.
I have seen it in August and also in December and
January.




OF BRITISH HONDURAS


13. TERIAS EUTERPE (Men).
Taken in the Western District and at San Pedro
Sarstoon.

14. TERIAS TENELLA (Bois).
I have notes of this insect only from San Pedro
Sarstoon.

15. TERIAS ECTRIVA (Buti).
One specimen only taken at the Cayo in the
Western District.

16. TERIAS SIDONIA (Feld).
Taken in the Western District.

17. TERIAS NEDA (Bois).
I have notes of this insect from the Western
District.
18. TERIAS WESTWOODI (Bois).
This butterfly seems generally distributed
through the Colony but is nowhere common,
I have found it in the Western and the Stann
Creek Districts and also in the north. It is rather
larger than the other members of the genus and
its colour is a much brighter and darker orange.

19. TERIAS MEXICANA (Bois).
I have taken this insect not uncommonly in
the Western District.




NOTES ON THE BUTTERFLIES


20. CATOPSILIA PHILEA (Linn).
This is the largest and the most handsome of
all the Catopsilias found in the Colony. Its flight
is rapid and strong. It is found commonly
throughout the Colony and appears to have no
regular time of appearance, but is always seen
in greater numbers during the dry months of
April, May and June.
All the members of the Catopsilia family, that
is the males, love to congregate on patches of
moist sand or at the margins of muddy pools of
water. Associated with them here will be found
other butterflies also enjoying the feast, such as
Appias, Papilio, Gonopteryx, Lycenids, Hesperids
and others, but I have never observed any member
of the Heliconid or Danaid family present at these
gatherings. These patches of resting butterflies,
which often contain many hundreds packed close
together, often cover an extent of five or six feet,
and give one the impression of beds of yellow and
white flowers.
With the exception of the Papilios all these butter-
flies remain with wings close together and motion-
less. Only the Papilios exhibit the characteristic
and constant quivering of their wings. These
assemblies are always composed of the male insects.
21. CATOPSILIA BOISDUVALII (Feld).
I have only met with this insect in the extreme




OF BRITISH HONDURAS


south of the Colony at San Pedro on the banks
of the Sarstoon River and in the month of
August.
Here, in company with other species of Catop-
silia, I found it in great numbers imbibing the
moisture from wet sand. It is a very dull coloured
insect, in striking contrast to the others of the
genus.
22. CATOPSILIA ARGANTE (Fabr).
A common butterfly everywhere, and appears
to be on the wing all the year round.
23. CATOPSILIA EUBULE (Linn).
Met with commonly in the Western District
congregating with other butterflies on moist
sand.
24. CATOPSILIA AGARITHE (Bois).
I have taken this insect in the Western District,
but it is generally distributed through the
Colony.
25. CATOPSILIA TRITE (Linn).
This butterfly occurs abundantly in the Western
District in association with other members of the
family.
26. CATOPSILIA STATIRA (Cram).
Very abundantly met with in the Western
District.




NOTES ON THE BUTTERFLIES


27. GONOPTERYX MAERULA (Fabr).
This is a very powerful and rapid flyer. Wet
sand and the margins of mud puddles have a great
attraction for it. Here these insects may be seen
sometimes in swarms settled down to their feast
in company with many other species.
At Salt Creek in the Belize District I once saw
a cloud of these butterflies in the month of
August. Countless numbers of them were flying
in the direction of the prevailing wind, which was
from the north-east. They were all flying steadily
with no inclination to settle.
The butterfly is generally distributed and even
common, and is most abundant in the months of
June, July and August.

28. GONOPTERYX CLORINDE (Godart).
This is much less frequently seen than the
preceding. Its habit of settling to drink at moist
places is similar to that of G. maerula and, like it,
its flight is rapid and strong. It is found sparingly
through the Colony but appears to be most in
evidence in the Corozal District.
This butterfly and the preceding are robust
and compactly made, very much after the model
of the female Brimstone butterfly of England.

29. KRICOGONIA LYSIDE (Godart).
This is a very uncommon insect and I have met




OF BRITISH HONDURAS


with only a few specimens in the Western District.
It is a forest lover.

30. DISMORPHIA PRAXINOE (Doub).
This is a bright and pretty little butterfly fond
of resting on the leaves of low-growing shrubs
with its wings fully expanded. It loves the shade
of the forest, and I have never seen it anywhere
else than in the woods. I have taken this insect
but only sparingly in the Southern and Western
Districts. It is entirely absent from the northern
districts.
31. DISMORPHIA MARION (G. and S.).
This butterfly is exceedingly rare in the Colony
although I found it not uncommonly a little
further south in the neighbourhood of Puerto
Barrios in Guatemala. Its range seems to be
restricted to certain definite and limited areas.
As far as the Colony is concerned I have only
taken one specimen and that was at San Pedro
Sarstoon in the extreme south. The butterfly is
fond of flying around the tops of small trees and
high bushes after the manner of the Purple
Hairstreak, which is so often seen circling
over the dwarf oak trees in English country
lanes.
32. DISMORPHIA FORTUNATA (Luc).
I have notes of this rare little butterfly only




NOTES ON THE BUTTERFLIES


from Punta Gorda in the south. It resembles
in a remarkable degree some of the species of
transparent-winged Ithomids, and perhaps for
this reason its true identity has not been more
frequently established.








CHAPTER III


FAMILY DANAIDIE
SUB-FAMILY Danaidae
Genus :
I. DANAIS BERENICE (Cram).
An extremely common butterfly frequenting
open sunny meadowlands where its food plant-
a milk weed with red flowers-grows abundantly.
It is a sun lover and may be met with in the
hottest sunshine flying around its food plant and
settling on the flowers.
It flies in company with D. cleothera (Godart)
and is met with all the year round and throughout
the Colony.
I have noticed great variation in the expanse of
the wings in this species, and although the females
are usually larger than the males, yet some of them
are smaller, while some of the males are veritable
dwarfs.
The larvae is commonly found on milk weed.

2. DANAIS STRIGOSA (Bates).
This is a sub-species of D. berenice, is found in
the same localities, and is equally common.
49




NOTES ON THE BUTTERFLIES


3. DANAIS CLEOTHERA (Godart).
This is a much less common insect than the two
preceding ones. It is always found in company
with them and it is quite impossible to distinguish
between them when they are on the wing. The
only way to do this is to capture them and then a
glance at the under surface of the wings is sufficient
for identification.
The insect is confined apparently to certain
localities, but where it does occur it is not
uncommon.
Although the larva of D. berenice is well known
to me I have never yet succeeded in finding that
of D. cleothera though I imagine the food plant
is the same for both insects.
As I have previously remarked the expanse of
the wings in D. berenice is very variable, but I
have not observed this peculiarity in D. cleothera.
I have taken this insect in the Northern, Western
and the Belize Districts in the month of May.
4. DANAIS ARCHIPPUS (Fabr).
Common everywhere and nearly all the year
round, but more abundant in the cooler months.
It is found in company with the other species of
Danais, but is a very much larger butterfly than
any of them.
Its flight is heavy and it loves to settle on the
red flowers of the milk weed in open sunny




OF BRITISH HONDURAS


meadows. I have raised the perfect insect from
the larva,
SUB-FAMILY Lycoreine
5. LYCOREA ATERGATIS (Doub).
The localities in which this insect is found are
the Southern and Western Districts, and here it is
met with abundantly.
In the two northern districts I have never seen
a single example, and I believe that it is entirely
absent therefrom.
I once found the larve feeding on papaw trees-
two or three on a tree.
The butterfly has a heavy flight and is fond of
settling on flowers in company with Melinca
imitata (Bates) which it very closely resembles.
It is found chiefly at the edges of the forests or in
open forest glades.

SUB-FAMILY Ithomiinea
6. HIRSUTIS HIPPOTHOUS (G. and S.).
A very handsome butterfly only seen in the
south at San Pedro Sarstoon and also in the
Western District. It is rather a scarce insect.
7. MELINLEA IMITATA (Bates).
This butterfly, which is one of several marked
with the Lycorea pattern, that is the markings
and colour of Lycorea atergatis, is entirely absent
51




NOTES ON THE BUTTERFLIES


from the two northern districts, whereas in the
Southern and Western Districts it is quite a
common insect. It loves to settle on flowers
usually in company with L. atergatis. These three
butterflies, L. atergatis, M. imitata and Heliconius
telchinia (Doub) all have the Lycorea pattern and
closely resemble each other in size, colour and
general appearance. They are found in the same
localities and at the same season of the year and
often in company together, but while L. atergatis
and M. imitata are busily occupied with flowers,
H. telchinia flies rapidly along the forest tracks
and roads and seldom is tempted to settle.
Very curious and interesting, too, is the fact
that there is a day-flying moth-a Pericopis-
which also has the Lycorea pattern. It has
almost the same expanse of wing as the three
butterflies I have been describing and, moreover,
it flies at the same season of the year, in the same
localities, and often in company with them.
It is, however, a rare insect, and I have very
seldom captured it.
It has the curious habit when handled of ejecting
a quantity of a bright yellow, very frothy, liquid
having a rank pungent odour which appears to be
secreted by some glands in the thorax, and at the
same time the insect feigns death. There can be
no doubt that this is a means of defence-a
protection-against its enemies.




OF BRITISH HONDURAS


8. MECHANITIS DORYSSUS (Bates).
I have found this insect at San Pedro Sarstoon,
where it is fairly abundant. It is altogether
absent from the northern districts.
9. MECHANITIS UTENAIA (Reak).
This is a variety of the preceding, and I have
taken it plentifully in the woods around the Cayo
in the west.
10. MECHANITIS LYCIDICE (Bates).
A common forest butterfly in the Western
District. It flies with fluttering and slow move-
ments keeping close to the undergrowth. Numbers
of them are often seen together.
I have never seen any of this genus of Mechanitis
in the northern districts.
II. CERATINIA DION(EA (Hew).
I have met with this butterfly in the Southern
and Western and also in the Stann Creek Districts,
but I have never seen it in the north of the Colony.
It is very local and is never found outside the
forest belt. Here it is observed only in certain
circumscribed areas, but where a single specimen
is found others also will be seen. It has a feeble
fluttering flight and is easily captured.
Its resemblance to a Mechanitis is very strong,
but the row of yellow spots along the margin of
the wings at once distinguishes it.




NOTES ON THE BUTTERFLIES


12. CERATINIA FENESTELLA (Hew).
Found at the Cayo. A delicate little insect
with a slow fluttering flight always keeping close
to the herbage. In woodlands only. It does not
occur in the northern districts. It is rather an
uncommon insect.
13. NAPEOGENES TOLOSA (Hew).
This is another butterfly which is extremely
local in its range. The only place that I have
ever captured or seen it is the Cayo, and only in
one very small area in that district. This was
along a pathway which ran by the side of the river
close to the town of the Cayo. For a distance of
about fifty yards along this pathway these insects
were found in companies of five or six. I have
searched the Cayo District pretty well and never
saw this butterfly anywhere else except in this
one very small area.
It is a shade lover and its flight is weak.
It is fond of resting on the leaves of small
bushes. In appearance it very much resembles
a Mechanitis.
14. DIRCENNA KLUGII (Hub).
As far as this Colony is concerned I have only
taken this insect sparingly at the Cayo. I have
not come across it anywhere else. In Guatemala
it is exceedingly common.




OF BRITISH HONDURAS


15. DIRCENNA EUCHYTMA (Feld).
Only found in the Western District and not very
commonly.
16. ITHOMIA PATILLA (Hew).
One of the transparent-winged Ithomids. It
is fairly common at San Pedro Sarstoon in the
south and also in the Western District.
17. HYPOSCADA VIRGINIANA (Hew).
Only taken at San Pedro Sarstoon in the dense
forest. It must be classed as a rare insect.
18. LEUCOTHYRIS PAULA (Weym).
Another of the transparent-winged butterflies.
I have never seen this insect anywhere except in
the dense forests of San Pedro Sarstoon and Punta
Gorda in the south.
19. LEUCOTHYRIS VICTORINA (Guer).
Only found in the dense forests in the Western
District.
20. PTERONYMIA ARTENA (Hew).
This is another of the butterflies with transparent
wings. It occurs in the woods in the Cayo District
and is not common.
21. PTERONYMIA COTYTTO (Guer).
This is rather a common species and is found in
55




NOTES ON THE BUTTERFLIES


most of the forests in the south and west of the
Colony.
22. AERIA PACIFICA (G. and S.).
This little yellow-and-black butterfly is always
found fluttering close to the herbage in the thick
forest regions. Its flight is very weak and slow.
Both in general appearance and in flight it
resembles the much larger Heliconius charithonia
(Linn).
I have captured it in the Western District and
also at San Pedro in the south, but it appears to
be absent from the northern districts.

23. HYPOLERIA CASSOTIS (Bates).
One of the transparent-winged Ithomids. I
have only seen it in the south of the Colony at
Punta Gorda and at San Pedro.
24. DISMENITIS ZYGIA, (G. and S.).
This handsome insect I have only taken occa-
sionally in the woods of the Cayo District.
25. HYMENITIS OT6 (Hew).
This is one of the Ithomids, possessing clear and
transparent wings like glass.
There are a great number of varieties of these
interesting butterflies. They are never found
anywhere else except in thickly-wooded country,
and as they flutter silently and slowly over the




OF BRITISH HONDURAS
undergrowth in the gloom of the tropical forest
it requires an effort of the eyes to follow their
movements. They give one the impression of
being the ghosts of butterflies.
As a rule they are generally distributed in the
Colony with the single exception of the northern
districts where they are very seldom observed.
This particular insect I have taken rather
commonly in the Western District and also at
Punta Gorda and San Pedro in the south.









CHAPTER IV


FAMILY SATYRIDZE
Genus:
I. PIERELLA HERACLES (Bois).
When this insect flies it is only for a short
distance and then it drops to the ground where,
among dead leaves and herbage, it becomes
invisible. I have taken it only occasionally in
the Western District and also at San Pedro
Sarstoon and Punta Gorda in the south. It
is never found elsewhere than in the dense
forest.
2. TAYGETIS ANDROMEDA (Cram).
This insect I have captured in the Western
District.
Like other members of this genus it only appears
on the wing about sundown, but it may be dis-
turbed from its resting place in the daytime when
forcing one's way through the bushes.
3. TAYGETIS KERIA (Butl).
This is a small member of the genus. I
have found it rather commonly in the Western
District.




OF BRITISH HONDURAS


4. TAYGETIS MERMERIA (Cram).
One of the largest members of this genus, also
found in the dense forests of the west.
5. TAYGETIS ZIMRI (Butl).
I think that this must be classed as a rare
insect as I have only found it at San Pedro in the
south.
6. EUPTYCHIA HESIONE (Sulz).
Taken in the extreme south of the Colony at
San Pedro and in the Western District.
7. EUPTYCHIA CAMERA (Cram).
Occurs in the same localities as the preceding.
8. EUPTYCHIA METALEUCA (Bois).
This little butterfly I have only taken in the
west.
9. EUPTYCHIA LIBYE (Linn).
Rather a larger insect than most of this genus.
I have found it in the south and west of the
Colony.
10. EUPTYCHIA PIERIA (Butl).
Also found in the west and south of the
Colony.
Ii. EUPTYCHIA DISAFFECTA (Butl).
This is rather a large insect for a member of
59




NOTES ON THE BUTTERFLIES
this genus. I have found it only in the Western
District.
12. EUPTYCHIA LABE (Buti).
Taken in the neighbourhood of the Cayo in the
west and Punta Gorda in the south.
13. EUPTYCHIA WESTWOODI (Butl).
Only found in the Western District.
14. EUPTYCHIA CEPHUS (Fabr).
Found by me only in the Western District, and
not common.
15. EUPTYCHIA HERMES (Fabr).
This is an insignificant looking little butterfly
common throughout the Colony.

All these Euptychias are shade lovers and avoid
the hot sunshine. They are found in wooded
country flying low and with jerky movements of
their wings after the manner of the English
Meadow Brown, to which family they are related.








CHAPTER V


FAMILY BRASSOLID]E
Genus :
i. DYNASTOR STRIX (Bates).
This very large and imposing butterfly I have
only seen and captured in the Cayo District. It
is an exceedingly scarce insect. I have never seen
more than two or three of them.
2. DYNASTOR DARIUS (Fabr).
The remarks which I have made concerning
D. strix apply with equal force to this insect. I
have only taken one or two specimens, and they
were obtained in the Cayo District.
3. OPSIPHANES FABRICII (Bois).
This is the most common member of the genus.
It is found abundantly throughout the Colony.
The female invades the open verandas of houses
where small palms are placed in pots for orna-
mental purposes. On these plants she deposits
her eggs. The larva rolls the leaf together and
keeps it closed by means of silken threads thus
providing a shelter, and here it pupates.
A peculiarity of this butterfly and others of the




NOTES ON THE BUTTERFLIES
same family is that they are most frequently
observed on the wing between sundown and dark.
During the hot hours of the day they are seldom
seen.
The insect is attracted by sap which exudes
from the trunks of certain forest trees, and crowds
of them may sometimes be seen settled on the
trunks of these trees.
I have repeatedly noticed that this insect when
killed by a nip on the thorax emits a very fragrant
odour exactly resembling that of vanilla.
Its flight is rapid, alternately flapping and sailing
after the manner of the European Vanessce.
4. OPSIPHANES TAMARINDI (Feld).
I have only met with this butterfly in the
Western District where it is not at all uncommon.
I have repeatedly found the larvae on banana
plants always keeping very close to the central
stem on the under surface of the gigantic leaves.
It flies in company with the preceding, but is a
larger and more powerful insect.
5. OPSIPHANES BOISDUVALII (Westw).
This insect I have recorded only from Punta
Gorda where it is found sparingly.
6. OPSIPHANES QUIRINUS (G. and S.).
I have notes of this insect only from the Western
District where it is very scarce.
62




OF BRITISH HONDURAS


7. ERYPHANIS AESACUS (H. Schaff).
This beautiful butterfly only appears on the
wing at sundown and continues to fly until dark-
ness has set in. It flits along the sides of country
roads bordered by high forest trees. Now and
again it settles on the leaves of the wayside bushes
with its wings closed together and exhibiting the
large eye-like spot on the under side. The insect
is very shy and difficult to approach. I have met
with it in the Western and also in the Northern
Districts.
It haunts certain localities only, but is fairly
abundant where it occurs. It is on the wing in
May and September.
8. CALIGO MEMNON (Feld).
This butterfly is met with commonly in open
glades and clearings in forest land in all the
districts of the Colony.
Its habits are similar to those of the rest of the
family for it only appears on the wing after sun-
down. It is fond of flying around and around
in a limited space, and finally resting on the
trunks of trees close to the ground, in which
position it is exceedingly difficult to capture.
I have bred this insect from larvee found feeding
on banana in the month of December. and I
published a description of it in the Transactions
of the Entomological Society of London.




NOTES ON THE BUTTERFLIES


The larva is a night feeder and hides by day.
The butterfly has a heavy flapping flight and
frequently wanders into towns and villages in the
evenings, and often enters houses through doors
and windows.
9. CALIGO URANUS (H. Schaff).
A large handsome butterfly found only in the
dense forest lands. Like others of its family it
commences to fly about open glades at sundown.
It is rarely seen, but I have taken it both at
Corozal in the north and the Cayo in the west.
10. CALIGO SCAMANDER (Bois).
Only one specimen ever taken by me, and that
was at San Pedro Sarstoon in the extreme south.
II. CALIGO PROMETHEUS (Koll).
One specimen only, at the Cayo in the west.







CHAPTER VI ,


FAMILY MORPHIDAE
Genus :
I. MORPHO PELEIDES (Koll).
This large and magnificent butterfly may be said
to be generally common through the Colony. Its
flight is heavy and flapping, and it is found only
in the vicinity of thick forests. It emerges from
these to fly up and down forest roads and tracks
but very quickly returns again into the impene-
trable jungle.
It is a difficult matter to procure a perfect
specimen as the wings are almost always damaged.
I suspect the cause of this to be contact with the
dense tropical vegetation through which the insect
makes its way. It always flies low, keeping fairly
close to the ground. I have taken it in November,
but it occurs also earlier in the year and is probably
double brooded.
Although the butterfly is so plentiful I have
never succeeded in finding the larva.
2. MORPHO JUsTITiM (G. and S.).
I have only one specimen of this butterfly which
is recorded from the Cayo.





NOTES ON THE BUTTERFLIES


3. MORPHO HYACINTHUS (Buti).
This insect is recorded from the Cayo District,
but it is rather scarce.
4. MORPHO POLYPHEMUS (Doub).
A beautiful butterfly which I have only observed
in the west, but there it is not uncommon.
Specimens are, however, very hard to procure
for the reason that the insect is always seen flying
around the tops of the high forest trees and hardly
ever descends low enough to be taken with the
net.
For this reason I was unable to secure any
specimens-though I have waited for hours-
except one which I picked up dead on the ground
under one of the trees.







CHAPTER VII


FAMILY NYMPHALIDAE
SUB-FAMILY Acrsina
Genus :
I. ACTINOTE GUATEMALENA (Bates).
A woodland butterfly which floats around the
tops of high bushes in the jungle. I have taken it
in the Western District and also at San Pedro
Sarstoon, but it appears to be altogether absent
from the north. It is far from being a common
insect.

SUB-FAMILY Heliconiine
2. HELICONIUS PETIVERANA (Doub).
This and Heliconius charithonia (Linn) are the
two common members of this group. They afe
both very abundant in forest land through the
Colony. The flight is feeble, slow and fluttering,
and the insect is easily captured. It appears only
rarely to rest, but continues hovering fluttering
and slowly moving around low-growing plants and
bushes.
The beautiful red colour of the insect when




NOTES ON THE BUTTERFLIES


freshly captured is not maintained, but soon fades
and after some months it becomes a dull pink.
I do not know what means, if any, can be taken
to prevent it.
Another peculiarity I have noticed, and that
is that this insect varies very much in size. I
have captured specimens with an expanse of wing
of over two inches, and others which appear to
be dwarfs with barely one inch expanse. It is
not seasonal variation this, for I have taken the
large and the small forms at the same time and
in the same localities. The insect is slender and
delicate.
3. HELICONIUS CHARITHONIA (Linn).
This also is an extremely common insect met
with throughout the Colony, and as with H.
petiverana so in this species, dwarf specimens fly
along with others of normal size. The flight is
similar to that of H. petiverana and its habits are
also the same. It flies low and hovers around
bushes, rarely coming to rest.
The female of Pieris viardi (Bois) resembles
this Heliconid rather closely when on the wing,
but the Pierid has a fairly rapid and direct flight
which distinguishes it from the slow and hovering
movements of the Heliconid.
4. HELICONIUS TELCHINIA (Doub).
This butterfly is quite abundant in the south




OF BRITISH HONDURAS
of the Colony and also in the Western District,
but is extremely rare in the north. During a
period of six years I spent in the northern districts
I have only taken one solitary example, and that
was in the Corozal District. Moreover, the speci-
men was poor in colour and stunted in growth,
and very different to the large bright specimens
from the south.
It is a woodland species and its flight is rapid
and strong, quite unlike the slow hovering move-
ments of its relatives, H. petiverana and H.
charithonia.
It has the Lycorea pattern, and is confusingly
like the Danaids, Lycorea atergatis (Doub) and
Melincea imitata (Bates), and when, as often
happens, all three butterflies are flying together,
it is well-nigh impossible to differentiate between
them.

5. HELICONIUS CLARA (Fabr).
This is a rare insect and I only have a record of
it from the Western District.

6. HELICONIUS LEUCE (Doub).
In the south of the Colony this may be said to
be a common butterfly. I believe its northern
limit to be the Toledo District in the south of the
Colony.
I have never seen a single specimen in either the




NOTES ON THE BUTTERFLIES


Northern or the Western Districts, or in the Belize
District.
Around Punta Gorda it is quite plentiful, and
so it is in the woods close to Puerto Barrios a few
miles further south in Guatemala. It is a forest
shade lover.
7. HELICONIUS GALANTHUS (Bates).
This butterfly flies in company with H. leuce
and cannot be distinguished from it when on the
wing. The resemblance between the two insects
is very close as regards the upper surface of the
wings, but a glance at the under surface is sufficient
for identification.
This is rather a scarce insect. Like H. leuce I
have never met with it except in the southern
Toledo District.
All these black-and-white Heliconids are shade
and forest lovers. They fly very gracefully with
a sailing flight around low plants and bushes, but
rarely come to rest anywhere.
8. HELICONIUS CHIONEUS (Bates).
One solitary specimen was taken at Punta
Gorda and came into my possession. This is the
only record so far as I know of this butterfly in
the Colony.
Its close resemblance to H. leuce and H. galan-
thus induced me to net all the black-and-white
Heliconids that I met with on my expeditions in




OF BRITISH HONDURAS


the hope of obtaining another specimen, but I did
not succeed in this. The insect is a great rarity.

9. HELICONIUS DORIS TRANSIENTS (Stgr).
A charming insect which I have captured south
of Belize, but have never seen in the northern
districts.
It is fairly common in the Toledo District and
as far as Belize. It is fond of flying rather high
in the air, floating with outstretched wings and
almost stationary in the still forest atmosphere.
As far as this Colony is concerned the coloured
rays on the under-wings are always scarlet, but
I believe that in countries south of the Colony the
colour of the rays is altered to a bluish green.
This variety is known as H. viridis, and is the
common form there, the variety with red rays
being scarce or entirely absent. In the Colony,
on the other hand, the variety with red rays is
the only one found, but I have noticed that in
some of the specimens there is a bluish margin
to the red rays, more clearly defined in some
examples than in others.
I have only taken the insect with green rays
once and that was close to Puerto Barrios in
Guatemala only a few miles south of the Colony
on the Atlantic Coast. Only one specimen was
seen and this was flying in company with the red
ones.




NOTES ON THE BUTTERFLIES


It appears to be quite certain that the insect
with the red rays is only found in the northern
limits of its range while those with green or bluish
green are met with further south.
10. EUIDES ALIPHERA (Godart).
This insect is found in open forest glades and
in woodland paths. It has a graceful sailing flight.
I have taken it in all the districts of the Colony
and it is fairly common.
It is fond of visiting flowers.
II. EUIDES CLEOBEA (Hub).
A much rarer species than the preceding. I
have only seen it in the Toledo District.
12. EUIDES VIBILIA (Godart).
I found this butterfly not uncommon in the
west and south of the Colony, but I did not come
across it in either of the two northern districts.
13. EUIDES ZORCAON (Reak).
A larger insect than either of the three preceding,
and the colours are very much duller.
It is found in the woods, and I have taken it in
the Western and the Northern Districts, where it
is fairly abundant.
14. METAMORPHA or METAMANDANA DIDO (Linn).
Although not exceedingly common this butterfly
is well represented throughout the Colony. It is




OF BRITISH HONDURAS


always found in forest lands and is a large hand-
some insect with rather a weak flight.
15. COLAENIS JULIA (Fabr).
A common butterfly. It is found throughout
the Colony dashing along at a rapid rate through
the hottest sunshine, and it is fond of visiting
flowers.
16. COLAENIS DELILA (Fabr).
This is a sub-species of the preceding, and it is
also equally common.
17. COLAENIS PHAERUSA (Linn).
A handsome insect with its fiery red-and-black
banded wings. It is a local species occurring
abundantly in some places and altogether absent
in others, but where found it is abundant.
Its distribution is general in the Colony and it
haunts open country, especially swampy land
covered with high grass. It flies low but with a
strong and rapid flight. It is on the wing in May
and January.
18. DIONE VANILLa (Linn).
A very beautiful insect with its silver spots on
the under-side of the wings, after the fashion
of some of the English Fritillaries. It is very
common everywhere in the Colony and is attracted
by flowers, especially by zinnias.




NOTES ON THE BUTTERFLIES
I have found the larvae and bred the perfect
insect, which appears in June. It must be double
brooded for I have also taken the butterfly in
December.

19. DIONE JUNO (Cram).
This is a much less common insect than the
preceding. I have not observed it in the north,
but in the south and west it is not uncommon.
It is not so handsome as D. vanilla, the colour
of the upper surface of the wings is not nearly
so bright, and the insect is also smaller.
D. moneta (Hub), which is much more lavishly
supplied and adorned with silver spots than either
of the preceding, does not appear to inhabit the
Colony, but I have received it from Guatemala.


SUB-FAMILY Nymphalinse
20. EUPTOIETA HEGESIA (Cram).
A fairly common insect, but I have noticed that
it appears much more abundantly in some years
than in others.
It is found in open glades and clearings in
woods and also in grassy meadows, and it is a
sun lover.
I have bred the butterfly from the larva. It is
found through the Colony and appears in June
and September.




OF BRITISH HONDURAS


21. PHYCIODES CLARA (Bates).
I only have records of this insect from the
extreme south of the Colony at San Pedro Sarstoon.
22. PHYCIODES THEONA (Men).
This little butterfly, like a small Fritillary, is
commonly found in open grasslands and meadows
throughout the Colony.
23. PHYCIODES PTOLICA (Bates).
I have only taken this species in the Western
District.
24. PHYCIODES FRAGILIS (Bates).
Only recorded from Punta Gorda in the south.
25. PHYCIODES TULCIS (Bates).
Taken in the extreme south of the Colony at San
Pedro Sarstoon.
26. PHYCIODES MYIA (Hew).
I have records of this insect from the neighbour-
hood of Punta Gorda.
27. CHLOSYNE GAUDIALIS (Bates).
This butterfly I have found in the Western
District at the Cayo, and in the Southern at Punta
Gorda.
28. CHLOSYNE LACINIA (Hub).
Only a few specimens taken in the Western
District.




NOTES ON THE BUTTERFLIES

29. CHLOSYNE JANAIS (Druce).
Taken in fair numbers in the Western District.
30. CHLOSYNE ERODYLE (Bates).
I have captured this insect in the west and the
south of the Colony.
31. CHLOSYNE HYPERIA (Fabr).
This butterfly I have only found in the neigh-
bourhood of Benque Viejo in the Western District.
So far as I know this is the only locality in the
Colony.
I have never seen any of this family of Chlosyne
in the north of the Colony, and I do not believe
they are to be found there.
The butterflies are fond of rather open country,
and love to visit flowers.
32. PYRAMEIS CARDUI (Linn).
Either this or one of its sub-species. This
butterfly, which also occurs during the autumn
months in England and is known there as the
" Painted Lady," I first encountered in the
Northern District when a single specimen flew into
my room at night attracted by the lamplight.
I had never previously suspected the presence of
this insect in the Colony.
The butterfly is not by any means common and
is only met with during the cooler months of the
year, from October to December.




OF BRITISH HONDURAS


I have never seen it anywhere else except in
gardens at Corozal, where it may be found resting
on flowers and especially on zinnias, for which it
appears to have a great predilection.
I believe this butterfly does not occur in the
south or west of the Colony.
33. HYPANARTIA LETHE (Fabr).
I have only taken this insect sparingly in the
Western District usually settled on moist sand
or mud. It is a very active creature and remark-
ably quick on the wing.
34. PRECIS or JUNONIA GENOVEVA (Cram).

35. PRECIS or JUNONIA CCENIA (Hub).
These are both forms of Precis lavinia (Cram).
They are commonly met with in open dry country.
In the so-called pine ridges, which are sandy
wastes covered with a short species of grass and
dotted here and there with pine trees, they are
particularly common. In one of these pine ridges
I found many of the larvae feeding on a certain
species of grass.
The insects are quick on the wing, alternately
flapping and sailing after the manner of the
Vanessac. When they settle, which they fre-
quently do, it is always on the ground or on low
herbage, with their wings fully expanded.
They seem to occur pretty well through the
77




NOTES ON THE BUTTERFLIES
Colony and during most months of the year,
though most abundantly in January.
36. ANARTIA JATROPHL (Linn).
This is one of the commonest of all the butter-
flies and in this respect ranks with Pieris
monuste.
It occurs all the year round in towns and
villages, even in the streets and also in open
sunny clearings.
I have found the larvae on low-growing plants.
There is a good deal of variation in the colours
of this insect-some examples being much more
brightly coloured than others.
37. ANARTIA FATIMA (Fabr).
A common butterfly met with in sunny country
lanes. Like the preceding insect it delights to
bask in the sunshine.
I have found it very variable in colour. In
some specimens the bars on the wings are bone
yellow, in others almost white. I have never
seen the larva though I have often looked for it.
The butterfly is exceedingly common and is found
all the year round.
38. VICTORINA or AMPHIRINE STENELES (Linn).
This is a large and imposing butterfly not at all
uncommon in woodland paths. I have taken it
in all the districts.




OF BRITISH HONDURAS


39. VICTORINA or AMPHIRINE EPAPHUS (Lat).
About the same size as the preceding, and met
with in the same localities, but far less common.
I have only seen it in the Western District in the
vicinity of the Cayo.
40. DIDONIS AGANISA (Bois).
This pretty little insect occurs, but not
commonly, throughout the Colony.
It is a rapid and strong flier, and is fond of
resting with wings outstretched on the leaves of
bushes in forest roads.
It is a very shy and difficult insect to approach.
It has a superficial resemblance to a red-and-black
Papilio but is considerably smaller.
41. CYSTINEURA AMYMONE (Men).
A delicate little insect which appears in
November fluttering slowly close to the herbage
in forest tracks and open clearings.
It is rather local, but I have taken it in the
Corozal District and also in the Western District
quite commonly.
42. MEGALURA CHIRON (Fabr).
This insect, which has long tail-like appendages
to its under-wings, might be mistaken by the
novice for one of the Papilio family. The butter-
fly is very common and found everywhere in the
Colony, even invading towns. It loves to settle




NOTES ON THE BUTTERFLIES
on wet sand or mud. At certain times I have
seen- these insects in such large numbers as to
constitute what is known as a cloud."

43. MEGALURA PELEUS (Sulz).
Found in the Orange Walk District in the north
and also in the Western District. Like the pre-
ceding insect it has a great predilection for wet
mud. It is found not uncommonly in country
roads.
44. HISTORIC or AGANISTHOS ODIUS (Fabr).
This strong and powerful insect is met with
quite commonly in the Colony. Its flight is very
rapid and the only chance of capturing it is to wait
until it comes to rest.
It is easily attracted by bait such as over-ripe
bananas, and it also comes in numbers to the sap
which exudes from the trunks of certain trees.
I have seen swarms of these butterflies flying
around guava trees which were loaded with fruit,
and settling on the latter when over ripe.
The larva I have never seen, but I once found
the pupa slung up beneath the gutter of a cottage
in the forest.
45. COEA ACHERONTA (Fabr).
A strong and powerful butterfly. It appears
in the cool season of the year. I have seen it
plentifully flying around orange trees at the Cayo




OF BRITISH HONDURAS


in the month of December and settling on the
flowers. It occurs generally through the Colony,
but more commonly in the south and west. I
once saw it in such numbers as to be termed a
" cloud." That was in the Toledo District.

46. SMYRNA BLOMFILDIA (Fabr).
I have never met with this butterfly outside the
Cayo District, and it is not common there.

47. GYNECIA DIRCE (Linn).
This is not a common insect although it is
generally distributed.
It has the curious habit of coming to rest on the
trunks of trees with its head always directed
downwards to the ground. It is a woodland
species and moves rapidly on the wing.
I have collected it sparingly in all the districts
except the Belize District, but it is very shy
and difficult to approach near enough to
capture.
48. PYRRHOGYRA HYPSENOR (G. and S.).
This insect I have met with in the Western
District but not commonly.
49. PYRRHOGYRA OTOLAIS (Bates).
This occurs in the south at Punta Gorda and
at San Pedro on the Sarstoon River, and I have
also taken it in the Cayo.
81




NOTES ON THE BUTTERFLIES


50. PYRRHOGYRA CRAMERI (Auriv).
This butterfly I have only seen in the Western
District.
Either this or the preceding insect flies in the
forest around Corozal, but I have not identified it.
The butterflies of this genus are generally
distributed, but certainly not common. They
have a slow and graceful sailing flight and are
always found in forest roads and glades.
51. PSEUDONICA FLAVILLA (Hub).
The Cayo District is the only record I have for
this insect.
52. TEMENIS ARIADNE (Cram).
This is a common insect in the Western District.
53. CATONEPHELE ESITE (Feld).
A very beautiful butterfly which I have taken
in the valley of the upper reaches of the Belize
River. It is decidedly a rare insect. Curiously
enough I once observed a wandering specimen in
my garden in Belize.
54. CATONEPHELE NYCTIMUS (Westw).
I have taken this insect in the Corozal and also
in the Cayo Districts. It is found only in the
forest, and is not uncommon, but rather local.
55. NESSEA REGINA (Salvin).
This lovely butterfly is only occasionally seen,




OF BRITISH HONDURAS


and only in very restricted areas. It is a shade
lover and its flight is rapid. It is fond of
settling on the leaves of low-growing bushes
with its wings spread out to show its beautiful
colours.
I have taken it on rare occasions in the Western
District. In the Corozal and Belize Districts it
is replaced by the following.
56. NESSEA AGLAURA (D. and H.).
This insect occurs sparingly in forest roads and
glades.
It flies rapidly, and is fond of settling on the
leaves of low bushes with the wings fully
expanded.
It is exceedingly local and only occurs in certain
circumscribed areas. For instance, in the District
of Corozal I know of only one road and only one
small section of this road where this beautiful
insect is to be met with.
I have taken it sparingly in the Corozal and
the Belize Districts.
57. MYSCELIA CYANIRIS (Doub).
Taken, but only at rare intervals, in the Western
District.
58. EUNICA MONIMA (Cram).
This insect is found only occasionally in the Cayo
District. It is a woodland species.




NOTES ON THE BUTTERFLIES


59. EUNICA COERULEA (G. and S.).
Taken in the Western District in open forest
glades.
Its flight is sailing, the wings being fully ex-
panded. The insect is far from common.

60. EUNICA MODEST (Bates).
Although this is a very uncommon butterfly in
the Colony yet I have twice seen it appear as a
" cloud "-once at Orange Walk and again at
Corozal-in the month of May.
The appearance at Orange Walk was during the
afternoon, but the Corozal invasion commenced
about an hour after dark, the insects flying into
the houses in the town in thousands evidently
attracted by the lights in the rooms.
I believe the home of this insect to be Mexico.
It certainly is not in the Colony for I have seldom
met with it except on these two occasions.

61. EUNICA ALCMENA (Doub and Hew).
A very lovely butterfly which appears in some
years in fair numbers and in others it is rarely
seen. It is never common. It flies rapidly,
alternately flapping and expanding its wings and
keeping rather close to the ground.
I have never seen it at flowers, but wet sand
or mud has most attraction for it. It is found
in open sunny meadows, and I have met with it




OF BRITISH HONDURAS


most often in the Corozal District, but it occurs
through the Colony in the month of August.
At the village of Manatee in the Belize District
I observed that the house martins fed their young
on this butterfly for I often found the wings, but
curiously only the wings of the female insect, in
the vicinity of their nests.
62. CATAGRAMMA PATELINA (Hew).
Another beautiful butterfly, but an exceedingly
rare one. I have only seen one specimen, which
I was lucky enough to capture, and that was in
the Western District a few miles from the Cayo.
I have frequently been asked by collectors to
supply them with examples of this insect, but I
have never succeeded in ever seeing another
specimen. It is possible that in Guatemala,
further south, it may be more plentiful.
63. CATAGRAMMA TITANIA (Salvin).
I have rarely taken this insect in the Cayo
District, but I have neither taken or seen it
elsewhere.
64. CATAGRAMMA LYCA (D. and H.).
Only one specimen was taken by me, at Castille
on the Belize River.
65. CATAGRAMMA PERISTERA (Hew).
Taken very sparingly near the Cayo in the
Western District.




NOTES ON THE BUTTERFLIES


I have not seen any member of the Catagramma
family in the northern districts, and I doubt very
much if they ever occur there. They are all
woodland butterflies and love to fly in roads
dappled with sun and shadow. They have a
graceful sailing flight.
66. CALLICORE ASTALA (Guer).
I have taken this insect sparingly in the Western
District. In Guatemala, on the Atlantic and
Pacific sides, it is exceedingly common.
67. DYNAMINE MYLITTA (Cram).
Taken in the west, flying around hedges
bordering roads. It loves to bask in the hot
sunshine.
68. ADELPHA CYTHERIA (Linn).
This is the commonest member of the Adelpha
family, and is frequently seen in sunny country
roads visiting flowers or resting on leaves of bushes
by the roadside.
I have not observed this butterfly in the
north although in the south and west it is quite
common.
69. ADELPHA IPHICLA (Linn).
This insect I have only taken in the Western
District. In common with other members of
its class it frequents shady roads and forest
glades.




OF BRITISH HONDURAS


70. ADELPHA CELERIO (Bates).
Only recorded from the Western District. As
its name implies, it is very rapid on the wing.
71. ADELPHA SALMONEUS (Butl).
Only a few specimens taken in the Western
District.
72. ADELPHA LERNA (Hew).
Only taken in the Western District, where it is
uncommon.
73. ADELPHA FALCATA (G. and S.).
The Western District is the only locality that
I have recorded for this species.
74. ADELPHA BASILOIDES (Bates).
This butterfly also I have only taken in the west.
The flight of all these Adelphas is very graceful,
alternately flapping and then soaring with ex-
panded wings, after the manner of the English
" Red Admiral butterfly.
They are a very interesting group of butterflies,
and it will be noticed that they are particularly
at home in the Western District.
It may possibly be because I have done more
collecting there than in any of the other districts,
but notwithstanding this I have noted the entire
absence of this class of butterfly in the two
northern districts.




NOTES ON THE BUTTERFLIES


75. AGERONIA or PERIDROMIA ARETHUSA (Cram).
Quite a rare insect. I have only taken one
specimen in the west.
76. AGERONIA or PERIDROMIA GUATEMALENA
(Bates).
This is a common insect widely distributed
through the Colony. It has an alternately flapping
and sailing flight, and when on the wing has the
curious habit of making a distinct crackling noise
with its wings. It almost always comes to rest
on the trunks of trees or on posts with its wings
fully spread out and in contact with the object it
is resting on. In this position it often escapes
observation as the colours on its wings harmonise
very perfectly with the surroundings.
77. AGERONIA or PERIDROMIA FERENTINA (Godart).
I only know this butterfly from the Cayo
District.
78. CHLORIPPE LAURE (Druce).
This beautiful insect belongs to the group of
"reflecting butterflies. In general appearance
the upper surface strongly resembles a yellow-and-
white banded Adelpha, that is, if it is viewed
directly from above, but if looked at from an angle
the whole surface of the wings becomes instantly
suffused with the most intense and brilliant violet.
It is a delightful insect, but unfortunately




OF BRITISH HONDURAS


seldom seen. The only specimen I ever took was
in June, close to the town of Corozal. Its flight
is exactly like that of an Adelpha.
79. PREPONA DEMOPHON (Linn).
I have notes of this insect from Punta Gorda
in the south.
80. PREPONA ANTIMACHE (Hub).
Only recorded from the Western District.
All the Preponas are very powerful butterflies
of rather large size and very rapid flight. They
are found in the woodlands, fly with an alternately
flapping and sailing movement, and are fond of
coming to rest on the trunks of forest trees.
They are also attracted by the sap which exudes
from certain of these trees, and then they may be
seen with wings closed together and so busily
engaged in feeding that it is possible to take them
with finger and thumb.
The butterflies are generally distributed, though
not common anywhere, and I have also seen a few
specimens in the north.
81. SIDERONE IDE (Hub).
I have met with this handsome insect in the
Western District and also at Orange Walk in the
north, and San Pedro Sarstoon in the south, but
it is decidedly rare.
It flies very quickly, keeping rather close to the
ground.




NOTES ON THE BUTTERFLIES


82. SIDERONE THEBAIS (Feld).
One specimen only, a female, was taken in
splendid condition in a country road close to
Belize. Flying with extreme rapidity it came to
rest on the underside of a leaf in the hedgerow,
when I captured it.
83. PROTOGONIUS CECROPS (Doub).
This curious and pretty butterfly I found not
uncommonly in a coffee plantation near the Cayo.
When chased by the collector this insect some-
times drops to the ground and feigns death.
I have also seen it occasionally in the neighbour-
hood of Corozal. It is fond of open spaces in the
vicinity of forests.
84. AN&EA ELECTRA (Westw).
This insect I have met with in the Western
District and at Orange Walk. It is very uncom-
mon and I only captured a few examples. It is
found in open country and especially on land
covered with the bracken fern which grows
abundantly in these two districts.
85. ANREA MORTA (Druce).
A single specimen was taken in a forest road in
the Western District.







CHAPTER VIII


FAMILY ERYCINIDiE
SUB-FAMILY Libytheins
Genus:
I. LIBYTHEA CARINENTA (Cram).
I have taken this butterfly not uncommonly in
the Cayo District in company with Catopsilias
and Papilios congregated together on wet sand.
Its flight is very swift.

SUB-FAMILY Eryeininm
2. MESOSEMIA TELEGONE (Bois).
A pretty little butterfly which is usually found
resting on the leaves of bushes with wings spread
out. I have taken specimens of it in the west
and also in the Corozal District.
3. MESOSEMIA METHION (Hew).
I have only taken this insect at San Pedro
Sarstoon.
4. LEPRICORNIS STRIGOSUS (Stgr).
Seldom taken, and only in the neighbourhood of
San Pedro Sarstoon.




NOTES ON THE BUTTERFLIES


5. LYMNAS PIXE (Bois).
A pretty little butterfly which occurs rather
commonly in the Colony. I have records of it
from the Western and Southern Districts and also
from Corozal.
6. LYMNAS IARBAS (Fabr).
This appears to be not so common as the
preceding. I have found it in the Western
District.
Both these species of Lymnas look and fly rather
like moths. Before I was acquainted with them
I took them to be day-flying moths. They only
fly short distances and then settle on the underside
of leaves. They are found at the edges of forests.
7. ANCYLURIS INCA (Saunders).
Found in forest lands, but far from common.
I have never observed it in the northern districts,
and I do not believe that it is to be found there.
The insect always flies low close to the herbage
in the west and also at Punta Gorda in the
south.
8. ANCYLURIS JURGENSENI (Saunders).
This butterfly I only know from a few specimens
taken close to Punta Gorda in the south.
9. CHARIS VELUTINA (G. and S.).
Rarely taken at San Pedro Sarstoon.




OF BRITISH HONDURAS


10. MESENE RUBELLA (Bates).
Rarely taken at Punta Gorda in the south.
II. EMESIS LUCINDA (Cram).
I have taken this Erycinid in the Western
District.
12. LEMONIAS SUDIAS (Hew).
A pretty little insect found at the edges of
forest and in open forest glades. It flies only
short distances.
I have taken it sparingly in the west at San
Felipe and in the south at San Pedro Sarstoon.
13. THISBE LYCORIAS (Hew).
The Western District is the only locality I have
for this insect. It is not common.
14. NYMPHIDIUM ASCOLIDES (Bois).
Taken at San Pedro Sarstoon.






CHAPTER IX


FAMILY LYCQENIDzE
Genus :
I. EUMEUS MINYAS (Hub).
This butterfly until recently was considered to
be an Erycinid, but I believe that now it is classed
as a Lycinid.
It is a large butterfly for a "Blue," and
is a lazy insect. When it flies, which it does
in a slow, heavy manner, it is only for short
distances. It frequents shady lanes in forests,
and is always found in small companies flying
low.
When killed by a nip on the thorax it emits a
strong disagreeable odour. I have noticed that
this insect is very resistant to the method of
killing by nipping the thorax. A very strong and
prolonged squeeze is necessary in order to kill it,
for an ordinary nip which would be sufficient to
at once kill most butterflies has absolutely no effect
on this one.
The insect is generally distributed in the forest
lands through the Colony and in some localities
it is quite common.




OF BRITISH HONDURAS

2. THECLA or CALYCOPIS MIMAS (G. and S.).
This butterfly is seen occasionally in the Western
District.
3. THECLA or CALYCOPIS DEMONASSA (Hew).
I have taken this tiny little irisect in the Western
District.
4. THECLA or CALLIPSYCHE BUBASTUS (Cram).
Found in the Western District.
5. THECLA or CHALYBS JANAIS (Cram).
Taken not uncommonly in the west.
6. THECLA RUSTAN (Stoll).
The only record I have of this butterfly is that
it is seldom seen, and only in the west.
7. THECLA SISTA (Hew).
Only recorded from the Western District.
8. THECLA TOGARNA (Hew).
This is a common insect at San Pedro on the
Sarstoon River.
9. THECLA BARAJO (Reak).
Recorded from the Western District.
10. THECLA SITO (Bois).
Recorded from the Western District, where it
is fairly common.




NOTES ON THE BUTTERFLIES


II. THECLA BEON (Cram).
This little insect is met with commonly in the
west and also in the Belize District. On one
occasion in the late afternoon such numbers of
them were flying over the settlement of Manatee
near Belize that this almost deserved the name of
a cloud."
12. THECLA MARSYAS (Linn).
This is a beautiful butterfly rather commonly
met with through the Colony. It delights in the
hottest sunshine and is only met with in open
country.
13. THECLA CORONATA (Hew).
A very beautiful and scarce insect. I have only
seen it in the Orange Walk District.
14. THECLA GABRIELLA (Cram).
Only taken in the Western District.
15. THECLA DOLIUM (Hew).
Only taken in the Western District.
16. THECLA AUFIDENA (Hew).
Taken occasionally in the Western District.
17. EVERES COMYNTAS (Godart).
This little butterfly is commonly met with
through the Colony in open grassland.







CHAPTER X


FAMILY HESPERIDZE
SUB-FAMILY Pyrrhopyginse
Genus:
1. PYRRHOPYGE ZENODORUS (G. and S.).
I found this Hesperid at San Pedro on the
Sarstoon River.
2. PYRRHOPYGE SCYLLA (Men).
This insect also I found at San Pedro Sarstoon.
3. PYRRHOPYGE CHARYBDIS (Doub).
This I captured in the Western District.
All these Hesperids are extremely rapid on the
wing and difficult to capture, and when captured
they flutter and beat themselves about so franti-
cally in the net that unless they are killed without
delay they become so damaged as to be worthless
as specimens.

SUB-FAMILY Hesperiine
4. PHOCIDES PIGMALION (Cram).
This is a very robust and powerful Hesperid.
Its flight is exceedingly rapid and it has the same
habit of beating itself about in the net as I have




NOTES ON THE BUTTERFLIES


remarked when speaking of the two preceding
insects. In fact this is a characteristic more or
less of the entire Hesperid family.
When this insect comes to rest I have noticed
that it invariably selects the underside of a leaf
with its wings extended.
5. EUDAMUS DORANTES (Stoll).
This is one of the Hesperids with long tails to
the hind wings.
It is a dull coloured insect found abundantly
through the Colony.
6. EUDAMUS DORYSSUS (Swainson).
This also is a tailed Hesperid which I have taken
in the west.
7. EPARGYREUS EXADENS (Cram).
I have taken this insect at San Pedro on the
Sarstoon River.
8. PROTEIDES IDAS (Cram).
A common insect throughout the Colony, and
it is especially attracted to moist or muddy
patches of road or wet sand at the edges of rivers.
It occurs almost the year round but most abun-
dantly in July.
9. ACOLASTUS AMYNTAS (Fabr).
I have taken this insect commonly in the
Western District.




OF BRITISH HONDURAS


10. TELEGONUS ANAPHUS (Cram).
Found commonly in the Western District.
II. THYMELE FULGERATOR (Walch).
This is a strong and powerful butterfly found
commonly in the Colony.
12. CECROPTERUS AUNUS (Fabr).
Found abundantly in the Cayo District.
13. BUNGALOTIS MIDAS (Cram).
Found rather plentifully in the Cayo District.
14. 2ETHILLA ECHINA (Hew).
Found commonly in the Western District.
15. PACHES LOXUS (Doub. and Hew).
I found this butterfly rather frequently at San
Pedro Sarstoon, resting on the leaves of low-
growing plants by the roadside. I have not met
with it elsewhere.
16. EUDAMIDAS OZEMA (Butl).
Taken at San Pedro Sarstoon in the extreme
south.
17. SEBALDIA BUSIRUS (Cram).
Found in the Western District at the Cayo,
and also at San Pedro Sarstoon in the south.
18. ANTIGONUS NEARCHUS (Lat).
This insect I have taken in the west of the
Colony.





NOTES ON THE BUTTERFLIES


19. EBRIETAS ECLIPTICA (Butl).
Captured at San Pedro Sarstoon.
20. ATTARNES SALLEI (Feld).
Only once have I seen this butterfly in the
Colony and that was in the Corozal District. I
found four of the larvae feeding on an anona tree,
the leaves of which they had drawn together with
silken threads to form a shelter--each one on a
separate leaf.
I understand that in Mexico this insect is com-
mon enough, but as far as the Colony is concerned
it is almost absent.
I sent the specimens to the British Museum.
21. HELIOPETES ARSALTE (Linn).
This common little butterfly is found in open
pastures dashing about in the hottest sunshine.
22. HESPERIA SYRICHTUS (Fabr).
A common little Hesperid and like the rest of
the family a lover of sunshine. It is found in
meadows and fields.
23. HESPERIA NOTATA (Blch.).
I only have records of this insect from San Pedro
Sarstoon.
24. COPMODES SINGULARIS (H. Schaff).
This, I believe, to be one of the smallest of the




OF BRITISH HONDURAS


Hesperids or, indeed, of any butterfly. It is a
tiny little creature and extremely rapid on the
wing. When flying it is quite impossible to
follow it, and the only way to capture a specimen
is to wait until it settles, which it usually does on
grasses.
I have not seen this insect anywhere except in
the Corozal District, where it is common in open
grassy meadows.
25. HYLEPHILA PHYLEUS (Drury).
Taken in the Western District at the Cayo and
at Castile.
26. CALPODES ETHLIUS (Cram).
Rather a large Hesperid. I have notes of it
from the Western District.


THE END




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